Linux Standard Base Specification 1.0.0

This material may be distributed only subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the Open Publication License, v1.0 or later (the latest version is presently available at http://www.opencontent.org/openpub/) and provided that neither the name of the Free Standards Group, the name of the Linux Standard Base, nor the names of its contributors may be used to endorse or promote derived works without specific prior written permission.

Portions of the text were taken from other copyrighted documents in accordance with the respective license of those documents.


Table of Contents
I. Introduction
1. Introduction
Introduction
Purpose
Related Standards
Related Implementations
Relevant Libraries
How to Use this Standard
Definitions
Terminology
II. Object Format
2. Object Files
3. Sections
ELF Section Types
Linux Section Types
4. Special Sections
ELF Special Sections
Linux Special Sections
5. Symbol Mapping
C Language
C++ Language
6. Symbol Versioning
Symbol Version Table
Version Definitions
Version Requirements
Startup Sequence
Symbol Resolution
III. Dynamic Linking
7. Program Loading and Dynamic Linking
8. Dynamic Entries
ELF Dynamic Entries
Linux Dynamic Entries
9. Program Interpreter
IV. Base Libraries
10. Libraries
Interfaces for libc
Data Definitions for libc
Interface Definitions for libc
Interfaces for libm
Data Definitions for libm
Interfaces for libpthread
Data Definitions for libpthread
Interfaces for libdl
Data Definitions for libdl
Interface Definitions for libdl
Interfaces for libcrypt
Data Definitions for libcrypt
Interfaces for librt
Data Definitions for librt
V. Utility Libraries
11. Libraries
Interfaces for libz
Interfaces for libncurses
Data Definitions for libncurses
Interfaces for libutil
Interface Definitions for libutil
VI. Graphic Libraries
12. Libraries
Interfaces for libX11
Data Definitions for libX11
Interfaces for libXext
Data Definitions for libXext
Interfaces for libSM
Data Definitions for libSM
Interfaces for libICE
Data Definitions for libICE
Interfaces for libXt
Interface Definitions for libXt
Interfaces for libGL
Data Definitions for libGL
VII. Package Format and Installation
13. Software Installation
Package Format
Package Tools
Package Naming
Package Dependencies
VIII. Commands and Utilities
14. Command and Utilities
Command and Utilities
Command Behavior
IX. Standard Shell
15. Standard Shell
Introduction
Standard Shell Exception: pathname of $0
Standard Shell Exception: sourcing non-executable files
X. Users & Groups
16. Users & Groups
User and Group Database
User & Group Names
UID Ranges
XI. File System Hierarchy
17. FHS
Minimal granted Directory and File permissions
Recommendations for applications on ownership and permissions
XII. System Initialization
18. System Initialization
Cron Jobs
Run Levels
Init Script Actions
Comment conventions for init scripts
Installation and removal of init.d files
Facility names
Script names
Init script Functions
A. Alphabetical Listing of Interfaces
libX11
libXt
libm
libGL
libXext
libICE
libSM
libdl
libcrypt
libz
libncurses
libutil
libc
libpthread
librt
B. How To Create An LSB Compliant Application
Application Binary Interface
Application Programming Interface
LSB Compliance
LSB Setup and Environment
LSB Compliance Example
LSB Non-Compliance Example
List of Tables
1-1. Related Standards
1-2. Related Implementations
1-3. Relevant Libraries
3-1. ELF Section Types
3-2. Linux Section Types
4-1. ELF Special Sections
4-2. Linux Special Sections
8-1. ELF Dynamic Entries
8-2. Linux Dynamic Entries
10-1. libc - System Calls Function Interfaces
10-2. libc - System Calls Data Interfaces
10-3. libc - Standard I/O Function Interfaces
10-4. libc - Standard I/O Data Interfaces
10-5. libc - Signal Handling Function Interfaces
10-6. libc - Signal Handling Data Interfaces
10-7. libc - Standard Library Function Interfaces
10-8. libc - Standard Library Data Interfaces
10-9. libc - Localization Functions Function Interfaces
10-10. libc - Localization Functions Data Interfaces
10-11. libc - Socket Interface Function Interfaces
10-12. libc - Socket Interface Data Interfaces
10-13. libc - Wide Characters Function Interfaces
10-14. libc - String Functions Function Interfaces
10-15. libc - IPC Functions Function Interfaces
10-16. libc - Regular Expressions Function Interfaces
10-17. libc - Regular Expressions Data Interfaces
10-18. libc - Character Type Functions Function Interfaces
10-19. libc - Character Type Functions Data Interfaces
10-20. libc - Time Manipulation Function Interfaces
10-21. libc - Time Manipulation Data Interfaces
10-22. libc - Terminal Interface Functions Function Interfaces
10-23. libc - System Database Interface Function Interfaces
10-24. libc - Language Support Function Interfaces
10-25. libc - Large File Support Function Interfaces
10-26. libm - Math Function Interfaces
10-27. libm - Math Data Interfaces
10-28. libpthread - Posix Threads Function Interfaces
10-29. libdl Definition
10-30. libdl - Dynamic Loader Function Interfaces
10-31. libcrypt Definition
10-32. libcrypt - Encryption Function Interfaces
10-33. librt - Asynchronous I/O Function Interfaces
11-1. libz Definition
11-2. libz - Compression Library Function Interfaces
11-3. libncurses Definition
11-4. libncurses - Curses Function Interfaces
11-5. libncurses - Curses Data Interfaces
11-6. libutil - Utility Functions Function Interfaces
12-1. libX11 Definition
12-2. libX11 - X Windows Interface Function Interfaces
12-3. libXext Definition
12-4. libXext - X Shape Extension Function Interfaces
12-5. libXext - X Display Power Managment Signaling Extension Function Interfaces
12-6. libXext - X Shared Memory Extensions Function Interfaces
12-7. libXext - X Security Extension Function Interfaces
12-8. libXext - X Synchronization Extension Function Interfaces
12-9. libXext - X Double Buffer Extension Function Interfaces
12-10. libSM Definition
12-11. libSM - Session Management Functions Function Interfaces
12-12. libICE Definition
12-13. libICE - ICE Functions Function Interfaces
12-14. libXt Definition
12-15. libXt - X Toolkit Function Interfaces
12-16. libXt - X Toolkit Data Interfaces
12-17. libGL Definition
12-18. libGL - GL X interface Function Interfaces
12-19. libGL - OpenGL Function Interfaces
14-1. Commands and Utilities
16-1. Required User & Group Names
16-2. Optional User & Group Names
A-1. libX11 Function Interfaces
A-2. libXt Function Interfaces
A-3. libXt Data Interfaces
A-4. libm Function Interfaces
A-5. libm Data Interfaces
A-6. libGL Function Interfaces
A-7. libXext Function Interfaces
A-8. libICE Function Interfaces
A-9. libSM Function Interfaces
A-10. libdl Function Interfaces
A-11. libcrypt Function Interfaces
A-12. libz Function Interfaces
A-13. libncurses Function Interfaces
A-14. libncurses Data Interfaces
A-15. libutil Function Interfaces
A-16. libc Function Interfaces
A-17. libc Data Interfaces
A-18. libpthread Function Interfaces
A-19. librt Function Interfaces
B-1. ABI: High Level View
B-2. ABI: Component View
List of Figures
6-1. Version Definition Entries
6-2. Version Definition Auxiliary Entries
6-3. Version Needed Entries
6-4. Version Needed Auxiliary Entries

I. Introduction

Table of Contents
1. Introduction

Chapter 1. Introduction

Introduction

This is version 1.0.0 of the Linux Standard Base Specification. An implementation of this version of the specification may not claim to be an implementation of the Linux Standard Base unless it has successfully completed the compliance proces as defined by the Free Standards Group.


Purpose

The Linux Standard Base (LSB) defines a system interface for compiled applications and a minimal environment for support of installation scripts. Its purpose is to enable a uniform industry standard environment for high-volume applications conforming to the LSB.

The LSB defines a binary interface for application programs that are compiled and packaged for LSB-conforming implementations on many different hardware architectures. Since a binary specification must include information specific to the computer processor architecture for which it is intended, it is not possible for a single document to specify the interface for all possible LSB-conforming implementations. Therefore, the LSB is a family of specifications, rather than a single one.

The LSB is composed of two basic parts: A common part of the specification describes those parts of the interface that remain constant across all hardware implementations of the LSB, and an architecture-specific part of the specification describes the parts of the specification that are specific to a particular processor architecture. Together, the generic LSB and the architecture-specific supplement for a single hardware architecture provide a complete interface specification for compiled application programs on systems that share a common hardware architecture.

This document is the generic LSB. It must be used in conjunction with an architecture-specific supplement. Whenever a section of this specification must be supplemented by architecture-specific information, this document includes a reference to the architecture supplement. Architecture supplements may also contain additional information that is not referenced here.

This document should be used in conjunction with the documents it references. This document enumerates the system components it includes, but descriptions of those components may be included entirely or partly in this document, partly in other documents, or entirely in other reference documents. For example, the section that describes system service routines includes a list of the system routines supported in this interface, formal declarations of the data structures they use that are visible to applications, and a pointer to the underlying referenced specification for information about the syntax and semantics of each call. Only those routines not described in standards referenced by this document, or extensions to those standards, are described in the detail. Information referenced in this way is as much a part of this document as is the information explicitly included here.


Related Standards

The specifications listed below are referenced in whole or in part by the Linux Standard Base. Such references may be normative or non-normative; a reference to specification shall only be considered normative if it is explicitly cited as such. The LSB may make normative references to a portion of these specifications (that is, to define a specific function or group of functions); in such cases, only the explicitly referenced portion of the specification is to be considered normative.

Table 1-1. Related Standards

ABIUpdateSystem V Application Binary Interface - DRAFT - 22 June 2000http://www.sco.com/developer/gabi/2000-07-17/contents.html 
FHSFilesystem Hierarchy Standard 2.2http://www.pathname.com/fhs 
FLTPNTIEEE Standard for Binary Floating-Point Arithmetichttp://www.ieee.orgANSI/IEEE Standards 745-1985 and 854-1987
gABI_41System VApplication Binary Interface, Edition 4.1http://www.sco.com/developer/devspecs/gabi41.pdf 
IA32-ABI-4System V Application Binary Interface - Intel386 Architecture Processor Supplementhttp://www.sco.com/developer/devspecs/abi386-4.pdf 
IA64conventionsItanium(R) Software Conventions & Runtime Architecture Guidehttp://developer.intel.com/design/ia-64/downloads/245358.htm 
ISOC90ISO/IEC 9899: 1990, Programming Languages --C. 
ISOC99ISO/IEC 9899: 1999, Programming Languages --C 
LANANALinux Assigned Names And Numbers Authorityhttp://www.lanana.org/ 
LFSLarge File Supporthttp://www.UNIX-systems.org/version2/whatsnew/lfs20mar.html 
LSBLinux Standard Basehttp://www.linuxbase.org/spec/ 
OGLOpenGLŪ Application Binary Interface for Linuxhttp://oss.sgi.com/projects/ogl-sample/ABI/ 
POSIX.2IEEE Std POSIX 1003.2-1992 (ISO/IEC 9945-2:1993)http://www.ieee.org 
pthreadsPOSIX 1003.1chttp://www.ieee.org 
SUS-CURSES CAE Specification, May 1996, X/Open Curses, Issue 4, Version 2 (ISBN: 1-85912-171-3, C610), plus Corrigendum U018http://www.opengroup.org 
SUS-XBDCAE Specification, January 1997, System Interface Definitions (XBD), Issue 5 (ISBN: 1-85912-186-1, C605)http://www.opengroup.org 
SUS-XCUCAE Specification, January 1997, Commands and Utilities (XCU), Issue 5(ISBN: 1-85912-191-8, C604)http://www.opengroup.org 
SUS-XNSCAE Specification, February 1997, Networking Services (XNS), Issue 5 (ISBN: 1-85912-165-9, C523)http://www.opengroup.org/ 
SUS-XSHCAE Specification, January 1997, System Interfaces and Headers (XSH), Issue 5 (ISBN: 1-85912-181-0, C606)http://www.opengroup.org/ 
SUS-XSH95The Single UNIX Specification Version 1 (UNIX 95) System Interfaces & Headershttp://www.opengroup.org/ 
SVID.3System V Interface Definition, Issue 3ISBN 0201566524
X-dbeDouble Buffer Extension Libraryhttp://www.x.org/ 
X-DPMSX Display Power Management Signaling (DPMS) Extension, Library Specificationhttp://www.x.org/ 
X-RecordX Record Extension Libraryhttp://www.x.org/ 
X-securitySecurity Extension Specification, Version 7.1http://www.x.org/ 
X-shapeX Nonrectangular Window Shape Extension Library Version 1.0http://www.x.org/ 
X-shmMIT-SHM--The MIT Shared Memory Extensionhttp://www.x.org/ 
X-syncX Synchronization Extension Libraryhttp://www.x.org/ 
X-testXTEST Extension Libraryhttp://www.x.org/ 
XICEX11R6.4 X Inter-Client Exchange (ICE) Protocolhttp://www.x.org 
XINPUTX11R6.4 X11 Input Extension Libraryhttp://www.x.org 
XlibX11R6.4 Xlib - C libraryhttp://www.x.org 
XPG4X/Open Portability Guide, Issue 4http://www.opengroup.org 
XSMX11R6.4 X Session Management Libraryhttp://www.x.org 
XtX11R.4 X Toolkit Intrinsicshttp://www.x.org 
zlibzlib 1.1.3 Manualhttp://www.gzip.org/zlib/See "zlib Manual" on that site

Related Implementations

The implementations listed here are referenced in whole or in part by the Linux Standard Base when no formal specification is available.

Table 1-2. Related Implementations

BSDBSD 4.4 Lite version 2 
LinuxGNU/Linux defacto standardhttp://www.gnu.org/ 
RPC & XDRRFC 1831 & 1832http://www.ietf.orgStill need API reference, instead of protocol reference
RPMRPM Package Format V3.0http://www.rpmdp.org/rpmbook/ 

Relevant Libraries

The Libraries listed here are available on a Linux Standard Base conforming system. This list may be supplemented or amended by the architecture specific specifications.

Table 1-3. Relevant Libraries

LibraryRuntime Name
libX11libX11.so.6
libXtlibXt.so.6
libGLlibGL.so.1
libXextlibXext.so.6
libICElibICE.so.6
libSMlibSM.so.6
libdllibdl.so.2
libcryptlibcrypt.so.1
libzlibz.so.1
libncurseslibncurses.so.5

These libraries will be in an implementation-dependent directory which the dynamic linker will search by default".


How to Use this Standard

The complete LSB specification is composed of this generic LSB specification and the supplemental processor-specific specification for a particular processor architecture. These two documents constitute a specification that should be used in conjunction with the publicly-available standards documents it references. The LSB enumerates the system components it includes, but descriptions of those components may be included entirely in the LSB, partly in the LSB and partly in other documents, or entirely in other reference documents.

Programmers who wish to produce binary applications that will run on any LSB-conforming implementation should refer to the appendix (How To Create An LSB Compliant Application).


Definitions

LSB

This document.

LSB-Compliant Application

An application written to include only the system routines, commands, and other resources included in this document, and that has been compiled into an executable file that has the formats and characteristics specified for such files in this document, and whose behavior complies, installs, and is executed in the environment with the rules given in this document.

LSB-Conforming Implementation

An implementation that provides the binary system interface for applications described in this document.

Non-LSB-Compliant Application

An application which has been written to include system routines, commands, or other resources not included in this document, or which has been compiled into a format different from those specified here, or which does not behave as specified in this document.

LSB Implementation Conformance

An implementation satisfying the following requirements:

  1. The implementation shall implement fully the architecture described in the hardware manual for the target processor architecture.

  2. The implementation shall be capable of executing compiled applications having the format and using the system interfaces described in this document.

  3. The implementation shall provide libraries containing the interfaces specified by this document, and shall provide a dynamic linking mechanism that allows these interfaces to be attached to applications at runtime. All the interfaces shall behave as specified in the normative references and requirements of this document.

  4. The map of virtual memory provided by the implementation shall conform to the requirements of this document.

  5. The implementation's low-level behavior with respect to function call linkage, system traps, signals, and other such activities shall conform to the formats described in this document.

  6. The compilation system shall compile source code into executable files having the formats and characteristics specified in this document.

  7. The implementation shall provide all of the mandatory interfaces, in their entirety.

  8. The implementation may provide one or more of the optional interfaces. Each optional interface that is provided shall be provided in its entirety. The product documentation shall state which optional interfaces are provided.

  9. The implementation shall provide all files and utilities specified as part of this document in the format defined here and in other referenced documents. All commands and utilities shall behave as required by this document. The implementation shall also provide all mandatory components of an application's runtime environment that are included or referenced in this document.

  10. The implementation, when provided with standard data formats and values at a named interface, shall provide the behavior defined for those values and data formats at that interface. However, a conforming implementation may consist of separately-packaged and/or sold components. For example, a vendor of a conforming implementation might sell the hardware, operating system, and windowing system as separately packaged items.

  11. The implementation may provide additional interfaces with different names. It may also provide additional behavior corresponding to data values outside the standard ranges, for standard named interfaces.

LSB Application Conformance

An application with the following characteristics:

  1. Its executable files are either shell scripts or object files in the format defined for the Object File Format system interface.

  2. Its object files participate in dynamic linking as defined in the Program Loading and Linking System interface.

  3. It employs only the instructions, traps, and other low-level facilities defined in the Low-Level System interface as being for use by applications.

  4. If it requires any optional interface defined in this document in order to be installed or to execute successfully, the requirement for that optional interface is stated in the application's documentation.

  5. It does not use any interface or data format that is not required to be provided by a conforming implementation, unless:

    • If such an interface or data format is supplied by another application through direct invocation of that application during execution, that application is in turn an LSB-compliant application.

    • The use of that interface or data format, as well as its source, is identified in the documentation of the application.

  6. It must not use any values for a named interface that are reserved for vendor extensions.

A strictly conforming application does not require or use any interface, facility, or implementation-defined extension that is not defined in this document in order to be installed or to execute successfully.

Rationale

An LSB-compliant application is expected to have no dependencies on any vendor extensions to this document. The most common such extensions are additional function entry points and additional libraries other than the ones defined in this document. If an application requires such extensions, it is not portable, since other LSB-conforming implementations may not provide those extensions.

An LSB-compliant application is required to use system services on the implementation on which it is running, rather than importing system routines from some other implementation. Thus, it must link dynamically to any routines in the implementation that perform system traps to kernel services.

It is to be expected that some applications may be companion applications to other applications. For example, a query application may be a companion to a database application; a preprocessor may be an adjunct to one or more compilers; a data reformatter may convert data from one document manager to another. In such cases, the application may or may not be LSB-compliant, regardless of whether the other application on which it is dependent is LSB-compliant. If such an application merely uses data produced by another application, the application's compliance is independent of the other application's compliance. If such an application actually invokes another application during execution (as, for example, a third-party math library), the invoking application is LSB-compliant only if it also constitutes a LSB-compliant application in combination with the invoked application.

Shell Script

A file that is read by an interpreter (e.g., awk). The first line of the shell script includes a reference to its interpreter binary.


Terminology

can

Describes a permissible optional feature or behavior available to the user or application. The feature or behavior is mandatory for an implementation that conforms to this document. An application can rely on the existence of the feature or behavior.

implementation-defined

(Same meaning as implementation-dependent.) Describes a value or behavior that is not defined by this document but is selected by an implementor. The value or behavior may vary among implementations that conform to this document. An application should not rely on the existence of the value or behavior. An application that relies on such a value or behavior cannot be assured to be portable across conforming implementations. The implementor shall document such a value or behavior so that it can be used correctly by an application.

may

Describes a feature or behavior that is optional for an implementation that conforms to this document. An application should not rely on the existence of the feature or behavior. An application that relies on such a feature or behavior cannot be assured to be portable across conforming implementations. To avoid ambiguity, the opposite of may is expressed as need not, instead of may not.

must

Describes a feature or behavior that is mandatory for an application or user. An implementation that conforms to this document shall support this feature or behavior.

shall

Describes a feature or behavior that is mandatory for an implementation that conforms to this document. An application can rely on the existence of the feature or behavior.

should

For an implementation that conforms to this document, describes a feature or behavior that is recommended but not mandatory. An application should not rely on the existence of the feature or behavior. An application that relies on such a feature or behavior cannot be assured to be portable across conforming implementations.

For an application, describes a feature or behavior that is recommended programming practice for optimum portability.

undefined

Describes the nature of a value or behavior not defined by this document which results from use of an invalid program construct or invalid data input. The value or behavior may vary among implementations that conform to this document. An application should not rely on the existence or validity of the value or behavior. An application that relies on any particular value or behavior cannot be assured to be portable across conforming implementations.

unspecified

Describes the nature of a value or behavior not specified by this document which results from use of a valid program construct or valid data input. The value or behavior may vary among implementations that conform to this document. An application should not rely on the existence or validity of the value or behavior. An application that relies on any particular value or behavior cannot be assured to be portable across conforming implementations.

will

Same meaning as shall; shall is the preferred term.

II. Object Format


Chapter 2. Object Files

LSB-conforming implementations shall support the object file Executable and Linking Format (ELF), which is defined by the following documents:

  • System V Application Binary Interface, Edition 4.1

  • System V Application Binary Interface - DRAFT - April 29, 1998

  • this document

  • an architecture-specific LSB specification

Conforming implementations may also support other unspecified object file formats.


Chapter 3. Sections


ELF Section Types

The following sections types are defined in the System V Application Binary Interface, Edition 4.1.

Table 3-1. ELF Section Types

SHT_DYNAMICSHT_DYNSYMSHT_HASHSHT_HIPROC
SHT_HIUSERSHT_LOPROCSHT_LOUSERSHT_NOBITS
SHT_NOTESHT_NULLSHT_PROGBITSSHT_REL
SHT_RELASHT_SHLIBSHT_STRTABSHT_SYMTAB


Linux Section Types

The following Linux section types are defined here.

Table 3-2. Linux Section Types

SHT_GNU_verdefThis section contains the symbol versions that are provided.
SHT_GNU_verneedThis section contains the symbol versions that are required.
SHT_GNU_versymThis section contains the Symbol Version Table.


Chapter 4. Special Sections

ELF Special Sections

The following sections are defined in the ELF reference Specification.

Table 4-1. ELF Special Sections

.bss.comment.data.data1
.debug.dynamic.dynstr.dynsym
.fini.got.hash.init
.interp.line.note.plt
.rel.bss.rel.data.rel.got.rel.plt
.rel.text.rodata.rodata1.shstrtab
.strtab.symtab.text 


Linux Special Sections

The following Linux specific sections are defined here.

Table 4-2. Linux Special Sections

.ctorsThis section contains a list of global constructor function pointers.
.dtorsThis section contains a list of global destructor function pointers.
.eh_frameThis section contains information necessary for frame unwinding during exception handling. The is the same as for .debug_frame as described by DWARF2.
.gnu.versionThis section contains the Symbol Version Table.
.gnu.version_dThis section contains the Version Definitions.
.gnu.version_rThis section contains the Version Requirments.
.note.ABI-tag 
.stabThis section contains debugging information. The contents are not specified as part of the LSB.
.stabstrThis section contains strings associated with the debugging infomation contained in the .stab section.


Chapter 5. Symbol Mapping

This chapter defines how names are mapped from the source symbol to the object symbol.


C Language

External C symbols have the same names in C and object files' symbol tables.


C++ Language

Because of the immaturity of the C++ ABI (for name mangling, exception handling, and other such issues), we do not standardize any libraries for C++ in this version of the Linux Standard Base. [1]

In a future version of this specification, name mangling rules will be specified so that C++ symbols can be mapped into symbol names in the object file.


Chapter 6. Symbol Versioning

This chapter describes the Symbol Versioning mechanism. All ELF objects may provide or depend on versioned symbols. Symbol Versioning is implemented by 3 section types: SHT_GNU_versym, SHT_GNU_verdef, and SHT_GNU_verneed.

The term "Elfxx" means "Elf32" or "Elf64" depending on the architecture.

Versions are described by strings. The structures that are used for symbol versions also contain a member that holds the ELF hashing values of the strings. This allows for more efficient processing.


Symbol Version Table

The Symbol Version Table is contained in the special section .gnu.version which has a section type of SHT_GNU_versym. This section has the same number of entries as the Dynamic Symbol Table.

This section contains an array of elements of type Elfxx_Half. Each entry specifies the version defined for or required by the corresponding symbol in the Dynamic Symbol Table.

The values in the Symbol Version Table are unique to the object in which they are located. These values are identifiers that are provided by the the vna_other member of the Elfxx_Vernaux structure or the vd_ndx member of the Elfxx_Verdef structure.

The values 0 and 1 are reserved.

0

The symbol is local, not available outside the object.

1

The symbol is defined in this object and is globally available.

All other values are used to identify version strings located in one of the other Symbol Version sections. The value itself is not the version associated with the symbol. The string identified by the value defines the version of the symbol.


Version Definitions

Symbol definitions are contained in the special section .gnu.version_d which has a section type of SHT_GNU_verdef. The number of entries in this section is contained in the DT_VERDEFNUM entry of the Dynamic Section. The sh_link member of the section header points to the section that contains the strings referenced by this section.

Figure 6-1. Version Definition Entries

typedef struct {
	Elfxx_Half    vd_version;
	Elfxx_Half    vd_flags;
	Elfxx_Half    vd_ndx;
	Elfxx_Half    vd_cnt;
	Elfxx_Word    vd_hash;
	Elfxx_Word    vd_aux;
	Elfxx_Word    vd_next;
} Elfxx_Verdef;

vd_version

Version revision. This value is currently set to 1, and will be reset if the versioning implementation is incompatibly altered.

vd_flags

Version information flag bitmask.

vd_ndx

Version index numeric value referencing the SHT_GNU_versym section.

vd_cnt

Number of associated verdaux array entries.

vd_hash

Version name hash value (ELF hash function).

vd_aux

Offset to a corresponding entry in the verdaux array, in bytes.

vd_next

Offset to the next verdef entry, in bytes.

Figure 6-2. Version Definition Auxiliary Entries

typedef struct {
	Elfxx_Word    vda_name;
	Elfxx_Word    vda_next;
} Elfxx_Verdaux;

vda_name

Offset to the version or dependency name string in the section header, in bytes.

vda_next

Offset to the next verdaux entry, in bytes.


Version Requirements

Symbol definitions are contained in the special section .gnu.version_r which has a section type of SHT_GNU_verneed. The number of entries in this section is contained in the DT_VERNEEDNUM entry of the Dynamic Section. The sh_link member of the section header points to the section that contains the strings referenced by this section.

Figure 6-3. Version Needed Entries

typedef struct {
	Elfxx_Half    vn_version;
	Elfxx_Half    vn_cnt;
	Elfxx_Word    vn_file;
	Elfxx_Word    vn_aux;
	Elfxx_Word    vn_next;
} Elfxx_Verneed;

vn_version

Version of structure. This value is currently set to 1, and will be reset if the versioning implementation is incompatibly altered.

vn_cnt

Number of associated verneed array entries.

vn_file

Offset to the file name string in the section header, in bytes.

vn_aux

Offset to a corresponding entry in the vernaux array, in bytes.

vn_next

Offset to the next verneed entry, in bytes.

Figure 6-4. Version Needed Auxiliary Entries

typedef struct {
	Elfxx_Word    vna_hash;
	Elfxx_Half    vna_flags;
	Elfxx_Half    vna_other;
	Elfxx_Word    vna_name;
	Elfxx_Word    vna_next;
} Elfxx_Vernaux;

vna_hash

Dependency name hash value (ELF hash function).

vna_flags

Dependency information flag bitmask.

vna_other

Object file version identifier used in the .gnu.version symbol version array. Bit number 15 controls whether or not the object is hidden; if this bit is set, the object cannot be used and the static linker will ignore the symbol's presence in the object.

vna_name

Offset to the dependency name string in the section header, in bytes.

vna_next

Offset to the next vernaux entry, in bytes.


Startup Sequence

When loading a sharable object, version definition data from the loaded object is analyzed to assure that it meets the version requirements of the calling object. The dynamic loader retrieves the entries in the caller's Elfxx_Verneed array and attempts to find matching definition information in the loaded Elfxx_Verdef table.

Each object and dependency is tested in turn. If a symbol definition is missing, the loader returns an error. A warning is issued instead of a hard error when the vna_flags bit for VER_FLG_WEAK is set in the Elfxx_Vernaux entry.

When the versions referenced by undefined symbols in the loaded object are found, version availability is certified. The test completes without error and the object is made available.


Symbol Resolution

When symbol versioning is used in an object, relocations extend the performance of definition testing beyond the simple match of symbol name strings: the version of the reference must also equal the name of the definition. The same index that is used in the symbol table can be referenced in the SHT_GNU_versym section, and the value of this index is then used to acquire name data. The corresponding requirement string is retrieved from the Elfxx_Verneed array, and likewise, the corresponding definition string from the Elfxx_Verdef table.

Bit number 15 of the version symbol controls whether or not the object is hidden; if this bit is set, the object cannot be used and the static linker will ignore the symbol's presence in the object.

Results differ in the interaction of objects that variously use symbol versioning.

  • The object with the reference and the object with the definitions may both use versioning. All described matching is processed in this case. A fatal error is triggered when no matching definition can be found in the object whose name is the one referenced by the vn_name element in the Elfxx_Verneed entry.

  • The object with the reference may not use versioning, while the object with the definitions does. In this instance, only the definition with index numbers 1 and 2 will be used in the reference match, the same identified by the static linker as the base definition. In infrequent cases where the static linker was not used, as in calls to dlopen(), a version that does not have the base definition index is acceptable as long as it is the only version for which the symbol is defined.

  • The object with the reference may use versioning, but the object with the definitions specifies none. A matching symbol is accepted in this case. A fatal error is triggered in the unlikely event that a corruption in the required symbols list obscured an outdated object file and caused a match on the object filename in the Elfxx_Verneed entry.

  • Finally, both the object with the reference and the object with the definitions may not use versioning. The behavior in this instance defaults to pre-existing symbol rules.

III. Dynamic Linking


Chapter 7. Program Loading and Dynamic Linking

LSB-conforming implementations shall support the object file information and system actions that create running programs as specified in the System V Application Binary Interface, Edition 4.1 and the System V Application Binary Interface - DRAFT - April 29, 1998 and as supplemented by this document and an architecture specific LSB specification.

Any shared object that is loaded must contain sufficient DT_NEEDED records to satisfy the symbols on the shared library.


Chapter 8. Dynamic Entries


ELF Dynamic Entries

The following dynamic entries are defined in the System V Application Binary Interface, Edition 4.1.

Table 8-1. ELF Dynamic Entries

DT_BIND_NOWDT_DEBUGDT_FINIDT_HASH
DT_HIPROCDT_INITDT_JMPRELDT_LOPROC
DT_NEEDEDDT_NULLDT_PLTRELDT_PLTRELSZ
DT_RELDT_RELADT_RELAENTDT_RELASZ
DT_RELENTDT_RELSZDT_RPATHDT_SONAME
DT_STRSZDT_STRTABDT_SYMBOLICDT_SYMENT
DT_SYMTABDT_TEXTREL  


Linux Dynamic Entries

The following dynamic entries are defined here.

Table 8-2. Linux Dynamic Entries

DT_ADDRRNGLO 
DT_AUXILIARYShared object to load before self
DT_FILTERShared object to get values from
DT_FINI_ARRAYArray with addresses of fini fct
DT_FINI_ARRAYSZSize in bytes of DT_FINI_ARRAY
DT_FLAGS_1State flags, see DF_1_* below
DT_HIOSEnd of OS-specific
DT_INIT_ARRAYArray with addresses of init fct
DT_INIT_ARRAYSZSize in bytes of DT_INIT_ARRAY
DT_LOOSStart of OS-specific
DT_NUMNumber used
DT_POSFLAG_1Flags for DT_* entries, effecting he following DT_* entry
DT_SYMINENTEntry size of syminfo
DT_SYMINFOsyminfo table
DT_SYMINSZSize of syminfo table (in bytes)
DT_VALRNGHI 
DT_VALRNGLO 
DT_VERDEFAddress of version definition table
DT_VERDEFNUMNumber of version definitions
DT_VERNEEDAddress of table with needed versions
DT_VERNEEDNUMNumber of needed versions
DT_VERSYMGNU Symbol versioning


Chapter 9. Program Interpreter


The Program Interpreter is specified in the appropriate architecture specific LSB specification.

IV. Base Libraries

Table of Contents
10. Libraries

Chapter 10. Libraries

An LSB-conforming implementation shall support some base libraries which provide interfaces for accessing the operating system, processor and other hardware in the system.[2]


Interfaces for libc

The behaviour of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following Standards.

ISO/IEC 9899: 1999, Programming Languages --C[3]
Large File Support[4]
Linux Standard Base[5]
IEEE Std POSIX.1-1996 [ISO/IEC 9945-1:1996][6]
CAE Specification, February 1997, Networking Services (XNS), Issue 5 (ISBN: 1-85912-165-9, C523)[7]
CAE Specification, January 1997, System Interfaces and Headers (XSH), Issue 5 (ISBN: 1-85912-181-0, C606)[8]


System Calls

Table 10-1. libc - System Calls Function Interfaces

__fxstat(GLIBC_2.0)[5]fchown(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getwd(GLIBC_2.0)[8]putmsg(GLIBC_2.0)[8]setrlimit(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
__getpgid(GLIBC_2.0)[5]fcntl(GLIBC_2.0)[8]initgroups(GLIBC_2.0)[5]pwrite(GLIBC_2.0)[8]setsid(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
__lxstat(GLIBC_2.0)[5]fdatasync(GLIBC_2.0)[8]ioctl(GLIBC_2.0)[8]read(GLIBC_2.0)[8]setuid(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
__xmknod(GLIBC_2.0)[5]fdetach(GLIBC_2.0)[8]kill(GLIBC_2.0)[8]readdir(GLIBC_2.0)[8]sleep(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
__xstat(GLIBC_2.0)[5]flock(GLIBC_2.0)[5]killpg(GLIBC_2.0)[8]readlink(GLIBC_2.0)[8]statfs(GLIBC_2.0)[5]
access(GLIBC_2.0)[8]fork(GLIBC_2.0)[8]lchown(GLIBC_2.0)[8]readv(GLIBC_2.0)[8]statvfs(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
acct(GLIBC_2.0)[5]fstatfs(GLIBC_2.0)[5]link(GLIBC_2.0)[8]rename(GLIBC_2.0)[8]stime(GLIBC_2.0)[5]
alarm(GLIBC_2.0)[8]fsync(GLIBC_2.0)[8]lockf(GLIBC_2.0)[8]rmdir(GLIBC_2.0)[8]symlink(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
brk(GLIBC_2.0)[8]ftime(GLIBC_2.0)[8]lseek(GLIBC_2.0)[8]sbrk(GLIBC_2.0)[8]sync(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
chdir(GLIBC_2.0)[8]ftruncate(GLIBC_2.0)[8]mkdir(GLIBC_2.0)[8]sched_get_priority_max(GLIBC_2.0)[8]sysconf(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
chmod(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getcontext(GLIBC_2.0)[8]mkfifo(GLIBC_2.0)[5]sched_get_priority_min(GLIBC_2.0)[8]time(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
chown(GLIBC_2.1)[8]getegid(GLIBC_2.1)[8]mlock(GLIBC_2.1)[8]sched_getparam(GLIBC_2.1)[8]times(GLIBC_2.1)[8]
chroot(GLIBC_2.0)[8]geteuid(GLIBC_2.0)[8]mlockall(GLIBC_2.0)[8]sched_getscheduler(GLIBC_2.0)[8]truncate(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
clock(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getgid(GLIBC_2.0)[8]mmap(GLIBC_2.0)[8]sched_rr_get_interval(GLIBC_2.0)[8]ulimit(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
close(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getgroups(GLIBC_2.0)[8]mprotect(GLIBC_2.0)[8]sched_setparam(GLIBC_2.0)[8]umask(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
closedir(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getitimer(GLIBC_2.0)[8]msync(GLIBC_2.0)[8]sched_setscheduler(GLIBC_2.0)[8]uname(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
creat(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getloadavg(GLIBC_2.0)[5]munlock(GLIBC_2.0)[8]sched_yield(GLIBC_2.0)[8]unlink(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
dup(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getmsg(GLIBC_2.0)[8]munlockall(GLIBC_2.0)[8]select(GLIBC_2.0)[7]utime(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
dup2(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getpagesize(GLIBC_2.0)[8]munmap(GLIBC_2.0)[8]setcontext(GLIBC_2.0)[8]utimes(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
execl(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getpgid(GLIBC_2.0)[8]nanosleep(GLIBC_2.0)[8]setegid(GLIBC_2.0)[5]vfork(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
execle(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getpgrp(GLIBC_2.0)[8]nice(GLIBC_2.0)[8]seteuid(GLIBC_2.0)[5]wait(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
execlp(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getpid(GLIBC_2.0)[8]open(GLIBC_2.0)[8]setgid(GLIBC_2.0)[8]wait3(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
execv(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getppid(GLIBC_2.0)[8]opendir(GLIBC_2.0)[8]setitimer(GLIBC_2.0)[8]wait4(GLIBC_2.0)[5]
execve(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getpriority(GLIBC_2.0)[8]pathconf(GLIBC_2.0)[8]setpgid(GLIBC_2.0)[8]waitid(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
execvp(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getrlimit(GLIBC_2.0)[8]pause(GLIBC_2.0)[8]setpgrp(GLIBC_2.0)[8]waitpid(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
exit(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getrusage(GLIBC_2.0)[8]pipe(GLIBC_2.0)[8]setpriority(GLIBC_2.0)[8]write(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
fchdir(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getsid(GLIBC_2.0)[8]poll(GLIBC_2.0)[8]setregid(GLIBC_2.0)[8]writev(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
fchmod(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getuid(GLIBC_2.0)[8]pread(GLIBC_2.0)[8]setreuid(GLIBC_2.0)[8] 

Data Symbols

Table 10-2. libc - System Calls Data Interfaces

errno[8]    

Standard I/O

Table 10-3. libc - Standard I/O Function Interfaces

_IO_feof(GLIBC_2.0)[5]fgetpos(GLIBC_2.0)[8]fstatvfs(GLIBC_2.0)[8]putc_unlocked(GLIBC_2.0)[8]sprintf(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
_IO_getc(GLIBC_2.0)[5]fgets(GLIBC_2.0)[8]ftell(GLIBC_2.0)[8]putchar(GLIBC_2.0)[8]sscanf(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
_IO_putc(GLIBC_2.0)[5]fileno(GLIBC_2.0)[8]ftello(GLIBC_2.0)[8]putchar_unlocked(GLIBC_2.0)[8]telldir(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
_IO_puts(GLIBC_2.0)[5]flockfile(GLIBC_2.0)[8]fwrite(GLIBC_2.0)[8]puts(GLIBC_2.0)[8]tempnam(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
alphasort(GLIBC_2.0)[5]fopen(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getc(GLIBC_2.0)[8]putw(GLIBC_2.0)[8]ungetc(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
clearerr(GLIBC_2.0)[8]fprintf(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getc_unlocked(GLIBC_2.0)[8]remove(GLIBC_2.0)[8]vasprintf(GLIBC_2.0)[5]
ctermid(GLIBC_2.0)[8]fputc(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getchar(GLIBC_2.0)[8]rewind(GLIBC_2.0)[8]vdprintf(GLIBC_2.0)[5]
fclose(GLIBC_2.1)[8]fputs(GLIBC_2.1)[8]getchar_unlocked(GLIBC_2.1)[8]rewinddir(GLIBC_2.1)[8]vfprintf(GLIBC_2.1)[8]
fdopen(GLIBC_2.1)[8]fread(GLIBC_2.1)[8]gets(GLIBC_2.1)[8]scanf(GLIBC_2.1)[8]vprintf(GLIBC_2.1)[8]
feof(GLIBC_2.0)[8]freopen(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getw(GLIBC_2.0)[8]seekdir(GLIBC_2.0)[8]vsnprintf(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
ferror(GLIBC_2.0)[8]fscanf(GLIBC_2.0)[8]pclose(GLIBC_2.0)[8]setbuf(GLIBC_2.0)[8]vsprintf(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
fflush(GLIBC_2.0)[8]fseek(GLIBC_2.0)[8]popen(GLIBC_2.0)[8]setbuffer(GLIBC_2.0)[5]wprintf(GLIBC_2.0)[3]
fflush_unlocked(GLIBC_2.0)[8]fseeko(GLIBC_2.0)[8]printf(GLIBC_2.0)[8]setvbuf(GLIBC_2.0)[8]wscanf(GLIBC_2.0)[3]
fgetc(GLIBC_2.0)[8]fsetpos(GLIBC_2.0)[8]putc(GLIBC_2.0)[8]snprintf(GLIBC_2.0)[8] 

Data Symbols

Table 10-4. libc - Standard I/O Data Interfaces

_IO_2_1_stderr_[5]_IO_2_1_stdout_[5]stdin[8]  
_IO_2_1_stdin_[5]stderr[8]stdout[8]  

Signal Handling

Table 10-5. libc - Signal Handling Function Interfaces

__libc_current_sigrtmax(GLIBC_2.1)[5]sigaction(GLIBC_2.1)[8]siggetmask(GLIBC_2.1)[5]sigorset(GLIBC_2.1)[5]sigstack(GLIBC_2.1)[8]
__libc_current_sigrtmin(GLIBC_2.1)[5]sigaddset(GLIBC_2.1)[8]sighold(GLIBC_2.1)[8]sigpause(GLIBC_2.1)[8]sigsuspend(GLIBC_2.1)[8]
__sigpause(GLIBC_2.0)[5]sigaltstack(GLIBC_2.0)[8]sigignore(GLIBC_2.0)[8]sigpending(GLIBC_2.0)[8]sigtimedwait(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
__sigsetjmp(GLIBC_2.0)[5]sigandset(GLIBC_2.0)[5]siginterrupt(GLIBC_2.0)[8]sigprocmask(GLIBC_2.0)[8]sigwait(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
__sysv_signal(GLIBC_2.0)[5]sigblock(GLIBC_2.0)[5]sigisemptyset(GLIBC_2.0)[5]sigqueue(GLIBC_2.0)[8]sigwaitinfo(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
bsd_signal(GLIBC_2.0)[8]sigdelset(GLIBC_2.0)[8]sigismember(GLIBC_2.0)[8]sigrelse(GLIBC_2.0)[8] 
psignal(GLIBC_2.0)[5]sigemptyset(GLIBC_2.0)[8]siglongjmp(GLIBC_2.0)[8]sigreturn(GLIBC_2.0)[5] 
raise(GLIBC_2.0)[8]sigfillset(GLIBC_2.0)[8]signal(GLIBC_2.0)[8]sigset(GLIBC_2.0)[8] 

Data Symbols

Table 10-6. libc - Signal Handling Data Interfaces

_sys_siglist[5]    

Standard Library

Table 10-7. libc - Standard Library Function Interfaces

_Exit(GLIBC_2.1.1)[3]div(GLIBC_2.1.1)[8]globfree(GLIBC_2.1.1)[8]llabs(GLIBC_2.1.1)[3]sethostname(GLIBC_2.1.1)[5]
__assert_fail(GLIBC_2.0)[5]drand48(GLIBC_2.0)[8]globfree64(GLIBC_2.0)[5]lldiv(GLIBC_2.0)[3]setstate(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
__bzero(GLIBC_2.0)[5]ecvt(GLIBC_2.0)[8]grantpt(GLIBC_2.0)[8]longjmp(GLIBC_2.0)[8]srand(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
__cxa_atexit(GLIBC_2.1.3)[5]erand48(GLIBC_2.1.3)[8]hcreate(GLIBC_2.1.3)[8]lrand48(GLIBC_2.1.3)[8]srand48(GLIBC_2.1.3)[8]
__errno_location(GLIBC_2.0)[5]err(GLIBC_2.0)[5]hdestroy(GLIBC_2.0)[8]lsearch(GLIBC_2.0)[8]srandom(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
__fpending(GLIBC_2.2)[5]error(GLIBC_2.2)[5]hsearch(GLIBC_2.2)[8]makecontext(GLIBC_2.2)[8]strtod(GLIBC_2.2)[8]
__secure_getenv(GLIBC_2.0)[5]errx(GLIBC_2.0)[5]htonl(GLIBC_2.0)[7]malloc(GLIBC_2.0)[8]strtol(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
__sysconf(GLIBC_2.2)[5]fcvt(GLIBC_2.2)[8]htons(GLIBC_2.2)[7]memmem(GLIBC_2.2)[5]strtoul(GLIBC_2.2)[8]
_exit(GLIBC_2.0)[8]fmtmsg(GLIBC_2.0)[8]imaxabs(GLIBC_2.0)[3]mkstemp(GLIBC_2.0)[8]swapcontext(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
_longjmp(GLIBC_2.0)[8]fnmatch(GLIBC_2.0)[8]imaxdiv(GLIBC_2.0)[3]mktemp(GLIBC_2.0)[8]syslog(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
_setjmp(GLIBC_2.0)[8]fpathconf(GLIBC_2.0)[8]inet_addr(GLIBC_2.0)[7]mrand48(GLIBC_2.0)[8]system(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
a64l(GLIBC_2.0)[8]free(GLIBC_2.0)[8]inet_aton(GLIBC_2.0)[7]nftw(GLIBC_2.0)[8]textdomain(GLIBC_2.0)[5]
abort(GLIBC_2.0)[8]ftrylockfile(GLIBC_2.0)[8]inet_ntoa(GLIBC_2.0)[7]nrand48(GLIBC_2.0)[8]tfind(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
abs(GLIBC_2.0)[8]ftw(GLIBC_2.0)[8]initstate(GLIBC_2.0)[8]ntohl(GLIBC_2.0)[7]tmpfile(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
atexit(GLIBC_2.0)[8]funlockfile(GLIBC_2.0)[8]insque(GLIBC_2.0)[8]ntohs(GLIBC_2.0)[7]tmpnam(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
atof(GLIBC_2.0)[8]gcvt(GLIBC_2.0)[8]isatty(GLIBC_2.0)[8]openlog(GLIBC_2.0)[8]tsearch(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
atoi(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getcwd(GLIBC_2.0)[8]isblank(GLIBC_2.0)[3]perror(GLIBC_2.0)[8]ttyname(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
atol(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getdate(GLIBC_2.0)[8]isinf(GLIBC_2.0)[3]ptsname(GLIBC_2.0)[8]ttyname_r(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
basename(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getenv(GLIBC_2.0)[8]isinfl(GLIBC_2.0)[3]putenv(GLIBC_2.0)[8]twalk(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
bindtextdomain(GLIBC_2.0)[5]getlogin(GLIBC_2.0)[8]isnan(GLIBC_2.0)[3]qsort(GLIBC_2.0)[8]unlockpt(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
bsearch(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getopt(GLIBC_2.0)[8]isnanf(GLIBC_2.0)[3]rand(GLIBC_2.0)[8]usleep(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
calloc(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getopt_long(GLIBC_2.0)[5]isnanl(GLIBC_2.0)[3]random(GLIBC_2.0)[8]verrx(GLIBC_2.0)[5]
closelog(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getopt_long_only(GLIBC_2.0)[5]jrand48(GLIBC_2.0)[8]realloc(GLIBC_2.0)[8]warn(GLIBC_2.0)[5]
confstr(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getsubopt(GLIBC_2.0)[8]l64a(GLIBC_2.0)[8]realpath(GLIBC_2.0)[8]warnx(GLIBC_2.0)[5]
cuserid(GLIBC_2.0)[8]gettimeofday(GLIBC_2.0)[8]labs(GLIBC_2.0)[8]remque(GLIBC_2.0)[8]wordexp(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
daemon(GLIBC_2.0)[5]glob(GLIBC_2.0)[8]ldiv(GLIBC_2.0)[8]seed48(GLIBC_2.0)[8]wordfree(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
dirname(GLIBC_2.0)[8]glob64(GLIBC_2.0)[5]lfind(GLIBC_2.0)[8]sethostid(GLIBC_2.0)[5] 

Data Symbols

Table 10-8. libc - Standard Library Data Interfaces

__environ[5]_sys_errlist[5]getdate_err[8]opterr[5]optopt[5]
_environ[5]environ[8]optarg[8]optind[5] 

Localization Functions

Table 10-9. libc - Localization Functions Function Interfaces

__dcgettext(GLIBC_2.0)[5]catgets(GLIBC_2.0)[8]dcgettext(GLIBC_2.0)[5]iconv(GLIBC_2.0)[8]nl_langinfo(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
catclose(GLIBC_2.0)[8]catopen(GLIBC_2.0)[8]gettext(GLIBC_2.0)[5]localeconv(GLIBC_2.0)[8]setlocale(GLIBC_2.0)[8]

Data Symbols

Table 10-10. libc - Localization Functions Data Interfaces

_nl_msg_cat_cntr[5]    

Socket Interface

Table 10-11. libc - Socket Interface Function Interfaces

_h_errno(GLIBC_2.0)[8]gethostid(GLIBC_2.0)[8]listen(GLIBC_2.0)[7]sendmsg(GLIBC_2.0)[7]socketpair(GLIBC_2.0)[7]
accept(GLIBC_2.0)[7]gethostname(GLIBC_2.0)[7]recv(GLIBC_2.0)[7]sendto(GLIBC_2.0)[7] 
bind(GLIBC_2.0)[7]getpeername(GLIBC_2.0)[7]recvfrom(GLIBC_2.0)[7]setsockopt(GLIBC_2.0)[7] 
bindresvport(GLIBC_2.0)[5]getsockname(GLIBC_2.0)[7]recvmsg(GLIBC_2.0)[7]shutdown(GLIBC_2.0)[7] 
connect(GLIBC_2.0)[7]getsockopt(GLIBC_2.0)[7]send(GLIBC_2.0)[7]socket(GLIBC_2.0)[7] 

Data Symbols

Table 10-12. libc - Socket Interface Data Interfaces

h_errno[7]    

Wide Characters

Table 10-13. libc - Wide Characters Function Interfaces

__mbrlen(GLIBC_2.0)[5]mbrlen(GLIBC_2.0)[8]vwscanf(GLIBC_2.0)[3]wcsnlen(GLIBC_2.0)[5]wcstoumax(GLIBC_2.0)[3]
__wcstod_internal(GLIBC_2.0)[5]mbrtowc(GLIBC_2.0)[8]wcpcpy(GLIBC_2.0)[5]wcsnrtombs(GLIBC_2.0)[5]wcstouq(GLIBC_2.0)[5]
__wcstof_internal(GLIBC_2.0)[5]mbsinit(GLIBC_2.0)[8]wcpncpy(GLIBC_2.0)[5]wcspbrk(GLIBC_2.0)[3]wcswcs(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
__wcstol_internal(GLIBC_2.0)[5]mbsnrtowcs(GLIBC_2.0)[5]wcrtomb(GLIBC_2.0)[8]wcsrchr(GLIBC_2.0)[8]wcswidth(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
__wcstold_internal(GLIBC_2.0)[5]mbsrtowcs(GLIBC_2.0)[8]wcscasecmp(GLIBC_2.0)[5]wcsrtombs(GLIBC_2.0)[8]wcsxfrm(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
__wcstoll_internal(GLIBC_2.0)[5]mbstowcs(GLIBC_2.0)[8]wcscat(GLIBC_2.0)[8]wcsspn(GLIBC_2.0)[8]wctob(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
__wcstoul_internal(GLIBC_2.0)[5]mbtowc(GLIBC_2.0)[8]wcschr(GLIBC_2.0)[8]wcsstr(GLIBC_2.0)[8]wctomb(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
__wcstoull_internal(GLIBC_2.0)[5]putwc(GLIBC_2.0)[3]wcscmp(GLIBC_2.0)[8]wcstod(GLIBC_2.0)[8]wctrans(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
btowc(GLIBC_2.0)[8]putwchar(GLIBC_2.0)[3]wcscoll(GLIBC_2.0)[8]wcstof(GLIBC_2.0)[3]wctype(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
fgetws(GLIBC_2.2)[3]swprintf(GLIBC_2.2)[8]wcscpy(GLIBC_2.2)[8]wcstoimax(GLIBC_2.2)[3]wcwidth(GLIBC_2.2)[8]
fputwc(GLIBC_2.2)[3]swscanf(GLIBC_2.2)[3]wcscspn(GLIBC_2.2)[8]wcstok(GLIBC_2.2)[8]wmemchr(GLIBC_2.2)[8]
fputws(GLIBC_2.2)[3]towctrans(GLIBC_2.2)[8]wcsdup(GLIBC_2.2)[5]wcstol(GLIBC_2.2)[8]wmemcmp(GLIBC_2.2)[8]
fwide(GLIBC_2.2)[3]towlower(GLIBC_2.2)[3]wcsftime(GLIBC_2.2)[3]wcstold(GLIBC_2.2)[3]wmemcpy(GLIBC_2.2)[8]
fwprintf(GLIBC_2.2)[3]towupper(GLIBC_2.2)[8]wcslen(GLIBC_2.2)[8]wcstoll(GLIBC_2.2)[3]wmemmove(GLIBC_2.2)[8]
fwscanf(GLIBC_2.2)[3]ungetwc(GLIBC_2.2)[3]wcsncasecmp(GLIBC_2.2)[5]wcstombs(GLIBC_2.2)[8]wmemset(GLIBC_2.2)[8]
iconv_close(GLIBC_2.1)[8]vfwprintf(GLIBC_2.1)[3]wcsncat(GLIBC_2.1)[8]wcstoq(GLIBC_2.1)[5] 
iconv_open(GLIBC_2.1)[8]vswscanf(GLIBC_2.1)[3]wcsncmp(GLIBC_2.1)[8]wcstoul(GLIBC_2.1)[8] 
mblen(GLIBC_2.0)[8]vwprintf(GLIBC_2.0)[3]wcsncpy(GLIBC_2.0)[8]wcstoull(GLIBC_2.0)[3] 

String Functions

Table 10-14. libc - String Functions Function Interfaces

__mempcpy(GLIBC_2.0)[5]bzero(GLIBC_2.0)[8]strcasestr(GLIBC_2.0)[5]strncasecmp(GLIBC_2.0)[8]strtoimax(GLIBC_2.0)[3]
__rawmemchr(GLIBC_2.1)[5]ffs(GLIBC_2.1)[8]strcat(GLIBC_2.1)[8]strncat(GLIBC_2.1)[8]strtok(GLIBC_2.1)[8]
__stpcpy(GLIBC_2.0)[5]index(GLIBC_2.0)[8]strchr(GLIBC_2.0)[8]strncmp(GLIBC_2.0)[8]strtok_r(GLIBC_2.0)[5]
__strdup(GLIBC_2.0)[5]memccpy(GLIBC_2.0)[8]strcmp(GLIBC_2.0)[8]strncpy(GLIBC_2.0)[8]strtold(GLIBC_2.0)[3]
__strtod_internal(GLIBC_2.0)[5]memchr(GLIBC_2.0)[8]strcoll(GLIBC_2.0)[8]strndup(GLIBC_2.0)[5]strtoll(GLIBC_2.0)[3]
__strtof_internal(GLIBC_2.0)[5]memcmp(GLIBC_2.0)[8]strcpy(GLIBC_2.0)[8]strnlen(GLIBC_2.0)[5]strtoq(GLIBC_2.0)[5]
__strtok_r(GLIBC_2.0)[5]memcpy(GLIBC_2.0)[8]strcspn(GLIBC_2.0)[8]strpbrk(GLIBC_2.0)[8]strtoull(GLIBC_2.0)[3]
__strtol_internal(GLIBC_2.0)[5]memmove(GLIBC_2.0)[8]strdup(GLIBC_2.0)[8]strptime(GLIBC_2.0)[8]strtoumax(GLIBC_2.0)[3]
__strtold_internal(GLIBC_2.0)[5]memrchr(GLIBC_2.0)[5]strerror(GLIBC_2.0)[8]strrchr(GLIBC_2.0)[8]strtouq(GLIBC_2.0)[5]
__strtoll_internal(GLIBC_2.0)[5]memset(GLIBC_2.0)[8]strerror_r(GLIBC_2.0)[5]strsep(GLIBC_2.0)[5]strverscmp(GLIBC_2.0)[5]
__strtoul_internal(GLIBC_2.0)[5]rindex(GLIBC_2.0)[8]strfmon(GLIBC_2.0)[8]strsignal(GLIBC_2.0)[5]strxfrm(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
__strtoull_internal(GLIBC_2.0)[5]stpcpy(GLIBC_2.0)[5]strfry(GLIBC_2.0)[5]strspn(GLIBC_2.0)[8]swab(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
bcmp(GLIBC_2.0)[8]stpncpy(GLIBC_2.0)[5]strftime(GLIBC_2.0)[8]strstr(GLIBC_2.0)[8] 
bcopy(GLIBC_2.0)[8]strcasecmp(GLIBC_2.0)[8]strlen(GLIBC_2.0)[8]strtof(GLIBC_2.0)[3] 

IPC Functions

Table 10-15. libc - IPC Functions Function Interfaces

ftok(GLIBC_2.0)[8]msgrcv(GLIBC_2.0)[8]semget(GLIBC_2.0)[8]shmctl(GLIBC_2.0)[8] 
msgctl(GLIBC_2.0)[8]msgsnd(GLIBC_2.0)[8]semop(GLIBC_2.0)[8]shmdt(GLIBC_2.0)[8] 
msgget(GLIBC_2.0)[8]semctl(GLIBC_2.0)[8]shmat(GLIBC_2.0)[8]shmget(GLIBC_2.0)[8] 

Regular Expressions

Table 10-16. libc - Regular Expressions Function Interfaces

advance(GLIBC_2.0)[8]re_exec(GLIBC_2.0)[8]regerror(GLIBC_2.0)[8]regfree(GLIBC_2.0)[8] 
re_comp(GLIBC_2.0)[8]regcomp(GLIBC_2.0)[8]regexec(GLIBC_2.0)[8]step(GLIBC_2.0)[8] 

Data Symbols

Table 10-17. libc - Regular Expressions Data Interfaces

loc1[8]loc2[8]locs[8]  

Character Type Functions

Table 10-18. libc - Character Type Functions Function Interfaces

__ctype_get_mb_cur_max(GLIBC_2.0)[5]isdigit(GLIBC_2.0)[8]iswalnum(GLIBC_2.0)[8]iswlower(GLIBC_2.0)[8]toascii(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
_tolower(GLIBC_2.0)[8]isgraph(GLIBC_2.0)[8]iswalpha(GLIBC_2.0)[8]iswprint(GLIBC_2.0)[8]tolower(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
_toupper(GLIBC_2.0)[8]islower(GLIBC_2.0)[8]iswblank(GLIBC_2.0)[5]iswpunct(GLIBC_2.0)[8]toupper(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
isalnum(GLIBC_2.0)[8]isprint(GLIBC_2.0)[8]iswcntrl(GLIBC_2.0)[8]iswspace(GLIBC_2.0)[8] 
isalpha(GLIBC_2.0)[8]ispunct(GLIBC_2.0)[8]iswctype(GLIBC_2.0)[5]iswupper(GLIBC_2.0)[8] 
isascii(GLIBC_2.0)[8]isspace(GLIBC_2.0)[8]iswdigit(GLIBC_2.0)[8]iswxdigit(GLIBC_2.0)[8] 
iscntrl(GLIBC_2.0)[8]isupper(GLIBC_2.0)[8]iswgraph(GLIBC_2.0)[8]isxdigit(GLIBC_2.0)[8] 

Data Symbols

Table 10-19. libc - Character Type Functions Data Interfaces

__ctype_b[5]__ctype_tolower[5]__ctype_toupper[5]  

Time Manipulation

Table 10-20. libc - Time Manipulation Function Interfaces

adjtime(GLIBC_2.0)[5]ctime(GLIBC_2.0)[8]gmtime(GLIBC_2.0)[8]tzname(GLIBC_2.0)[8] 
adjtimex(GLIBC_2.0)[5]daylight(GLIBC_2.0)[8]localtime(GLIBC_2.0)[8]tzset(GLIBC_2.0)[8] 
asctime(GLIBC_2.0)[8]difftime(GLIBC_2.0)[8]mktime(GLIBC_2.0)[8]ualarm(GLIBC_2.0)[8] 

Data Symbols

Table 10-21. libc - Time Manipulation Data Interfaces

timezone[8]    

Terminal Interface Functions

Table 10-22. libc - Terminal Interface Functions Function Interfaces

cfgetispeed(GLIBC_2.0)[8]cfsetispeed(GLIBC_2.0)[8]tcdrain(GLIBC_2.0)[8]tcgetattr(GLIBC_2.0)[8]tcsendbreak(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
cfgetospeed(GLIBC_2.0)[8]cfsetospeed(GLIBC_2.0)[8]tcflow(GLIBC_2.0)[8]tcgetpgrp(GLIBC_2.0)[8]tcsetattr(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
cfmakeraw(GLIBC_2.0)[5]cfsetspeed(GLIBC_2.0)[5]tcflush(GLIBC_2.0)[8]tcgetsid(GLIBC_2.0)[8]tcsetpgrp(GLIBC_2.0)[8]

System Database Interface

Table 10-23. libc - System Database Interface Function Interfaces

endgrent(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getgrent(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getprotoent(GLIBC_2.0)[5]getutxent(GLIBC_2.0)[8]setnetent(GLIBC_2.0)[7]
endhostent(GLIBC_2.0)[7]getgrgid(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getpwent(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getutxid(GLIBC_2.0)[8]setprotoent(GLIBC_2.0)[7]
endnetent(GLIBC_2.0)[7]getgrnam(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getpwnam(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getutxline(GLIBC_2.0)[8]setpwent(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
endprotoent(GLIBC_2.0)[7]gethostbyaddr(GLIBC_2.0)[7]getpwuid(GLIBC_2.0)[8]pututxline(GLIBC_2.0)[8]setservent(GLIBC_2.0)[7]
endpwent(GLIBC_2.0)[8]gethostbyname(GLIBC_2.0)[5]getservbyname(GLIBC_2.0)[5]setgrent(GLIBC_2.0)[8]setutent(GLIBC_2.0)[5]
endservent(GLIBC_2.0)[7]getnetbyaddr(GLIBC_2.0)[7]getservbyport(GLIBC_2.0)[7]setgroups(GLIBC_2.0)[5]setutxent(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
endutent(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getprotobyname(GLIBC_2.0)[5]getservent(GLIBC_2.0)[5]sethostent(GLIBC_2.0)[7] 
endutxent(GLIBC_2.1)[8]getprotobynumber(GLIBC_2.1)[7]getutent(GLIBC_2.1)[5]setmntent(GLIBC_2.1)[5] 

Language Support

Table 10-24. libc - Language Support Function Interfaces

_obstack_begin(GLIBC_2.0)[5]_obstack_newchunk(GLIBC_2.0)[5]obstack_free(GLIBC_2.0)[5]  

Large File Support

Table 10-25. libc - Large File Support Function Interfaces

__fxstat64(GLIBC_2.2)[5]fopen64(GLIBC_2.2)[4]ftello64(GLIBC_2.2)[4]mkstemp64(GLIBC_2.2)[4]tmpfile64(GLIBC_2.2)[4]
__lxstat64(GLIBC_2.2)[5]freopen64(GLIBC_2.2)[4]ftruncate64(GLIBC_2.2)[4]mmap64(GLIBC_2.2)[4]truncate64(GLIBC_2.2)[4]
__xstat64(GLIBC_2.2)[5]fseeko64(GLIBC_2.2)[4]ftw64(GLIBC_2.2)[4]nftw64(GLIBC_2.2)[4] 
alphasort64(GLIBC_2.1)[5]fsetpos64(GLIBC_2.1)[4]getrlimit64(GLIBC_2.1)[4]open64(GLIBC_2.1)[4] 
creat64(GLIBC_2.1)[4]fstatfs64(GLIBC_2.1)[4]lockf64(GLIBC_2.1)[4]pwrite64(GLIBC_2.1)[4] 
fgetpos64(GLIBC_2.1)[4]fstatvfs64(GLIBC_2.1)[4]lseek64(GLIBC_2.1)[4]readdir64(GLIBC_2.1)[4] 

Data Definitions for libc


dirent.h

typedef struct __dirstream DIR;

ftw.h

typedef int (*__ftw_func_t) (char *__filename, struct stat * __status,
			     int __flag);

typedef int (*__ftw64_func_t) (char *__filename, struct stat64 * __status,
			       int __flag);

typedef int (*__nftw_func_t) (char *__filename, struct stat * __status,
			      int __flag, struct FTW * __info);

typedef int (*__nftw64_func_t) (char *__filename, struct stat64 * __status,
				int __flag, struct FTW * __info);

glob.h

typedef struct
{
  __size_t gl_pathc;
  char **gl_pathv;
  __size_t gl_offs;
  int gl_flags;
  void (*gl_closedir) ();
  struct dirent64 *(*gl_readdir) ();
  void *(*gl_opendir) ();
  int (*gl_lstat) ();
  int (*gl_stat) ();
}
glob_t;

typedef struct
{
  __size_t gl_pathc;
  char **gl_pathv;
  __size_t gl_offs;
  int gl_flags;
  void (*gl_closedir) ();
  struct dirent64 *(*gl_readdir) ();
  void *(*gl_opendir) ();
  int (*gl_lstat) ();
  int (*gl_stat) ();
}
glob64_t;

grp.h

struct group
{
  char *gr_name;
  char *gr_passwd;
  __gid_t gr_gid;
  char **gr_mem;
}
 ;

iconv.h

typedef void *iconv_t;

inttypes.h

typedef lldiv_t imaxdiv_t;

typedef long long intmax_t;

typedef unsigned long long uintmax_t;

locale.h

struct lconv
{
  char *decimal_point;
  char *thousands_sep;
  char *grouping;
  char *int_curr_symbol;
  char *currency_symbol;
  char *mon_decimal_point;
  char *mon_thousands_sep;
  char *mon_grouping;
  char *positive_sign;
  char *negative_sign;
  char int_frac_digits;
  char frac_digits;
  char p_cs_precedes;
  char p_sep_by_space;
  char n_cs_precedes;
  char n_sep_by_space;
  char p_sign_posn;
  char n_sign_posn;
}
 ;

nl_types.h

typedef void *nl_catd;

typedef int nl_item;

pwd.h

struct passwd
{
  char *pw_name;
  char *pw_passwd;
  __uid_t pw_uid;
  __gid_t pw_gid;
  char *pw_gecos;
  char *pw_dir;
  char *pw_shell;
}
 ;

regex.h

typedef unsigned long reg_syntax_t;

typedef struct re_pattern_buffer
{
  unsigned char *buffer;
  unsigned long allocated;
  unsigned long used;
  reg_syntax_t syntax;
  char *fastmap;
  char *translate;
  size_t re_nsub;
  unsigned int can_be_null;
  unsigned int regs_allocated;
  unsigned int fastmap_accurate;
  unsigned int no_sub;
  unsigned int not_bol;
  unsigned int not_eol;
  unsigned int newline_anchor;
}
regex_t;

typedef int regoff_t;

typedef struct
{
  regoff_t rm_so;
  regoff_t rm_eo;
}
regmatch_t;

search.h

typedef enum
{
  FIND,
  ENTER
}
ACTION;

typedef enum
{
  preorder,
  postorder,
  endorder,
  leaf
}
VISIT;

typedef struct entry
{
  char *key;
  void *data;
}
ENTRY;

typedef void (*__action_fn_t) (void *__nodep, VISIT __value, int __level);

setjmp.h

typedef int __jmp_buf;

typedef struct __jmp_buf_tag
{
  __jmp_buf __jmpbuf;
  int __mask_was_saved;
  __sigset_t __saved_mask;
}
jmp_buf;

typedef jmp_buf sigjmp_buf;

signal.h

typedef union sigval
{
  int sival_int;
  void *sival_ptr;
}
sigval_t;

typedef void (*__sighandler_t) ();

struct sigevent
{
  sigval_t sigev_value;
  int sigev_signo;
  int sigev_notify;
}
 ;

typedef struct
{
  unsigned long __val[1];
}
__sigset_t;

typedef __sigset_t sigset_t;

struct sigaction;

typedef struct
{
  int si_band;
  int si_fd;
  struct _sifields;
  struct _sigpoll;
}
siginfo_t;

struct sigaltstack
{
  void *ss_sp;
  int ss_flags;
  size_t ss_size;
}
 ;

struct sigstack
{
  void *ss_sp;
  int ss_onstack;
}
 ;

stdio.h

typedef struct _IO_FILE FILE;

typedef __off_t fpos_t;

typedef __off64_t fpos64_t;

stdlib.h

typedef struct
{
  long long quot;
  long long rem;
}
lldiv_t;

typedef struct
{
  int quot;
  int rem;
}
div_t;

typedef struct
{
  long quot;
  long rem;
}
ldiv_t;

typedef int (*__compar_fn_t) ();

sys/sem.h

struct sembuf
{
  short sem_num;
  short sem_op;
  short sem_flg;
}
 ;

sys/socket.h

typedef unsigned short sa_family_t;

typedef unsigned int socklen_t;

struct sockaddr
{
  sa_family_t sa_family;
  char sa_data[1];
}
 ;

struct msghdr
{
  void *msg_name;
  socklen_t msg_namelen;
  struct iovec *msg_iov;
  size_t msg_iovlen;
  void *msg_control;
  size_t msg_controllen;
  int msg_flags;
}
 ;

sys/times.h

struct tms
{
  clock_t tms_utime;
  clock_t tms_stime;
  clock_t tms_cutime;
  clock_t tms_cstime;
}
 ;

sys/utsname.h

struct utsname
{
  char sysname[1];
  char nodename[1];
  char release[1];
  char version[1];
  char machine[1];
  char __domainname[1];
}
 ;

sys/wait.h

typedef enum
{
  P_ALL,
  P_PID,
  P_PGID
}
idtype_t;

time.h

typedef long __clock_t;

struct timespec
{
  long tv_sec;
  long tv_nsec;
}
 ;

struct tm
{
  int tm_sec;
  int tm_min;
  int tm_hour;
  int tm_mday;
  int tm_mon;
  int tm_year;
  int tm_wday;
  int tm_yday;
  int tm_isdst;
  long __tm_gmtoff;
  char *__tm_zone;
}
 ;

typedef __clock_t clock_t;

typedef __time_t time_t;

unistd.h

typedef __ssize_t ssize_t;

typedef __pid_t pid_t;

typedef __off_t off_t;

utime.h

struct utimbuf
{
  __time_t actime;
  __time_t modtime;
}
 ;

wchar.h

typedef long wchar_t;

typedef unsigned int wint_t;

typedef struct
{
  int count;
  wint_t value;
}
mbstate_t;

wctype.h

typedef unsigned long wctype_t;

typedef __int32_t *wctrans_t;

wordexp.h

typedef struct
{
  int we_wordc;
  char **we_wordv;
  int we_offs;
}
wordexp_t;

Interface Definitions for libc

Table of Contents
acct — switch process accounting on or off
adjtime — correct the time to allow synchronization of the system clock
adjtimex — tune kernel clock
alphasort — scan a directory for matching entries
alphasort64 — compare two struct dirents alphabetically
__assert_fail — abort the program after false assertion
bindtextdomain — specify that the DOMAINNAME message catalog will be found in DIRNAME rather than in the system locale data base
cfmakeraw — get and set terminal attributes
cfsetspeed — manipulate the termios structure
__ctype_b — array index for ctype functions
__ctype_tolower — convert uppercase letter to lowercase letter
__ctype_toupper — convert lowercase letter to uppercase letter
__cxa_atexit — register a function to be called by exit or when a shared library is unloaded
daemon — run in the background
dcgettext — look up the MSGID in the DOMAINNAME message catalog for the current CATEGORY locale
__dcgettext — used by dcgettext in the translation to look up the MSGID in the DOMAINNAME message catalog for the current locale
__divdi3 — mathematic operation
endutent — access utmp file entries
_environ — alias for environ - user environment
__environ — alias for environ - user environment
err — display formatted error messages
__errno_location — address of errno variable
error — analyze and disperse compiler error messages
errx — error messages
flock — apply or remove an advisory lock on an open file
__fpending — returns in bytes the amount of output pending on a stream
fstatfs — get file system statistics
fwprintf — formatted wide character output conversion
gethostbyname — get network host entry
getloadavg — get system load averages
getopt_long — parse command line options
getopt_long_only — parse command line options
__getpgid — get the process group id
getprotobyname — get protocol entry
getprotoent — get protocol entry
getservbyname — get service entry
getservent — get service entry
gettext — look up MSGID in the current default message catalog for the current LC_MESSAGES locale
getutent — access utmp file entries
htons — converts host byte order to network byte order
inet_aton — Internet address manipulation routine
inet_ntoa — Internet address manipulation routine
initgroups — initialize the supplementary group access list
_IO_2_1_stderr_ — standard I/O stream
_IO_2_1_stdin_ — standard I/O stream
_IO_2_1_stdout_ — standard I/O stream
_IO_feof — alias for feof
_IO_getc — alias for getc
_IO_putc — alias for putc
_IO_puts — alias for puts
isblank — character classification routine
isinf — test for infinity or not-a-number (NaN)
iswblank — test for whitespace wide character
iswctype — wide character classification
__libc_start_main — initialization routine
llabs — compute the absolute value of an integer
logwtmp — append an entry to the wtmp file
__lxstat — inline wrapper around call to lxstat
mbsnrtowcs — convert a multibyte string to a wide character string
memmem — locate a substring
__mempcpy — copy N bytes of SRC to DEST
memrchr — scan memory for a character
mkstemp64 — Create a unique temporary file (Large File Support)
_nl_msg_cat_cntr — variable defined in loadmsgcat.c which gets incremented every time a new catalog is loaded
ntohs — convert values between host and network byte order
_obstack_begin — initialize an obstack for use
obstack_free — free an object in the obstack
_obstack_newchunk — allocate a new current chunk of memory for the obstack
opterr — external variable used in getopt()
optind — external variable used in getopt()
optopt — external variable used in getopt()
psignal — print signal message
putwchar — write a wide character to standard output
pwrite64 — (Large File Support)
__rawmemchr — scan memory
sem_timedwait — operation on semaphore
setbuffer — stream buffering operation
setegid — set real and / or effective group ID
setgroups — set list of supplementary group IDs
sethostid — set the unique identifier of the current host
sethostname — set host name
setmntent — get file system descriptor file entry
setutent — access utmp file entries
sigandset — build a new signal set by combining the two input sets using logical AND
sigblock — manipulate the signal mask
siggetmask — manipulate the signal mask
sigisemptyset — signal function - check for empty SET
sigorset — build a new signal set by combining the two input sets using logical OR
sigreturn — return from signal handler and cleanup stack frame
sigsetmask — manipulate the signal mask
sigvec — BSD software signal facilities
statfs — get file system statistics
fstatfs64 — Get file system statistics (Large File Support)
stime — set time
stpcpy — copy a string returning a pointer to its end
__stpcpy — copy a string returning a pointer to its end
stpncpy — copy a fixed-size string, returning a pointer to its end
strcasestr — locate a substring - ignores the case of both strings
strerror_r — reentrant version of strerror
strfry — randomize a string
strndup — return a malloc'd copy of at most N bytes of STRING
strnlen — determine the length of a fixed-size string
strsep — extract token from string
strsignal — return string describing signal
__strtod_internal — alias for strtod
strtok_r — extract tokens from strings
__strtol_internal — alias for strtol
strtoq — convert string value to a long or quad_t integer
strtouq — convert a string to an uquad_t
strverscmp — compare S1 and S2 as strings holding name and indices/version numbers
__sysconf — get configuration information at runtime
system — execute a shell command
_sys_errlist — array containing the "C" locale strings used by strerror()
_sys_siglist — array containing the names of the signal names
textdomain — set the current default message catalog to DOMAINNAME
vasprintf — write formatted output to a string dynamically allocated with malloc and store the address of the string in *PTR
vdprintf — write formatted output to a file descriptor
verrx — display formatted error messages
wait4 — wait for process termination, BSD style
warn — formatted error messages
warnx — formatted error messages
wcpcpy — copy a wide character string, returning a pointer to its end
wcpncpy — copy a fixed-size string of wide characters, returning a pointer to its end
wcscasecmp — compare two wide-character strings, ignoring case
wcsdup — duplicate a wide-character string
wcsncasecmp — compare two fixed-size wide-character strings, ignoring case
wcsnlen — determine the length of a fixed-size wide-character string
wcsnrtombs — convert a wide character string to a multi-byte string
wcstoq — convert initial portion of wide string NPTR to long int representation
wcstouq — convert initial portion of wide string NPTR to unsigned long long int representation
__xmknod — make block or character special file

acct

Name

acct -- switch process accounting on or off

Synopsis

#include <dirent.h>

int acct(const char *filename);

Description

When called with the name of an existing file as argument, accounting is turned on, records for each terminating process are appended to filename as it terminates. An argument of NULL causes accounting to be turned off.

Return Value

On success, zero is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

Errors

ENOSYS

BSD process accounting has not been enabled when the operating system kernel was compiled. The kernel configuration parameter controlling this feature is CONFIG_BSD_PROCESS_ACCT.

ENOMEM

Out of memory.

EPERM

The calling process has no permission to enable process accounting.

EACCES

The argument filename is not a regular file.

EIO

Error writing to the file filename.

EUSERS

There are no more free file structures or we run out of memory.

adjtime

Name

adjtime -- correct the time to allow synchronization of the system clock

Synopsis

#include <time.h>

int adjtime(const struct timeval *delta, struct timeval *olddelta);

Description

Adjtime() makes small adjustments to the system time, as returned by gettimeofday(2), advancing or retarding it by the time specified by the timeval delta. If delta is negative, the clock is slowed down by incrementing it more slowly than normal until the correction is complete. If delta is positive, a larger increment than normal is used. The skew used to perform the correction is generally a fraction of one percent. Thus, the time is always a monotonically increasing function. A time correction from an earlier call to adjtime() may not be finished when adjtime() is called again. If olddelta is non-nil, the structure pointed to will contain, upon return, the number of microseconds still to be corrected from the earlier call.

This call may be used by time servers that synchronize the clocks of computers in a local area network. Such time servers would slow down the clocks of some machines and speed up the clocks of others to bring them to the average network time.

The call adjtime() is restricted to the super-user.

Return Value

On success, zero is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

ERRORS

EFAULT

An argument points outside the process's allocated address space.

EPERM

The process's effective user ID is not that of the super-user.

adjtimex

Name

adjtimex -- tune kernel clock

Synopsis

#include <sys/timex.h>

int adjtimex(struct timex *buf);

Description

Linux uses David L. Mills' clock adjustment algorithm (see RFC 1305). The system call adjtimex reads and optionally sets adjustment parameters for this algorithm. It takes a pointer to a timex structure, updates kernel parameters from field values, and returns the same structure with current kernel values. This structure is declared as follows:

struct timex {

int modes; /* mode selector */

long offset; /* time offset (usec) */

long freq; /* frequency offset (scaled ppm) */

long maxerror; /* maximum error (usec) */

long esterror; /* estimated error (usec) */

int status; /* clock command/status */

long constant; /* pll time constant */

long precision; /* clock precision (usec) (read only) */

long tolerance; /* clock frequency tolerance (ppm) (read only) */

struct timeval time; /* current time (read only) */

long tick; /* usecs between clock ticks */

};

The modes field determines which parameters, if any, to set. It may contain a bitwise-or combination of zero or more of the following bits:

#define ADJ_OFFSET 0x0001 /* time offset */

#define ADJ_FREQUENCY 0x0002 /* frequency offset */

#define ADJ_MAXERROR 0x0004 /* maximum time error */

#define ADJ_ESTERROR 0x0008 /* estimated time error */

#define ADJ_STATUS 0x0010 /* clock status */

#define ADJ_TIMECONST 0x0020 /* pll time constant */

#define ADJ_TICK 0x4000 /* tick value */

#define ADJ_OFFSET_SINGLESHOT 0x8001 /* old-fashioned adjtime */

Ordinary users are restricted to a zero value for mode. Only the superuser may set any parameters.

Return Value

On success, adjtimex returns the clock state:

#define TIME_OK 0 /* clock synchronized */

#define TIME_INS 1 /* insert leap second */

#define TIME_DEL 2 /* delete leap second */

#define TIME_OOP 3 /* leap second in progress */

#define TIME_WAIT 4 /* leap second has occurred */

#define TIME_BAD 5 /* clock not synchronized */

On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

Errors

EFAULT

buf does not point to writable memory.

EPERM

buf.mode is non-zero and the user is not super-user.

EINVAL

An attempt is made to set buf.offset to a value outside the range -131071 to +131071, or to set buf.status to a value other than those listed above, or to set buf.tick to a value outside the range 900000/HZ to 1100000/HZ, where HZ is the system timer interrupt frequency.

alphasort

Name

alphasort -- scan a directory for matching entries

Synopsis

#include <dirent.h>

int alphasort(const struct dirent **a, const struct dirent **b);

Description

The alphasort() function can be used as the comparison function for the scandir() function to sort the directory entries into alphabetical order. Its parameters are the two directory entries, a and b, to compare.

Return Value

The alphasort() function returns an integer less than, equal to, or greater than zero if the first argument is considered to be respectively less than, equal to, or greater than the second.

Errors

ENOMEM

Insufficient memory to complete the operation.

alphasort64

Name

alphasort64 -- compare two struct dirents alphabetically

Synopsis

#include <dirent.h>

int alphasort64(const struct dirent **a, const struct dirent **b);

Description

Function to compare two struct dirents alphabetically. This function is like alphasort but it uses the 64bit dirent structure.

__assert_fail

Name

__assert_fail -- abort the program after false assertion

Synopsis

void
__assert_fail(const char *assertion,
              const char *file,
              unsigned int line,
              const char *function);

Description

This function, when passed a string containing an asserted expression, a filename, and a line number, prints a message on the standard error stream such as:

a.c:10: foobar: Assertion a == b failed.

It then aborts program execution via a call to abort. The exact form of the message is up to the implementation.

If FUNCTION is NULL, then omit information about the function.

FILE, LINE, and ASSERTION must be non-NULL.

__assert_fail is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

bindtextdomain

Name

bindtextdomain -- specify that the DOMAINNAME message catalog will be found in DIRNAME rather than in the system locale data base

Synopsis

#include <unistd.h>

extern char *bindtextdomain(const char *domainname,
                            const char *dirname);

Description

Specify that the DOMAINNAME message catalog will be found in DIRNAME rather than in the system locale data base.

cfmakeraw

Name

cfmakeraw -- get and set terminal attributes

Synopsis

#include <termios.h>

int cfmakeraw(struct termios *termios_p);

Description

cfmakeraw sets the terminal attributes as follows:

termios_p->c_iflag &= ~(IGNBRK|BRKINT|PARMRK|ISTRIP |INLCR|IGNCR|ICRNL|IXON);

termios_p->c_oflag &= ~OPOST;

termios_p->c_lflag &= ~(ECHO|ECHONL|ICANON|ISIG|IEXTEN);

termios_p->c_cflag &= ~(CSIZE|PARENB);

termios_p->c_cflag |= CS8;

termios_p is a pointer to a termios structure. This structure contains the following members:

tcflag_t c_iflag; /* input modes */

tcflag_t c_oflag; /* output modes */

tcflag_t c_cflag; /* control modes */

tcflag_t c_lflag; /* local modes */

cc_t c_cc[NCCS]; /* control chars */

Return Value

On success, zero is returned. On failure, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

cfsetspeed

Name

cfsetspeed -- manipulate the termios structure

Synopsis

#include <termios.h>

int cfsetspeed(struct termios *t, speedt speed);

Description

The cfsetspeed function is provided for setting the baud rate values in the termios structure. The effects of the function on the terminal as described below do not become effective, nor are all errors detected, until the tcsetattr function is called. Certain values for baud rates set in the termios structure and passed to tcsetattr have special meanings.

Getting and Setting the Baud Rate

The input and output baud rates are found in the termios structure. The unsigned integer speed_t is typdef'd in the include file <termios.h>. The value of the integer corresponds directly to the baud rate being represented, however, the following symbolic values are defined.

#define B0 0

#define B50 50

#define B75 75

#define B110 110

#define B134 134

#define B150 150

#define B200 200

#define B300 300

#define B600 600

#define B1200 1200

#define B1800 1800

#define B2400 2400

#define B4800 4800

#define B9600 9600

#define B19200 19200

#define B38400 38400

#ifndef _POSIX_SOURCE

#define EXTA 19200

#define EXTB 38400

#endif /*_POSIX_SOURCE */

The cfsetspeed function sets both the input and output baud rate in the termios structure referenced by tp to speed.

Return Value

On success, zero is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

__ctype_b

Name

__ctype_c -- array index for ctype functions

Synopsis

#include <ctype.h>

extern const unsigned short int *ctype_b;

Description

Array index for ctype functions.

__ctype_b is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__ctype_tolower

Name

__ctype_tolower -- convert uppercase letter to lowercase letter

Synopsis

#include <ctype.h>

int __ctype_tolower(int c);

Description

The __ctype_tolower() function converts an uppercase letter to the corresponding lowercase letter. If the argument is an uppercase letter, the __ctype_tolower() function returns the corresponding lowercase letter if there is one; otherwise, the argument is returned unchanged.

__ctype_tolower is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__ctype_toupper

Name

__ctype_toupper -- convert lowercase letter to uppercase letter

Synopsis

#include <ctype.h>

int __ctype_toupper(int c);

Description

The __ctype_toupper() function converts a lowercase letter to the corresponding uppercase letter. If the argument is a lowercase letter, the __ctype_toupper() function returns the corresponding uppercase letter if there is one; otherwise, the argument is returned unchanged.

__ctype_toupper is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__cxa_atexit

Name

__cxa_atexit -- register a function to be called by exit or when a shared library is unloaded

Synopsis

int __cxa_atexit(void (*func) (void *), void *arg, void *d);

Description

Register a function to be called by exit or when a shared library is unloaded. This function is only called from code generated by the C++ compiler.

__cxa_atexit() has the same specification as atexit().

__cxa_atexit is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

daemon

Name

daemon -- run in the background

Synopsis

#include <unistd.h>

int daemon(int nochdir, int noclose);

Description

The daemon() function is for programs wishing to detach themselves from the controlling terminal and run in the background as system daemons. Unless the argument nochdir is non-zero, daemon() changes the current working directory to the root (`/'). Unless the argument noclose is non-zero, daemon() will redirect standard input, standard output and standard error to /dev/null.

Errors

On error occurs, -1 is returned, and errno is set to any of the errors specified for the library functions fork(2) and setsid(2).

dcgettext

Name

dcgettext -- look up the MSGID in the DOMAINNAME message catalog for the current CATEGORY locale

Synopsis

#include <libintl.h>

extern char *dcgettext(const char *domainname,
                       const char *msgid, int category);

Description

Used to look up the MSGID in the DOMAINNAME message catalog for the current CATEGORY locale.

__dcgettext

Name

__dcgettext -- used by dcgettext in the translation to look up the MSGID in the DOMAINNAME message catalog for the current locale

Synopsis

#include <libintl.h>

extern char *__dcgettext(const char *domainname,
                         const char *msgid, int category);

Description

Used by dcgettext in the translation to look up the MSGID in the DOMAINNAME message catalog for the current locale. CATEGORY locale.

__dcgettext() has the same specification as dcgettext().

__dcgettext is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__divdi3

Name

__divdi3 -- mathematic operation

Synopsis

DItype
__divdi3(DItype u, DItype v);

Description

__divdi3() divides two DItypes(unsigned ints).

__divdi3 is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

endutent

Name

endutent -- access utmp file entries

Synopsis

#include <utmp.h>

void endutent(void);

Description

endutent() closes the utmp file. It should be called when the user code is done accessing the file with the other functions.

_environ

Name

_environ -- alias for environ - user environment

Synopsis

extern char **_environ;

Description

Alias for environ - user environment.

__environ

Name

__environ -- alias for environ - user environment

Synopsis

extern char **__environ;

Description

Alias for environ - user environment.

__environ has the same specification as environ.

__environ is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

err

Name

err -- display formatted error messages

Synopsis

#include <err.h>

void err(int eval, const char *fmt, ...);

Description

The err() function displays a formatted error message on the standard error output. The last component of the program name, a colon character, and a space are output. If the fmt argument is not NULL, the formatted error message, a colon character, and a space are output. The error message string affiliated with the current value of the global variable errno is output. The output is followed by a newline character.

The err() function does not return, but exits with the value of the argument eval.

__errno_location

Name

__errno_location -- address of errno variable

Synopsis

int *__errno_location(void);

Description

__errno_location is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

error

Name

error -- analyze and disperse compiler error messages

Synopsis

error [-n] [-s] [-q] [-v] [-t suffixlist] [-I ignorefile] [name]

Description

Error analyzes and optionally disperses the diagnostic error messages produced by a number of compilers and language processors to the source file and line where the errors occurred. It can replace the painful, traditional methods of scribbling abbreviations of errors on paper, and permits error messages and source code to be viewed simultaneously without machinations of multiple windows in a screen editor.

Options are:

-n

Do not touch any files; all error messages are sent to the standard output

-q

The user is queried whether s/he wants to touch the file. A `y' or `n' to the question is necessary to continue. Absence of the -q option implies that all referenced files (except those referring to discarded error messages) are to be touched.

-v

After all files have been touched, overlay the visual editor vi(1) with it set up to edit all files touched, and positioned in the first touched file at the first error. If vi(1) can't be found, try ex(1) or ed(1) from standard places.

-t

Take the following argument as a suffix list. Files whose suffixes do not appear in the suffix list are not touched. The suffix list is dot separated, and `*' wildcards work. Thus the suffix list:

.c.y.foo*.h

allows error to touch files ending with `.c', `.y', `.foo*' and `.y'.

-s

Print out statistics regarding the error categorization. Not too useful.

Error looks at the error messages, either from the specified file name or from the standard input, and attempts to determine which language processor produced each error message, determines the source file and line number to which the error message refers, determines if the error message is to be ignored or not, and inserts the (possibly slightly modified) error message into the source file as a comment on the line preceding to which the line the error message refers. Error messages which can't be categorized by language processor or content are not inserted into any file, but are sent to the standard output. Error touches source files only after all input has been read.

Error is intended to be run with its standard input connected via a pipe to the error message source. Some language processors put error messages on their standard error file; others put their messages on the standard output. Hence, both error sources should be piped together into error. For example, when using the csh(1) syntax,

make -s lint | error -q -v

will analyze all the error messages produced by whatever programs make(1) runs when making lint.

Error knows about the error messages produced by: make(1), cc(1), cpp(1), ccom(1), as(1), ld(1), lint(1), pi(1), pc(1), f77(1), and DEC Western Research Modula-2. Error knows a standard for error messages produced by the language processors, so is sensitive to changes in these formats. For all languages except Pascal, error messages are restricted to be on one line. Some error messages refer to more than one line in more than one files; error will duplicate the error message and insert it at all of the places referenced.

Error will do one of six things with error messages.

synchronize

Some language processors produce short errors describing which file it is processing. Error uses these to determine the file name for languages that don't include the file name in each error message. These synchronization messages are consumed entirely by error.

discard

Error messages from lint(1) that refer to one of the two lint(1) libraries, /usr/libdata/lint/llib-lc and /usr/libdata/lint/llib-port are discarded, to prevent accidently touching these libraries. Again, these error messages are consumed entirely by error.

nullify

Error messages from lint(1) can be nullified if they refer to a specific function, which is known to generate diagnostics which are not interesting. Nullified error messages are not inserted into the source file, but are written to the standard output. The names of functions to ignore are taken from either the file named .errorrc in the users's home directory, or from the file named by the -I option. If the file does not exist, no error messages are nullified. If the file does exist, there must be one function name per line.

not file specific

Error messages that can't be intuited are grouped together, and written to the standard output before any files are touched. They will not be inserted into any source file.

file specific

Error message that refer to a specific file, but to no specific line, are written to the standard output when that file is touched.

true errors

Error messages that can be intuited are candidates for insertion into the file to which they refer.

Only true error messages are candidates for inserting into the file they refer to. Other error messages are consumed entirely by error or are written to the standard output. Error inserts the error messages into the source file on the line preceding the line the language processor found in error. Each error message is turned into a one line comment for the language, and is internally flagged with the string `###' at the beginning of the error, and `%%%' at the end of the error. This makes pattern searching for errors easier with an editor, and allows the messages to be easily removed. In addition, each error message contains the source line number for the line the message refers to. A reasonably formatted source program can be recompiled with the error messages still in it, without having the error messages themselves cause future errors. For poorly formatted source programs in free languages, such as C or Pascal, it is possible to insert a comment into another comment, which can wreak havoc with a future compilation. To avoid this, programs with comments and source on the same line should be formatted so that language statements appear before comments.

Error catches interrupt and terminate signals, and if in the insertion phase, will orderly terminate what it is doing.

Files

~/.errorrc function names to ignore for lint(1) error messages

/dev/tty user's teletype

Bugs

Opens the teletype directly to do user querying.

Source files with links make a new copy of the file with only one link to it.

Changing a language processor's of error messages may cause error to not understand the error message.

Error, since it is purely mechanical, will not filter out subsequent er- rors caused by floodgating initiated by one syntactically trivial er- ror. Humans are still much better at discarding these related errors.

Pascal error messages belong after the lines affected (error puts them before). The alignment of the \ marking the point of error is also disturbed by error.

Error was designed for work on CRT's at reasonably high speed. It is less pleasant on slow speed terminals, and has never been used on hard- copy terminals.

errx

Name

errx --  error messages

Synopsis

#include <err.h>

void errx(int eval, const char *fmt, ...);

Description

The errx() function displays a formatted error message on the standard error output. The last component of the program name, a colon character, and a space are output. If the fmt argument is not NULL, the formatted error message, a colon character, and a space are output. The output is followed by a newline character.

The errx() function does not return, but exits with the value of the argument eval.

flock

Name

flock -- apply or remove an advisory lock on an open file

Synopsis

int flock(int fd, int operation);

Description

Apply or remove an advisory lock on an open file. The file is specified by fd. Valid operations are given below:

LOCK_SH

Shared lock. More than one process may hold a shared lock for a given file at a given time.

LOCK_EX

Exclusive lock. Only one process may hold an exclusive lock for a given file at a given time.

LOCK_UN

Unlock.

LOCK_NB

Don't block when locking. May be specified (by or'ing) along with one of the other operations.

A single file may not simultaneously have both shared and exclusive locks.

Return Value

On success, zero is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

Errors

EWOULDBLOCK

The file is locked and the LOCK_NB flag was selected.

__fpending

Name

__fpending -- returns in bytes the amount of output pending on a stream

Synopsis

#include <stdio_ext.h>

size_t __fpending(FILE *stream);

Description

The __fpending function returns the amount of output in bytes pending on a stream.

__fpending is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

fstatfs

Name

fstatfs -- get file system statistics

Synopsis

#include <sys/vfs.h>

int fstatfs(int fd, struct statfs *buf);

Description

fstatfs returns information about a mounted file system. fd is the open file descriptor of any file within the mounted filesystem. buf is a pointer to a statfs structure defined as follows:

struct statfs {

long f_type; /* type of filesystem (see below) */

long f_bsize; /* optimal transfer block size */

long f_blocks; /* total data blocks in file system */

long f_bfree; /* free blocks in fs */

long f_bavail; /* free blocks avail to non-superuser */

long f_files; /* total file nodes in file system */

long f_ffree; /* free file nodes in fs */

fsid_t f_fsid; /* file system id */

long f_namelen; /* maximum length of filenames */

long f_spare[6]; /* spare for later */

};

Fields that are undefined for a particular file system are set to 0.

Return Value

On success, zero is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

Errors

EBADF

fd is not a valid open file descriptor.

EFAULT

buf points to an invalid address.

EIO

An I/O error occurred while reading from or writing to the file system.

ENOSYS

The filesystem fd is open on does not support statfs.

fwprintf

Name

fwprintf -- formatted wide character output conversion

Synopsis

int fwprintf(FILE* stream, const wchar_t* , ...);

Description

The specification for "fwprintf" is as specified in the SUSv2 but with the following differences as listed below.

Wide-character Conversion:

The following wide-character are not specified in GNU:

d,i, o, u, x, X, f, e,E , g,G , c, s, p, n, C, S, %

Errors

The following error types are not specified in GNU:

EILSEQ

EINVAL

ENOMEM

gethostbyname

Name

gethostbyname -- get network host entry

Synopsis

#include <netdb.h>
extern int h_errno;

struct hostent *gethostbyname(const char *name);

Description

The gethostbyname() function returns a structure of type hostent for the given host name. Here name is either a host name, or an IPv4 address in standard dot notation, or an IPv6 address in colon (and possibly dot) notation. (See RFC 1884 for the description of IPv6 addresses.) If name is an IPv4 or IPv6 address, no lookup is performed and gethostbyname() simply copies name into the h_name field and its struct in_addr equivalent into the h_addr_list[0] field of the returned hostent structure. If name doesn't end in a dot and the environment variable HOSTALIASES is set, the alias file pointed to by HOSTALIASES will first be searched for name (see hostname(7) for the file ). The current domain and its parents are searched unless name ends in a dot.

The domain name queries carried out by gethostbyname() use a combination of any or all of the name server named(8), a broken out line from /etc/hosts, and the Network Information Service (NIS or YP), depending upon the contents of the order line in /etc/host.conf. (See resolv+(8)). The default action is to query named(8), followed by /etc/hosts.

The hostent structure is defined in <netdb.h> as follows:

struct hostent {

char *h_name; /* official name of host */

char **h_aliases; /* alias list */

int h_addrtype; /* host address type */

int h_length; /* length of address */

char **h_addr_list; /* list of addresses */

}

#define h_addr h_addr_list[0] /* for backward compatibility */

Return Value

The gethostbyname()) functions return the hostent structure or a NULL pointer if an error occurs. On error, the h_errno variable holds an error number.

Errors

ENOMEM

Insufficient memory to complete the operation.

getloadavg

Name

getloadavg -- get system load averages

Synopsis

#include <stdlib.h>

int getloadavg(double loadavg[], int nelem);

Description

The getloadavg() function returns the number of processes in the system run queue averaged over various periods of time. Up to nelem samples are retrieved and assigned to successive elements of loadavg[]. The system imposes a maximum of 3 samples, representing averages over the last 1, 5, and 15 minutes, respectively.

getopt_long

Name

getopt_long -- parse command line options

Synopsis

#define _GNU_SOURCE
#include <getopt.h>

int getopt_long(int argc, char * const argv[],
           const char *optstring,
           const struct option *longopts, int *longindex);

Description

The getopt_long() function works like getopt() except that it also accepts long options, started out by two dashes. Long option names may be abbreviated if the abbreviation is unique or is an exact match for some defined option. A long option may take a parameter, of the form --arg=param or --arg param.

longopts is a pointer to the first element of an array of struct option declared in <getopt.h> as

struct option {

const char *name;

int *flag;

int has_arg;

int val;

};

Return Value

The getopt_long() function returns the option character if the option was found successfully, : if there was a missing parameter for one of the options, ? for an unknown option character, or -1 for the end of the option list.

getopt_long() also returns the option character when a short option is recognized. For a long option, they return val if flag is NULL, and 0 otherwise. Error and -1 returns are the same as for getopt(), plus ? for an ambiguous match or an extraneous parameter.

getopt_long_only

Name

getopt_long_only -- parse command line options

Synopsis

#define _GNU_SOURCE
#include <getopt.h>

int getopt_long_only(int argc, char * const argv[],
           const char *optstring,
           const struct option *longopts, int *longindex);

Description

getopt_long_only() is like getopt_long(), but - as well as -- can indicate a long option. If an option that starts with - (not --) doesn't match a long option, but does match a short option, it is parsed as a short option instead.

Return Value

The function getopt_long_only() returns the option character if the option was found successfully, : if there was a missing parameter for one of the options, ? for an unknown option character, or -1 for the end of the option list. getopt_long_only() also returns the option character when a short option is recognized. For a long option, they return val if flag is NULL, and 0 otherwise. Error and -1 returns are the same as for getopt(), plus ? for an ambiguous match or an extraneous parameter.

__getpgid

Name

__getpgid -- get the process group id

Synopsis

pid_t __getpgid(pid_t pid);

Description

__getpgid(pid) has the same specification as getpgid(pid).

__getpgid is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

getprotobyname

Name

getprotobyname -- get protocol entry

Synopsis

struct protoent *getprotobynumber(int proto);

Description

The getprotobyname() function returns a protoent structure for the line from /etc/protocols that matches the protocol name name.

The protoent structure is defined in <netdb.h> as follows:

struct protoent {

char *p_name; /* official protocol name */

char **p_aliases; /* alias list */

int p_proto; /* protocol number */

}

Return Value

The getprotobyname() function returns the protoent structure, or a NULL pointer if an error occurs or the end of the file is reached.

Files

/etc/protocols protocol database file

getprotoent

Name

getprotoent -- get protocol entry

Synopsis

struct protoent *getprotoent(void);

Description

The getprotoent() function reads the next line from the file /etc/protocols and returns a structure protoent containing the broken out fields from the line. The /etc/protocols file is opened if necessary.

The protoent structure is defined in <netdb.h> as follows:

struct protoent {

char *p_name; /* official protocol name */

char **p_aliases; /* alias list */

int p_proto; /* protocol number */

}

RETURN VALUE

The getprotoent() function returns the protoent structure, or a NULL pointer if an error occurs or the end of the file is reached.

FILES

/etc/protocols protocol database file

getservbyname

Name

getservbyname -- get service entry

Synopsis

#include <netdb.h>

struct servent *getservbyname(const char *name, const char *proto);

Description

The getservbyname() function returns a servent structure for the line from /etc/services that matches the service name using protocol proto.

The servent structure is defined in <netdb.h> as follows:

struct servent {

char *s_name; /* official service name */

char **s_aliases; /* alias list */

int s_port; /* port number */

char *s_proto; /* protocol to use */

}

Return Value

getservbyname() returns the servent structure, or a NULL pointer if an error occurs or the end of the file is reached.

FILES

/etc/services services database file

getservent

Name

getservent -- get service entry

Synopsis

#include <netdb.h>

struct servent *getservent(void);

Description

The getservent() function reads the next line from the file /etc/services and returns a structure servent containing the broken out fields from the line. The /etc/services file is opened if necessary.

The servent structure is defined in <netdb.h> as follows:

struct servent {

char *s_name; /* official service name */

char **s_aliases; /* alias list */

int s_port; /* port number */

char *s_proto; /* protocol to use */

}

Return Value

getservent() returns the servent structure, or a NULL pointer if an error occurs or the end of the file is reached.

FILES

/etc/services services database file

gettext

Name

gettext -- look up MSGID in the current default message catalog for the current LC_MESSAGES locale

Synopsis

#include <libintl.h>

extern char *gettext((const char *msgid));

Description

Used to look up the MSGID in the DOMAINNAME message catalog for the current CATEGORY locale. If not found, returns MSGID itself (the default text).

getutent

Name

getutent -- access utmp file entries

Synopsis

#include <utmp.h>

struct utmp *getutent(void);

Description

getutent() reads a line from the current file position in the utmp file. It returns a pointer to a structure containing the fields of the line.

Return Value

getutent() returns a pointer to a static struct utmp.

Errors

On error, (struct utmp*)0 will be returned.

Files

/var/run/utmp database of currently logged-in users

/var/log/wtmp database of past user logins

htons

Name

htons -- converts host byte order to network byte order

Synopsis

#include <netinet/in.h>

unsigned short int htons(unsigned short int hostshort);

Description

The htons() function converts the short integer hostshort from host byte order to network byte order.

inet_aton

Name

inet_aton -- Internet address manipulation routine

Synopsis

#include <sys/socket.h>
#include <netinet/in.h>
#include <arpa/inet.h>

int inet_aton(const char *cp, struct in_addr *inp);

Description

inet_aton() converts the Internet host address cp from the standard numbers-and-dots notation into binary data and stores it in the structure that inp points to. inet_aton returns nonzero if the address is valid, zero if not.

The structure in_addr is defined in netinet/in.h as:

struct in_addr {

unsigned long int s_addr;

}

Note that on the i80x86 the host byte order is Least Significant Byte first, whereas the network byte order, as used on the Internet, is Most Significant Byte first.

inet_ntoa

Name

inet_ntoa -- Internet address manipulation routine

Synopsis

#include <sys/socket.h>
#include <netinet/in.h>
#include <arpa/inet.h>

char *inet_ntoa(struct in_addr in);

Description

The inet_ntoa() function converts the Internet host address in given in network byte order to a string in standard numbers-and-dots notation. The string is returned in a statically allocated buffer, which subsequent calls will overwrite.

The structure in_addr is defined in netinet/in.h as:

struct in_addr {

unsigned long int s_addr;

}

Note that on the i80x86 the host byte order is Least Significant Byte first, whereas the network byte order, as used on the Internet, is Most Significant Byte first.

initgroups

Name

initgroups -- initialize the supplementary group access list

Synopsis

#include <grp.h>
#include <sys/types.h>

int initgroups(const char *user, gid_t group);

Description

The initgroups() function initializes the group access list by reading the group database /etc/group and using all groups of which user is a member. The additional group group is also added to the list.

Return Value

On success, zero is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

Errors

EPERM

The calling process does not have sufficient privileges.

ENOMEM

Insufficient memory to allocate group information structure.

Files

/etc/group group database file

_IO_2_1_stderr_

Name

_IO_2_1_stderr_ -- standard I/O stream

Synopsis

#include <libio.h>

extern struct _IO_FILE_plus _IO_2_1_stderr_;

Description

_IO_2_1_stderr is an object whose address becomes stderr.

_IO_2_1_stdin_

Name

_IO_2_1_stdin_ -- standard I/O stream

Synopsis

#include <libio.h>

extern struct _IO_FILE_plus _IO_2_1_stdin_;

Description

_IO_2_1_stdin is an object whose address becomes stdin.

_IO_2_1_stdout_

Name

_IO_2_1_stdout_ -- standard I/O stream

Synopsis

#include <libio.h>

extern struct _IO_FILE_plus _IO_2_1_stdout_;

Description

_IO_2_1_stdout is an object whose address becomes stdout.

_IO_feof

Name

_IO_feof -- alias for feof

Synopsis

int _IO_feof(_IO_FILE *__fp);

Description

The function _IO_feof() tests the end-of-file indicator for the stream pointed to by __fp, returning non-zero if it is set.

_IO_getc

Name

_IO_getc -- alias for getc

Synopsis

int _IO_getc(_IO_FILE *__fp);

Description

_IO_getc() reads the next character from __fp and returns it as an unsigned char cast to an int, or EOF on end of file or error.

_IO_putc

Name

_IO_putc -- alias for putc

Synopsis

int _IO_putc(int __c, _IO_FILE *__fp);

Description

_IO_putc() writes the character __c, cast to an unsigned char, to __fp.

_IO_puts

Name

_IO_puts -- alias for puts

Synopsis

int _IO_puts(const char *__c);

Description

_IO_puts() writes the string __s and a trailing newline to stdout.

isblank

Name

isblank -- character classification routine

Synopsis

#include <ctype.h>

int isblank(int c);

Description

This functions checks whether c, which must have the value of an unsigned char or EOF, falls into a certain character class according to the current locale.

isblank() checks for a blank character; that is, a space or a tab. This function is a GNU extension.

Return Value

The values returned are nonzero if the character c falls into the tested class, and a zero value if not.

Notes

The details of what characters belong into which class depend on the current locale. For example, isupper() will not recognize an A - umlaut as an uppercase letter in the default C locale.

isinf

Name

isinf -- test for infinity or not-a-number (NaN)

Synopsis

#include <math.h>

int isinf(double value);

Description

The isinf() function returns -1 if value represents negative infinity, 1 if value represents positive infinity, and 0 otherwise.

iswblank

Name

iswblank -- test for whitespace wide character

Synopsis

#include <wctype.h>

int iswblank(wint_t wc);

Description

The iswblank function is the wide-character equivalent of the isblank function. It tests whether wc is a wide character belonging to the wide character class "blank".

The wide character class "blank" is a subclass of the wide character class "space".

Being a subclass of the wide character class "space", the wide character class "blank" is disjoint from the wide character class "graph" and therefore also disjoint from its subclasses "alnum", "alpha", "upper", "lower", "digit", "xdigit", "punct".

The wide character class "blank" always contains at least the space character and the control character '\t'.

Return Value

The iswblank function returns non-zero if wc is a wide character belonging to the wide character class "blank". Otherwise it returns zero.

Notes

The behaviour of iswblank depends on the LC_CTYPE category of the current locale.

iswctype

Name

iswctype -- wide character classification

Synopsis

#include <wctype.h>

int iswctype(wint_t wc, wctype_t desc);

Description

If wc is a wide character having the character property designated by desc (or in other words: belongs to the character class designated by desc), the iswctype function returns non-zero. Otherwise it returns zero. If wc is WEOF, zero is returned.

desc must be a character property descriptor returned by the wctype function.

Return Value

iswctype returns non-zero if the wc has the designated property. Otherwise it returns 0.

Notes

The behavior of iswctype depends on the LC_CTYPE category of the current locale.

__libc_start_main

Name

__libc_start_main -- initialization routine

Synopsis

BP_SYM __libc_start_main (int (*main) (int, char**, char**),
    int argc, char *__unbounded *__unbounded ubp_av,
    void (*init) (void), void (*fini) (void),
    void (*rtld_fini) (void), void (*__unbounded stack_end);

Description

Initialize glibc.

__libc_start_main is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

llabs

Name

llabs -- compute the absolute value of an integer

Synopsis

#include <stdlib.h>
       
long long int llabs(long long int j);

Description

llabs() computes the absolute value of the argument j of the appropriate integer type for the function.

Return Value

Returns the absolute value of the integer argument, of the appropriate integer type for the function.

Notes

Trying to take the absolute value of the most negative integer is not defined.

The llabs() function is included in glibc since version 2.0, but is not in libc5 or libc4.

For llabs() to be declared, it may be necessary to define _ISOC99_SOURCE or _ISOC9X_SOURCE (depending on the version of glibc) before including any standard headers.

GCC 3.0 also handles llabs() as builtin.

logwtmp

Name

logwtmp -- append an entry to the wtmp file

Synopsis

#include <utmp.h>

void logwtmp(const char *line, const char *name, const char *host);

Description

logwtmp() constructs an utmp structure using line, name, host, current time and current process id. Then it calls updwtmp() to append the structure to the utmp file.

Availability

Both functions are available under glibc2, but not under libc5. However, logwtmp occurs in the old libbsd.

Files

/var/log/wtmp database of past user logins

__lxstat

Name

__lxstat -- inline wrapper around call to lxstat

Synopsis

#include <ctype.h>

int __lxstat(int version, char *__path, struct stat *__statbuf);

Description

Inline wrapper around call to lxstat.

__lxstat is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

mbsnrtowcs

Name

mbsnrtowcs -- convert a multibyte string to a wide character string

Synopsis

#include <wchar.h>

size_t mbsnrtowcs(wchar_t *dest, const char **src,
                  size_t nms, size_t len, mbstate_t *ps);

Description

The mbsnrtowcs function is like the mbsrtowcs function, except that the number of bytes to be converted, starting at *src, is limited to nms.

If dest is not a NULL pointer, the mbsnrtowcs function converts at most nms bytes from the multibyte string *src to a wide-character string starting at dest. At most len wide characters are written to dest. The state *ps is updated. The conversion is effectively performed by repeatedly calling mbrtowc(dest,*src,n,ps) where n is some positive number, as long as this call succeeds, and then incrementing dest by one and *src by the number of bytes consumed. The conversion can stop for three reasons:

1. An invalid multibyte sequence has been encountered. In this case *src is left pointing to the invalid multibyte sequence, (size_t)(-1) is returned, and errno is set to EILSEQ.

2. The nms limit forces a stop, or len non-L'\0' wide characters have been stored at dest. In this case *src is left pointing to the next multibyte sequence to be converted, and the number of wide characters written to dest is returned.

3. The multibyte string has been completely converted, including the terminating '\0' (which has the side effect of bringing back *ps to the initial state). In this case *src is set to NULL, and the number of wide characters written to dest, excluding the terminating L'\0' character, is returned.

If dest is NULL, len is ignored, and the conversion proceeds as above, except that the converted wide characters are not written out to memory, and that no destination length limit exists.

In both of the above cases, if ps is a NULL pointer, a static anonymous state only known to the mbsnrtowcs function is used instead.

The programmer must ensure that there is room for at least len wide characters at dest.

Return Value

The mbsnrtowcs function returns the number of wide characters that make up the converted part of the wide character string, not including the terminating null wide character. If an invalid multibyte sequence was encountered, (size_t)(-1) is returned, and errno set to EILSEQ.

Notes

The behavior of mbsnrtowcs depends on the LC_CTYPE category of the current locale.

Passing NULL as ps is not multi-thread safe.

memmem

Name

memmem -- locate a substring

Synopsis

#define _GNU_SOURCE
#include <string.h>

void *memmem(const void *haystack, size_t haystacklen,
             const void *needle, size_t needlelen);

Description

The memmem() function finds the start of the first occurrence of the substring needle of length needlelen in the memory area haystack of length haystacklen.

Return Value

The memmem() function returns a pointer to the beginning of the substring, or NULL if the substring is not found.

Notes

This function was broken in Linux libraries up to and including libc 5.0.9; there the needle and haystack arguments were interchanged, and a pointer to the end of the first occurrence of needle was returned. Since libc 5.0.9 is still widely used, this is a dangerous function to use.

Both old and new libc's have the bug that if needle is empty haystack-1 (instead of haystack) is returned. And glibc 2.0 makes it worse, and returns a pointer to the last byte of haystack. This is fixed in glibc 2.1.

__mempcpy

Name

__mempcpy -- copy N bytes of SRC to DEST

Synopsis

#include <string.h>

extern ptr_t __mempcpy(ptr_t restrict dest,
                       const ptr_t restrict src, size_t n));

Description

Copy N bytes of SRC to DEST, return pointer to bytes after the last written byte.

__mempcpy is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

memrchr

Name

memrchr -- scan memory for a character

Synopsis

#include <string.h>

void *memrchr(const void *s, int c, size_t n);

Description

The memrchr() function returns a pointer to the last occurrence of the character "c" in the first "n" characters of string "s".

mkstemp64

Name

mkstemp64 -- Create a unique temporary file (Large File Support)

Synopsis

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

int mkstemp64(char *template);

Description

The mkstemp64() function generates a unique temporary file name from template. The last six characters of template must be XXXXXX and these are replaced with a string that makes the filename unique.

The mkstemp64() function is a 64-bit version of mkstemp.

RETURN VALUE

The mkstemp64() function returns the file descriptor fd of the temporary file or -1 on error.

_nl_msg_cat_cntr

Name

_nl_msg_cat_cntr -- variable defined in loadmsgcat.c which gets incremented every time a new catalog is loaded

Synopsis

#include <libintl.h>

extern int _nl_msg_cat_cntr;

Description

Used by Message catalogs for internationalization. A variable defined which gets incremented every time a new catalog is loaded.

ntohs

Name

ntohs -- convert values between host and network byte order

Synopsis

#include <netinet/in.h>

unsigned short int ntohs(unsigned short int netshort);

Description

The ntohs() function converts the short integer netshort from network byte order to host byte order.

_obstack_begin

Name

_obstack_begin -- initialize an obstack for use

Synopsis

#include <obstack.h>

extern int _obstack_begin(struct obstack *, int, int,
                          void *(*) (long), void (*) (void *));

Description

Initialize an obstack for use.

obstack_free

Name

obstack_free -- free an object in the obstack

Synopsis

#include <obstack.h>

void obstack_free(struct obstack *obstack, void *block);

Description

Free an object in the obstack.

_obstack_newchunk

Name

_obstack_newchunk -- allocate a new current chunk of memory for the obstack

Synopsis

#include <obstack.h>

extern void _obstack_newchunk(struct obstack *, int);

Description

Allocate a new current chunk of memory for the obstack.

opterr

Name

opterr -- external variable used in getopt()

Synopsis

extern int opterr;

Description

opterr is used as a flag to suppress error message generated by getopt(). When opterr is set to 0; it suppresses the error message generated by getopt() when getopt() does not recognize an option character.

optind

Name

optind -- external variable used in getopt()

Synopsis

extern int optind;

Description

optind holds the current index of the array argr[] which contains the command line options being parsed by getopt().

optopt

Name

optopt -- external variable used in getopt()

Synopsis

extern int optopt;

Description

optopt holds the unknown option character when that option character is not recognized by getopt()

psignal

Name

psignal -- print signal message

Synopsis

#include <signal.h>

void psignal(int sig, const char *s);

extern const char *const sys_siglist[]

Description

The psignal() function displays a message on stderr consisting of the string s, a colon, a space, and a string describing the signal number sig. If sig is invalid, the message displayed will indicate an unknown signal.

The array sys_siglist holds the signal description strings indexed by signal number.

Return Value

psignal() returns no value.

putwchar

Name

putwchar -- write a wide character to standard output

Synopsis

#include <wchar.h>

wint_t putwchar(wchar_t wc);

Description

The putwchar function is the wide-character equivalent of the putchar function. It writes the wide character wc to stdout. If ferror(stdout) becomes true, it returns WEOF. If a wide character conversion error occurs, it sets errno to EILSEQ and returns WEOF. Otherwise it returns wc.

Return Value

The putwchar function returns wc if no error occurred, or WEOF to indicate an error.

Notes

The behavior of putwchar depends on the LC_CTYPE category of the current locale.

It is reasonable to expect that putwchar will actually write the multibyte sequence corresponding to the wide character wc.

pwrite64

Name

pwrite64 --  (Large File Support)

Synopsis

#include <unistd.h>

ssize_t pwrite64(int fd, const void *buf, size_t nbytes, off64_t offset);

Description

The pwrite64() function writes NBYTES of BUF to FD at given position OFFSET without changing the file position.

The pwrite64() function is a 64-bit version of pwrite.

RETURN VALUE

The pwrite64() function returns the number written, or -1.

__rawmemchr

Name

__rawmemchr -- scan memory

Synopsis

#include <string.h>

extern ptr_t __rawmemchr(const ptr_t s, int c);

Description

This is a weak alias to rawmemchr. Search in S for C.

Similar to memchr, but there is no length limit.

__rawmemchr is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

sem_timedwait

Name

sem_timedwait -- operation on semaphore

Synopsis

#include <semaphore.h>
int sem_timedwait(sem_t *__restrict __sem, 
		  __const struct timespec *__restrict __abstime);

Description

sem_timedwait() waits for semaphore object SEM being posted. It is a new function from IEEE Std. 1003.1-200x that is similar to sem_wait but waits only until ABSTIME.

setbuffer

Name

setbuffer -- stream buffering operation

Synopsis

#include <stdio.h>

void setbuffer(FILE *stream, char *buf, size_tsize);

Description

setbuffer is an alias for call to setvbuf. It works the same, except that the size of the buffer is up to the caller, rather than being determined by the default BUFSIZ.

setegid

Name

setegid -- set real and / or effective group ID

Synopsis

#include <sys/types.h>
#include <unistd.h>

int setegid(gid_t egid);

Description

setegid sets real and effective group ID's of the current process. Un-privileged users may change the real group ID to the effective group ID and vice-versa.

Prior to Linux 1.1.38, the saved ID paradigm, when used with setegid was broken. Starting at 1.1.38, it is also possible to set the effective group ID from the saved group ID.

Only the super-user may make other changes.

Supplying a value of -1 for either the real or effective group ID forces the system to leave that ID unchanged.

Currently (libc-4.x.x), setegid(egid) is functionally equivalent to setregid(-1, egid).

If the real group ID is changed or the effective group ID is set to a value not equal to the previous real group ID, the saved group ID will be set to the new effective group ID.

Return Value

On success, zero is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

Errors

EPERM

The current process is not the super-user and changes other than (i) swapping the effective group ID with the real group ID or (ii) setting one to the value of the other or (iii) setting the effective group ID to the value of the saved group ID was specified.

setgroups

Name

setgroups -- set list of supplementary group IDs

Synopsis

#define __USE_BSD
#include <grp.h>

int setgroups(size_t size, const gid_t *list);

Description

Sets the supplementary groups for the process. Only the super-user may use this function.

RETURN VALUE

On success, zero is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

ERRORS

EFAULT list has an invalid address.

EPERM The user is not the super-user.

EINVA Size is greater than NGROUPS (32 for Linux 2.0.32).

BUGS

The __USE_BSD flag probably shouldn't be required for setgroups.

sethostid

Name

sethostid -- set the unique identifier of the current host

Synopsis

#include <unistd.h>

int sethostid(long int hostid);

Description

Set a unique 32-bit identifier for the current machine. The 32-bit identifier is intended to be unique among all UNIX systems in existence. This normally resembles the Internet address for the local machine, as returned by gethostbyname(3), and thus usually never needs to be set.

The sethostid call is restricted to the superuser.

The hostid argument is stored in the file /etc/hostid.

Return Value

gethostid returns the 32-bit identifier for the current host as set by sethostid(2).

Files

/etc/hostid

sethostname

Name

sethostname -- set host name

Synopsis

#include <unistd.h>

int sethostname(const char *name, size_t len);

Description

This function is used to change the host name of the current processor.

Return Value

On success, zero is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

Errors

EINVAL

len is negative or len is larger than the maximum allowed size.

EPERM

the caller was not the superuser.

EFAULT

name is an invalid address.

Notes

SUSv2 guarantees that Host names are limited to 255 bytes.

setmntent

Name

setmntent -- get file system descriptor file entry

Synopsis

#include <stdio.h>
#include <mntent.h>

FILE *setmntent(const char *filename, const char *type);

Description

This routine is used to access the file system description file /etc/fstab and the mounted file system description file /etc/mtab.

The setmntent() function opens the file system description file filep and returns a file pointer which can be used by getmntent(). The argument type is the type of access required and can take the same values as the mode argument of fopen(3).

The mntent structure is defined in <mntent.h> as follows:

struct mntent {

char *mnt_fsname; /* name of mounted file system */

char *mnt_dir; /* file system path prefix */

char *mnt_type; /* mount type (see mntent.h) */

char *mnt_opts; /* mount options (see mntent.h) */

int mnt_freq; /* dump frequency in days */

int mnt_passno; /* pass number on parallel fsck */

};

Files

/etc/fstab file system description file /etc/mtab mounted file system description file

setutent

Name

setutent -- access utmp file entries

Synopsis

#include <utmp.h>

void setutent(void);

Description

setutent() rewinds the file pointer to the beginning of the utmp file. It is generally a Good Idea to call it before any of the other functions.

Errors

On error, (struct utmp*)0 will be returned.

Files

/var/run/utmp database of currently logged-in users /var/log/wtmp database of past user logins

sigandset

Name

sigandset -- build a new signal set by combining the two input sets using logical AND

Synopsis

#include <signal.h>

extern int sigandset(sigset_t *set, const sigset_t *left,
                     const sigset_t *right);

Description

A signal function that builds a new signal set by combining the two input sets using logical AND.

sigblock

Name

sigblock -- manipulate the signal mask

Synopsis

#include <signal.h>

int sigblock(int mask);

Description

This interface is made obsolete by sigprocmask(2).

The sigblock system call adds the signals specified in mask to the set of signals currently being blocked from delivery.

Notes

Prototype for this function is only available if _BSD_SOURCE is defined before the inclusion of any system.

siggetmask

Name

siggetmask -- manipulate the signal mask

Synopsis

#include <signal.h>

int siggetmask(void);

Description

This interface is made obsolete by sigprocmask(2).

siggetmask returns the current set of masked signals.

Notes

Prototype for this function is only available if _BSD_SOURCE is defined before the inclusion of any system header file.

sigisemptyset

Name

sigisemptyset -- signal function - check for empty SET

Synopsis

#include <signal.h>

extern int sigisemptyset(const sigset_t *set);

Description

Signal function - Check for empty SET. Returns non-empty value if SET is not empty.

sigorset

Name

sigorset -- build a new signal set by combining the two input sets using logical OR

Synopsis

#include <:signal.h>

extern int sigorset((sigset_t *set, const sigset_t *left,
                     const sigset_t *right));

Description

A signal function that builds a new signal set by combining the two input sets using logical OR.

sigreturn

Name

sigreturn -- return from signal handler and cleanup stack frame

Synopsis

int sigreturn(unsigned long __unused);

Description

When the Linux kernel creates the stack frame for a signal handler, a call to sigreturn is inserted into the stack frame so that the the signal handler will call sigreturn upon return. This inserted call to sigreturn cleans up the stack so that the process can restart from where it was interrupted by the signal.

Return Value

sigreturn never returns.

Warning

sigreturn call is used by the kernel to implement signal handlers. It should never be called directly. Better yet, the specific use of the __unused argument varies depending on the architecture.

Files

/usr/src/linux/arch/i386/kernel/signal.c

/usr/src/linux/arch/alpha/kernel/entry.s

sigsetmask

Name

sigsetmask -- manipulate the signal mask

Synopsis

int sigsetmask(int mask);

Description

This interface is made obsolete by sigprocmask(2).

The sigsetmask system call replaces the set of blocked signals totally with a new set specified in mask. Signals are blocked if the corresponding bit in mask is a 1.

Return Value

sigsetmask returns the previous set of masked signals.

Notes

Prototype for this function is only available if _BSD_SOURCE is defined before the inclusion of any system header file.

sigvec

Name

sigvec -- BSD software signal facilities

Synopsis

#include <bsd/signal.h>
int sigvec(int sig, struct sigvec *vec, struct sigvec *ovec);

Description

This interface is made obsolete by sigaction(2).

Under Linux sigvec is #define'd to sigaction, and provides at best a rough approximation of the BSD sigvec interface.

statfs

Name

statfs -- get file system statistics

Synopsis

#include <sys/vfs.h>

int statfs(const char *path, struct statfs *buf);

Description

statfs returns information about a mounted file system. path is the path name of any file within the mounted filesystem.

buf is a pointer to a statfs structure defined as follow:

struct statfs {

long f_type; /* type of filesystem (see below) */

long f_bsize; /* optimal transfer block size */

long f_blocks; /* total data blocks in file system */

long f_bfree; /* free blocks in fs */

long f_bavail; /* free blocks avail to non-superuser */

long f_files; /* total file nodes in file system */

long f_ffree; /* free file nodes in fs */

long f_ffree; /* free file nodes in fs */

fsid_t f_fsid; /* file system id */

long f_namelen; /* maximum length of filenames */

long f_spare[6]; /* spare for later */

};

Fields that are undefined for a particular file system are set to 0.

Return Value

On success, zero is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

Errors

ENOTDIR

A component of the path prefix of path is not a directory.

ENAMETOOLONG

path is too long.

ENOENT

The file referred to by path does not exist.

EACCES

Search permission is denied for a component of the path prefix of path.

ELOOP

Too many symbolic links were encountered in translating path.

EFAULT

Buf or path points to an invalid address.

EIO

An I/O error occurred while reading from or writing to the file system.

ENOMEM

Insufficient kernel memory was available.

ENOSYS

The filesystem path is on does not support statfs.

fstatfs64

Name

fstatfs64 -- Get file system statistics (Large File Support)

Synopsis

#include <errno.h>
#include <sys/statfs.h>

int fstatfs64(int fd, struct statfs64 *buf);

Description

fstatfs64 returns information about a mounted file system. fd is the open file descriptor of any file within the mounted filesystem.

The fstatfs64() function is the 64-bit version of fstatfs().

Return Value

On success, zero is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

stime

Name

stime -- set time

Synopsis

#define _SVID_SOURCE /* glibc2 needs this */
#include <time.h>

int stime(time_t *t);

Description

stime sets the system's idea of the time and date. Time, pointed to by t, is measured in seconds from 00:00:00 GMT January 1, 1970. stime() may only be executed by the super user.

Return Value

On success, zero is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

Errors

EPERM

The caller is not the super-user.

Notes

Under glibc2, <time.h> only provides a prototype when _SVID_SOURCE is defined.

stpcpy

Name

stpcpy -- copy a string returning a pointer to its end

Synopsis

#include <string.h>

char *stpcpy(char *dest, const char *src);

Description

The stpcpy() function copies the string pointed to by src (including the terminating \0 character) to the array pointed to by dest. The strings may not overlap, and the destination string dest must be large enough to receive the copy.

Return Value

stpcpy() returns a pointer to the end of the string dest (that is, the address of the terminating null character) rather than the beginning.

Example

For example, this program uses stpcpy to concatenate foo and bar to produce foobar, which it then prints.

#include <string.h>

int main (void) { char *to = buffer; to = stpcpy (to, "foo"); to = stpcpy (to, "bar"); printf ("%s\n", buffer); }

__stpcpy

Name

__stpcpy -- copy a string returning a pointer to its end

Synopsis

#include <string.h>

char * __stpcpy(char *dest, const char *src);

Description

The __stpcpy() function copies the string pointed to by src (including the terminating /0 character) to the array pointed to by dest. The strings may not overlap, and the destination string dest must be large enough to receive the copy.

Return Value

__stpcpy() returns a pointer to the end of the string dest (that is, the address of the terminating null character) rather than the beginning.

__stpcpy() has the same specification as stpcpy().

__stpcpy is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

stpncpy

Name

stpncpy -- copy a fixed-size string, returning a pointer to its end

Synopsis

#include <string.h>

char *stpncpy (char *dest, const char *src, size_t n);

Description

The stpncpy function copies at most n characters from the string pointed to by src, including the terminating '\0' character, to the array pointed to by dest. Exactly n characters are written at dest. If the length strlen(src) is smaller than n, the remaining characters in the array pointed to by dest are filled with '\0' characters. If the length strlen(src) is greater or equal to n, the string pointed to by dest will not be '\0' terminated. The strings may not overlap. The programmer must ensure that there is room for at least n characters at dest.

RETURN VALUE

stpncpy returns a pointer to the terminating null in dest, or, if dest is not null-terminated, dest + n.

strcasestr

Name

strcasestr -- locate a substring - ignores the case of both strings

Synopsis

#include <string.h>

char *strcasestr(const char *haystack, const char *needle);

Description

Similar to strstr but this function ignores the case of both strings.

strerror_r

Name

strerror_r -- reentrant version of strerror

Synopsis

#include <string.h>

extern char *strerror_r(int errnum, char *buf, size_t buflen);

Description

Reentrant version of strerror. If a temporary buffer is required, at most BUFLEN bytes of BUF will be used.

strfry

Name

strfry -- randomize a string

Synopsis

#include <string.h>

char *strfry(char *string);

Description

The strfry() function randomizes the contents of string by using rand(3) to randomly swap characters in the string. The result is an anagram of string.

Return Value

The strfry() functions returns a pointer to the randomized string.

strndup

Name

strndup -- return a malloc'd copy of at most N bytes of STRING

Synopsis

#include <string.h>

extern char *strndup(const char *string, size_t n);

Description

Return a malloc'd copy of at most N bytes of STRING. The resultant string is terminated even if no null terminator appears before STRING[N].

strnlen

Name

strnlen -- determine the length of a fixed-size string

Synopsis

#include <string.h>

size_t strnlen(const char *s, size_t maxlen);

Description

The strnlen function returns the number of characters in the string pointed to by s, not including the terminating '\0' character, but at most maxlen. In doing this, strnlen looks only at the first maxlen characters at s and never beyond s+maxlen.

Return Value

The strnlen function returns strlen(s), if that is less than maxlen, or maxlen if there is no '\0' character among the first maxlen characters pointed to by s.

strsep

Name

strsep -- extract token from string

Synopsis

#include <string.h>

char *strsep(char **stringp, const char *delim);

Description

If *stringp is NULL, the strsep() function returns NULL and does nothing else. Otherwise, this function finds the first token in the string *stringp, where tokens are delimited by symbols in the string delim. This token is terminated with a \0 character (by overwriting the delimiter) and *stringp is updated to point past the token. In case no delimiter was found, the token is taken to be the entire string *stringp, and *stringp is made NULL.

Return Value

The strsep() function returns a pointer to the token, that is, it returns the original value of *stringp.

Notes

The strsep() function was introduced as a replacement for strtok(), since the latter cannot handle empty fields. However, strtok() conforms to ANSI-C and hence is more portable.

Bugs

This function suffers from the same problems as strtok(). In particular, it modifies the original string. Avoid it.

strsignal

Name

strsignal -- return string describing signal

Synopsis

#define _GNU_SOURCE
#include <string.h>

char *strsignal(int sig);

extern const char * const sys_siglist[];

Description

The strsignal() function returns a string describing the signal number passed in the argument sig. The string can only be used until the next call to strsignal().

The array sys_siglist holds the signal description strings indexed by signal number. The strsignal() function should be used if possible instead of this array.

Return Value

The strsignal() function returns the appropriate description string, or an unknown signal message if the signal number is invalid. On some systems (but not on Linux), a NULL pointer may be returned instead for an invalid signal number.

__strtod_internal

Name

__strtod_internal -- alias for strtod

Synopsis

double __strtod_internal(const char *__nptr,
                         char **__endptr,
                         int __group);

Description

The __GROUP argument must be 0 or the behavior is undefined.

__strtod_internal(__nptr, __endptr, __group) has the same specification as strtod(__nptr, __endptr).

__strtod_internal is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

strtok_r

Name

strtok_r -- extract tokens from strings

Synopsis

#include <string.h>

char *strtok_r(char *s, const char *delim, char **ptrptr);

Description

A token is a nonempty string of characters not occurring in the string delim, followed by \0 or by a character occurring in delim.

The strtok_r() function can be used to parse the string s into tokens. The first call to strtok_r() should have s as its first argument. Subsequent calls should have the first argument set to NULL. Each call returns a pointer to the next token, or NULL when no more tokens are found.

If a token ends with a delimiter, this delimiting character is overwritten with a \0 and a pointer to the next character is saved for the next call to strtok_r(). The delimiter string delim may be different for each call.

ptrptr is a user allocated char* pointer. It must be the same while parsing the same string.

Bugs

Never use this function. If you do, note that:

It modifies its first argument.

The identity of the delimiting character is lost.

This function cannot be used on constant strings.

Return Value

The strtok_r() function returns a pointer to the next token, or NULL if there are no more tokens.

__strtol_internal

Name

__strtol_internal -- alias for strtol

Synopsis

long int __strtol_internal(const char *__nptr, char **__endptr,
                           int __base, int __group);

Description

__GROUP must be 0 or the behavior is undefined.

__strtol_internal(__nptr, __endptr, __base, __group) has the same specification as strtol(__nptr, __endptr, __base).

__strtol_internal is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

strtoq

Name

strtoq -- convert string value to a long or quad_t integer

Synopsis

#include <sys/types.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <limits.h>

quadt strtoq(const char *nptr, char **endptr, int base);

Description

The strtoq() function converts the string in nptr to a quadt value. The conversion is done according to the given base, which must be between 2 and 36 inclusive, or be the special value 0.

The string may begin with an arbitrary amount of white space (as determine by isspace(3)) followed by a single optional + or - sign. If base is zero or 16, the string may then include a 0x prefix, and the number will be read in base 16; otherwise, a zero base is taken as 10 (decimal) unless the next character is 0, in which case it is taken as 8 (octal).

The remainder of the string is converted to a long value in the obvious manner, stopping at the first character which is not a valid digit in the given base. (In bases above 10, the letter A in either upper or lower case represents 10, B represents 11, and so forth, with Z representing 35.)

Return Value

strtoq() function returns the result of the conversion, unless the value would underflow or overflow. If an underflow occurs, strtoq() returns QUAD_MIN. If an overflow occurs, strtoq() returns QUAD_MAX. In both cases, errno is set to ERANGE.

Errors

ERANGE

The given string was out of range; the value converted has been clamped.

strtouq

Name

strtouq -- convert a string to an uquad_t

Synopsis

#include <sys/types.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <limits.h>

uquadt strtouq(const char *nptr, char **endptr, int base);

Description

The strtouq() function converts the string in nptr to a uquadt value. The conversion is done according to the given base, which must be between 2 and 36 inclusive, or be the special value 0.

The string may begin with an arbitrary amount of white space (as determined by isspace(3)) followed by a single optional + or - sign. If base is zero or 16, the string may then include a 0x prefix, and the number will be read in base 16; otherwise, a zero base is taken as 10 (decimal) unless the next character is 0, in which case it is taken as 8 (octal).

The remainder of the string is converted to an unsigned long value in the obvious manner, stopping at the end of the string or at the first character that does not produce a valid digit in the given base. (In bases above 10, the letter A in either upper or lower case represents 10, B represents 11, and so forth, with Z representing 35.)

Return Value

Upon success the strtouq() function returns either the result of the conversion or, if there was a leading minus sign, the negation of the result of the conversion, unless the original (non-negated) value would overflow. In the case of an overflow the function returns UQUAD_MAX and the global variable errno is set to ERANGE.

Errors

ERANGE

The given string was out of range; the value converted has been clamped.

strverscmp

Name

strverscmp -- compare S1 and S2 as strings holding name and indices/version numbers

Synopsis

#include <string.h>

extern int strverscmp(const char *s1, const char *s2);

Description

Compare S1 and S2 as strings holding name and indices/version numbers.

__sysconf

Name

__sysconf -- get configuration information at runtime

Synopsis

#include <unistd.h>

long __sysconf(int name);

Description

Get configuration information at runtime.

This is weak alias to sysconf.

__sysconf(name) has the same specification as sysconf(name).

__sysconf is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

system

Name

system -- execute a shell command

Synopsis

#include <stdlib.h>

int system (const char * string);

Description

system() executes a command specified in string by calling /bin/sh -c string, and returns after the command has been completed. During execution of the command, SIGCHLD will be blocked, and SIGINT and SIGQUIT will be ignored.

Return Value

The value returned is 127 if the execve() call for /bin/sh fails, -1 if there was another error and the return code of the command otherwise.

If the value of string is NULL, system() returns nonzero if the shell is available, and zero if not.

system() does not affect the wait status of any other children.

Bugs

It is extremely unfortunate that the libc version of system() ignores interrupts. This makes programs that call it from a loop uninterruptable. This means that for such purposes one should not use system() but a private version like (warning: untested code!)

Do not use system() from a program with suid or sgid privileges, because strange values for some environment variables might be used to subvert system integrity. Use the exec(3) family of functions instead, but not execlp(3) or execvp(3). system() will not, in fact, work properly from programs with suid or sgid privileges on systems on which /bin/sh is bash version 2, since bash 2 drops privileges on startup. (Debian uses a modified bash which does not do this when invoked as sh.)

The check for the availability of /bin/sh is not actually performed; it is always assumed to be available. ISO C specifies the check, but POSIX.2 specifies that the return shall always be non-zero, since a system without the shell is not conforming, and it is this that is implemented.

It is possible for the shell command to return 127, so that code is not a sure indication that the execve() call failed; check errno to make sure.

_sys_errlist

Name

_sys_errlist -- array containing the "C" locale strings used by strerror()

Synopsis

#include <stdio.h>

extern const char *const _sys_errlist[];

Description

An array containing the "C" locale strings used by strerror(). This normally should not be used directly. The strerror function provides all the needed functionality.

_sys_siglist

Name

_sys_siglist -- array containing the names of the signal names

Synopsis

#include <signal.h>

extern const char *const _sys_siglist[NSIG];

Description

An array containing the names of the signal names.

This exists only for compatibility. Use strsignal instead (see <string.h>).

textdomain

Name

textdomain -- set the current default message catalog to DOMAINNAME

Synopsis

#include <libintl.h>

extern char *textdomain(const char *domainname);

Description

Set the current default message catalog to DOMAINNAME.

If DOMAINNAME is null, return the current default.

If DOMAINNAME is "", reset to the default of "messages".

vasprintf

Name

vasprintf -- write formatted output to a string dynamically allocated with malloc and store the address of the string in *PTR

Synopsis

#include <stdio.h>

extern int vasprintf(char **restrict ptr, const char *restrict f,
                     G_va_list arg);

Description

Write formatted output to a string dynamically allocated with malloc.

Store the address of the string in *PTR.

vdprintf

Name

vdprintf -- write formatted output to a file descriptor

Synopsis

#include <stdio.h>

extern int vdprintf(int fd, const char *restrict fmt,
                    G_va_list arg);

Description

Write formatted output to a file descriptor.

verrx

Name

verrx -- display formatted error messages

Synopsis

#include <err.h>

void verrx(int eval, const char *fmt, valist args);

Description

The verrx() function displays a formatted error message on the standard error output. The last component of the program name, a colon character, and a space are output. If the fmt argument is not NULL, the formatted error message, a colon character, and a space are output. The output is followed by a newline character.

The verrx() function does not return, but exits with the value of the argument eval.

wait4

Name

wait4 -- wait for process termination, BSD style

Synopsis

#define _USE_BSD
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/resource.h>
#include <sys/wait.h>

pid_t wait4(pid_t pid, int *status, int options,
            struct rusage *rusage);

Description

The wait4 function suspends execution of the current process until a child as specified by the pid argument has exited, or until a signal is delivered whose action is to terminate the current process or to call a signal handling function. If a child as requested by pid has already exited by the time of the call (a so-called "zombie" process), the function returns immediately. Any system resources used by the child are freed.

The value of pid can be one of:

< -1

wait for any child process whose process group ID is equal to the absolute value of pid.

-1

wait for any child process; this is equivalent to calling wait3.

0

wait for any child process whose process group ID is equal to that of the calling process.

> 0

wait for the child whose process ID is equal to the value of pid.

The value of options is a bitwise OR of zero or more of the following constants:

WNOHANG

return immediately if no child is there to be waited for.

WUNTRACED

return for children which are stopped, and whose status has not been reported.

If status is not NULL, wait4 stores status information in the location pointed to by status.

This status can be evaluated with the following macros (these macros take the stat buffer (an int) as an argument -- not a pointer to the buffer!):

WIFEXITED(status)

is non-zero if the child exited normally.

WEXITSTATUS(status)

evaluates to the least significant eight bits of the return code of the child which terminated, which may have been set as the argument to a call to exit() or as the argument for a return statement in the main program. This macro can only be evaluated if WIFEXITED returned non-zero.

WIFSIGNALED(status)

returns true if the child process exited because of a signal which was not caught.

WTERMSIG(status)

returns the number of the signal that caused the child process to terminate. This macro can only be evaluated if WIFSIGNALED returned non-zero.

WIFSTOPPED(status)

returns true if the child process which caused the return is currently stopped; this is only possible if the call was done using WUNTRACED.

WSTOPSIG(status)

returns the number of the signal which caused the child to stop. This macro can only be evaluated if WIFSTOPPED returned non-zero.

If rusage is not NULL, the struct rusage as defined in <sys/resource.h> it points to will be filled with accounting information. See getrusage(2) for details.

Return Value

The process ID of the child which exited, -1 on error (in particular, when no unwaited-for child processes of the specified kind exist) or zero if WNOHANG was used and no child was available yet. In the latter two cases errno will be set appropriately.

Errors

ECHILD

No unwaited-for child process as specified does exist.

ERESTARTSYS

If WNOHANG was not set and an unblocked signal or a SIGCHLD was caught. This error is returned by the system call. The library interface is not allowed to return ERESTARTSYS, but will return EINTR.

warn

Name

warn -- formatted error messages

Synopsis

#include <err.h>

void warn(const char *fmt, ...);

Description

The warn() function displays a formatted error message on the standard error output. The last component of the program name, a colon character, and a space are output. If the fmt argument is not NULL, the formatted error message, a colon character, and a space are output. The error message string affiliated with the current value of the global variable errno is output. The output is followed by a newline character.

warnx

Name

warnx -- formatted error messages

Synopsis

#include <err.h>

void warnx(const char *fmt, ...);

Description

The warnx() function displays a formatted error message on the standard error output. The last component of the program name, a colon character, and a space are output. If the fmt argument is not NULL, the formatted error message, a colon character, and a space are output. The output is followed by a newline character.

wcpcpy

Name

wcpcpy -- copy a wide character string, returning a pointer to its end

Synopsis

#include <wchar.h>

wchar_t *wcpcpy(wchar_t *dest, const wchar_t *src);

Description

The wcpcpy function is the wide-character equivalent of the stpcpy function. It copies the wide character string pointed to by src, including the terminating L'\0' character, to the array pointed to by dest.

The strings may not overlap.

The programmer must ensure that there is room for at least wcslen(src)+1 wide characters at dest.

Return Value

wcpcpy returns a pointer to the end of the wide-character string dest, that is, a pointer to the terminating L'\0' character.

wcpncpy

Name

wcpncpy -- copy a fixed-size string of wide characters, returning a pointer to its end

Synopsis

#include <wchar.h>

wchar_t *wcpncpy(wchar_t *dest, const wchar_t *src, size_t n);

Description

The wcpncpy function is the wide-character equivalent of the stpncpy function. It copies at most n wide characters from the wide-character string pointed to by src, including the terminating L'\0' character, to the array pointed to by dest. Exactly n wide characters are written at dest. If the length wcslen(src) is smaller than n, the remaining wide characters in the array pointed to by dest are filled with L'\0' characters. If the length wcslen(src) is greater or equal to n, the string pointed to by dest will not be L'\0' terminated.

The strings may not overlap.

The programmer must ensure that there is room for at least n wide characters at dest.

Return Value

wcpncpy returns a pointer to the last wide character written, i.e. dest + n - 1.

wcscasecmp

Name

wcscasecmp -- compare two wide-character strings, ignoring case

Synopsis

#include <wchar.h>

int wcscasecmp(const wchar_t *s1, const wchar_t *s2);

Description

The wcscasecmp function is the wide-character equivalent of the strcasecmp function. It compares the wide-character string pointed to by s1 and the wide-character string pointed to by s2, ignoring case differences (towupper, towlower).

Return Value

The wcscasecmp function returns zero if the wide-character strings at s1 and s2 are equal except for case distinctions. It returns a positive integer if s1 is greater than s2, ignoring case. It returns a negative integer if s1 is smaller than s2, ignoring case.

Notes

The behavior of wcscasecmp depends on the LC_CTYPE category of the current locale.

wcsdup

Name

wcsdup -- duplicate a wide-character string

Synopsis

#include <wchar.h>

wchar_t *wcsdup(const wchar_t *s);

Description

The wcsdup function is the wide-character equivalent of the strdup function. It allocates and returns a new wide-character string whose initial contents is a duplicate of the wide-character string pointed to by s.

Memory for the new wide-character string is obtained with malloc(3), and can be freed with free(3).

Return Value

The wcsdup function returns a pointer to the new wide-character string, or NULL if sufficient memory was not available.

wcsncasecmp

Name

wcsncasecmp -- compare two fixed-size wide-character strings, ignoring case

Synopsis

#include <wchar.h>

int wcsncasecmp(const wchar_t *s1, const wchar_t *s2, size_t n);

Description

The wcsncasecmp function is the wide-character equivalent of the strncasecmp function. It compares the wide-character string pointed to by s1 and the wide-character string pointed to by s2, but at most n wide characters from each string, ignoring case differences (towupper, towlower).

Return Value

The wcsncasecmp function returns zero if the wide-character strings at s1 and s2, truncated to at most length n, are equal except for case distinctions. It returns a positive integer if truncated s1 is greater than truncated s2, ignoring case. It returns a negative integer if truncated s1 is smaller than truncated s2, ignoring case.

Notes

The behavior of wcsncasecmp depends on the LC_CTYPE category of the current locale.

wcsnlen

Name

wcsnlen -- determine the length of a fixed-size wide-character string

Synopsis

#include <wchar.h>

size_t wcsnlen(const wchar_t *s, size_t maxlen);

Description

The wcsnlen function is the wide-character equivalent of the strnlen function. It returns the number of wide-characters in the string pointed to by s, not including the terminating L'\0' character, but at most maxlen. In doing this, wcsnlen looks only at the first maxlen wide-characters at s and never beyond s+maxlen.

Return Value

The wcsnlen function returns wcslen(s), if that is less than maxlen, or maxlen if there is no L'\0' character among the first maxlen wide characters pointed to by s.

Notes

The behavior of wcsncasecmp depends on the LC_CTYPE category of the current locale.

wcsnrtombs

Name

wcsnrtombs -- convert a wide character string to a multi-byte string

Synopsis

#include <wchar.h>

size_t wcsnrtombs(char *dest, const wchar_t **src, size_t nwc,
                  size_t len, mbstate_t *ps);

Description

The wcsnrtombs function is like the wcsrtombs function, except that the number of wide characters to be converted, starting at *src, is limited to nwc.

If dest is not a NULL pointer, the wcsnrtombs function converts at most nwc wide characters from the wide-character string *src to a multibyte string starting at dest. At most len bytes are written to dest. The state *ps is updated. The conversion is effectively performed by repeatedly calling wcrtomb(dest,*src,ps), as long as this call succeeds, and then incrementing dest by the number of bytes written and *src by one. The conversion can stop for three reasons:

1. A wide character has been encountered that can not be represented as a multibyte sequence (according to the current locale). In this case *src is left pointing to the invalid wide character, (size_t)(-1) is returned, and errno is set to EILSEQ.

2. nwc wide characters have been converted without encountering a L'\0', or the length limit forces a stop. In this case *src is left pointing to the next wide character to be converted, and the number of bytes written to dest is returned.

3. The wide-character string has been completely converted, including the terminating L'\0' (which has the side effect of bringing back *ps to the initial state). In this case *src is set to NULL, and the number of bytes written to dest, excluding the terminating '\0' byte, is returned.

If dest is NULL, len is ignored, and the conversion proceeds as above, except that the converted bytes are not written out to memory, and that no destination length limit exists.

In both of the above cases, if ps is a NULL pointer, a static anonymous state only known to the wcsnrtombs function is used instead.

The programmer must ensure that there is room for at least len bytes at dest.

Return Value

The wcsnrtombs function returns the number of bytes that make up the converted part of multibyte sequence, not including the terminating null byte. If a wide character was encountered which could not be converted, (size_t)(-1) is returned, and errno set to EILSEQ.

Notes

The behavior of wcsnrtombs depends on the LC_CTYPE category of the current locale.

Passing NULL as ps is not multi-thread safe.

wcstoq

Name

wcstoq -- convert initial portion of wide string NPTR to long int representation

Synopsis

#include <wchar.h>

extern long long int wcstoq(const wchar_t *restrict nptr,
                            wchar_t **restrict endptr, int base);

Description

Convert initial portion of wide string NPTR to long int representation.

wcstouq

Name

wcstouq -- convert initial portion of wide string NPTR to unsigned long long int representation

Synopsis

#include <wchar.h>

extern unsigned long long int wcstouq(const wchar_t *restrict nptr,
                           wchar_t **restrict endptr,int base);

Description

Convert initial portion of wide string NPTR to unsigned long long int representation.

__xmknod

Name

__xmknod -- make block or character special file

Synopsis

int __xmknod(int ver,
            __const char *path,
            __mode_t mode,
            __dev_t *dev);

Description

ver must be 1 or the behavior is undefined.

__xmknod(1, path, mode, dev) has the same specification as mknod(path, mode, dev).

Note that the of dev_t is not the same as the argument that the kernel syscall uses (TODO: need to document what dev_t is).

__xmknod is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.


Interfaces for libm

The behaviour of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following Standards.

ISO/IEC 9899: 1999, Programming Languages --C[9]
CAE Specification, January 1997, System Interfaces and Headers (XSH), Issue 5 (ISBN: 1-85912-181-0, C606)[10]


Math

Table 10-26. libm - Math Function Interfaces

acos(GLIBC_2.0)[10]ceilf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]erfl(GLIBC_2.0)[9]j1l(GLIBC_2.0)[9]remquof(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
acosf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]ceill(GLIBC_2.0)[9]exp(GLIBC_2.0)[10]jn(GLIBC_2.0)[10]remquol(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
acosh(GLIBC_2.0)[10]cexp(GLIBC_2.0)[9]expm1(GLIBC_2.0)[10]jnf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]rint(GLIBC_2.0)[10]
acoshf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]cexpf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]fabs(GLIBC_2.0)[10]jnl(GLIBC_2.0)[9]rintf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
acoshl(GLIBC_2.0)[9]cexpl(GLIBC_2.0)[9]fabsf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]ldexp(GLIBC_2.0)[10]rintl(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
acosl(GLIBC_2.0)[9]cimag(GLIBC_2.0)[9]fabsl(GLIBC_2.0)[9]ldexpf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]round(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
asin(GLIBC_2.0)[10]cimagf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]fdim(GLIBC_2.0)[9]ldexpl(GLIBC_2.0)[9]roundf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
asinf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]cimagl(GLIBC_2.0)[9]fdimf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]lgamma(GLIBC_2.0)[10]roundl(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
asinh(GLIBC_2.0)[10]clog10(GLIBC_2.0)[9]fdiml(GLIBC_2.0)[9]lgamma_r(GLIBC_2.0)[9]scalb(GLIBC_2.0)[10]
asinhf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]clog10f(GLIBC_2.0)[9]feclearexcept(GLIBC_2.0)[9]lgammaf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]scalbf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
asinhl(GLIBC_2.0)[9]clog10l(GLIBC_2.0)[9]fegetenv(GLIBC_2.0)[9]lgammaf_r(GLIBC_2.0)[9]scalbl(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
asinl(GLIBC_2.0)[9]clogf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]fegetexceptflag(GLIBC_2.0)[9]lgammal(GLIBC_2.0)[9]scalbln(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
atan(GLIBC_2.0)[10]clogl(GLIBC_2.0)[9]fegetround(GLIBC_2.0)[9]lgammal_r(GLIBC_2.0)[9]scalblnf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
atan2(GLIBC_2.0)[10]conj(GLIBC_2.0)[9]feholdexcept(GLIBC_2.0)[9]llrint(GLIBC_2.0)[9]scalblnl(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
atan2f(GLIBC_2.0)[9]conjf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]feraiseexcept(GLIBC_2.0)[9]llrintf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]scalbn(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
atan2l(GLIBC_2.0)[9]conjl(GLIBC_2.0)[9]fesetenv(GLIBC_2.0)[9]llrintl(GLIBC_2.0)[9]scalbnf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
atanf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]copysign(GLIBC_2.0)[9]fesetexceptflag(GLIBC_2.0)[9]llround(GLIBC_2.0)[9]scalbnl(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
atanh(GLIBC_2.0)[10]copysignf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]fesetround(GLIBC_2.0)[9]llroundf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]significand(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
atanhf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]copysignl(GLIBC_2.0)[9]fetestexcept(GLIBC_2.0)[9]llroundl(GLIBC_2.0)[9]significandf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
atanhl(GLIBC_2.0)[9]cos(GLIBC_2.0)[10]feupdateenv(GLIBC_2.0)[9]log(GLIBC_2.0)[10]significandl(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
atanl(GLIBC_2.0)[9]cosf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]finite(GLIBC_2.0)[10]log10(GLIBC_2.0)[10]sin(GLIBC_2.0)[10]
cabs(GLIBC_2.1)[10]cosh(GLIBC_2.1)[10]finitef(GLIBC_2.1)[9]log1p(GLIBC_2.1)[10]sincos(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
cabsf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]coshf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]finitel(GLIBC_2.1)[9]logb(GLIBC_2.1)[10]sincosf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
cabsl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]coshl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]floor(GLIBC_2.1)[10]lrint(GLIBC_2.1)[9]sincosl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
cacos(GLIBC_2.1)[9]cosl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]floorf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]lrintf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]sinf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
cacosf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]cpow(GLIBC_2.1)[9]floorl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]lrintl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]sinh(GLIBC_2.1)[10]
cacosh(GLIBC_2.1)[9]cpowf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]fma(GLIBC_2.1)[9]lround(GLIBC_2.1)[9]sinhf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
cacoshf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]cpowl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]fmaf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]lroundf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]sinhl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
cacoshl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]cproj(GLIBC_2.1)[9]fmal(GLIBC_2.1)[9]lroundl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]sinl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
cacosl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]cprojf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]fmax(GLIBC_2.1)[9]matherr(GLIBC_2.1)[9]sqrt(GLIBC_2.1)[10]
carg(GLIBC_2.1)[9]cprojl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]fmaxf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]modf(GLIBC_2.1)[10]sqrtf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
cargf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]creal(GLIBC_2.1)[9]fmaxl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]modff(GLIBC_2.1)[9]sqrtl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
cargl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]creall(GLIBC_2.1)[9]fmin(GLIBC_2.1)[9]modfl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]tan(GLIBC_2.1)[10]
casin(GLIBC_2.1)[9]csin(GLIBC_2.1)[9]fminf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]nan(GLIBC_2.1)[9]tanf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
casinf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]csinf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]fminl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]nanf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]tanh(GLIBC_2.1)[10]
casinh(GLIBC_2.1)[9]csinh(GLIBC_2.1)[9]fmod(GLIBC_2.1)[10]nanl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]tanhf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
casinhf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]csinhf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]fmodf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]nearbyint(GLIBC_2.1)[9]tanhl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
casinhl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]csinhl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]fmodl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]nearbyintf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]tanl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
casinl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]csinl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]frexp(GLIBC_2.1)[10]nearbyintl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]tgamma(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
catan(GLIBC_2.1)[9]csqrt(GLIBC_2.1)[9]frexpf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]nextafter(GLIBC_2.1)[10]tgammaf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
catanf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]csqrtf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]frexpl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]nextafterf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]tgammal(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
catanh(GLIBC_2.1)[9]csqrtl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]gamma(GLIBC_2.1)[10]nextafterl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]trunc(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
catanhf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]ctan(GLIBC_2.1)[9]gammaf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]nexttoward(GLIBC_2.1)[9]truncf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
catanhl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]ctanf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]gammal(GLIBC_2.1)[9]nexttowardf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]truncl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
catanl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]ctanh(GLIBC_2.1)[9]hypot(GLIBC_2.1)[10]nexttowardl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]y0(GLIBC_2.1)[10]
cbrt(GLIBC_2.0)[10]ctanhf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]hypotf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]pow(GLIBC_2.0)[10]y0f(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
cbrtf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]ctanhl(GLIBC_2.0)[9]hypotl(GLIBC_2.0)[9]pow10(GLIBC_2.0)[9]y0l(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
cbrtl(GLIBC_2.0)[9]ctanl(GLIBC_2.0)[9]ilogb(GLIBC_2.0)[10]pow10f(GLIBC_2.0)[9]y1(GLIBC_2.0)[10]
ccos(GLIBC_2.1)[9]dremf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]ilogbf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]pow10l(GLIBC_2.1)[9]y1f(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
ccosf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]dreml(GLIBC_2.1)[9]ilogbl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]powf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]y1l(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
ccosh(GLIBC_2.1)[9]erf(GLIBC_2.1)[10]j0(GLIBC_2.1)[10]powl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]yn(GLIBC_2.1)[10]
ccoshf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]erfc(GLIBC_2.1)[10]j0f(GLIBC_2.1)[9]remainder(GLIBC_2.1)[10]ynf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
ccoshl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]erfcf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]j0l(GLIBC_2.1)[9]remainderf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]ynl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
ccosl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]erfcl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]j1(GLIBC_2.1)[10]remainderl(GLIBC_2.1)[9] 
ceil(GLIBC_2.0)[10]erff(GLIBC_2.0)[9]j1f(GLIBC_2.0)[9]remquo(GLIBC_2.0)[9] 

Data Symbols

Table 10-27. libm - Math Data Interfaces

clog[9]signgam[10]   

Interfaces for libpthread

LSB systems support POSIX threads with the following exceptions. This list is intended to match the behavior of historical Linux implementations. Applications should be written to deal with either POSIX threads or the thread behaviors described here.

POSIX specifies a concept of per-process rather than per-thread signals. The LSB does not require this behavior; traditional Linux implementations have had per-thread signals only. A related issue is that applications cannot (using legacy Linux implementations, at least) rely on getpid() returning the same value in different threads.

Note: one implication of per-thread signals is that a core dump (for example) may not stop all threads in a given process. This may be an issue when designing ways to stop/start applications.

Applications which create child processes (using fork() and the like) must then wait for them (using waitpid() family of functions) in the same thread as they created them. Note that coding applications this way will work both with full POSIX threads and legacy Linux thread implementations.

POSIX specifies that changing the user or group id instantly affects the behavior of all threads. This behavior is not specified; applications must use their own lock if they need this behavior. Rationale: it seems unnecessary and it is a performance hit (an SMP kernel must lock the user id). (FIXME: is this our current understanding? It was discussed on lsb-spec on January 2000 but I'm not sure we reached a consensus).

Although this standard doesn't have a way to list processes (/proc or "ps" command line isn't in, right?), it is our intention to not specify one way or the other whether multiple threads appear as separate processes or as a single process.

Applications cannot rely on resource limits (getrusage and setrusage) being maintained per-process rather than per-thread.

Applications must disconnect from the controlling tty before pthread_create (FIXME: have I summarized this correctly?).

times() doesn't account for all threads, just the caller.

Applications must not call pthread_cancel if they call any system libraries (most notably X windows), as system libraries are not guaranteed to be thread safe. Likewise, for such libraries, only one thread per process may call them.

Applications cannot rely on fcntl/lockf locks being visible per-process rather than per-thread. Likewise for mandatory file locks.

Threaded applications cannot use SIGUSR1 or SIGUSR2.

The behaviour of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following Standards.

Linux Standard Base[11]
CAE Specification, January 1997, System Interfaces and Headers (XSH), Issue 5 (ISBN: 1-85912-181-0, C606)[12]


Posix Threads

Table 10-28. libpthread - Posix Threads Function Interfaces

pthread_attr_destroy(GLIBC_2.0)[12]pthread_attr_setscope(GLIBC_2.0)[12]pthread_exit(GLIBC_2.0)[12]pthread_mutexattr_settype(GLIBC_2.0)[12]pthread_setcanceltype(GLIBC_2.0)[12]
pthread_attr_getdetachstate(GLIBC_2.0)[12]pthread_attr_setstackaddr(GLIBC_2.0)[12]pthread_getschedparam(GLIBC_2.0)[12]pthread_once(GLIBC_2.0)[12]pthread_setschedparam(GLIBC_2.0)[12]
pthread_attr_getguardsize(GLIBC_2.1)[12]pthread_attr_setstacksize(GLIBC_2.1)[12]pthread_getspecific(GLIBC_2.1)[12]pthread_rwlock_destroy(GLIBC_2.1)[12]pthread_setspecific(GLIBC_2.1)[12]
pthread_attr_getinheritsched(GLIBC_2.0)[12]pthread_cancel(GLIBC_2.0)[12]pthread_join(GLIBC_2.0)[12]pthread_rwlock_init(GLIBC_2.0)[12]pthread_sigmask(GLIBC_2.0)[12]
pthread_attr_getschedparam(GLIBC_2.0)[12]pthread_cond_broadcast(GLIBC_2.0)[12]pthread_key_create(GLIBC_2.0)[12]pthread_rwlock_rdlock(GLIBC_2.0)[12]pthread_testcancel(GLIBC_2.0)[12]
pthread_attr_getschedpolicy(GLIBC_2.0)[12]pthread_cond_destroy(GLIBC_2.0)[12]pthread_key_delete(GLIBC_2.0)[12]pthread_rwlock_tryrdlock(GLIBC_2.0)[12]sem_close(GLIBC_2.0)[12]
pthread_attr_getscope(GLIBC_2.0)[12]pthread_cond_init(GLIBC_2.0)[12]pthread_kill(GLIBC_2.0)[12]pthread_rwlock_trywrlock(GLIBC_2.0)[12]sem_destroy(GLIBC_2.0)[12]
pthread_attr_getstackaddr(GLIBC_2.1)[12]pthread_cond_signal(GLIBC_2.1)[12]pthread_mutex_destroy(GLIBC_2.1)[12]pthread_rwlock_unlock(GLIBC_2.1)[12]sem_getvalue(GLIBC_2.1)[12]
pthread_attr_getstacksize(GLIBC_2.1)[12]pthread_cond_timedwait(GLIBC_2.1)[12]pthread_mutex_init(GLIBC_2.1)[12]pthread_rwlock_wrlock(GLIBC_2.1)[12]sem_init(GLIBC_2.1)[12]
pthread_attr_init(GLIBC_2.1)[12]pthread_cond_wait(GLIBC_2.1)[12]pthread_mutex_lock(GLIBC_2.1)[12]pthread_rwlockattr_destroy(GLIBC_2.1)[12]sem_open(GLIBC_2.1)[12]
pthread_attr_setdetachstate(GLIBC_2.0)[12]pthread_condattr_destroy(GLIBC_2.0)[12]pthread_mutex_trylock(GLIBC_2.0)[12]pthread_rwlockattr_getpshared(GLIBC_2.0)[12]sem_post(GLIBC_2.0)[12]
pthread_attr_setguardsize(GLIBC_2.1)[12]pthread_condattr_init(GLIBC_2.1)[12]pthread_mutex_unlock(GLIBC_2.1)[12]pthread_rwlockattr_init(GLIBC_2.1)[12]sem_timedwait(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
pthread_attr_setinheritsched(GLIBC_2.0)[12]pthread_create(GLIBC_2.0)[12]pthread_mutexattr_destroy(GLIBC_2.0)[12]pthread_rwlockattr_setpshared(GLIBC_2.0)[12]sem_trywait(GLIBC_2.0)[12]
pthread_attr_setschedparam(GLIBC_2.0)[12]pthread_detach(GLIBC_2.0)[12]pthread_mutexattr_gettype(GLIBC_2.0)[12]pthread_self(GLIBC_2.0)[12]sem_unlink(GLIBC_2.0)[12]
pthread_attr_setschedpolicy(GLIBC_2.0)[12]pthread_equal(GLIBC_2.0)[12]pthread_mutexattr_init(GLIBC_2.0)[12]pthread_setcancelstate(GLIBC_2.0)[12]sem_wait(GLIBC_2.0)[12]

Data Definitions for libpthread


semaphore.h

typedef struct
{
  struct __sem_lock;
  long status;
  int __sem_value;
  int spinlock;
  Unknown Type:".." __sem_waiting;
}
sem_t;

Interfaces for libdl

Table 10-29. libdl Definition

Library:libdl
SONAME:libdl.so.2

The behaviour of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following Standards.

Linux Standard Base[13]
CAE Specification, January 1997, System Interfaces and Headers (XSH), Issue 5 (ISBN: 1-85912-181-0, C606)[14]


Dynamic Loader

Table 10-30. libdl - Dynamic Loader Function Interfaces

dladdr(GLIBC_2.0)[13]dlclose(GLIBC_2.0)[14]dlerror(GLIBC_2.0)[14]dlopen(GLIBC_2.0)[14]dlsym(GLIBC_2.0)[14]

Interface Definitions for libdl

Table of Contents
dladdr — library routine for dynamic linking of object files

dladdr

Name

dladdr -- library routine for dynamic linking of object files

Synopsis

cc ... -ldl ...

#include <dlfcn.h>

typedef struct {
             const char      *dli_fname;
             void            *dli_fbase;
             const char      *dli_sname;
             void            *dli_saddr;
} Dl_info;

int dladdr(void *address, Dlinfo *dlip);

Description

This function implements the System V dynamic linking routines.

The dladdr() function is the inverse of the dlsym() function. If the given address is successfully located inside a module, dladdr() returns nonzero, otherwise 0. On a successful return, the fields of dlip are filled in as follows:

dlifname

the pathname of the module

dlifbase

the base address of the module

dlisname

the name of the highest addressed symbol whose address precedes the given address

dlifaddr

the address of that symbol

Shared objects must be linked using the -shared option to the linker ld(1). The linker flag -rpath may be used to add a directory to the default search path for shared objects and shared libraries. The linker flag -E or the C compiler flag -rdynamic should be used to cause the application to export its symbols to the shared objects.

Environment

LD_LIBRARY_PATH

directory search-path for object files


Interfaces for libcrypt

Table 10-31. libcrypt Definition

Library:libcrypt
SONAME:libcrypt.so.1

The behaviour of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following Standards.

CAE Specification, January 1997, System Interfaces and Headers (XSH), Issue 5 (ISBN: 1-85912-181-0, C606)[15]


Encryption

Table 10-32. libcrypt - Encryption Function Interfaces

crypt(GLIBC_2.0)[15]encrypt(GLIBC_2.0)[15]setkey(GLIBC_2.0)[15]  

Data Definitions for libcrypt


stdlib.h

typedef struct
{
  long long quot;
  long long rem;
}
lldiv_t;

typedef struct
{
  int quot;
  int rem;
}
div_t;

typedef struct
{
  long quot;
  long rem;
}
ldiv_t;

typedef int (*__compar_fn_t) ();

unistd.h

typedef __ssize_t ssize_t;

typedef __pid_t pid_t;

typedef __off_t off_t;

Interfaces for librt

The behaviour of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following Standards.

Large File Support[16]
CAE Specification, January 1997, System Interfaces and Headers (XSH), Issue 5 (ISBN: 1-85912-181-0, C606)[17]


Asynchronous I/O

Table 10-33. librt - Asynchronous I/O Function Interfaces

aio_cancel(GLIBC_2.1)[17]aio_fsync64(GLIBC_2.1)[16]aio_suspend(GLIBC_2.1)[17]clock_getres(GLIBC_2.1)[17]lio_listio64(GLIBC_2.1)[16]
aio_cancel64(GLIBC_2.1)[16]aio_read(GLIBC_2.1)[17]aio_suspend64(GLIBC_2.1)[16]clock_gettime(GLIBC_2.1)[17]shm_open(GLIBC_2.1)[17]
aio_error(GLIBC_2.1)[17]aio_read64(GLIBC_2.1)[16]aio_write(GLIBC_2.1)[17]clock_nanosleep(GLIBC_2.1)[17]shm_unlink(GLIBC_2.1)[17]
aio_error64(GLIBC_2.1)[16]aio_return(GLIBC_2.1)[17]aio_write64(GLIBC_2.1)[16]clock_settime(GLIBC_2.1)[17] 
aio_fsync(GLIBC_2.1)[17]aio_return64(GLIBC_2.1)[16]clock_getcpuclockid(GLIBC_2.1)[17]lio_listio(GLIBC_2.1)[17] 

Data Definitions for librt


aio.h

struct aiocb
{
  int aio_fildes;
  int aio_lio_opcode;
  int aio_reqprio;
  void *aio_buf;
  size_t aio_nbytes;
  struct sigevent aio_sigevent;
  struct aiocb *__next_prio;
  int __abs_prio;
  int __policy;
  int __error_code;
  __ssize_t __return_value;
  __off_t aio_offset;
  char __pad[1];
  char __unused[1];
}
 ;

struct aiocb64
{
  int aio_fildes;
  int aio_lio_opcode;
  int aio_reqprio;
  void *aio_buf;
  size_t aio_nbytes;
  struct sigevent aio_sigevent;
  struct aiocb *__next_prio;
  int __abs_prio;
  int __policy;
  int __error_code;
  __ssize_t __return_value;
  __off64_t aio_offset;
  char __unused[1];
}
 ;

V. Utility Libraries

Table of Contents
11. Libraries

Chapter 11. Libraries

An LSB-conforming implementation may also support some utility libraries which are built on top of the interfaces provided by the base libraries. These libraries implement common functionality, and hide additional system dependent information such as file formats and device names.


Interfaces for libz

Table 11-1. libz Definition

Library:libz
SONAME:libz.so.1

The behaviour of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following Standards.

zlib 1.1.3 Manual[18]


Compression Library

Table 11-2. libz - Compression Library Function Interfaces

adler32[18]deflateInit_[18]gzerror[18]gzread[18]inflateInit2_[18]
compress[18]deflateParams[18]gzflush[18]gzrewind[18]inflateInit_[18]
compress2[18]deflateReset[18]gzgetc[18]gzseek[18]inflateReset[18]
crc32[18]deflateSetDictionary[18]gzgets[18]gzsetparams[18]inflateSetDictionary[18]
deflate[18]get_crc_table[18]gzopen[18]gztell[18]inflateSync[18]
deflateCopy[18]gzclose[18]gzprintf[18]gzwrite[18]inflateSyncPoint[18]
deflateEnd[18]gzdopen[18]gzputc[18]inflate[18]uncompress[18]
deflateInit2_[18]gzeof[18]gzputs[18]inflateEnd[18]zError[18]

Interfaces for libncurses

Table 11-3. libncurses Definition

Library:libncurses
SONAME:libncurses.so.5

The behaviour of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following Standards.

CAE Specification, May 1996, X/Open Curses, Issue 4, Version 2 (ISBN: 1-85912-171-3, C610), plus Corrigendum U018[19]


Curses

Table 11-4. libncurses - Curses Function Interfaces

addch[19]has_ic[19]mvwaddch[19]scr_dump[19]waddchstr[19]
addchnstr[19]has_il[19]mvwaddchnstr[19]scr_init[19]waddnstr[19]
addchstr[19]hline[19]mvwaddchstr[19]scr_restore[19]waddstr[19]
addnstr[19]idcok[19]mvwaddnstr[19]scr_set[19]wattr_get[19]
addstr[19]idlok[19]mvwaddstr[19]scrl[19]wattr_off[19]
attr_get[19]immedok[19]mvwchgat[19]scroll[19]wattr_on[19]
attr_off[19]inch[19]mvwdelch[19]scrollok[19]wattr_set[19]
attr_on[19]inchnstr[19]mvwgetch[19]set_term[19]wattroff[19]
attr_set[19]inchstr[19]mvwgetnstr[19]setscrreg[19]wattron[19]
attroff[19]init_color[19]mvwgetstr[19]slk_attr_set[19]wattrset[19]
attron[19]init_pair[19]mvwhline[19]slk_attroff[19]wbkgd[19]
attrset[19]initscr[19]mvwin[19]slk_attron[19]wbkgdset[19]
baudrate[19]innstr[19]mvwinch[19]slk_attrset[19]wborder[19]
beep[19]insch[19]mvwinchnstr[19]slk_clear[19]wchgat[19]
bkgd[19]insdelln[19]mvwinchstr[19]slk_color[19]wclear[19]
bkgdset[19]insertln[19]mvwinnstr[19]slk_init[19]wclrtobot[19]
border[19]insnstr[19]mvwinsch[19]slk_label[19]wclrtoeol[19]
box[19]insstr[19]mvwinsnstr[19]slk_noutrefresh[19]wcolor_set[19]
can_change_color[19]instr[19]mvwinsstr[19]slk_refresh[19]wcursyncup[19]
cbreak[19]intrflush[19]mvwinstr[19]slk_restore[19]wdelch[19]
chgat[19]is_linetouched[19]mvwprintw[19]slk_set[19]wdeleteln[19]
clear[19]is_wintouched[19]mvwscanw[19]slk_touch[19]wechochar[19]
clearok[19]isendwin[19]mvwvline[19]standend[19]werase[19]
clrtobot[19]keyname[19]napms[19]standout[19]wgetch[19]
clrtoeol[19]keypad[19]newpad[19]start_color[19]wgetnstr[19]
color_content[19]killchar[19]newterm[19]subpad[19]wgetstr[19]
color_set[19]leaveok[19]newwin[19]subwin[19]whline[19]
copywin[19]longname[19]nl[19]syncok[19]winch[19]
curs_set[19]meta[19]nocbreak[19]termattrs[19]winchnstr[19]
def_prog_mode[19]move[19]nodelay[19]termname[19]winchstr[19]
def_shell_mode[19]mvaddch[19]noecho[19]tgetent[19]winnstr[19]
delay_output[19]mvaddchnstr[19]nonl[19]tgetflag[19]winsch[19]
delch[19]mvaddchstr[19]noqiflush[19]tgetnum[19]winsdelln[19]
deleteln[19]mvaddnstr[19]noraw[19]tgetstr[19]winsertln[19]
delscreen[19]mvaddstr[19]notimeout[19]tgoto[19]winsnstr[19]
delwin[19]mvchgat[19]overlay[19]tigetflag[19]winsstr[19]
derwin[19]mvcur[19]overwrite[19]tigetnum[19]winstr[19]
doupdate[19]mvdelch[19]pair_content[19]tigetstr[19]wmove[19]
dupwin[19]mvderwin[19]pechochar[19]timeout[19]wnoutrefresh[19]
echo[19]mvgetch[19]pnoutrefresh[19]tparm[19]wprintw[19]
echochar[19]mvgetnstr[19]prefresh[19]tputs[19]wredrawln[19]
endwin[19]mvgetstr[19]printw[19]typeahead[19]wrefresh[19]
erase[19]mvhline[19]putp[19]ungetch[19]wscanw[19]
erasechar[19]mvinch[19]putwin[19]untouchwin[19]wscrl[19]
filter[19]mvinchnstr[19]qiflush[19]use_env[19]wsetscrreg[19]
flash[19]mvinchstr[19]raw[19]vidattr[19]wstandend[19]
flushinp[19]mvinnstr[19]redrawwin[19]vidputs[19]wstandout[19]
getbkgd[19]mvinsch[19]refresh[19]vline[19]wsyncdown[19]
getch[19]mvinsnstr[19]reset_prog_mode[19]vw_printw[19]wsyncup[19]
getnstr[19]mvinsstr[19]reset_shell_mode[19]vw_scanw[19]wtimeout[19]
getstr[19]mvinstr[19]resetty[19]vwprintw[19]wtouchln[19]
getwin[19]mvprintw[19]ripoffline[19]vwscanw[19]wvline[19]
halfdelay[19]mvscanw[19]savetty[19]waddch[19] 
has_colors[19]mvvline[19]scanw[19]waddchnstr[19] 

Data Symbols

Table 11-5. libncurses - Curses Data Interfaces

curscr[19]stdscr[19]   

Data Definitions for libncurses


curses.h

typedef unsigned long chtype;

typedef char bool;

typedef chtype attr_t;

typedef struct screen SCREEN;

typedef struct _win_st
{
  short _cury;
  short _curx;
  short _maxy;
  short _maxx;
  short _begy;
  short _begx;
  short _flags;
  attr_t _attrs;
  chtype _bkgd;
  bool _notimeout;
  bool _clear;
  bool _leaveok;
  bool _scroll;
  bool _idlok;
  bool _idcok;
  bool _immed;
  bool _sync;
  bool _use_keypad;
  int _delay;
  struct ldat *_line;
  short _regtop;
  short _regbottom;
  int _parx;
  int _pary;
  struct _win_st *_parent;
}
WINDOW;

Interfaces for libutil

The behaviour of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following Standards.

Linux Standard Base[20]


Utility Functions

Table 11-6. libutil - Utility Functions Function Interfaces

forkpty[20]login_tty[20]logwtmp[20]  
login[20]logout[20]openpty[20]  

Interface Definitions for libutil

Table of Contents
forkpty — find and open an available pseudo-tty
getopt — parse command line options
getutent_r — find and open an available pseudo-tty
getutid_r — find and open an available pseudo-tty
getutline_r — find and open an available pseudo-tty
login_tty — find and open an available pseudo-tty
login — login utility function
logout — logout utility function
mkfifo — make a FIFO special file
mknod — make a directory, a special or regular file
openpty — find and open an available pseudo-tty

forkpty

Name

forkpty -- find and open an available pseudo-tty

Synopsis

int forkpty(int *amaster, 
	char *name,
	struct termios *termp,
	struct winsize *winp);

Description

The forkpty() function joins openpty(), fork(), and login_tty() to create a new process operating on a pseudo-tty. The file descriptor of the master side of the pseudo-tty is returned in amaster, and null or the filename of the slave in name. If non-null, the termp and winp parameters will determine the terminal attributes and window size of the slave side of the pseudo-tty.

Return Value

On success of the child process, zero is returned. When the parent process receives the PID of its child process, pid is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

getopt

Name

getopt -- parse command line options

Synopsis

int getopt(int argc, char * const argv[], const char *optstring);
extern char *optarg;
extern int optind, opterr, optopt;

GNU supports the following extensions of getopt:

int getopt_long(int argc, char * const argv[],
               const char *optstring,
               const struct option *longopts, int *longindex);

int getopt_long_only(int argc, char * const argv[],
                    const char *optstring,
                    const struct option *longopts, int *longindex);

Description

The getopt() function parses command line arguments. GNU and POSIX specifications for this function vary in the following areas.

Option Characteristics

GNU specifies that:

  • an element of argv that starts with "-" (and is not exactly "-" or "--") is an option element.

  • characters of an option element, aside from the initial "-", are option characters.

POSIX specifies that:

  • applications using getopt() must obey the following syntax guidelines:

    (1) option name is a single alphanumeric character from the portable character set

    (2) option is preceded by the "-" delimiter character

    (3) options without option-arguments should be accepted when grouped behind one "-" delimiter

    (4) each option and option-argument is a separate argument

    (5) option-arguments are not optional

    (6) all options should precede operands on the command line

    (7) the argument "--" is accepted as a delimiter indicating the end of options and the consideration of subsequent arguments, if any, as operands

  • historical implementations of getopt() support other characters as options as an allowed extension, but applications that use extensions are not maximally portable.

  • support for multi-byte option characters is only possible when such characters can be represented as type int.

  • applications that call any utility with a first operand starting with "-" should usually specify "--" to mark the end of the options. Standard utilities that do not support this guideline indicate that fact in the OPTIONS section of the utility description.

Extensions

GNU specifies that:

  • if a character is followed by two colons, the option takes an optional arg; if there is text in the current argv-element, it is returned in optarg, otherwise optarg is set to zero.

  • if optstring contains W followed by a semi-colon, then -W foo is treated as the long option --foo. (Not available with libraries before GNU libc 2.)

  • getopt_long() works like getopt() except that it also accepts "long options", or, options that are preface with two dashes instead of one.

  • long option names may be abbreviated if the abbreviation is unique or an exact match for some defined option.

  • a long option may take a parameter, of the form --arg=param or --arg param.

  • getopt_long_only() works like getopt_long(), except that both "-" and "--" indicate long option. If an option that starts with "-" (not "--") doesn't match a long option, but does match a short option, it is parsed instead as a short option.

POSIX specifies that:

  • the -W option is reserved for implementation extensions.

Return Values

GNU specifies the following getopt() return values:

  • the next option character is returned, if found successfully.

  • colon character (":") is returned if a parameter is missing for one of the options.

  • question mark ("?") is returned if an unknown option character is encountered.

  • "-1" is returned for the end of the option list.

GNU specifies the following getopt_long() and getopt_long_only() return values:

  • when short option is recognized, the option character is returned.

  • when long option is recognized, val is returned if flag is NULL, otherwise, 0 is returned.

  • error and -1 returns are the same as for getopt().

  • question mark ("?") is returned for an ambiguous match or an extraneous parameter.

POSIX specifies the following getopt() return values:

  • the next option character is returned, if found successfully.

  • colon character (":") is returned if a parameter is missing for one of the options and the first character of opstring is ":".

  • question mark ("?") is returned if an unknown option character not in optstring is encountered, or if getopt() detects a missing argument and the first character of optstring is not ":".

  • "-1" is returned for the end of the option list.

Environmental Variables

GNU specifies that:

  • if the variable POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, option processing stops as soon as a non-option argument is encountered.

  • if POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, GNU getopt() conforms to POSIX.2.

  • the variable _[PID]_GNU_nonoption_argv_flags_ was used by bash 2.0 to communicate to GNU libc which arguments resulted from wildcard expansion and so should not be considered as options. This behavior was removed in bash version 2.01, but the support remains in GNU libc.

Environmental Variables

POSIX.2 Interpretation 150 reports a technical error in the function of getopt(). GNU implements the correct behavior of getopt().

getutent_r

Name

getutent_r -- find and open an available pseudo-tty

Synopsis

int getutent_r(
struct utmp *buffer, 
struct utmp **result);

Description

Same at described in getutent(3), but storing information in a user provided buffer.

getutid_r

Name

getutid_r -- find and open an available pseudo-tty

Synopsis

int getutid_r(
const struct utmp *id,
struct utmp *buffer, 
struct utmp **result);

Description

Same at described in getutent(3), but storing information in a user provided buffer.

getutline_r

Name

getutline_r -- find and open an available pseudo-tty

Synopsis

int getutline_r(
const struct utmp *id,
struct utmp *buffer, 
struct utmp **result);

Description

Same at described in getutent(3), but storing information in a user provided buffer.

login_tty

Name

login_tty -- find and open an available pseudo-tty

Synopsis

int login_tty(int fdr);

Description

The login_tty() function sets up for a login on the tty referenced by the file descriptor fd: create a new session, make the tty for the current process the controlling terminal, set the standard input, output, and error streams of the current process, and closing fd.

Return Value

On success, zero is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

login

Name

login -- login utility function

Synopsis

void login(struct utmp *ut);

Description

The login() function updates the /var/run/utmp and /var/log/wtmp files with user information contained in ut.

logout

Name

logout -- logout utility function

Synopsis

int logout(const char *line);

Description

Given the device line, the logout() function removes the entry from the corresponding /var/run/utmp system file.

Return Value

Zero is returned if there was no entry to remove. A non-zero return value indicates success.

mkfifo

Name

mkfifo -- make a FIFO special file

Synopsis

int mkfifo(const char *path, mode_t mode);

Description

The mkfifo() function attempts to create a FIFO special file named by the pathname to which the argument path points. GNU and POSIX specifications for this function vary in the following areas.

Node Permissions

Permissions are specified in the mode argument.

GNU specifies that:

  • permissions are modified by the process umask in the usual way: the permissions of the created node are (mode & ~umask).

POSIX specifies that:

  • file permission bits of the new FIFO are initialized from mode. The file permission bits of the mode argument are modified by the process file creation mask. When bits in mode other than the file permission bits are set, the effect is implementation-dependent.

  • upon successful completion, mkfifo() marks for update the st_atime, st_ctime and st_mtime fields of the file. Also, the st_ctime and st_mtime fields of the directory that contains the new entry are marked for update.

Errors

POSIX specifies the following error conditions that are not reflected in GNU:

  • ELOOP too many symbolic links were encountered in resolving path

mknod

Name

mknod -- make a directory, a special or regular file

Synopsis

int mknod(const char *path, mode_t mode, dev_t dev);

Description

The mknod() function attempts to create a filesystem node named by the pathname to which the argument path points. GNU and POSIX specifications for this function vary in the following areas.

Node Type

Node type is specified in the mode argument (using the bitwise OR) from the symb olic constants S_IFREG, S_IFCHR, S_IFBLK, and S_IFIFO.

GNU specifies that:

  • a node type specified as zero behaves as S_IFREG.

  • for the node types S_IFCHR and S_IFBLK, dev specifies the major and minor numbers of the newly created device special file.

POSIX specifies that:

  • S_IFDIR may additionally be used to create a directory file.

  • S_IFIFO is the only portable use of mknod().

  • if mode is not S_IFIFO or dev is not 0, the behavior of mknod() is unspecified.

Node Permissions

Permissions are specified in the mode argument.

GNU specifies that:

  • permissions are modified by the process umask in the usual way: the permissions of the created node are (mode & ~umask).

POSIX specifies that:

  • the mode argument specifies node permissions (using the bitwise OR) from the following symbolic constants: S_ISUID set user ID on execution S_ISGID set group ID on execution S_IRWXU read, write or execute (search) by owner S_IRUSR read by owner S_IWUSR write by owner S_IXUSR execute (search) by owner S_IRWXG read, write or execute (search) by group S_IRGRP read by group S_IWGRP write by group S_IXGRP execute (search) by group S_IRWXO read, write or execute (search) by others S_IROTH read by others S_IWOTH write by others S_IXOTH execute (search) by others S_ISVTX on directories, restricted deletion flag

  • owner, group, and other permission bits of mode are modified by the file mode creation mask of the process. The mknod() function clears each bit whose corresponding bit in the file mode creation mask of the process is set.

  • upon successful completion, mknod() marks for update the st_atime, st_ctime and st_mtime fields of the file. Also, the st_ctime and st_mtime fields of the directory that contains the new entry are marked for update.

Errors

GNU specifies the following error conditions that are not reflected in POSIX:

  • EFAULT pathname points outside your accessible address space

  • ENOMEM insufficient kernel memory was available

POSIX specifies the following error conditions that are not reflected in GNU:

  • EIO an I/O error occurred while accessing the file system

openpty

Name

openpty -- find and open an available pseudo-tty

Synopsis

int openpty(int *amaster, 
	int *aslave, 
	char *name,
	struct termios *termp,
	struct winsize *winp);

Description

The openpty() function finds an available pseudo-tty and returns file descriptors for the amaster and aslave. The filename of the slave is returned in name, otherwise a null. The terminal parameters of the slave will be set to the values in termp, otherwise a null. The window size of the slave will be set to the values in winp, otherwise a null.

Return Value

On success, zero is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

Errors

ENOENT

There are no available ttys.

VI. Graphic Libraries

Table of Contents
12. Libraries

Chapter 12. Libraries

The X Libraries should be built thread-safe.


Interfaces for libX11

Table 12-1. libX11 Definition

Library:libX11
SONAME:libX11.so.6

The behaviour of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following Standards.

X11R6.4 Xlib - C library[21]


X Windows Interface

Table 12-2. libX11 - X Windows Interface Function Interfaces

XActivateScreenSaver[21]XEmptyRegion[21]XOpenDisplay[21]XTextWidth16[21]XkbFreeCompatMap[21]
XAddConnectionWatch[21]XEnableAccessControl[21]XOpenIM[21]XTranslateCoordinates[21]XkbFreeComponentList[21]
XAddExtension[21]XEqualRegion[21]XOpenOM[21]XUndefineCursor[21]XkbFreeControls[21]
XAddHost[21]XEventMaskOfScreen[21]XParseColor[21]XUngrabButton[21]XkbFreeGeomColors[21]
XAddHosts[21]XEventsQueued[21]XParseGeometry[21]XUngrabKey[21]XkbFreeGeomDoodads[21]
XAddPixel[21]XExtendedMaxRequestSize[21]XPeekEvent[21]XUngrabKeyboard[21]XkbFreeGeomKeyAliases[21]
XAddToExtensionList[21]XExtentsOfFontSet[21]XPeekIfEvent[21]XUngrabPointer[21]XkbFreeGeomKeys[21]
XAddToSaveSet[21]XFetchBuffer[21]XPending[21]XUngrabServer[21]XkbFreeGeomOutlines[21]
XAllPlanes[21]XFetchBytes[21]XPlanesOfScreen[21]XUninstallColormap[21]XkbFreeGeomOverlayKeys[21]
XAllocClassHint[21]XFetchName[21]XPointInRegion[21]XUnionRectWithRegion[21]XkbFreeGeomOverlayRows[21]
XAllocColor[21]XFillArc[21]XPolygonRegion[21]XUnionRegion[21]XkbFreeGeomOverlays[21]
XAllocColorCells[21]XFillArcs[21]XProcessInternalConnection[21]XUnloadFont[21]XkbFreeGeomPoints[21]
XAllocColorPlanes[21]XFillPolygon[21]XProtocolRevision[21]XUnlockDisplay[21]XkbFreeGeomProperties[21]
XAllocIconSize[21]XFillRectangle[21]XProtocolVersion[21]XUnmapSubwindows[21]XkbFreeGeomRows[21]
XAllocNamedColor[21]XFillRectangles[21]XPutBackEvent[21]XUnmapWindow[21]XkbFreeGeomSections[21]
XAllocSizeHints[21]XFilterEvent[21]XPutImage[21]XUnregisterIMInstantiateCallback[21]XkbFreeGeomShapes[21]
XAllocStandardColormap[21]XFindContext[21]XPutPixel[21]XUnsetICFocus[21]XkbFreeGeometry[21]
XAllocWMHints[21]XFindOnExtensionList[21]XQLength[21]XVaCreateNestedList[21]XkbFreeIndicatorMaps[21]
XAllowEvents[21]XFlush[21]XQueryBestCursor[21]XVendorRelease[21]XkbFreeKeyboard[21]
XAutoRepeatOff[21]XFlushGC[21]XQueryBestSize[21]XVisualIDFromVisual[21]XkbFreeNames[21]
XAutoRepeatOn[21]XFontsOfFontSet[21]XQueryBestStipple[21]XWMGeometry[21]XkbFreeServerMap[21]
XBaseFontNameListOfFontSet[21]XForceScreenSaver[21]XQueryBestTile[21]XWarpPointer[21]XkbGetAutoRepeatRate[21]
XBell[21]XFree[21]XQueryColor[21]XWhitePixel[21]XkbGetCompatMap[21]
XBitmapBitOrder[21]XFreeColormap[21]XQueryColors[21]XWhitePixelOfScreen[21]XkbGetControls[21]
XBitmapPad[21]XFreeColors[21]XQueryExtension[21]XWidthMMOfScreen[21]XkbGetGeometry[21]
XBitmapUnit[21]XFreeCursor[21]XQueryFont[21]XWidthOfScreen[21]XkbGetIndicatorMap[21]
XBlackPixel[21]XFreeExtensionList[21]XQueryKeymap[21]XWindowEvent[21]XkbGetIndicatorState[21]
XBlackPixelOfScreen[21]XFreeFont[21]XQueryPointer[21]XWithdrawWindow[21]XkbGetKeyActions[21]
XCellsOfScreen[21]XFreeFontInfo[21]XQueryTextExtents[21]XWriteBitmapFile[21]XkbGetKeyBehaviors[21]
XChangeActivePointerGrab[21]XFreeFontNames[21]XQueryTextExtents16[21]XXorRegion[21]XkbGetKeyExplicitComponents[21]
XChangeGC[21]XFreeFontPath[21]XQueryTree[21]XauDisposeAuth[21]XkbGetKeyModifierMap[21]
XChangeKeyboardControl[21]XFreeFontSet[21]XRaiseWindow[21]XauFileName[21]XkbGetKeySyms[21]
XChangeKeyboardMapping[21]XFreeGC[21]XReadBitmapFile[21]XauGetBestAuthByAddr[21]XkbGetKeyTypes[21]
XChangePointerControl[21]XFreeModifiermap[21]XReadBitmapFileData[21]XauReadAuth[21]XkbGetKeyVirtualModMap[21]
XChangeProperty[21]XFreePixmap[21]XRebindKeysym[21]XcmsAddColorSpace[21]XkbGetKeyboard[21]
XChangeSaveSet[21]XFreeStringList[21]XRecolorCursor[21]XcmsAddFunctionSet[21]XkbGetKeyboardByName[21]
XChangeWindowAttributes[21]XGContextFromGC[21]XReconfigureWMWindow[21]XcmsAllocColor[21]XkbGetMap[21]
XCheckIfEvent[21]XGeometry[21]XRectInRegion[21]XcmsAllocNamedColor[21]XkbGetMapChanges[21]
XCheckMaskEvent[21]XGetAtomName[21]XRefreshKeyboardMapping[21]XcmsCCCOfColormap[21]XkbGetNamedGeometry[21]
XCheckTypedEvent[21]XGetAtomNames[21]XRegisterIMInstantiateCallback[21]XcmsCIELabClipL[21]XkbGetNamedIndicator[21]
XCheckTypedWindowEvent[21]XGetClassHint[21]XRemoveConnectionWatch[21]XcmsCIELabClipLab[21]XkbGetNames[21]
XCheckWindowEvent[21]XGetCommand[21]XRemoveFromSaveSet[21]XcmsCIELabClipab[21]XkbGetState[21]
XCirculateSubwindows[21]XGetDefault[21]XRemoveHost[21]XcmsCIELabQueryMaxC[21]XkbGetUpdatedMap[21]
XCirculateSubwindowsDown[21]XGetErrorDatabaseText[21]XRemoveHosts[21]XcmsCIELabQueryMaxL[21]XkbGetVirtualMods[21]
XCirculateSubwindowsUp[21]XGetErrorText[21]XReparentWindow[21]XcmsCIELabQueryMaxLC[21]XkbGetXlibControls[21]
XClearArea[21]XGetFontPath[21]XResetScreenSaver[21]XcmsCIELabQueryMinL[21]XkbIgnoreExtension[21]
XClearWindow[21]XGetFontProperty[21]XResizeWindow[21]XcmsCIELabToCIEXYZ[21]XkbInitCanonicalKeyTypes[21]
XClipBox[21]XGetGCValues[21]XResourceManagerString[21]XcmsCIELabWhiteShiftColors[21]XkbKeyTypesForCoreSymbols[21]
XCloseDisplay[21]XGetGeometry[21]XRestackWindows[21]XcmsCIELuvClipL[21]XkbKeycodeToKeysym[21]
XCloseIM[21]XGetICValues[21]XRootWindow[21]XcmsCIELuvClipLuv[21]XkbKeysymToModifiers[21]
XCloseOM[21]XGetIMValues[21]XRootWindowOfScreen[21]XcmsCIELuvClipuv[21]XkbLatchGroup[21]
XConfigureWindow[21]XGetIconName[21]XRotateBuffers[21]XcmsCIELuvQueryMaxC[21]XkbLatchModifiers[21]
XConnectionNumber[21]XGetIconSizes[21]XRotateWindowProperties[21]XcmsCIELuvQueryMaxL[21]XkbLibraryVersion[21]
XContextDependentDrawing[21]XGetImage[21]XSaveContext[21]XcmsCIELuvQueryMaxLC[21]XkbListComponents[21]
XContextualDrawing[21]XGetInputFocus[21]XScreenCount[21]XcmsCIELuvQueryMinL[21]XkbLockGroup[21]
XConvertCase[21]XGetKeyboardControl[21]XScreenNumberOfScreen[21]XcmsCIELuvToCIEuvY[21]XkbLockModifiers[21]
XConvertSelection[21]XGetKeyboardMapping[21]XScreenOfDisplay[21]XcmsCIELuvWhiteShiftColors[21]XkbLookupKeyBinding[21]
XCopyArea[21]XGetModifierMapping[21]XScreenResourceString[21]XcmsCIEXYZToCIELab[21]XkbLookupKeySym[21]
XCopyColormapAndFree[21]XGetMotionEvents[21]XSelectInput[21]XcmsCIEXYZToCIEuvY[21]XkbNoteControlsChanges[21]
XCopyGC[21]XGetNormalHints[21]XSendEvent[21]XcmsCIEXYZToCIExyY[21]XkbNoteMapChanges[21]
XCopyPlane[21]XGetOCValues[21]XServerVendor[21]XcmsCIEXYZToRGBi[21]XkbNoteNameChanges[21]
XCreateBitmapFromData[21]XGetOMValues[21]XSetAccessControl[21]XcmsCIEuvYToCIELuv[21]XkbOpenDisplay[21]
XCreateColormap[21]XGetPixel[21]XSetAfterFunction[21]XcmsCIEuvYToCIEXYZ[21]XkbQueryExtension[21]
XCreateFontCursor[21]XGetPointerControl[21]XSetArcMode[21]XcmsCIEuvYToTekHVC[21]XkbRefreshKeyboardMapping[21]
XCreateFontSet[21]XGetPointerMapping[21]XSetAuthorization[21]XcmsCIExyYToCIEXYZ[21]XkbResizeKeyActions[21]
XCreateGC[21]XGetRGBColormaps[21]XSetBackground[21]XcmsClientWhitePointOfCCC[21]XkbResizeKeySyms[21]
XCreateGlyphCursor[21]XGetScreenSaver[21]XSetClassHint[21]XcmsConvertColors[21]XkbResizeKeyType[21]
XCreateIC[21]XGetSelectionOwner[21]XSetClipMask[21]XcmsCreateCCC[21]XkbSelectEventDetails[21]
XCreateImage[21]XGetSizeHints[21]XSetClipOrigin[21]XcmsDefaultCCC[21]XkbSelectEvents[21]
XCreateOC[21]XGetStandardColormap[21]XSetClipRectangles[21]XcmsDisplayOfCCC[21]XkbSetAtomFuncs[21]
XCreatePixmap[21]XGetSubImage[21]XSetCloseDownMode[21]XcmsFormatOfPrefix[21]XkbSetAutoRepeatRate[21]
XCreatePixmapCursor[21]XGetTextProperty[21]XSetCommand[21]XcmsFreeCCC[21]XkbSetAutoResetControls[21]
XCreatePixmapFromBitmapData[21]XGetTransientForHint[21]XSetDashes[21]XcmsLookupColor[21]XkbSetCompatMap[21]
XCreateRegion[21]XGetVisualInfo[21]XSetErrorHandler[21]XcmsPrefixOfFormat[21]XkbSetControls[21]
XCreateSimpleWindow[21]XGetWMClientMachine[21]XSetFillRule[21]XcmsQueryBlack[21]XkbSetDebuggingFlags[21]
XCreateWindow[21]XGetWMColormapWindows[21]XSetFillStyle[21]XcmsQueryBlue[21]XkbSetDetectableAutoRepeat[21]
XDefaultColormap[21]XGetWMHints[21]XSetFont[21]XcmsQueryColor[21]XkbSetGeometry[21]
XDefaultColormapOfScreen[21]XGetWMIconName[21]XSetFontPath[21]XcmsQueryColors[21]XkbSetIgnoreLockMods[21]
XDefaultDepth[21]XGetWMName[21]XSetForeground[21]XcmsQueryGreen[21]XkbSetIndicatorMap[21]
XDefaultDepthOfScreen[21]XGetWMNormalHints[21]XSetFunction[21]XcmsQueryRed[21]XkbSetMap[21]
XDefaultGC[21]XGetWMProtocols[21]XSetGraphicsExposures[21]XcmsQueryWhite[21]XkbSetNamedIndicator[21]
XDefaultGCOfScreen[21]XGetWMSizeHints[21]XSetICFocus[21]XcmsRGBToRGBi[21]XkbSetNames[21]
XDefaultRootWindow[21]XGetWindowAttributes[21]XSetICValues[21]XcmsRGBiToCIEXYZ[21]XkbSetServerInternalMods[21]
XDefaultScreen[21]XGetWindowProperty[21]XSetIMValues[21]XcmsRGBiToRGB[21]XkbSetXlibControls[21]
XDefaultScreenOfDisplay[21]XGetZoomHints[21]XSetIOErrorHandler[21]XcmsScreenNumberOfCCC[21]XkbToControl[21]
XDefaultString[21]XGrabButton[21]XSetIconName[21]XcmsScreenWhitePointOfCCC[21]XkbTranslateKey[21]
XDefaultVisual[21]XGrabKey[21]XSetIconSizes[21]XcmsSetCCCOfColormap[21]XkbTranslateKeyCode[21]
XDefaultVisualOfScreen[21]XGrabKeyboard[21]XSetInputFocus[21]XcmsSetCompressionProc[21]XkbTranslateKeySym[21]
XDefineCursor[21]XGrabPointer[21]XSetLineAttributes[21]XcmsSetWhiteAdjustProc[21]XkbUpdateActionVirtualMods[21]
XDeleteContext[21]XGrabServer[21]XSetLocaleModifiers[21]XcmsSetWhitePoint[21]XkbUpdateKeyTypeVirtualMods[21]
XDeleteModifiermapEntry[21]XHeightMMOfScreen[21]XSetModifierMapping[21]XcmsStoreColor[21]XkbUpdateMapFromCore[21]
XDeleteProperty[21]XHeightOfScreen[21]XSetNormalHints[21]XcmsStoreColors[21]XkbUseExtension[21]
XDestroyIC[21]XIMOfIC[21]XSetOCValues[21]XcmsTekHVCClipC[21]XkbVirtualModsToReal[21]
XDestroyImage[21]XIconifyWindow[21]XSetOMValues[21]XcmsTekHVCClipV[21]XkbXlibControlsImplemented[21]
XDestroyOC[21]XIfEvent[21]XSetPlaneMask[21]XcmsTekHVCClipVC[21]XmbDrawImageString[21]
XDestroyRegion[21]XImageByteOrder[21]XSetPointerMapping[21]XcmsTekHVCQueryMaxC[21]XmbDrawString[21]
XDestroySubwindows[21]XInitExtension[21]XSetRGBColormaps[21]XcmsTekHVCQueryMaxV[21]XmbDrawText[21]
XDestroyWindow[21]XInitImage[21]XSetRegion[21]XcmsTekHVCQueryMaxVC[21]XmbLookupString[21]
XDirectionalDependentDrawing[21]XInitThreads[21]XSetScreenSaver[21]XcmsTekHVCQueryMaxVSamples[21]XmbResetIC[21]
XDisableAccessControl[21]XInsertModifiermapEntry[21]XSetSelectionOwner[21]XcmsTekHVCQueryMinV[21]XmbSetWMProperties[21]
XDisplayCells[21]XInstallColormap[21]XSetSizeHints[21]XcmsTekHVCToCIEuvY[21]XmbTextEscapement[21]
XDisplayHeight[21]XInternAtom[21]XSetStandardColormap[21]XcmsTekHVCWhiteShiftColors[21]XmbTextExtents[21]
XDisplayHeightMM[21]XInternAtoms[21]XSetStandardProperties[21]XcmsVisualOfCCC[21]XmbTextListToTextProperty[21]
XDisplayKeycodes[21]XInternalConnectionNumbers[21]XSetState[21]XkbAllocClientMap[21]XmbTextPerCharExtents[21]
XDisplayMotionBufferSize[21]XIntersectRegion[21]XSetStipple[21]XkbAllocCompatMap[21]XmbTextPropertyToTextList[21]
XDisplayName[21]XKeycodeToKeysym[21]XSetSubwindowMode[21]XkbAllocControls[21]XrmCombineDatabase[21]
XDisplayOfIM[21]XKeysymToKeycode[21]XSetTSOrigin[21]XkbAllocGeomColors[21]XrmCombineFileDatabase[21]
XDisplayOfOM[21]XKeysymToString[21]XSetTextProperty[21]XkbAllocGeomDoodads[21]XrmDestroyDatabase[21]
XDisplayOfScreen[21]XKillClient[21]XSetTile[21]XkbAllocGeomKeyAliases[21]XrmEnumerateDatabase[21]
XDisplayPlanes[21]XLastKnownRequestProcessed[21]XSetTransientForHint[21]XkbAllocGeomKeys[21]XrmGetDatabase[21]
XDisplayString[21]XListDepths[21]XSetWMClientMachine[21]XkbAllocGeomOutlines[21]XrmGetFileDatabase[21]
XDisplayWidth[21]XListExtensions[21]XSetWMColormapWindows[21]XkbAllocGeomOverlayKeys[21]XrmGetResource[21]
XDisplayWidthMM[21]XListFonts[21]XSetWMHints[21]XkbAllocGeomOverlayRows[21]XrmGetStringDatabase[21]
XDoesBackingStore[21]XListFontsWithInfo[21]XSetWMIconName[21]XkbAllocGeomOverlays[21]XrmInitialize[21]
XDoesSaveUnders[21]XListHosts[21]XSetWMName[21]XkbAllocGeomPoints[21]XrmLocaleOfDatabase[21]
XDrawArc[21]XListInstalledColormaps[21]XSetWMNormalHints[21]XkbAllocGeomProps[21]XrmMergeDatabases[21]
XDrawArcs[21]XListPixmapFormats[21]XSetWMProperties[21]XkbAllocGeomRows[21]XrmParseCommand[21]
XDrawImageString[21]XListProperties[21]XSetWMProtocols[21]XkbAllocGeomSectionDoodads[21]XrmPermStringToQuark[21]
XDrawImageString16[21]XLoadFont[21]XSetWMSizeHints[21]XkbAllocGeomSections[21]XrmPutFileDatabase[21]
XDrawLine[21]XLoadQueryFont[21]XSetWindowBackground[21]XkbAllocGeomShapes[21]XrmPutLineResource[21]
XDrawLines[21]XLocaleOfFontSet[21]XSetWindowBackgroundPixmap[21]XkbAllocGeometry[21]XrmPutResource[21]
XDrawPoint[21]XLocaleOfIM[21]XSetWindowBorder[21]XkbAllocIndicatorMaps[21]XrmPutStringResource[21]
XDrawPoints[21]XLocaleOfOM[21]XSetWindowBorderPixmap[21]XkbAllocKeyboard[21]XrmQGetResource[21]
XDrawRectangle[21]XLockDisplay[21]XSetWindowBorderWidth[21]XkbAllocNames[21]XrmQGetSearchList[21]
XDrawRectangles[21]XLookupColor[21]XSetWindowColormap[21]XkbAllocServerMap[21]XrmQGetSearchResource[21]
XDrawSegments[21]XLookupKeysym[21]XSetZoomHints[21]XkbApplyCompatMapToKey[21]XrmQPutResource[21]
XDrawString[21]XLookupString[21]XShrinkRegion[21]XkbApplyVirtualModChanges[21]XrmQPutStringResource[21]
XDrawString16[21]XLowerWindow[21]XStoreBuffer[21]XkbBell[21]XrmQuarkToString[21]
XDrawText[21]XMapRaised[21]XStoreBytes[21]XkbBellEvent[21]XrmSetDatabase[21]
XDrawText16[21]XMapSubwindows[21]XStoreColor[21]XkbChangeEnabledControls[21]XrmStringToBindingQuarkList[21]
XEHeadOfExtensionList[21]XMapWindow[21]XStoreColors[21]XkbChangeKeycodeRange[21]XrmStringToQuark[21]
XESetBeforeFlush[21]XMaskEvent[21]XStoreName[21]XkbChangeMap[21]XrmStringToQuarkList[21]
XESetCloseDisplay[21]XMatchVisualInfo[21]XStoreNamedColor[21]XkbChangeNames[21]XrmUniqueQuark[21]
XESetCopyGC[21]XMaxCmapsOfScreen[21]XStringListToTextProperty[21]XkbChangeTypesOfKey[21]XwcDrawImageString[21]
XESetCreateFont[21]XMaxRequestSize[21]XStringToKeysym[21]XkbComputeEffectiveMap[21]XwcDrawString[21]
XESetCreateGC[21]XMinCmapsOfScreen[21]XSubImage[21]XkbComputeRowBounds[21]XwcDrawText[21]
XESetError[21]XMoveResizeWindow[21]XSubtractRegion[21]XkbComputeSectionBounds[21]XwcFreeStringList[21]
XESetErrorString[21]XMoveWindow[21]XSupportsLocale[21]XkbComputeShapeBounds[21]XwcLookupString[21]
XESetEventToWire[21]XNewModifiermap[21]XSync[21]XkbComputeShapeTop[21]XwcResetIC[21]
XESetFreeFont[21]XNextEvent[21]XSynchronize[21]XkbCopyKeyType[21]XwcTextEscapement[21]
XESetFreeGC[21]XNextRequest[21]XTextExtents[21]XkbCopyKeyTypes[21]XwcTextExtents[21]
XESetPrintErrorValues[21]XNoOp[21]XTextExtents16[21]XkbFindOverlayForKey[21]XwcTextListToTextProperty[21]
XESetWireToError[21]XOMOfOC[21]XTextPropertyToStringList[21]XkbForceBell[21]XwcTextPerCharExtents[21]
XESetWireToEvent[21]XOffsetRegion[21]XTextWidth[21]XkbFreeClientMap[21]XwcTextPropertyToTextList[21]

Data Definitions for libX11


X11/Xauth.h

typedef struct xauth
{
  unsigned short family;
  unsigned short address_length;
  char *address;
  unsigned short number_length;
  char *number;
  unsigned short name_length;
  char *name;
  unsigned short data_length;
  char *data;
}
Xauth;

X11/Xcms.h

typedef unsigned long XcmsColorFormat;

typedef double XcmsFloat;

typedef struct
{
  unsigned short red;
  unsigned short green;
  unsigned short blue;
}
XcmsRGB;

typedef struct
{
  XcmsFloat red;
  XcmsFloat green;
  XcmsFloat blue;
}
XcmsRGBi;

typedef struct
{
  XcmsFloat X;
  XcmsFloat Y;
  XcmsFloat Z;
}
XcmsCIEXYZ;

typedef struct
{
  XcmsFloat u_prime;
  XcmsFloat v_prime;
  XcmsFloat Y;
}
XcmsCIEuvY;

typedef struct
{
  XcmsFloat x;
  XcmsFloat y;
  XcmsFloat Y;
}
XcmsCIExyY;

typedef struct
{
  XcmsFloat L_star;
  XcmsFloat a_star;
  XcmsFloat b_star;
}
XcmsCIELab;

typedef struct
{
  XcmsFloat L_star;
  XcmsFloat u_star;
  XcmsFloat v_star;
}
XcmsCIELuv;

typedef struct
{
  XcmsFloat H;
  XcmsFloat V;
  XcmsFloat C;
}
XcmsTekHVC;

typedef struct
{
  XcmsFloat pad0;
  XcmsFloat pad1;
  XcmsFloat pad2;
  XcmsFloat pad3;
}
XcmsPad;

typedef union
{
  union spec;
  XcmsRGB RGB;
  unsigned long pixel;
  XcmsRGBi RGBi;
  XcmsColorFormat ;
  XcmsCIEXYZ CIEXYZ;
  XcmsCIEuvY CIEuvY;
  XcmsCIExyY CIExyY;
  XcmsCIELab CIELab;
  XcmsCIELuv CIELuv;
  XcmsTekHVC TekHVC;
  XcmsPad Pad;
}
XcmsColor;

typedef struct _XcmsPerScrnInfo
{
  XcmsColor screenWhitePt;
  XPointer functionSet;
  XPointer screenData;
  unsigned char state;
  char pad[1];
}
XcmsPerScrnInfo;

typedef int (*XcmsCompressionProc) ();

typedef int (*XcmsWhiteAdjustProc) ();

typedef int (*XcmsScreenInitProc) ();

typedef void (*XcmsScreenFreeProc) ();

typedef int (*XcmsConversionProc) ();

typedef int (*XcmsParseStringProc) ();

typedef struct _XcmsCCC
{
  Display *dpy;
  int screenNumber;
  Visual *visual;
  XcmsColor clientWhitePt;
  XcmsCompressionProc gamutCompProc;
  XPointer gamutCompClientData;
  XcmsWhiteAdjustProc whitePtAdjProc;
  XPointer whitePtAdjClientData;
  XcmsPerScrnInfo *pPerScrnInfo;
}
 *XcmsCCC;

typedef XcmsConversionProc *XcmsFuncListPtr;

typedef struct _XcmsColorSpace
{
  char *prefix;
  XcmsColorFormat id;
  XcmsParseStringProc parseString;
  XcmsFuncListPtr to_CIEXYZ;
  XcmsFuncListPtr from_CIEXYZ;
  int inverse_flag;
}
XcmsColorSpace;

typedef struct _XcmsFunctionSet
{
  XcmsColorSpace **DDColorSpaces;
  XcmsScreenInitProc screenInitProc;
  XcmsScreenFreeProc screenFreeProc;
}
XcmsFunctionSet;

X11/Xlib.h

typedef char *XPointer;

typedef struct _XExtData
{
  int number;
  struct _XExtData *next;
  int (*free_private) (struct _XExtData * extension);
  XPointer private_data;
}
XExtData;

typedef struct
{
  int extension;
  int major_opcode;
  int first_event;
  int first_error;
}
XExtCodes;

typedef struct
{
  int depth;
  int bits_per_pixel;
  int scanline_pad;
}
XPixmapFormatValues;

typedef struct
{
  int function;
  unsigned long plane_mask;
  unsigned long foreground;
  unsigned long background;
  int line_width;
  int line_style;
  int cap_style;
  int join_style;
  int fill_style;
  int fill_rule;
  int arc_mode;
  Pixmap tile;
  Pixmap stipple;
  int ts_x_origin;
  int ts_y_origin;
  Font font;
  int subwindow_mode;
  int graphics_exposures;
  int clip_x_origin;
  int clip_y_origin;
  Pixmap clip_mask;
  int dash_offset;
  char dashes;
}
XGCValues;

typedef struct _XGC *GC;

typedef struct
{
  XExtData *ext_data;
  VisualID visualid;
  int class;
  unsigned long red_mask;
  unsigned long green_mask;
  unsigned long blue_mask;
  int bits_per_rgb;
  int map_entries;
}
Visual;

typedef struct
{
  int depth;
  int nvisuals;
  Visual *visuals;
}
Depth;

typedef struct
{
  XExtData *ext_data;
  struct _XDisplay *display;
  Window root;
  int width;
  int height;
  int mwidth;
  int mheight;
  int ndepths;
  Depth *depths;
  int root_depth;
  Visual *root_visual;
  GC default_gc;
  Colormap cmap;
  unsigned long white_pixel;
  unsigned long black_pixel;
  int max_maps;
  int min_maps;
  int backing_store;
  int save_unders;
  long root_input_mask;
}
Screen;

typedef struct
{
  XExtData *ext_data;
  int depth;
  int bits_per_pixel;
  int scanline_pad;
}
ScreenFormat;

typedef struct
{
  Pixmap background_pixmap;
  unsigned long background_pixel;
  Pixmap border_pixmap;
  unsigned long border_pixel;
  int bit_gravity;
  int win_gravity;
  int backing_store;
  unsigned long backing_planes;
  unsigned long backing_pixel;
  int save_under;
  long event_mask;
  long do_not_propagate_mask;
  int override_redirect;
  Colormap colormap;
  Cursor cursor;
}
XSetWindowAttributes;

typedef struct
{
  int x;
  int y;
  int width;
  int height;
  int border_width;
  int depth;
  Visual *visual;
  Window root;
  int class;
  int bit_gravity;
  int win_gravity;
  int backing_store;
  unsigned long backing_planes;
  unsigned long backing_pixel;
  int save_under;
  Colormap colormap;
  int map_installed;
  int map_state;
  long all_event_masks;
  long your_event_mask;
  long do_not_propagate_mask;
  int override_redirect;
  Screen *screen;
}
XWindowAttributes;

typedef struct
{
  int family;
  int length;
  char *address;
}
XHostAddress;

struct XImagefuncs;

typedef struct _XImage
{
  int width;
  int height;
  int xoffset;
  int ;
  char *data;
  int byte_order;
  int bitmap_unit;
  int bitmap_bit_order;
  int bitmap_pad;
  int depth;
  int bytes_per_line;
  int bits_per_pixel;
  unsigned long red_mask;
  unsigned long green_mask;
  unsigned long blue_mask;
  XPointer obdata;
}
XImage;

typedef struct
{
  int x;
  int y;
  int width;
  int height;
  int border_width;
  Window sibling;
  int stack_mode;
}
XWindowChanges;

typedef struct
{
  short x1;
  short y1;
  short x2;
  short y2;
}
XSegment;

typedef struct
{
  short x;
  short y;
}
XPoint;

typedef struct
{
  short x;
  short y;
  unsigned short width;
  unsigned short height;
}
XRectangle;

typedef struct
{
  short x;
  short y;
  unsigned short width;
  unsigned short height;
  short angle1;
  short angle2;
}
XArc;

typedef struct
{
  int key_click_percent;
  int bell_percent;
  int bell_pitch;
  int bell_duration;
  int led;
  int led_mode;
  int key;
  int auto_repeat_mode;
}
XKeyboardControl;

typedef struct
{
  int key_click_percent;
  int bell_percent;
  unsigned int bell_pitch;
  unsigned int bell_duration;
  unsigned long led_mask;
  int global_auto_repeat;
  char auto_repeats[1];
}
XKeyboardState;

typedef struct
{
  Time time;
  short x;
  short y;
}
XTimeCoord;

typedef struct
{
  int max_keypermod;
  KeyCode *modifiermap;
}
XModifierKeymap;

typedef struct _XDisplay Display;

typedef struct
{
  int type;
  unsigned long serial;
  int send_event;
  Display *display;
  Window window;
  Window root;
  Window subwindow;
  Time time;
  int x;
  int y;
  int x_root;
  int y_root;
  unsigned int state;
  unsigned int keycode;
  int same_screen;
}
XKeyEvent;

typedef XKeyEvent XKeyPressedEvent;

typedef XKeyEvent XKeyReleasedEvent;

typedef struct
{
  int type;
  unsigned long serial;
  int send_event;
  Display *display;
  Window window;
  Window root;
  Window subwindow;
  Time time;
  int x;
  int y;
  int x_root;
  int y_root;
  unsigned int state;
  unsigned int button;
  int same_screen;
}
XButtonEvent;

typedef XButtonEvent XButtonPressedEvent;

typedef XButtonEvent XButtonReleasedEvent;

typedef struct
{
  int type;
  unsigned long serial;
  int send_event;
  Display *display;
  Window window;
  Window root;
  Window subwindow;
  Time time;
  int x;
  int y;
  int x_root;
  int y_root;
  unsigned int state;
  char is_hint;
  int same_screen;
}
XMotionEvent;

typedef XMotionEvent XPointerMovedEvent;

typedef struct
{
  int type;
  unsigned long serial;
  int send_event;
  Display *display;
  Window window;
  Window root;
  Window subwindow;
  Time time;
  int x;
  int y;
  int x_root;
  int y_root;
  int mode;
  int detail;
  int same_screen;
  int focus;
  unsigned int state;
}
XCrossingEvent;

typedef XCrossingEvent XEnterWindowEvent;

typedef XCrossingEvent XLeaveWindowEvent;

typedef struct
{
  int type;
  unsigned long serial;
  int send_event;
  Display *display;
  Window window;
  int mode;
  int detail;
}
XFocusChangeEvent;

typedef XFocusChangeEvent XFocusInEvent;

typedef XFocusChangeEvent XFocusOutEvent;

typedef struct
{
  int type;
  unsigned long serial;
  int send_event;
  Display *display;
  Window window;
  char key_vector[1];
}
XKeymapEvent;

typedef struct
{
  int type;
  unsigned long serial;
  int send_event;
  Display *display;
  Window window;
  int x;
  int y;
  int width;
  int height;
  int count;
}
XExposeEvent;

typedef struct
{
  int type;
  unsigned long serial;
  int send_event;
  Display *display;
  Drawable drawable;
  int x;
  int y;
  int width;
  int height;
  int count;
  int major_code;
  int minor_code;
}
XGraphicsExposeEvent;

typedef struct
{
  int type;
  unsigned long serial;
  int send_event;
  Display *display;
  Drawable drawable;
  int major_code;
  int minor_code;
}
XNoExposeEvent;

typedef struct
{
  int type;
  unsigned long serial;
  int send_event;
  Display *display;
  Window window;
  int state;
}
XVisibilityEvent;

typedef struct
{
  int type;
  unsigned long serial;
  int send_event;
  Display *display;
  Window parent;
  Window window;
  int x;
  int y;
  int width;
  int height;
  int border_width;
  int override_redirect;
}
XCreateWindowEvent;

typedef struct
{
  int type;
  unsigned long serial;
  int send_event;
  Display *display;
  Window event;
  Window window;
}
XDestroyWindowEvent;

typedef struct
{
  int type;
  unsigned long serial;
  int send_event;
  Display *display;
  Window event;
  Window window;
  int from_configure;
}
XUnmapEvent;

typedef struct
{
  int type;
  unsigned long serial;
  int send_event;
  Display *display;
  Window event;
  Window window;
  int override_redirect;
}
XMapEvent;

typedef struct
{
  int type;
  unsigned long serial;
  int send_event;
  Display *display;
  Window parent;
  Window window;
}
XMapRequestEvent;

typedef struct
{
  int type;
  unsigned long serial;
  int send_event;
  Display *display;
  Window event;
  Window window;
  Window parent;
  int x;
  int y;
  int override_redirect;
}
XReparentEvent;

typedef struct
{
  int type;
  unsigned long serial;
  int send_event;
  Display *display;
  Window event;
  Window window;
  int x;
  int y;
  int width;
  int height;
  int border_width;
  Window above;
  int override_redirect;
}
XConfigureEvent;

typedef struct
{
  int type;
  unsigned long serial;
  int send_event;
  Display *display;
  Window event;
  Window window;
  int x;
  int y;
}
XGravityEvent;

typedef struct
{
  int type;
  unsigned long serial;
  int send_event;
  Display *display;
  Window window;
  int width;
  int height;
}
XResizeRequestEvent;

typedef struct
{
  int type;
  unsigned long serial;
  int send_event;
  Display *display;
  Window parent;
  Window window;
  int x;
  int y;
  int width;
  int height;
  int border_width;
  Window above;
  int detail;
  unsigned long value_mask;
}
XConfigureRequestEvent;

typedef struct
{
  int type;
  unsigned long serial;
  int send_event;
  Display *display;
  Window event;
  Window window;
  int place;
}
XCirculateEvent;

typedef struct
{
  int type;
  unsigned long serial;
  int send_event;
  Display *display;
  Window parent;
  Window window;
  int place;
}
XCirculateRequestEvent;

typedef struct
{
  int type;
  unsigned long serial;
  int send_event;
  Display *display;
  Window window;
  Atom atom;
  Time time;
  int state;
}
XPropertyEvent;

typedef struct
{
  int type;
  unsigned long serial;
  int send_event;
  Display *display;
  Window window;
  Atom selection;
  Time time;
}
XSelectionClearEvent;

typedef struct
{
  int type;
  unsigned long serial;
  int send_event;
  Display *display;
  Window owner;
  Window requestor;
  Atom selection;
  Atom target;
  Atom property;
  Time time;
}
XSelectionRequestEvent;

typedef struct
{
  int type;
  unsigned long serial;
  int send_event;
  Display *display;
  Window requestor;
  Atom selection;
  Atom target;
  Atom property;
  Time time;
}
XSelectionEvent;

typedef struct
{
  int type;
  unsigned long serial;
  int send_event;
  Display *display;
  Window window;
  Colormap colormap;
  int new;
  int state;
}
XColormapEvent;

typedef union
{
  char b[1];
  short s[1];
  long l[1];
  union data;
}
XClientMessageEvent;

typedef struct
{
  int type;
  unsigned long serial;
  int send_event;
  Display *display;
  Window window;
  int request;
  int first_keycode;
  int count;
}
XMappingEvent;

typedef struct
{
  int type;
  Display *display;
  XID resourceid;
  unsigned long serial;
  unsigned char error_code;
  unsigned char request_code;
  unsigned char minor_code;
}
XErrorEvent;

typedef struct
{
  int type;
  unsigned long serial;
  int send_event;
  Display *display;
  Window window;
}
XAnyEvent;

typedef union _XEvent
{
  int type;
  XAnyEvent xany;
  XKeyEvent xkey;
  XButtonEvent xbutton;
  XMotionEvent xmotion;
  XCrossingEvent xcrossing;
  XFocusChangeEvent xfocus;
  XExposeEvent xexpose;
  XGraphicsExposeEvent xgraphicsexpose;
  XNoExposeEvent xnoexpose;
  XVisibilityEvent xvisibility;
  XCreateWindowEvent xcreatewindow;
  XDestroyWindowEvent xdestroywindow;
  XUnmapEvent xunmap;
  XMapEvent xmap;
  XMapRequestEvent xmaprequest;
  XReparentEvent xreparent;
  XConfigureEvent xconfigure;
  XGravityEvent xgravity;
  XResizeRequestEvent xresizerequest;
  XConfigureRequestEvent xconfigurerequest;
  XCirculateEvent xcirculate;
  XCirculateRequestEvent xcirculaterequest;
  XPropertyEvent xproperty;
  XSelectionClearEvent xselectionclear;
  XSelectionRequestEvent xselectionrequest;
  XSelectionEvent xselection;
  XColormapEvent xcolormap;
  XClientMessageEvent xclient;
  XMappingEvent xmapping;
  XErrorEvent xerror;
  XKeymapEvent xkeymap;
  long pad[1];
}
XEvent;

typedef struct
{
  short lbearing;
  short rbearing;
  short width;
  short ascent;
  short descent;
  unsigned short attributes;
}
XCharStruct;

typedef struct
{
  Atom name;
  unsigned long card32;
}
XFontProp;

typedef struct
{
  XExtData *ext_data;
  Font fid;
  unsigned int direction;
  unsigned int min_char_or_byte2;
  unsigned int max_char_or_byte2;
  unsigned int min_byte1;
  unsigned int max_byte1;
  int all_chars_exist;
  unsigned int default_char;
  int n_properties;
  XFontProp *properties;
  XCharStruct min_bounds;
  XCharStruct max_bounds;
  XCharStruct *per_char;
  int ascent;
  int descent;
}
XFontStruct;

typedef struct
{
  XRectangle max_ink_extent;
  XRectangle max_logical_extent;
}
XFontSetExtents;

typedef struct
{
  char *chars;
  int nchars;
  int delta;
  Font font;
}
XTextItem;

typedef struct
{
  unsigned char byte1;
  unsigned char byte2;
}
XChar2b;

typedef struct
{
  XChar2b *chars;
  int nchars;
  int delta;
  Font font;
}
XTextItem16;

typedef union
{
  Display *display;
  GC gc;
  Visual *visual;
  Screen *screen;
  ScreenFormat *pixmap_format;
  XFontStruct *font;
}
XEDataObject;

typedef struct _XOM *XOM;

typedef struct _XOC *XOC;

typedef struct _XOC *XFontSet;

typedef struct
{
  char *chars;
  int nchars;
  int delta;
  XFontSet font_set;
}
XmbTextItem;

typedef struct
{
  wchar_t *chars;
  int nchars;
  int delta;
  XFontSet font_set;
}
XwcTextItem;

typedef struct _XIM *XIM;

typedef struct _XIC *XIC;

typedef void (*XIDProc) ();

struct _XDisplay;

struct _XrmHashBucketRec;

typedef struct
{
  unsigned long pixel;
  unsigned short red;
  unsigned short green;
  unsigned short blue;
  char flags;
  char pad;
}
XColor;

typedef void *XVaNestedList;

typedef int (*XErrorHandler) ();

typedef int (*XIOErrorHandler) ();

typedef void (*XConnectionWatchProc) ();

X11/Xutil.h

typedef struct
{
  int x;
  int y;
  struct max_aspect;
  int base_width;
  int base_height;
  int win_gravity;
}
XSizeHints;

typedef struct
{
  long flags;
  int input;
  int initial_state;
  Pixmap icon_pixmap;
  Window icon_window;
  int icon_x;
  int icon_y;
  Pixmap icon_mask;
  XID window_group;
}
XWMHints;

typedef struct
{
  unsigned char *value;
  Atom encoding;
  int ;
  unsigned long nitems;
}
XTextProperty;

typedef struct
{
  int min_width;
  int min_height;
  int max_width;
  int max_height;
  int width_inc;
  int height_inc;
}
XIconSize;

typedef struct
{
  char *res_name;
  char *res_class;
}
XClassHint;

typedef struct _XComposeStatus
{
  XPointer compose_ptr;
  int chars_matched;
}
XComposeStatus;

typedef struct _XRegion *Region;

typedef struct
{
  Visual *visual;
  VisualID visualid;
  int screen;
  int depth;
  int class;
  unsigned long red_mask;
  unsigned long green_mask;
  unsigned long blue_mask;
  int colormap_size;
  int bits_per_rgb;
}
XVisualInfo;

typedef struct
{
  Colormap colormap;
  unsigned long red_max;
  unsigned long red_mult;
  unsigned long green_max;
  unsigned long green_mult;
  unsigned long blue_max;
  unsigned long blue_mult;
  unsigned long base_pixel;
  VisualID visualid;
  XID killid;
}
XStandardColormap;

typedef int XContext;

typedef enum
{
  XStringStyle,
  XCompoundTextStyle,
  XTextStyle,
  XStdICCTextStyle,
  XUTF8StringStyle
}
XICCEncodingStyle;

Interfaces for libXext

Table 12-3. libXext Definition

Library:libXext
SONAME:libXext.so.6

The behaviour of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following Standards.

Double Buffer Extension Library[22]
X Display Power Management Signaling (DPMS) Extension, Library Specification[23]
Security Extension Specification, Version 7.1[24]
X Nonrectangular Window Shape Extension Library Version 1.0[25]
MIT-SHM--The MIT Shared Memory Extension[26]
X Synchronization Extension Library[27]


X Shape Extension

Table 12-4. libXext - X Shape Extension Function Interfaces

XShapeCombineMask[25]XShapeCombineShape[25]XShapeOffsetShape[25]XShapeQueryVersion[25] 
XShapeCombineRectangles[25]XShapeGetRectangles[25]XShapeQueryExtension[25]XShapeSelectInput[25] 
XShapeCombineRegion[25]XShapeInputSelected[25]XShapeQueryExtents[25]  

X Display Power Managment Signaling Extension

Table 12-5. libXext - X Display Power Managment Signaling Extension Function Interfaces

DPMSCapable[23]DPMSEnable[23]DPMSGetTimeouts[23]DPMSInfo[23]DPMSSetTimeouts[23]
DPMSDisable[23]DPMSForceLevel[23]DPMSGetVersion[23]DPMSQueryExtension[23] 

X Shared Memory Extensions

Table 12-6. libXext - X Shared Memory Extensions Function Interfaces

XShmAttach[26]XShmCreatePixmap[26]XShmGetEventBase[26]XShmPixmapFormat[26]XShmQueryExtension[26]
XShmCreateImage[26]XShmDetach[26]XShmGetImage[26]XShmPutImage[26]XShmQueryVersion[26]

X Security Extension

Table 12-7. libXext - X Security Extension Function Interfaces

XSecurityAllocXauth[24]XSecurityFreeXauth[24]XSecurityGenerateAuthorization[24]XSecurityQueryExtension[24]XSecurityRevokeAuthorization[24]

X Synchronization Extension

Table 12-8. libXext - X Synchronization Extension Function Interfaces

XSyncAwait[27]XSyncFreeSystemCounterList[27]XSyncMinValue[27]XSyncValueEqual[27]XSyncValueLessOrEqual[27]
XSyncChangeAlarm[27]XSyncGetPriority[27]XSyncQueryAlarm[27]XSyncValueGreaterOrEqual[27]XSyncValueLessThan[27]
XSyncChangeCounter[27]XSyncInitialize[27]XSyncQueryCounter[27]XSyncValueGreaterThan[27]XSyncValueLow32[27]
XSyncCreateAlarm[27]XSyncIntToValue[27]XSyncQueryExtension[27]XSyncValueHigh32[27]XSyncValueSubtract[27]
XSyncCreateCounter[27]XSyncIntsToValue[27]XSyncSetCounter[27]XSyncValueIsNegative[27] 
XSyncDestroyAlarm[27]XSyncListSystemCounters[27]XSyncSetPriority[27]XSyncValueIsPositive[27] 
XSyncDestroyCounter[27]XSyncMaxValue[27]XSyncValueAdd[27]XSyncValueIsZero[27] 

X Double Buffer Extension

Table 12-9. libXext - X Double Buffer Extension Function Interfaces

XdbeAllocateBackBufferName[22]XdbeDeallocateBackBufferName[22]XdbeFreeVisualInfo[22]XdbeGetVisualInfo[22]XdbeSwapBuffers[22]
XdbeBeginIdiom[22]XdbeEndIdiom[22]XdbeGetBackBufferAttributes[22]XdbeQueryExtension[22] 

Data Definitions for libXext


X11/extensions/security.h

typedef unsigned long XSecurityAuthorization;

typedef struct
{
  unsigned int timeout;
  unsigned int trust_level;
  XID group;
  long event_mask;
}
XSecurityAuthorizationAttributes;

X11/extensions/sync.h

typedef XID XSyncCounter;

typedef XID XSyncAlarm;

typedef struct _XSyncValue
{
  int hi;
  unsigned int lo;
}
XSyncValue;

typedef enum
{
  XSyncAbsolute,
  XSyncRelative
}
XSyncValueType;

typedef enum
{
  XSyncPositiveTransition,
  XSyncNegativeTransition,
  XSyncPositiveComparison,
  XSyncNegativeComparison
}
XSyncTestType;

typedef enum
{
  XSyncAlarmActive,
  XSyncAlarmInactive,
  XSyncAlarmDestroyed
}
XSyncAlarmState;

typedef struct _XSyncSystemCounter
{
  char *name;
  XSyncCounter counter;
  XSyncValue resolution;
}
XSyncSystemCounter;

typedef struct
{
  XSyncCounter counter;
  XSyncValueType value_type;
  XSyncValue wait_value;
  XSyncTestType test_type;
}
XSyncTrigger;

typedef struct
{
  XSyncTrigger trigger;
  XSyncValue event_threshold;
}
XSyncWaitCondition;

typedef struct
{
  XSyncTrigger trigger;
  XSyncValue delta;
  int events;
  XSyncAlarmState state;
}
XSyncAlarmAttributes;

Interfaces for libSM

Table 12-10. libSM Definition

Library:libSM
SONAME:libSM.so.6

The behaviour of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following Standards.

X11R6.4 X Session Management Library[28]


Session Management Functions

Table 12-11. libSM - Session Management Functions Function Interfaces

SmFreeProperty[28]SmcInteractRequest[28]SmcSaveYourselfDone[28]SmsGenerateClientID[28]SmsSaveComplete[28]
SmFreeReasons[28]SmcModifyCallbacks[28]SmcSetErrorHandler[28]SmsGetIceConnection[28]SmsSaveYourself[28]
SmcClientID[28]SmcOpenConnection[28]SmcSetProperties[28]SmsInitialize[28]SmsSaveYourselfPhase2[28]
SmcCloseConnection[28]SmcProtocolRevision[28]SmcVendor[28]SmsInteract[28]SmsSetErrorHandler[28]
SmcDeleteProperties[28]SmcProtocolVersion[28]SmsCleanUp[28]SmsProtocolRevision[28]SmsShutdownCancelled[28]
SmcGetIceConnection[28]SmcRelease[28]SmsClientHostName[28]SmsProtocolVersion[28] 
SmcGetProperties[28]SmcRequestSaveYourself[28]SmsClientID[28]SmsRegisterClientReply[28] 
SmcInteractDone[28]SmcRequestSaveYourselfPhase2[28]SmsDie[28]SmsReturnProperties[28] 

Data Definitions for libSM


X11/SM/SMlib.h

typedef IcePointer SmPointer;

typedef struct _SmcConn *SmcConn;

typedef struct _SmsConn *SmsConn;

typedef struct
{
  int length;
  SmPointer value;
}
SmPropValue;

typedef struct
{
  char *name;
  char *type;
  int num_vals;
  SmPropValue *vals;
}
SmProp;

typedef enum
{
  SmcClosedNow,
  SmcClosedASAP,
  SmcConnectionInUse
}
SmcCloseStatus;

typedef void (*SmcSaveYourselfPhase2Proc) ();

typedef void (*SmcInteractProc) ();

typedef void (*SmcDieProc) ();

typedef void (*SmcShutdownCancelledProc) ();

typedef void (*SmcSaveCompleteProc) ();

typedef void (*SmcPropReplyProc) ();

typedef struct
{
  SmcShutdownCancelledProc callback;
  SmPointer client_data;
  struct shutdown_cancelled;
}
SmcCallbacks;

typedef void (*SmsSetPropertiesProc) ();

typedef void (*SmsDeletePropertiesProc) ();

typedef void (*SmsGetPropertiesProc) ();

typedef struct
{
  SmsGetPropertiesProc callback;
  SmPointer manager_data;
  struct get_properties;
}
SmsCallbacks;

typedef int (*SmsNewClientProc) ();

typedef void (*SmcErrorHandler) ();

typedef void (*SmsErrorHandler) ();

Interfaces for libICE

Table 12-12. libICE Definition

Library:libICE
SONAME:libICE.so.6

The behaviour of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following Standards.

X11R6.4 X Inter-Client Exchange (ICE) Protocol[29]


ICE Functions

Table 12-13. libICE - ICE Functions Function Interfaces

IceAcceptConnection[29]IceConnectionStatus[29]IceGetListenConnectionString[29]IceProcessMessages[29]IceSetErrorHandler[29]
IceAddConnectionWatch[29]IceConnectionString[29]IceGetOutBufSize[29]IceProtocolRevision[29]IceSetHostBasedAuthProc[29]
IceAllocScratch[29]IceFlush[29]IceInitThreads[29]IceProtocolSetup[29]IceSetIOErrorHandler[29]
IceAppLockConn[29]IceFreeAuthFileEntry[29]IceLastReceivedSequenceNumber[29]IceProtocolShutdown[29]IceSetPaAuthData[29]
IceAppUnlockConn[29]IceFreeListenObjs[29]IceLastSentSequenceNumber[29]IceProtocolVersion[29]IceSetShutdownNegotiation[29]
IceAuthFileName[29]IceGenerateMagicCookie[29]IceListenForConnections[29]IceReadAuthFileEntry[29]IceSwapping[29]
IceCheckShutdownNegotiation[29]IceGetAuthFileEntry[29]IceListenForWellKnownConnections[29]IceRegisterForProtocolReply[29]IceUnlockAuthFile[29]
IceCloseConnection[29]IceGetConnectionContext[29]IceLockAuthFile[29]IceRegisterForProtocolSetup[29]IceVendor[29]
IceComposeNetworkIdList[29]IceGetInBufSize[29]IceOpenConnection[29]IceRelease[29]IceWriteAuthFileEntry[29]
IceConnectionNumber[29]IceGetListenConnectionNumber[29]IcePing[29]IceRemoveConnectionWatch[29] 

Data Definitions for libICE


X11/ICE/ICElib.h

typedef void *IcePointer;

typedef enum
{
  IcePoAuthHaveReply,
  IcePoAuthRejected,
  IcePoAuthFailed,
  IcePoAuthDoneCleanup
}
IcePoAuthStatus;

typedef enum
{
  IcePaAuthContinue,
  IcePaAuthAccepted,
  IcePaAuthRejected,
  IcePaAuthFailed
}
IcePaAuthStatus;

typedef enum
{
  IceConnectPending,
  IceConnectAccepted,
  IceConnectRejected,
  IceConnectIOError
}
IceConnectStatus;

typedef enum
{
  IceProtocolSetupSuccess,
  IceProtocolSetupFailure,
  IceProtocolSetupIOError,
  IceProtocolAlreadyActive
}
IceProtocolSetupStatus;

typedef enum
{
  IceAcceptSuccess,
  IceAcceptFailure,
  IceAcceptBadMalloc
}
IceAcceptStatus;

typedef enum
{
  IceClosedNow,
  IceClosedASAP,
  IceConnectionInUse,
  IceStartedShutdownNegotiation
}
IceCloseStatus;

typedef enum
{
  IceProcessMessagesSuccess,
  IceProcessMessagesIOError,
  IceProcessMessagesConnectionClosed
}
IceProcessMessagesStatus;

typedef struct
{
  unsigned long sequence_of_request;
  int major_opcode_of_request;
  int minor_opcode_of_request;
  IcePointer reply;
}
IceReplyWaitInfo;

typedef struct _IceConn *IceConn;

typedef struct _IceListenObj *IceListenObj;

typedef void (*IceWatchProc) ();

typedef void (*IcePoProcessMsgProc) ();

typedef void (*IcePaProcessMsgProc) ();

typedef IcePoAuthStatus (*IcePoAuthProc) ();

typedef IcePaAuthStatus (*IcePaAuthProc) ();

typedef int (*IceHostBasedAuthProc) ();

typedef int (*IceProtocolSetupProc) ();

typedef void (*IceProtocolActivateProc) ();

typedef void (*IceIOErrorProc) ();

typedef void (*IcePingReplyProc) ();

typedef void (*IceErrorHandler) ();

typedef void (*IceIOErrorHandler) ();

typedef struct
{
  int major_version;
  int minor_version;
  IcePoProcessMsgProc process_msg_proc;
}
IcePoVersionRec;

typedef struct
{
  int major_version;
  int minor_version;
  IcePaProcessMsgProc process_msg_proc;
}
IcePaVersionRec;

X11/ICE/ICEutil.h

typedef struct
{
  char *protocol_name;
  unsigned short protocol_data_length;
  char *protocol_data;
  char *network_id;
  char *auth_name;
  unsigned short auth_data_length;
  char *auth_data;
}
IceAuthFileEntry;

typedef struct
{
  char *protocol_name;
  char *network_id;
  char *auth_name;
  unsigned short auth_data_length;
  char *auth_data;
}
IceAuthDataEntry;

Interfaces for libXt

Table 12-14. libXt Definition

Library:libXt
SONAME:libXt.so.6

The behaviour of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following Standards.

Linux Standard Base[30]
X11R.4 X Toolkit Intrinsics[31]


X Toolkit

Table 12-15. libXt - X Toolkit Function Interfaces

XtAddActions[31]XtCancelSelectionRequest[31]XtError[31]XtMainLoop[31]XtSessionGetToken[31]
XtAddCallback[31]XtChangeManagedSet[31]XtErrorMsg[31]XtMakeGeometryRequest[31]XtSessionReturnToken[31]
XtAddCallbacks[31]XtClass[31]XtFindFile[31]XtMakeResizeRequest[31]XtSetErrorHandler[31]
XtAddConverter[31]XtCloseDisplay[31]XtFree[31]XtMalloc[31]XtSetErrorMsgHandler[31]
XtAddEventHandler[31]XtConfigureWidget[31]XtGetActionKeysym[31]XtManageChild[31]XtSetEventDispatcher[31]
XtAddExposureToRegion[31]XtConvert[31]XtGetActionList[31]XtManageChildren[31]XtSetKeyTranslator[31]
XtAddGrab[31]XtConvertAndStore[31]XtGetApplicationNameAndClass[31]XtMapWidget[31]XtSetKeyboardFocus[31]
XtAddInput[31]XtConvertCase[31]XtGetApplicationResources[31]XtMenuPopupAction[31]XtSetLanguageProc[31]
XtAddRawEventHandler[31]XtCreateApplicationContext[31]XtGetClassExtension[31]XtMergeArgLists[31]XtSetMappedWhenManaged[31]
XtAddSignal[31]XtCreateApplicationShell[31]XtGetConstraintResourceList[31]XtMoveWidget[31]XtSetMultiClickTime[31]
XtAddTimeOut[31]XtCreateManagedWidget[31]XtGetDisplays[31]XtName[31]XtSetSelectionParameters[31]
XtAddWorkProc[31]XtCreatePopupShell[31]XtGetErrorDatabase[31]XtNameToWidget[31]XtSetSelectionTimeout[31]
XtAllocateGC[31]XtCreateSelectionRequest[31]XtGetErrorDatabaseText[31]XtNewString[31]XtSetSensitive[31]
XtAppAddActionHook[31]XtCreateWidget[31]XtGetGC[31]XtNextEvent[31]XtSetSubvalues[31]
XtAppAddActions[31]XtCreateWindow[31]XtGetKeyboardFocusWidget[31]XtNoticeSignal[31]XtSetTypeConverter[31]
XtAppAddBlockHook[31]XtCvtColorToPixel[31]XtGetKeysymTable[31]XtOpenApplication[31]XtSetValues[31]
XtAppAddConverter[31]XtCvtIntToBool[31]XtGetMultiClickTime[31]XtOpenDisplay[31]XtSetWMColormapWindows[31]
XtAppAddInput[31]XtCvtIntToBoolean[31]XtGetResourceList[31]XtOverrideTranslations[31]XtSetWarningHandler[31]
XtAppAddSignal[31]XtCvtIntToColor[31]XtGetSelectionParameters[31]XtOwnSelection[31]XtSetWarningMsgHandler[31]
XtAppAddTimeOut[31]XtCvtIntToFloat[31]XtGetSelectionRequest[31]XtOwnSelectionIncremental[31]XtShellStrings[31]
XtAppAddWorkProc[31]XtCvtIntToFont[31]XtGetSelectionTimeout[31]XtParent[31]XtStringConversionWarning[31]
XtAppCreateShell[31]XtCvtIntToPixel[31]XtGetSelectionValue[31]XtParseAcceleratorTable[31]XtStrings[31]
XtAppError[31]XtCvtIntToPixmap[31]XtGetSelectionValueIncremental[31]XtParseTranslationTable[31]XtSuperclass[31]
XtAppErrorMsg[31]XtCvtIntToShort[31]XtGetSelectionValues[31]XtPeekEvent[31]XtToolkitInitialize[31]
XtAppGetErrorDatabase[31]XtCvtIntToUnsignedChar[31]XtGetSelectionValuesIncremental[31]XtPending[31]XtToolkitThreadInitialize[31]
XtAppGetErrorDatabaseText[31]XtCvtStringToAcceleratorTable[31]XtGetSubresources[31]XtPopdown[31]XtTranslateCoords[31]
XtAppGetExitFlag[31]XtCvtStringToAtom[31]XtGetSubvalues[31]XtPopup[31]XtTranslateKey[31]
XtAppGetSelectionTimeout[31]XtCvtStringToBool[31]XtGetValues[31]XtPopupSpringLoaded[31]XtTranslateKeycode[31]
XtAppInitialize[31]XtCvtStringToBoolean[31]XtGrabButton[31]XtProcessEvent[31]XtUngrabButton[31]
XtAppLock[31]XtCvtStringToCommandArgArray[31]XtGrabKey[31]XtProcessLock[31]XtUngrabKey[31]
XtAppMainLoop[31]XtCvtStringToCursor[31]XtGrabKeyboard[31]XtProcessUnlock[31]XtUngrabKeyboard[31]
XtAppNextEvent[31]XtCvtStringToDimension[31]XtGrabPointer[31]XtQueryGeometry[31]XtUngrabPointer[31]
XtAppPeekEvent[31]XtCvtStringToDirectoryString[31]XtHasCallbacks[31]XtRealizeWidget[31]XtUninstallTranslations[31]
XtAppPending[31]XtCvtStringToDisplay[31]XtHooksOfDisplay[31]XtRealloc[31]XtUnmanageChild[31]
XtAppProcessEvent[31]XtCvtStringToFile[31]XtInitialize[31]XtRegisterCaseConverter[31]XtUnmanageChildren[31]
XtAppReleaseCacheRefs[31]XtCvtStringToFloat[31]XtInitializeWidgetClass[31]XtRegisterDrawable[31]XtUnmapWidget[31]
XtAppSetErrorHandler[31]XtCvtStringToFont[31]XtInsertEventHandler[31]XtRegisterExtensionSelector[31]XtUnrealizeWidget[31]
XtAppSetErrorMsgHandler[31]XtCvtStringToFontSet[31]XtInsertEventTypeHandler[31]XtRegisterGrabAction[31]XtUnregisterDrawable[31]
XtAppSetExitFlag[31]XtCvtStringToFontStruct[31]XtInsertRawEventHandler[31]XtReleaseGC[31]XtVaAppCreateShell[31]
XtAppSetFallbackResources[31]XtCvtStringToGravity[31]XtInstallAccelerators[31]XtReleasePropertyAtom[31]XtVaAppInitialize[31]
XtAppSetSelectionTimeout[31]XtCvtStringToInitialState[31]XtInstallAllAccelerators[31]XtRemoveActionHook[31]XtVaCreateArgsList[31]
XtAppSetTypeConverter[31]XtCvtStringToInt[31]XtIsApplicationShell[31]XtRemoveAllCallbacks[31]XtVaCreateManagedWidget[31]
XtAppSetWarningHandler[31]XtCvtStringToPixel[31]XtIsComposite[31]XtRemoveBlockHook[31]XtVaCreatePopupShell[31]
XtAppSetWarningMsgHandler[31]XtCvtStringToRestartStyle[31]XtIsConstraint[31]XtRemoveCallback[31]XtVaCreateWidget[31]
XtAppUnlock[31]XtCvtStringToShort[31]XtIsManaged[31]XtRemoveCallbacks[31]XtVaGetApplicationResources[31]
XtAppWarning[31]XtCvtStringToTranslationTable[31]XtIsObject[31]XtRemoveEventHandler[31]XtVaGetSubresources[31]
XtAppWarningMsg[31]XtCvtStringToUnsignedChar[31]XtIsOverrideShell[31]XtRemoveEventTypeHandler[31]XtVaGetSubvalues[31]
XtAugmentTranslations[31]XtCvtStringToVisual[31]XtIsRealized[31]XtRemoveGrab[31]XtVaGetValues[31]
XtBuildEventMask[31]XtDatabase[31]XtIsRectObj[31]XtRemoveInput[31]XtVaOpenApplication[31]
XtCallAcceptFocus[31]XtDestroyApplicationContext[31]XtIsSensitive[31]XtRemoveRawEventHandler[31]XtVaSetSubvalues[31]
XtCallActionProc[31]XtDestroyGC[31]XtIsSessionShell[31]XtRemoveSignal[31]XtVaSetValues[31]
XtCallCallbackList[31]XtDestroyWidget[31]XtIsShell[31]XtRemoveTimeOut[31]XtWarning[31]
XtCallCallbacks[31]XtDirectConvert[31]XtIsSubclass[31]XtRemoveWorkProc[31]XtWarningMsg[31]
XtCallConverter[31]XtDisownSelection[31]XtIsTopLevelShell[31]XtReservePropertyAtom[31]XtWidgetToApplicationContext[31]
XtCallbackExclusive[31]XtDispatchEvent[31]XtIsTransientShell[31]XtResizeWidget[31]XtWindow[31]
XtCallbackNone[31]XtDispatchEventToWidget[31]XtIsVendorShell[31]XtResizeWindow[31]XtWindowOfObject[31]
XtCallbackNonexclusive[31]XtDisplay[31]XtIsWMShell[31]XtResolvePathname[31]XtWindowToWidget[31]
XtCallbackPopdown[31]XtDisplayInitialize[31]XtIsWidget[31]XtScreen[31]_XtCopyFromArg[30]
XtCallbackReleaseCacheRef[31]XtDisplayOfObject[31]XtKeysymToKeycodeList[31]XtScreenDatabase[31]_XtInherit[30]
XtCallbackReleaseCacheRefList[31]XtDisplayStringConversionWarning[31]XtLastEventProcessed[31]XtScreenOfObject[31]_XtIsSubclassOf[30]
XtCalloc[31]XtDisplayToApplicationContext[31]XtLastTimestampProcessed[31]XtSendSelectionRequest[31] 

Data Symbols

Table 12-16. libXt - X Toolkit Data Interfaces

XtCXtToolkitError[31]constraintWidgetClass[31]rectObjClass[31]topLevelShellClassRec[31]wmShellClassRec[31]
_XtInheritTranslations[30]coreWidgetClass[31]rectObjClassRec[31]topLevelShellWidgetClass[31]wmShellWidgetClass[31]
applicationShellWidgetClass[31]objectClass[31]sessionShellClassRec[31]transientShellClassRec[31] 
compositeClassRec[31]objectClassRec[31]sessionShellWidgetClass[31]transientShellWidgetClass[31] 
compositeWidgetClass[31]overrideShellClassRec[31]shellClassRec[31]widgetClass[31] 
constraintClassRec[31]overrideShellWidgetClass[31]shellWidgetClass[31]widgetClassRec[31] 

Interface Definitions for libXt

Table of Contents
_XtCopyFromArg — Copy "size" bytes from src to dst.
_XtInherit — inheritance operation.
_XtInheritTranslations — an inheritance constant
_XtIsSubclassOf — Is Widget a Subclass of WidgetClass.

_XtCopyFromArg

Name

_XtCopyFromArg -- Copy "size" bytes from src to dst.

Synopsis

void _XtCopyFromArg(XtArgVal src,char* dst,unsigned int size);

Description

The _XtCopyFromArg() function copies "size" bytes from src to dst. This is an internal X function call.

_XtInherit

Name

_XtInherit -- inheritance operation.

Synopsis

#include <IntrinsicP.h>

extern void _XtInherit(
#if NeedFunctionPrototypes
    void
#endif
);

Description

_XtInherit() is a procedure that issues an error message if it is actually called.

_XtInheritTranslations

Name

_XtInheritTranslations -- an inheritance constant

Synopsis

#include <CoreP.h>

externalref int _XtInheritTranslations;

Description

_XtInheritTranslations is an inheritance constant.

_XtIsSubclassOf

Name

_XtIsSubclassOf -- Is Widget a Subclass of WidgetClass.

Synopsis

#include <Intrinsic.h>

extern Boolean _XtIsSubclassOf(
    Widget              /* object*  /,
    WidgetClass         /* widget_class */,
    WidgetClass         /* flag_class */,
    _XtXtEnum           /* type_flag */,
);

Description

Is Widget(object) a Subclass of WidgetClass(widget_class).


Interfaces for libGL

Table 12-17. libGL Definition

Library:libGL
SONAME:libGL.so.1

The behaviour of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following Standards.

OpenGLŪ Application Binary Interface for Linux[32]


GL X interface

Table 12-18. libGL - GL X interface Function Interfaces

glXChooseVisual[32]glXDestroyContext[32]glXGetContextIDEXT[32]glXImportContextEXT[32]glXQueryExtensionsString[32]
glXCopyContext[32]glXDestroyGLXPixmap[32]glXGetCurrentContext[32]glXIsDirect[32]glXQueryServerString[32]
glXCreateContext[32]glXDestroyPbuffer[32]glXGetCurrentDisplay[32]glXMakeContextCurrent[32]glXQueryVersion[32]
glXCreateGLXPixmap[32]glXDestroyPixmap[32]glXGetCurrentDrawable[32]glXMakeCurrent[32]glXSelectEvent[32]
glXCreateNewContext[32]glXDestroyWindow[32]glXGetCurrentReadDrawable[32]glXQueryContext[32]glXSwapBuffers[32]
glXCreatePbuffer[32]glXFreeContextEXT[32]glXGetFBConfigAttrib[32]glXQueryContextInfoEXT[32]glXUseXFont[32]
glXCreatePixmap[32]glXGetClientString[32]glXGetSelectedEvent[32]glXQueryDrawable[32]glXWaitGL[32]
glXCreateWindow[32]glXGetConfig[32]glXGetVisualFromFBConfig[32]glXQueryExtension[32]glXWaitX[32]

OpenGL

Table 12-19. libGL - OpenGL Function Interfaces

glAccum[32]glDepthRange[32]glIndexPointer[32]glNormal3d[32]glTexCoord1fv[32]
glActiveTextureARB[32]glDisable[32]glIndexd[32]glNormal3dv[32]glTexCoord1i[32]
glAlphaFunc[32]glDisableClientState[32]glIndexdv[32]glNormal3f[32]glTexCoord1iv[32]
glAreTexturesResident[32]glDrawArrays[32]glIndexf[32]glNormal3fv[32]glTexCoord1s[32]
glArrayElement[32]glDrawBuffer[32]glIndexfv[32]glNormal3i[32]glTexCoord1sv[32]
glBegin[32]glDrawElements[32]glIndexi[32]glNormal3iv[32]glTexCoord2d[32]
glBindTexture[32]glDrawPixels[32]glIndexiv[32]glNormal3s[32]glTexCoord2dv[32]
glBitmap[32]glDrawRangeElements[32]glIndexs[32]glNormal3sv[32]glTexCoord2f[32]
glBlendColor[32]glEdgeFlag[32]glIndexsv[32]glNormalPointer[32]glTexCoord2fv[32]
glBlendColorEXT[32]glEdgeFlagPointer[32]glIndexub[32]glOrtho[32]glTexCoord2i[32]
glBlendEquation[32]glEdgeFlagv[32]glIndexubv[32]glPassThrough[32]glTexCoord2iv[32]
glBlendEquationEXT[32]glEnable[32]glInitNames[32]glPixelMapfv[32]glTexCoord2s[32]
glBlendFunc[32]glEnableClientState[32]glInterleavedArrays[32]glPixelMapuiv[32]glTexCoord2sv[32]
glCallList[32]glEnd[32]glIsEnabled[32]glPixelMapusv[32]glTexCoord3d[32]
glCallLists[32]glEndList[32]glIsList[32]glPixelStoref[32]glTexCoord3dv[32]
glClear[32]glEvalCoord1d[32]glIsTexture[32]glPixelStorei[32]glTexCoord3f[32]
glClearAccum[32]glEvalCoord1dv[32]glLightModelf[32]glPixelTransferf[32]glTexCoord3fv[32]
glClearColor[32]glEvalCoord1f[32]glLightModelfv[32]glPixelTransferi[32]glTexCoord3i[32]
glClearDepth[32]glEvalCoord1fv[32]glLightModeli[32]glPixelZoom[32]glTexCoord3iv[32]
glClearIndex[32]glEvalCoord2d[32]glLightModeliv[32]glPointSize[32]glTexCoord3s[32]
glClearStencil[32]glEvalCoord2dv[32]glLightf[32]glPolygonMode[32]glTexCoord3sv[32]
glClientActiveTextureARB[32]glEvalCoord2f[32]glLightfv[32]glPolygonOffset[32]glTexCoord4d[32]
glClipPlane[32]glEvalCoord2fv[32]glLighti[32]glPolygonStipple[32]glTexCoord4dv[32]
glColor3b[32]glEvalMesh1[32]glLightiv[32]glPopAttrib[32]glTexCoord4f[32]
glColor3bv[32]glEvalMesh2[32]glLineStipple[32]glPopClientAttrib[32]glTexCoord4fv[32]
glColor3d[32]glEvalPoint1[32]glLineWidth[32]glPopMatrix[32]glTexCoord4i[32]
glColor3dv[32]glEvalPoint2[32]glListBase[32]glPopName[32]glTexCoord4iv[32]
glColor3f[32]glFeedbackBuffer[32]glLoadIdentity[32]glPrioritizeTextures[32]glTexCoord4s[32]
glColor3fv[32]glFinish[32]glLoadMatrixd[32]glPushAttrib[32]glTexCoord4sv[32]
glColor3i[32]glFlush[32]glLoadMatrixf[32]glPushClientAttrib[32]glTexCoordPointer[32]
glColor3iv[32]glFogf[32]glLoadName[32]glPushMatrix[32]glTexEnvf[32]
glColor3s[32]glFogfv[32]glLogicOp[32]glPushName[32]glTexEnvfv[32]
glColor3sv[32]glFogi[32]glMap1d[32]glRasterPos2d[32]glTexEnvi[32]
glColor3ub[32]glFogiv[32]glMap1f[32]glRasterPos2dv[32]glTexEnviv[32]
glColor3ubv[32]glFrontFace[32]glMap2d[32]glRasterPos2f[32]glTexGend[32]
glColor3ui[32]glFrustum[32]glMap2f[32]glRasterPos2fv[32]glTexGendv[32]
glColor3uiv[32]glGenLists[32]glMapGrid1d[32]glRasterPos2i[32]glTexGenf[32]
glColor3us[32]glGenTextures[32]glMapGrid1f[32]glRasterPos2iv[32]glTexGenfv[32]
glColor3usv[32]glGetBooleanv[32]glMapGrid2d[32]glRasterPos2s[32]glTexGeni[32]
glColor4b[32]glGetClipPlane[32]glMapGrid2f[32]glRasterPos2sv[32]glTexGeniv[32]
glColor4bv[32]glGetColorTable[32]glMaterialf[32]glRasterPos3d[32]glTexImage1D[32]
glColor4d[32]glGetColorTableParameterfv[32]glMaterialfv[32]glRasterPos3dv[32]glTexImage2D[32]
glColor4dv[32]glGetColorTableParameteriv[32]glMateriali[32]glRasterPos3f[32]glTexImage3D[32]
glColor4f[32]glGetConvolutionFilter[32]glMaterialiv[32]glRasterPos3fv[32]glTexParameterf[32]
glColor4fv[32]glGetConvolutionParameterfv[32]glMatrixMode[32]glRasterPos3i[32]glTexParameterfv[32]
glColor4i[32]glGetConvolutionParameteriv[32]glMinmax[32]glRasterPos3iv[32]glTexParameteri[32]
glColor4iv[32]glGetDoublev[32]glMultMatrixd[32]glRasterPos3s[32]glTexParameteriv[32]
glColor4s[32]glGetError[32]glMultMatrixf[32]glRasterPos3sv[32]glTexSubImage1D[32]
glColor4sv[32]glGetFloatv[32]glMultiTexCoord1dARB[32]glRasterPos4d[32]glTexSubImage2D[32]
glColor4ub[32]glGetHistogram[32]glMultiTexCoord1dvARB[32]glRasterPos4dv[32]glTexSubImage3D[32]
glColor4ubv[32]glGetHistogramParameterfv[32]glMultiTexCoord1fARB[32]glRasterPos4f[32]glTranslated[32]
glColor4ui[32]glGetHistogramParameteriv[32]glMultiTexCoord1fvARB[32]glRasterPos4fv[32]glTranslatef[32]
glColor4uiv[32]glGetIntegerv[32]glMultiTexCoord1iARB[32]glRasterPos4i[32]glVertex2d[32]
glColor4us[32]glGetLightfv[32]glMultiTexCoord1ivARB[32]glRasterPos4iv[32]glVertex2dv[32]
glColor4usv[32]glGetLightiv[32]glMultiTexCoord1sARB[32]glRasterPos4s[32]glVertex2f[32]
glColorMask[32]glGetMapdv[32]glMultiTexCoord1svARB[32]glRasterPos4sv[32]glVertex2fv[32]
glColorMaterial[32]glGetMapfv[32]glMultiTexCoord2dARB[32]glReadBuffer[32]glVertex2i[32]
glColorPointer[32]glGetMapiv[32]glMultiTexCoord2dvARB[32]glReadPixels[32]glVertex2iv[32]
glColorSubTable[32]glGetMaterialfv[32]glMultiTexCoord2fARB[32]glRectd[32]glVertex2s[32]
glColorTable[32]glGetMaterialiv[32]glMultiTexCoord2fvARB[32]glRectdv[32]glVertex2sv[32]
glColorTableParameterfv[32]glGetMinmax[32]glMultiTexCoord2iARB[32]glRectf[32]glVertex3d[32]
glColorTableParameteriv[32]glGetMinmaxParameterfv[32]glMultiTexCoord2ivARB[32]glRectfv[32]glVertex3dv[32]
glConvolutionFilter1D[32]glGetMinmaxParameteriv[32]glMultiTexCoord2sARB[32]glRecti[32]glVertex3f[32]
glConvolutionFilter2D[32]glGetPixelMapfv[32]glMultiTexCoord2svARB[32]glRectiv[32]glVertex3fv[32]
glConvolutionParameterf[32]glGetPixelMapuiv[32]glMultiTexCoord3dARB[32]glRects[32]glVertex3i[32]
glConvolutionParameterfv[32]glGetPixelMapusv[32]glMultiTexCoord3dvARB[32]glRectsv[32]glVertex3iv[32]
glConvolutionParameteri[32]glGetPointerv[32]glMultiTexCoord3fARB[32]glRenderMode[32]glVertex3s[32]
glConvolutionParameteriv[32]glGetPolygonStipple[32]glMultiTexCoord3fvARB[32]glResetHistogram[32]glVertex3sv[32]
glCopyColorSubTable[32]glGetSeparableFilter[32]glMultiTexCoord3iARB[32]glResetMinmax[32]glVertex4d[32]
glCopyColorTable[32]glGetString[32]glMultiTexCoord3ivARB[32]glRotated[32]glVertex4dv[32]
glCopyConvolutionFilter1D[32]glGetTexEnvfv[32]glMultiTexCoord3sARB[32]glRotatef[32]glVertex4f[32]
glCopyConvolutionFilter2D[32]glGetTexEnviv[32]glMultiTexCoord3svARB[32]glScaled[32]glVertex4fv[32]
glCopyPixels[32]glGetTexGendv[32]glMultiTexCoord4dARB[32]glScalef[32]glVertex4i[32]
glCopyTexImage1D[32]glGetTexGenfv[32]glMultiTexCoord4dvARB[32]glScissor[32]glVertex4iv[32]
glCopyTexImage2D[32]glGetTexGeniv[32]glMultiTexCoord4fARB[32]glSelectBuffer[32]glVertex4s[32]
glCopyTexSubImage1D[32]glGetTexImage[32]glMultiTexCoord4fvARB[32]glSeparableFilter2D[32]glVertex4sv[32]
glCopyTexSubImage2D[32]glGetTexLevelParameterfv[32]glMultiTexCoord4iARB[32]glShadeModel[32]glVertexPointer[32]
glCopyTexSubImage3D[32]glGetTexLevelParameteriv[32]glMultiTexCoord4ivARB[32]glStencilFunc[32]glViewport[32]
glCullFace[32]glGetTexParameterfv[32]glMultiTexCoord4sARB[32]glStencilMask[32]glXChooseFBConfig[32]
glDeleteLists[32]glGetTexParameteriv[32]glMultiTexCoord4svARB[32]glStencilOp[32] 
glDeleteTextures[32]glHint[32]glNewList[32]glTexCoord1d[32] 
glDepthFunc[32]glHistogram[32]glNormal3b[32]glTexCoord1dv[32] 
glDepthMask[32]glIndexMask[32]glNormal3bv[32]glTexCoord1f[32] 

Data Definitions for libGL


GL/gl.h

typedef unsigned int GLenum;

typedef unsigned char GLboolean;

typedef unsigned int GLbitfield;

typedef void GLvoid;

typedef char GLbyte;

typedef short GLshort;

typedef int GLint;

typedef unsigned char GLubyte;

typedef unsigned short GLushort;

typedef unsigned int GLuint;

typedef int GLsizei;

typedef float GLfloat;

typedef float GLclampf;

typedef double GLdouble;

typedef double GLclampd;

GL/glx.h

typedef struct __GLXcontextRec *GLXContext;

typedef struct __GLXFBConfigRec *GLXFBConfig;

typedef XID GLXContextID;

typedef XID GLXPixmap;

typedef XID GLXDrawable;

typedef XID GLXPbuffer;

typedef XID GLXWindow;

VII. Package Format and Installation

Table of Contents
13. Software Installation

Chapter 13. Software Installation


Package Format

Applications should be provided in the RPM packaging format as defined in the appendix of Maximum RPM, with some restrictions listed below. [33]

Distributions must provide a mechanism for installing applications in this packaging format with some restrictions listed below. [34]


Package Script Constraints

Scripts used as part of the package install and uninstall may only use commands and interfaces that are specified by the LSB. All other commands are not guaranteed to be present, or to behave in expected ways.

Packages may not use RPM triggers.

Packages may not depend on the order in which scripts are executed (pre-install, pre-uninstall, &c), when doing an upgrade.


Package Tools

The LSB does not specify the interface to the tools used to manipulate LSB conformant packages. Each conforming distribution will provide documentation for installing LSB packages.


Package Naming

Because there is no consistent packaging naming amongst the various Linux distributions, it is necessary for LSB conformant packages to adhere the following naming rules to avoid conflicts with packages provided by the distributions.

  • All LSB package names must begin with the prefix "lsb-" to avoid conflicting with existing packages used by Linux distributions.

  • If the package name contains only one hyphen (including the one in the "lsb-" prefix) then the package name must be assigned by the Linux Assigned Names and Numbers Authority (LANANA), which shall maintain a registry of LSB names.

  • If the package name contains more than one hyphen (i.e., "lsb-www.redhat.com-redhat-database" or "lsb-gnome-gnumeric"), then the portion of the package name between first and second hyphens must either be an LSB provider name assigned by the LANANA, or it may be owners' DNS name in lower case, with at least one '.'. I.e., "debian.org", "staroffice.sun.com", etc. The LSB provider name assigned by LANANA must only consist of the ASCII characters [a-z0-9].


Package Dependencies

Packages must depend on a dependency "lsb". They may not depend on other system-provided dependencies. If a package includes "Provides" it must only provide a virtual package name which is registered to that application.

VIII. Commands and Utilities

Table of Contents
14. Command and Utilities

Chapter 14. Command and Utilities

Command and Utilities

The following table lists the Commands and Utilities. Unless otherwise specified the command or utility is described in the Single UNIX Specification (SUS). When an interface is not defined in the SUS, then the next prevailing standard is referenced (ie., POSIX, SVID).

The behaviour of the interfaces described in this section are specified by the following Standards.

Linux Standard Base [35]
CAE Specification, January 1997, Commands and Utilities (XCU), Issue 5(ISBN: 1-85912-191-8, C604) [36]

Table 14-1. Commands and Utilities

ar [35]at [35]awk [35]basename [36]batch [35]
bc [35]cat [35]chfn [35]chgrp [35]chmod [35]
chown [36]chsh [35]cksum [36]cmp [36]col [35]
comm [36]cp [35]cpio [35]crontab [35]csplit [35]
cut [35]date [35]dd [35]df [35]diff [35]
dirname [36]du [35]echo [35]egrep [35]env [35]
expand [35]expr [35]false [36]fgrep [35]file [35]
find [35]fold [36]fuser [35]gencat [35]getconf [36]
grep [35]groupadd [35]groupdel [35]groupmod [35]groups [35]
gunzip [35]gzip [35]head [35]hostname [35]iconv [35]
id [36]install [35]ipcrm [35]ipcs [35]join [36]
kill [36]killall [35]ln [35]locale [36]localedef [36]
logname [36]lpr [35]ls [35]lsb_release [35]m4 [35]
make [35]man [35]md5sum [35]mkdir [35]mkfifo [36]
mknod [35]mktemp [35]more [35]mount [35]mv [35]
newgrp [35]nice [35]nl [35]nohup [35]od [35]
passwd [35]paste [35]patch [35]pathchk [35]pidof [35]
pr [35]printf [35]ps [36]pwd [35]renice [35]
rm [35]rmdir [35]rsync [35]sed [35]sendmail [35]
sh [36]sleep [35]sort [35]split [35]strip [35]
stty [36]su [35]sum [35]sync [35]tail [35]
tar [35]tee [35]test [35]time [35]touch [35]
tr [35]true [36]tsort [36]tty [35]umount [35]
uname [35]unexpand [35]uniq [35]useradd [35]userdel [35]
usermod [35]wc [35]xargs [35]  

Command Behavior

Table of Contents
ar — create and maintain library archives
at — examine or delete jobs for later execution
awk — pattern scanning and processing language
batch — execute commands when the system load permits
bc — An arbitrary precision calculator language
cat — concatenate and print files
chfn — change user name and information
chgrp — change group ownership
chmod — change file access permissions
chown — change file access permissions
chsh — change login shell
col — filter reverse line feeds from input
cp — copy files and directories
cpio — copy file archives in and out
csplit — split a file into sections determined by context lines
crontab — maintain crontab files for individual users
cut — split a file into sections determined by context lines
date — print or set the system date and time
dd — convert and copy a file
df — report filesystem disk space usage
diff — find differences between two files
dmesg — print or control the kernel ring buffer
du — estimate file space usage
echo — display a line of text
egrep — search a file with an ERE pattern
env — run a program in a modified environment
expand — convert tabs to spaces
expr — evaluate expressions
fgrep — search a file with an ERE pattern
file — determine file type
find — search for files in a directory hierarchy
fuser — identify processes using files or sockets
gencat — generate a formatted message catalogue
grep — print lines matching a pattern
groupadd — Create a new group
groupdel — Delete a group
groupmod — Modify a group
groups — Display a group
gzip — compress or expand files
gunzip — uncompress files
head — output the first part of files
hostname — show the system's host name
iconv — show the system's host name
install — copy files and set attributes
ipcrm — Create a new user or update default new user information
ipcs — copy files and set attributes
killall — kill processes by name
ln — make links between files
localedef — split a file into sections determined by context lines
login — Begin session on the system
lpr — off line print
ls — list directory contents
lsb_release — print distribution specific information
m4 — macro processor
make — maintain, update and regenerate groups of programs
man — display system documentation
md5sum — generates or checks MD5 message digests
mkdir — make directories
mknod — make block or character special files
mktemp — make temporary file name (unique)
more — file perusal filter for crt viewing
mount — Create a new user or update default new user information
mv — move (rename) files
newgrp — Change group ID
nice — nice run a program with modified scheduling priority
nl — number lines of files
nohup — nohup run a command immune to hangups, with output to a non-tty
od — dump files in octal and other formats
passwd — change user password
paste — merge lines of files
patch — apply a diff file to an original
pathchk — check whether file names are valid or portable.
pidof — find the process ID of a running program.
pr — split a file into sections determined by context lines
printf — and print data.
pwd — print name of current/working directory.
renice — alter priority of running processes
rm — remove files or directories.
rmdir — remove empty directories.
rsync — faster, flexible replacement for rcp
sed — stream editor
sendmail — an electronic mail transport agent
shutdown — bring the system down
sleep — delay for a specified amount of time
sort — sort, merge or sequence check text files
split — split a file into pieces
strip — remove unnecessary information from executable files
su — Change user ID or become super-user
sum — print checksum and block count of a file
sync — flush filesystem buffers
tail — output the last part of files
tar — file archiver
tee — read from standard input and write to standard output and files
test — check file types and compare values
time — run programs and summarize system resource usage
touch — change file access and modification times
tr — translate or delete characters
tty — print the file name of the terminal connected to standard input
umount — unmount file systems
uname — return system name
unexpand — convert spaces to tabs
uniq — remove duplicate lines from a sorted file
useradd — Create a new user or update default new user information
userdel — Delete a user account and related files
usermod — Modify a user account
wc — print the number of bytes, words, and lines in files
xargs — build and execute command lines from standard input

This section contains descriptions of commands that are not documented by other standards, or descriptions of the difference from other standards.

ar

Name

ar -- create and maintain library archives

Description

The specification for "ar" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Differences

-f

equivalent to -T as defined by the SUS.

-l

this option is accepted but causes none of the actions specified by the SUS.

-q

similar to the behavior specified by the SUS, with the addition that the symbol table is updated. Using -qS will give the SUS specified behavior, although the increased speed may not be experienced from this implementation.

at

Name

at -- examine or delete jobs for later execution

Description

The specification for "at" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Differences

-c

cats the jobs listed on the command line to standard output.

-d

This option is functionally equivalent to the -r option specified in the SUS.

-r

This option is not supported but the '-d' option is equivalent.

-t time

This option is not supported.

-V

Prints the version number to standard error.

-v

Shows the time the job will be executed.

FILES

The files at.allow and at.deny reside in /etc rather than /usr/lib/cron.

awk

Name

awk -- pattern scanning and processing language

Description

The specification for "awk" is as specified in the SUS with no differences. "gawk" and "mawk" are SUS compliant implementations of the awk language.

batch

Name

batch -- execute commands when the system load permits

Synopsis

batch [-V] [-q queue] [-f file] [-mv] [TIME]

Description

batch read commands from standard input or a specified file which are to be executed at a later time, using /bin/sh

Differences

-f file

Reads the job from file rather than standard input.

-m

Send mail to the user when the job has completed even if there was no output.

-q queue

uses the specified queue. A queue designation consists of a single letter; valid queue designations range from a to z. and A to Z. The a queue is the default for at and the b queue for batch. Queues with higher letters run with increased niceness. The special queue "=" is reserved for jobs which are currently running.

-V

Prints the version number to standard error.

-v

Shows the time the job will be executed.

FILES

The files at.allow and at.deny reside in /etc rather than /usr/lib/cron.

bc

Name

bc -- An arbitrary precision calculator language

Description

The specification for "bc" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Differences

-q, --quiet

Do not print the normal welcome message.

-s, --standard

Process exactly the POSIX bc language.

-v, --version

Print the version number and copyright and quit.

-w, --warn

Give warnings for extensions to POSIX bc.

cat

Name

cat -- concatenate and print files

Description

The specification for "cat" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Differences

-A, --show-all

equivalent to -vET

-b, --number-nonblank

number nonblank output lines.

-e

equivalent to -vE.

-E, --show-ends

display $ at end of each line.

-n, --number

number all output lines.

-s, --squeeze-blank

never more than one single blank line.

-t

equivalent to -vT.

-T, --showtabs

display TAB characters as ^I.

-u

unlike as specified in the SUS, this option is silently ignored.

-v, --show-nonprinting

use ^ and M- notation, except for LFD and TAB.

--version

output version information and exit.

chfn

Name

chfn -- change user name and information

Synopsis

chfn [-f full_name] [-r room_no]
     [-w work_ph] [-h home_ph] [-o other] [user]

Description

chfn changes user fullname, office number, office extension, and home phone number information for a user's account. This information is typically printed by finger and similar programs. A normal user may only change the fields for their own account, the super user may change the fields for any account. Also, only the super user may use the -o option to change the undefined portions of the GCOS field.

The only restrictions placed on the contents of the fields is that no control characters may be present, nor any of comma, colon, or equal sign. The other field does not have this restriction, and is used to store accounting information used by other applications.

If none of the options are selected, chfn operates in an interactive fashion, prompting the user with the current values for all of the fields. Enter the new value to change the field, or leave the line blank to use the current value. The current value is displayed between a pair of [ ] marks. Without options, chfn prompts for the current user account.

As it is possible for the system to be configured to restrict which fields a non-privileged user is permitted to change, applications should be written to gracefully handle these situations.

Standard Options

-f full_name

Set the user's full name.

-r room_no

Set the user's room number.

-w work_ph

Set the user's work phone number.

-h home_ph

Set the user's home phone number.

-o other

Set the contents of the other field.

chgrp

Name

chgrp -- change group ownership

Synopsis

chgrp [OPTION]... GROUP FILE...
chgrp [OPTION]... --reference=RFILE FILE...

Description

The specification for "chgrp" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Differences

-c, --changes

like verbose but report only when a change is made

--dereference

affect the referent of each symbolic link, rather than the symbolic link itself

-h, --no-dereference

affect symbolic links instead of any referenced file (available only on systems that can change the ownership of a symlink)

-f, --silent, --quiet

suppress most error messages

--reference=RFILE

use RFILE's group rather than the specified GROUP value

-v, --verbose

output a diagnostic for every file processed

--version

output version information and exit

chmod

Name

chmod -- change file access permissions

Synopsis

chmod [OPTION]... MODE[,MODE]... FILE...
chmod [OPTION]... OCTAL-MODE FILE...
chmod [OPTION]... --reference=RFILE FILE...

Description

The specification for "chmod" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Differences

-c, --changes

like verbose but report only when a change is made

-f, --silent, --quiet

suppress most error messages

--reference=RFILE

use RFILE's mode instead of MODE values

-v, --verbose

output a diagnostic for every file processed

--version

output version information and exit

chown

Name

chown -- change file access permissions

Synopsis

chown [OPTION]... OWNER[:[GROUP]] FILE...
chown [OPTION]... :GROUP FILE...
chown [OPTION]... --reference=RFILE FILE...

Description

The specification for "chown" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Differences

-c, --changes

like verbose but report only when a change is made

--dereference

affect the referent of each symbolic link, rather than the symbolic link itself

-h, --no-dereference

affect symbolic links instead of any referenced file (available only on systems that can change the ownership of a symlink)

--from=CURRENT_OWNER:CURRENT_GROUP

change the owner and/or group of each file only if its current owner and/or group match those specified here. Either may be omitted, in which case a match is not required for the omitted attribute.

-f, --silent, --quiet

suppress most error messages

--reference=RFILE

use RFILE's owner and group rather than the specified OWNER:GROUP values

-v, --verbose

output a diagnostic for every file processed

--version

output version information and exit

Note

The use of the '.' character as a separator between the specification of the user name and group name is supported (in addition to the use of the ':' character as specified in the SUS).

chsh

Name

chsh -- change login shell

Synopsis

chsh [-s login_shell] [user]

Description

chsh changes the user login shell. This determines the name of the user's initial login command. A normal user may only change the login shell for their own account, the super user may change the login shell for any account.

The only restrictions placed on the login shell is that the command name must be listed in /etc/shells, unless the invoker is the super-user, and then any value may be added. An account with a restricted login shell may not change their login shell.

If the -s option is not selected, chsh operates in an interactive fashion, prompting the user with the current login shell. Enter the new value to change the field, or leave the line blank to use the current value. The current value is displayed between a pair of [ ] marks.

Standard Options

-s login_shell

Set the login shell.

col

Name

col -- filter reverse line feeds from input

Note

The "col" command does not support the "-p" option as specified in SUS.

cp

Name

cp -- copy files and directories

Synopsis

Description

The specification for "cp" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Differences

-a archive

same as -dpR

--backup[=CONTROL]

make a backup of each existing destination file

-b

like --backup but does not accept an argument

-d, --no-dereference

never follow symbolic links

-H

follow command-line symbolic links

-l, --link

link files instead of copying

-L, --dereference

always follow symbolic links

--parents

append source path to DIRECTORY

--remove-destination

remove each existing destination file before attempting to open it (contrast with --force)

--sparse=WHEN

control creation of spares files.

By default, sparse SOURCE files are detected by a crude heuristic and the corresponding DEST file is made sparse as well. That is the behavior selected by --sparse=auto. Specify --sparse=always to create a sparse DEST file whenever the SOURCE file contains a long enough sequence of zero bytes. Use --sparse=never to inhibit creation of sparse files.

--strip-trailing-slashes

remove any trailing slashes from each SOURCE argument

-s, --symbolic-link

make symbolic links instead of copying

-S, --suffix=SUFFIX

override the usual backup suffix

--target-directory=DIRECTORY

move all SOURCE arguments into DIRECTORY

-u, --update

copy only when the SOURCE file is newer than the destination file or when the destination file is missing

-v, --verbose

explain what is being done

-x, --one-file-system

stay on this file system

--version

output version information and exit

cpio

Name

cpio -- copy file archives in and out

Description

The specification for "cpio" is as specified in the SUS. While additional features my be found in Linux versions of this command, the SUS specified interface is correctly and completely implemented.

csplit

Name

csplit -- split a file into sections determined by context lines

Description

The specification for "csplit" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Differences

-b, --sufix-=FORMAT

use sprintf FORMAT instead of %d

--quiet, --silent

These options are equivalent to the -s option as specified in the SUS

-z, --elide-empty-files

remove empty output files

--version

output version information and exit

crontab

Name

crontab -- maintain crontab files for individual users

Synopsis

crontab [ -u user ] file
crontab [ -u user ] { -l | -r | -e }

Description

The specification for "crontab" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Differences

-u user

specifies the name of the user whose crontab is to be used, rather than the user who is running crontab

FILES

The files cron.allow and cron.deny reside in /etc rather than /usr/lib/cron.

cut

Name

cut -- split a file into sections determined by context lines

Description

The specification for "cut" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Differences

-n

This option as specified in the SUS is not supported

--version

output version information and exit

date

Name

date -- print or set the system date and time

Description

The specification for "date" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Differences

-d, --date=STRING

display time described by STRING, not now

-f, --file=DATAFILE

like --date once for each line of DATEFILE

-r, --reference=FILE

display the last modification time of FILE

-R, --rfc-822

output RFC-822 compliant date string

-s, --set=STRING

set time described by STRING

--utc, --universal

equivalent to the -u option as specified in the SUS

--version

output version information and exit

dd

Name

dd -- convert and copy a file

Description

The specification for "dd" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Differences

SWAB

this keyword to the CONV= option causes alternate bytes to be swapped, just as the SUS declares. Unlike the SUS declaration, the odd character is not ignored, but is appended to the output instead.

df

Name

df -- report filesystem disk space usage

Description

The specification for "df" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Disk space is shown in 1K blocks by default, unless the environment variable POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, in which case 512-byte blocks are used.

If an argument is the absolute file name of a disk device node containing a mounted filesystem, df shows the space available on that filesystem rather than on the filesystem containing the device node (which is always the root filesystem)

Differences

-a, --all

include filesystems having 0 blocks

--block-size=SIZE

use SIZE-byte blocks

-h, --human-readable

print sizes in human readable (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)

-H, --si

likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024

-i, --inodes

list inode information instead of block usage

-l, --local

limit listing to local filesystems

-l, --local

limit listing to local filesystems

-m, --megabytes

like --block-size=1048576

--no-sync

do not invoke sync before getting usage info (default)

-P, --portability

use the POSIX output

--sync

invoke sync before getting usage info

-t, --type=TYPE

use the POSIX output

--portability

Same as the -P option as specified in SUS

--sync

invoke sync before getting usage info

-t, --type=TYPE

This option is different from what is specified in the SUS.

limit listing to filesystems of type TYPE

-T, --print-type

print filesystem type

-x, --exclude-type=TYPE

limit listing to filesystems not of type TYPE

diff

Name

diff -- find differences between two files

Description

The specification for "diff" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

If an argument is the absolute file name of a disk device node containing a mounted filesystem, df shows the space available on that filesystem rather than on the filesystem containing the device node (which is always the root filesystem)

Differences

-a

Treat all files as text and compare them line-by- line, even if they do not seem to be text.

-B

Ignore changes that just insert or delete blank lines.

--brief

Report only whether the files differ, not the details of the differences.

--context[=lines]

Equivalent to the -C option as specified in the SUS.

-d

Change the algorithm to perhaps find a smaller set of changes. This makes diff slower (sometimes much slower).

-D name

Make merged if-then-else output, conditional on the preprocessor macro name.

--ed

Equivalent to the -e option as specified in the SUS

--exclude=pattern

When comparing directories, ignore files and subdirectories whose basenames match pattern.

--exclude-from=file

When comparing directories, ignore files and subdirectories whose basenames match any pattern contained in file.

--expand-tabs

Expand tabs to spaces in the output, to preserve the alignment of tabs in the input files.

-F regexp

In context and unified , for each hunk of differences, show some of the last preceding line that matches regexp.

--forward-ed

Make output that looks vaguely like an ed script but has changes in the order they appear in the file.

-H

Use heuristics to speed handling of large files that have numerous scattered small changes.

--horizon-lines=lines

Do not discard the last lines lines of the common prefix and the first lines lines of the common suffix.

-i

Ignore changes in case; consider upper and lower case letters equivalent.

-I regexp

Ignore changes that just insert or delete lines that match regexp.

--ifdef=name

Make merged if-then-else output, conditional on the preprocessor macro name.

--ignore-all-space

Ignore white space when comparing lines.

--ignore-case

Ignore changes in case; consider upper and lower case to be the same.

--ignore-matching-lines=regexp

Ignore changes that just insert or delete lines that match regexp.

--ignore-space-change

Ignore changes in amount of white space.

--initial-tab

Output a tab rather than a space before the text of a line in normal or context . This causes the alignment of tabs in the line to look normal.

-l

Pass the output through pr to paginate it.

--ignore-case

Ignore changes in case; consider upper and lower case to be the same.

dmesg

Name

dmesg -- print or control the kernel ring buffer

Synopsis

dmesg [ -c ] [ -n level ] [ -s bufsize ]

Description

dmesg is used to examine or control the kernel ring buffer.

Standard Options

-c

clear the ring buffer contents after printing.

-n level

set the level at which logging of messages is done to the console.

-s bufsize

use a buffer of bufsize to query the kernel ring buffer. This is 8196 by default (this matches the default kernel syslog buffer size in 2.0.33 and 2.1.103). If you have set the kernel buffer to larger than the default then this option can be used to view the entire buffer.

du

Name

du -- estimate file space usage

Description

The specification for "du" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Differences

--block-size=SIZE

use SIZE-byte blocks

-b, --bytes

print size in bytes

-c, --total

produce a grand total

-D, --dereference-args

dereference PATHs when symbolic link

-h, --human-readable

print sizes in human readable (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)

--kilobytes

equivalent to --block-size=1024

--l, --count-links

count sizes many times if hard linked

-L, --dereference

dereference all symbolic links

-m, --megabytes

equivalent to --block-size=1048576

-r

This option (as specified in the SUS) is not supported

-S, --separate-dirs

do not include size of subdirectories

-X FILE, --exclude-from=FILE

Exclude files that match any pattern in FILE

--exclude=PAT

Exclude files that match PAT

--max-depth=N

print the total for a directory (or file, with --all) only if it is N or fewer levels below the command line argument; --max-depth=0 is the same as --summarize

--version

output version information and exit

echo

Name

echo -- display a line of text

Synopsis

echo [OPTION]... [STRING]... 

Description

The specification for "echo" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below. Unlike as specified in the SUS the echo command does support options.

Differences

-n

do not output the trailing newline

-e

enable interpretation of the backslash-escaped characters listed below

-E

disable interpretation of those sequences in STRINGs

--version

output version information and exit (should be alone)

egrep

Name

egrep -- search a file with an ERE pattern

Description

egrep is equivalent to grep -E. See the specification for grep for further details

env

Name

env -- run a program in a modified environment

Description

The specification for "env" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Differences

--ignore-environment

equivalent to the -i option

-u, --unset=NAME

remove variable from the environment

expand

Name

expand -- convert tabs to spaces

Description

The specification for "expand" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Differences

-i, --initial

do not convert TABs after non whitespace

-t, --tabs=NUMBER

In addition to the behaviour for -t as specified in the SUS, the argument may also be a number which specifies the number of characters apart tabs are instead of 8.

expr

Name

expr -- evaluate expressions

Description

The specification for "expr" is as specified in the SUS but with the some extra operands supported

Extra operands

match STRING REGEXP

same as STRING : REGEXP

substr STRING POS LENGTH

substring of STRING, POS counted from 1

index STRING CHARS

index in STRING where any CHARS is found, or 0

length STRING

length of STRING

quote STRING

interpret TOKEN as a string, even if it is a keyword like match or an operator like /

fgrep

Name

fgrep -- search a file with an ERE pattern

Description

fgrep is equivalent to grep -F. See the specification for grep for further details

file

Name

file -- determine file type

Description

The specification for "file" is as specified in the SUS but with the additional options as specified below.

Additional Options

-b, --brief

Do not prepend filenames to output lines

-c, --checking-printout

Cause a checking printout of the parsed form of the magic file. This is usually used in conjunction with -m to debug a new magic file before installing it.

-f, --files-from namefile

Read the names of the files to be examined from namefile (one per line) before the argument list. Either namefile or at least one filename argument must be present; to test the standard input, use `-' as a filename argument.

-i, --mime

Causes the file command to output mime type strings rather than the more traditional human readable ones. Thus it may say `text/plain; charset=us-ascii' rather than `ASCII text'. In order for this option to work, file changes the way it handles files recognized by the command itself (such as many of the text file types, directories etc), and makes use of an alternative `magic' file.

-k, --keep-going

Don't stop at the first match, keep going.

-m, --magic-file list

Specify an alternate list of files containing magic numbers. This can be a single file, or a colon-separated list of files.

-n, --no-buffer

Force stdout to be flushed after checking each file. This is only useful if checking a list of files. It is intended to be used by programs that want filetype output from a pipe.

-z, --uncompress

Try to look inside compressed files.

-L, --dereference

This option causes symlinks to be followed.

-s, --special-files

Normally, file only attempts to read and determine the type of argument files which stat(2) reports are ordinary files. This prevents problems, because reading special files may have peculiar consequences. Specifying the -s option causes file to also read argument files which are block or character special files. This is useful for determining the filesystem types of the data in raw disk partitions, which are block special files. This option also causes file to disregard the file size as reported by stat(2) since on some systems it reports a zero size for raw disk partitions.

find

Name

find --  search for files in a directory hierarchy

Description

The specification for "find" is as specified in the SUS but with the additional options as specified below.

Additional Options

-daystart

Measure times (for -amin, -atime, -cmin, -ctime, -mmin, and -mtime) from the beginning of today rather than from 24 hours ago.

-follow

Dereference symbolic links. Implies -noleaf.

-maxdepth levels

Descend at most levels (a non-negative integer) levels of directories below the command line arguments. -maxdepth 0 means only apply the tests and actions to the command line arguments.

-mindepth levels

Do not apply any tests or actions at levels less than levels (a non-negative integer). -mindepth 1 means process all files except the command line arguments.

-mount

Equivalent to -xdev as specified in the SUS.

-noleaf

Do not optimize by assuming that directories contain 2 fewer subdirectories than their hard link count.

-version

Print the find version number and exit.

-amin n

File was last accessed n minutes ago.

-anewer file

File was last accessed more recently than file was modified. -anewer is affected by -follow only if -follow comes before -anewer on the command line.

-cmin n

File's status was last changed n minutes ago.

-cnewer file

File's status was last changed more recently than file was modified. -cnewer is affected by -follow only if -follow comes before -cnewer on the command line.

-empty

File is empty and is either a regular file or a directory.

-false

Always false.

-fstype type

File is on a filesystem of type type.

-gid n

File's numeric group ID is n.

-ilname pattern

Like -lname, but the match is case insensitive.

-iname pattern

Like -name, but the match is case insensitive.

-inum n

File has inode number n.

-ipath path

Like -path, but the match is case insensitive.

-iregex pattern

Like -regex, but the match is case insensitive.

-lname

File is a symbolic link whose contents match shell pattern pattern. The metacharacters do not treat / or . specially.

-mmin n

File's data was last modified n minutes ago.

-nouser

No user corresponds to file's numeric user ID.

-nogroup

No group corresponds to file's numeric group ID.

-path pattern

File name matches shell pattern pattern.

-perm +mode

Any of the permission bits mode are set for the file.

-regex

File name matches regular expression pattern. This is a match on the whole path, not a search.

-true

Always true.

-type c

In addition to the types specified in the SUS, the letters l and s are also supported and refer to symbolic links and sockets respectively.

-uid n

File's numeric user ID is n.

-used

File was last accessed n days after its status was last changed.

-xtype c

The same as -type unless the file is a symbolic link. For symbolic links: if -follow has not been given, true if the file is a link to a file of type c; if -follow has been given, true if c is l. In other words, for symbolic links, -xtype checks the type of the file that -type does not check.

-fls file

True; like -ls but write to file like -fprint.

-fprint file

True; print the full file name into file file. If file does not exist when find is run, it is cre- ated; if it does exist, it is truncated. The file names `/dev/stdout' and `/dev/stderr' are han- dled specially; they refer to the standard output and standard error output, respectively.

-fprint0 file

True; like -print0 but write to file like -fprint.

-fprintf file

True; like -printf but write to file like -fprint.

-print0

True; print the full file name on the standard output, followed by a null character. This allows file names that contain newlines to be correctly interpreted by programs that process the find output.

-printf

True; print on the standard output, inter- preting \ escapes and % directives. Field widths and precisions can be specified as with the printf C function. Unlike -print, -printf does not add a newline at the end of the string. The escapes and directives are:

\a

Alarm bell.

\b

Backspace.

\c

Stop printing from this immediately and flush the output.

\f

Form feed.

\n

Newline.

\r

Carriage return.

\t

Horizontal tab.

\v

Vertical tab.

\\

A literal backslash (\).

%%

A literal percent sign.

%a

File's last access time in the returned by the C ctime function.

%Ak

File's last access time in the specified by k, which is either @ or a directive for the C strftime function. The possible values for k are listed below; some of them might not be available on all systems, due to differences in strftime between systems.

@

seconds since Jan. 1, 1970, 00:00 GMT.

H

hour (00..23)

I

hour (01..12)

k

hour ( 0..23)

l

hour ( 1..12)

M

minute (00..59)

p

locale's AM or PM

r

time, 12-hour (hh:mm:ss [AP]M)

S

second (00..61)

T

time, 24-hour (hh:mm:ss)

X

locale's time representation (H:M:S)

Z

time zone (e.g., EDT), or nothing if no time zone is determinable

a

locale's abbreviated weekday name (Sun..Sat)

A

locale's full weekday name, variable length (Sunday..Saturday)

b

locale's abbreviated month name (Jan..Dec)

B

locale's full month name, variable

c

locale's date and time (Sat Nov 04 12:02:33 EST 1989)

d

day of month (01..31)

D

date (mm/dd/yy)

h

same as b

j

day of year (001.366)

m

month (01..12)

U

week number of year with Sunday as first day of week (00..53)

w

day of week (0..6)

W

week number of year with Monday as first day of week (00..53)

x

locale's date representation (mm/dd/yy)

y

last two digits of year (00..99)

Y

year (1970...)

%b

File's size in 512-byte blocks (rounded up).

%c

File's last status change time in the returned by the C ctime function.

%Ck

File's last status change time in the specified by k, which is the same as for %A.

%d

File's depth in the directory tree; 0 means the file is a command line argument.

%f

File's name with any leading directories removed (only the last element).

%F

Type of the filesystem the file is on; this value can be used for -fstype.

%g

File's group name, or numeric group ID if the group has no name.

%G

File's numeric group ID.

%h

Leading directories of file's name (all but the last element).

%H

Command line argument under which file was found.

%i

File's inode number (in decimal).

%k

File's size in 1K blocks (rounded up).

%l

Object of symbolic link (empty string if file is not a symbolic link).

%m

File's permission bits (in octal).

%n

Number of hard links to file.

%p

File's name.

%P

File's name with the name of the command line argument under which it was found removed.

%s

File's size in bytes.

%t

File's last modification time in the returned by the C ctime function.

%Tk

File's last modification time in the specified by k, which is the same as for %A.

%u

File's user name, or numeric user ID if the user has no name.

%U

File's numeric user ID.

-ls

True; list current file in ls -dils on standard output. The block counts are of 1K blocks, unless the environment variable POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, in which case 512-byte blocks are used.

Extra Operators

The following operators are supported in order of decreasing precedence. This overrides what is stated in the SUS.

( expr )

Force precedence.

! expr

True if expr is false

-not expr

Same as ! expr.

expr1 expr2

And (implied); expr2 is not evaluated if expr1 is false.

expr1 -a expr2

Same as expr1 expr2.

expr1 -and expr2

Same as expr1 expr2.

expr1 -o expr2

Or; expr2 is not evaluated if expr1 is true.

expr1 -or expr2

Same as expr1 -o expr2.

expr1, expr2

List; both expr1 and expr2 are always evaluated. The value of expr1 is discarded; the value of the list is the value of expr2.

fuser

Name

fuser -- identify processes using files or sockets

Description

The specification for "fuser" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Differences

-a

Show all files specified on the command line. By default, only files that are accessed by at least one process are shown.

-c

This option as specified in the SUS is not supported.

-f

This option as specified in the SUS is not supported.

-k

Kill processes accessing the file. Unless changed with -signal, SIGKILL is sent. An fuser process never kills itself, but may kill other fuser processes. The effective user ID of the process executing fuser is set to its real user ID before attempting to kill.

-i

Ask the user for confirmation before killing a process. This option is silently ignored if -k is not present too.

-l

List all known signal names.

-m

name specifies a file on a mounted file system or a block device that is mounted. All processes accessing files on that file system are listed. If a directory file is specified, it is automatically changed to name/. to use any file system that might be mounted on that directory.

-n space

Select a different name space. The name spaces file (file names, the default), udp (local UDP ports), and tcp (local TCP ports) are supported. For ports, either the port number or the symbolic name can be specified. If there is no ambiguity, the shortcut notation name/space (e.g. name/proto) can be used.

-s

Silent operation. -u and -v are ignored in this mode. -a must not be used with -s.

-signal

Use the specified signal instead of SIGKILL when killing processes. Signals can be specified either by name (e.g. -HUP) or by number (e.g. -1).

-v

Verbose mode.

-V

Display version information.

-

Reset all options and set the signal back to SIGKILL.

gencat

Name

gencat -- generate a formatted message catalogue

Description

The specification for "gencat" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Differences

-H, --header=NAME

Create C header file NAME containing symbol definitions

--new

Do not use existing catalog, force new output file

-o, --output=NAME

Write output to file NAME

grep

Name

grep -- print lines matching a pattern

Description

The specification for "grep" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Differences

-A NUM, --after-context=NUM

Print NUM lines of trailing context after matching lines.

-a, --text

Process a binary file as if it were text; this is equivalent to the --binary-files=text option.

-B NUM, --before-context=NUM

Print NUM lines of leading context before matching lines.

-C [NUM], -NUM, --context[=NUM]

Print NUM lines (default 2) of output context.

-b, --byte-offset

Print the byte offset within the input file before each line of output.

--binary-files=TYPE

If the first few bytes of a file indicate that the file contains binary data, assume that the file is of type TYPE. By default, TYPE is binary, and grep normally outputs either a one-line message saying that a binary file matches, or no message if there is no match. If TYPE is without-match, grep assumes that a binary file does not match; this is equivalent to the -I option. If TYPE is text, grep processes a binary file as if it were text; this is equivalent to the -a option. Warning: grep --binary-files=text might output binary garbage, which can have nasty side effects if the output is a terminal and if the terminal driver interprets some of it as commands.

-c, --count

Suppress normal output; instead print a count of matching lines for each input file. With the -v, --invert-match option (see below), count non-matching lines.

-d ACTION, --directories=ACTION

If an input file is a directory, use ACTION to process it. By default, ACTION is read, which means that directories are read just as if they were ordinary files. If ACTION is skip, directories are silently skipped. If ACTION is recurse, grep reads all files under each directory, recursively; this is equivalent to the -r option.

-G, --basic-regexp

Interpret PATTERN as a basic regular expression (see below). This is the default.

-H, --with-filename

Print the filename for each match.

-h, --no-filename

Suppress the prefixing of filenames on output when multiple files are searched.

-I

Process a binary file as if it did not contain matching data; this is equivalent to the --binary-files=without-match option.

--ignore-case

Equivalent to -i

-L, --files-without-match

Suppress normal output; instead print the name of each input file from which no output would normally have been printed. The scanning will stop on the first match.

--files-with-matches

Equivalent to -l

--map

If possible, use the mmap(2) system call to read input, instead of the default read(2) system call. In some situations, --mmap yields better performance. However, --mmap can cause undefined behavior (including core dumps) if an input file shrinks while grep is operating, or if an I/O error occurs.

--line-number

Equivalent to -n

--quiet

Equivalent to -q

-r, --recursive

Read all files under each directory, recursively; this is equivalent to the -d recurse option.

--no-messages

Equivalent to -s

-V, --version

Print the version number of grep to standard error.

--invert-match

Equivalent to -v

-w, --word-regexp

Select only those lines containing matches that form whole words. The test is that the matching substring must either be at the beginning of the line, or preceded by a non-word constituent character. Similarly, it must be either at the end of the line or followed by a non-word constituent character. Word-constituent characters are letters, digits, and the underscore.

--line-regexp

Equivalent to -x

-Z, --null

Output a zero byte (the ASCII NUL character) instead of the character that normally follows a file name.

groupadd

Name

groupadd -- Create a new group

Synopsis

groupadd [-g gid [-o]] group

Options

-g gid [-o]

The numerical value of the group's ID. This value must be unique, unless the -o option is used. The value must be non-negative.

groupdel

Name

groupdel -- Delete a group

Synopsis

groupdel group

Description

The groupdel command modifies the system account files, deleting all entries that refer to group. The named group must exist.

groupmod

Name

groupmod -- Modify a group

Synopsis

groupmod [-g gid [-o]] [-n group_name ] group

Options

-g gid [-o]

The numerical value of the group's ID. This value must be unique, unless the -o option is used. The value must be non-negative. Any files which the old group ID is the file group ID must have the file group ID changed manually.

-n groupname

The name of the group will be changed from group to group_name.

groups

Name

groups -- Display a group

Synopsis

groups [user]

Description

groups displays the current group ID names or values. If the value does not have a corresponding entry in /etc/group, the value will be displayed as the numerical group value. The optional user parameter will display the groups for the named user.

gzip

Name

gzip -- compress or expand files

Synopsis

gzip [ -acdfhlLnNrtvV19 ] [-S suffix] [ name ...  ]

Description

Gzip reduces the size of the named files using Lempel-Ziv coding (LZ77). Whenever possible, each file is replaced by one with the extension .gz, while keeping the same ownership modes, access and modification times. If no files are specified, or if a file name is "-", the standard input is compressed to the standard output. Gzip will only attempt to compress regular files. In particular, it will ignore symbolic links.

Options

-a, --ascii

This option does nothing on Linux systems.

-c, --stdout, --to-stdout

Write output on standard output; keep original files unchanged. If there are several input files, the output consists of a sequence of independently compressed members. To obtain better compression, concatenate all input files before compressing them.

-d, --decompress, --uncompress

Decompress.

-f, --force

Force compression or decompression even if the file has multiple links or the corresponding file already exists, or if the compressed data is read from or written to a terminal. If the input data is not in a recognized by gzip, and if the option --stdout is also given, copy the input data without change to the standard ouput: let zcat behave as cat. If -f is not given, and when not running in the background, gzip prompts to verify whether an existing file should be overwritten.

-l, --list

For each compressed file, list the compressed size, uncompressed size, ration and uncompressed name.

The uncompressed size is given as -1 for files not in gzip .

In combination with the --verbose option, the method, crc and timestamp for the uncompress file is also displayed.

The compression methods currently supported are deflate, compress, lzh (SCO compress -H) and pack. The crc is given as ffffffff for a file not in gzip .

With --name, the uncompressed name, date and time are those stored within the compress file if present.

With --verbose, the size totals and compression ratio for all files is also displayed, unless some sizes are unknown. With --quiet, the title and totals lines are not displayed.

-L, --license

Display the gzip license and quit.

-n, --no-name

When compressing, do not save the original file name and time stamp by default. (The original name is always saved if the name had to be truncated.) When decompressing, do not restore the original file name if present (remove only the gzip suffix from the compressed file name) and do not restore the original time stamp if present (copy it from the compressed file). This option is the default when decompressing.

-N, --name

When compressing, always save the original file name and time stamp; this is the default. When decompressing, restore the original file name and time stamp if present. This option is useful on systems which have a limit on file name length or when the time stamp has been lost after a file transfer.

-q, --quiet

Suppress all warnings.

-r, --recursive

Travel the directory structure recursively. If any of the file names specified on the command line are directories, gzip will descend into the directory and compress all the files it finds there (or decompress them in the case of gunzip).

-S .suf, --sufix .suf

Use suffix .suf instead of .gz.

-t, --test

Test. Check the compressed file integrity.

-v, --verbose

Verbose. Display the name and percentage reduction for each file compressed or decompressed.

-V, --version

Version. Display the version number and compilation options then quit.

-#, --fast, --best

Regulate the speed of compression using the specified digit #, where -1 or --fast indicates the fastest compression method (less compression) and -9 or --best indicates the slowest compression method (best compression). The default compression level is -6 (that is, biased towards high compression at expense of speed).

gunzip

Name

gunzip -- uncompress files

Description

gunzip is equivalent to gzip -d. See the specification for grep for further details

head

Name

head -- output the first part of files

Description

The specification for "head" is as specified in the SUS but with the additional options as specified below.

Additional Options

-c, --bytes=SIZE

Print first SIZE bytes. SIZE may have a multiplier suffix: b for 512, k for 1K, m for 1 Meg

--lines=NUMBER

Equivalent to -n option

-q, --quiet, --silent

Never print headers giving file names

-v

Always print headers giving file names

hostname

Name

hostname -- show the system's host name

Synopsis

hostname [-v] [-a] [--alias] [-d] [--domain] [-f] [--fqdn]
[-i] [--ip-address] [--long] [-s]  [--short]  [-y]  [--yp]
[--nis]

hostname [-v] [-F filename] [--file filename] [hostname]

hostname [-v] [-h] [--help] [-V] [--version]

Description

Hostname is used to either set or display the current host or domain name of the system. This name is used by many of the networking programs to identify the machine. The domain name is also used by NIS/YP.

When called without any arguments, the program displays the name of the system as returned by the gethostname(2) function.

When called with one argument or with the --file option, the commands set the host name or the NIS/YP domain name. Note, that only the super-user can change the names.

Options

-a, --alias

Display the alias name of the host (if used).

-d, --domain

Display the name of the DNS domain.

-F, --file filename

Read the host name from the specified file. Comments (lines starting with a #) are ignored.

-f, --fqdn, --long

Display the FQDN (Fully Qualified Domain Name).

-i, --ip-address

Display the IP address(es) of the host.

-s, --short

Display the short host name. This is the host name cut at the first dot.

-V, --version

Print version information on standard output and exit successfully.

-v, --verbose

Be verbose and tell what's going on.

-y, --yp, --nis

Display the NIS domain name. If a parameter is given (or --file name) then root can also set a new NIS domain.

iconv

Name

iconv -- show the system's host name

Synopsis

iconv -f encoding -t encoding [--list] [-o file] [--output file] [--verbose] inputfile

Description

The iconv program converts the encoding of characters in inputfile from one coded character set to another. The result is written to standard output unless otherwise specified by the --output option.

Options

-f, --from-code encoding

Convert characters from encoding

-t, --to-code encoding

Convert characters to encoding

--list

List known coded character sets

-o, --output file

Specify output file (instead of stdin)

--verbose

Print progress information

install

Name

install -- copy files and set attributes

Synopsis

install [OPTION]... SOURCE DEST           (1st )
install [OPTION]... SOURCE... DIRECTORY   (2nd )
install -d [OPTION]... DIRECTORY...       (3rd )

Description

In the first two formats, copy SOURCE to DEST or multiple SOURCE(s) to the existing DIRECTORY, while setting permission modes and owner/group. In the third , create all components of the given DIRECTORY(ies).

Standard Options

--backup[=CONTROL]

make a backup of each existing destination file

-b

like --backup but does not accept an argument

-d, --directory

treat all arguments as directory names; create all components of the specified directories

-D

create all leading components of DEST except the last, then copy SOURCE to DEST; useful in the 1st

-g, --group=GROUP

set group ownership, instead of process' current group

-m, --mode=MODE

set permission mode (as in chmod), instead of rwxr-xr-x

-o, --owner=OWNER

set ownership (super-user only)

-p, --preserve-timestamps

apply access/modification times of SOURCE files to corresponding destination files

-s, --strip

strip symbol tables, only for 1st and 2nd formats

-S, --suffix=SUFFIX

override the usual backup suffix

--verbose

print the name of each directory as it is created

ipcrm

Name

ipcrm -- Create a new user or update default new user information

Synopsis

ipcrm [ shm | msg | sem ] id...

Description

ipcrm will remove the resource(s) specified by id.

ipcs

Name

ipcs -- copy files and set attributes

Synopsis

ipcs [ -asmq ] [ -tclup ]
ipcs [ -smq ] -i id

Description

ipcs provides information on the ipc facilities for which the calling process has read access.

The -i option allows a specific resource id to be specified. Only information on this id will be printed.

Resource display options

-m

shared memory segments

-q

message queues

-s

semaphore arrays

-a

all (this is the default)

Output options

-t

time

-p

pid

-c

creator

-l

limits

-u

summary

killall

Name

killall -- kill processes by name

Synopsis

killall [-egiqvw] [-signal] name ...
killall -l
killall -V

Description

killall sends a signal to all processes running any of the specified commands. If no signal name is specified, SIGTERM is sent.

Signals can be specified either by name (e.g. -HUP) or by number (e.g. -1). Signal 0 (check if a process exists) can only be specified by number.

If the command name contains a slash (/), processes executing that particular file will be selected for killing, independent of their name.

killall returns a non-zero return code if no process has been killed for any of the listed commands. If at least one process has been killed for each command, killall returns zero.

A killall process never kills itself (but may kill other killall processes).

Standard Options

-e

Require an exact match for very long names. If a command name is longer than 15 characters, the full name may be unavailable (i.e. it is swapped out). In this case, killall will kill everything that matches within the first 15 characters. With -e, such entries are skipped. killall prints a message for each skipped entry if -v is specified in addition to -e.

-g

Kill the process group to which the process belongs. The kill signal is only sent once per group, even if multiple processes belonging to the same process group were found.

-i

Interactively ask for confirmation before killing.

-l

List all known signal names.

-q

Do not complain if no processes were killed.

-v

Report if the signal was successfully sent.

-V

Display version information.

ln

Name

ln -- make links between files

Description

The specification for "ln" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Differences

-b, --backup[=CONTROL]

make a backup of each existing destination file

-n, --no-dereference

treat destination that is a symlink to a directory as if it were a normal file

-i, --interactive

prompt whether to remove destinations

-s, --symbolic

make symbolic links instead of hard links

-S, --suffix=SUFFIX

override the usual backup suffix

--target-directory=DIR

move all SOURCE arguments into directory DIR

-v, --verbose

print name of each file before linking

--version

output version information and exit

Notes

The backup suffix is ~, unless set with --suffix or SIMPLE_BACKUP_SUFFIX. The version control method may be selected via the --backup option or through the VERSION_CONTROL environment variable. Here are the values:

none, off

never make backups (even if --backup is given)

numbered, t

make numbered backups

existing, nil

numbered if numbered backups exist, simple otherwise

simple, never

always make simple backups

localedef

Name

localedef -- split a file into sections determined by context lines

Description

The specification for "localedef" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Differences

--charmap=charmapfile

Equivalent to the -f option

--inputfile=intputfile

Equivalent to the -i option

--force

Equivalent to the -c option

-v, --verbose

Generate extra warnings about errors that are normally ignored.

--quiet

Suppress all notifications and warnings, and report only fatal errors.

login

Name

login -- Begin session on the system

Synopsis

login [-p] [username] [ENV=VAR ...]
login [-p] [-h host] [-f username]
login [-p] -r host

Description

login is used to establish a new session with the system. It is normally invoked automatically by responding to the login: prompt on the user's terminal. login may be special to the shell and may not be invoked as a sub-process. Typically, login is treated by the shell as exec login which causes the user to exit from the current shell. Attempting to execute login from any shell but the login shell will produce an error message.

When invoked from the login: prompt, the user may enter environmental variables after the username. These variables are entered in the form NAME=VALUE. Not all variables may be set in the fashion, notably PATH, HOME and SHELL. Additionally, IFS may be inhibited if the user's login shell is /bin/sh.

Standard Options

-p

Preserve environment

-f

Do not perform authentication, user is preauthenticated.

-h

Name of the remote host for this login.

-r

Perform autologin protocol for rlogin.

lpr

Name

lpr -- off line print

Synopsis

lpr [-l] [-p] [-Pprinter] [-h] [-s] [-#copies] [-J name]
    [-T title] [name ...]

Description

Lpr uses a spooling daemon to print the named files when facilities become available. If no names appear, the standard input is assumed.

Standard Options

-l

binary data - do not filter and send raw input to printer

-p

with "pr" before sending to printer

-Pprinter

send output to the printer named printer instead of the default printer

-h

suppress header page

-s

use symbolic links

-#copies

copies is the number of copies to print

-J name

name is the job name for the header page

-T title

title is the title used for "pr"

ls

Name

ls -- list directory contents

Description

The specification for "ls" is as declared by the SUS, but with the following differences listed below.

Differences

-c

when -l is used with this option the sort order is by name, rather than by ctime as the SUS requires.

-d

this option applies to entries in the file system specified on the command line. Normally when such options are directories, the contents of the directory are listed along with the directory. When this option is present these command line entries will be treated as though they were normal files, and their contents will not be listed.

The SUS makes no mention that this behavior pertains to command line entries, and only specifies behavior already otherwise present without the option. The SUS makes no implication of any additional behavior aside from that already specified.

The behavior of the Linux version of ls is entirely unexpected, given either SUS or the completely specified behavior presented above. Aside from the parent directory, the -d option for ls lists only those items specified on the command line, listing only the names of directories, and not their contents, but listing nothing else in this file system path that is not specified by the command line file list.

-p

as well as the slash declared by SUS, this option will also display the *, @, and | characters for executables, links, and FIFOs, respectively.

-u

when used with the -l option, the sort order is by name, rather than the SUS declared behavior of sorting by last modified date.

lsb_release

Name

lsb_release -- print distribution specific information

Synopsis

lsb_release [OPTION]...

Description

GNU lsb_release 1.0 print certain LSB (Linux Standard Base) and Distribution information.

With no OPTION, same as -v.

Options

-v, --version

Display version of LSB against which distribution is compliant.

-i, --id

Display string id of distributor.

-d, --description

Display single line text description of distribution.

-r, --release

Display release number of distribution.

-c, --codename

Display codename according to distribution release.

-a, --all

Display all of the above information.

-s, --short

Display all of the above information in short output .

-h, --help

Display this message.

m4

Name

m4 -- macro processor

Description

The specification for "m4" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Differences

--version

output version information and exit

-e, --interactive

unbuffer output, ignore interrupts

-E, --fatal-warnings

stop execution after first warning

-Q, --quiet, --silent

suppress some warnings for builtins

-P, --prefix-builtins

force a m4_ prefix to all builtins

-I, --include=DIRECTORY

search this directory second for includes

--define=NAME[=VALUE]

equivalent to the -D option

--undefine=NAME

delete builtin NAME

--synclines

equivalent to -s option

-G, --traditional

suppress all GNU extensions

-H, --hashsize=PRIME

set symbol lookup hash table size

-L, --nesting-limit=NUMBER

change artificial nesting limit

-F, --freeze-state=FILE

produce a frozen state on FILE at end

-R, --reload-state=FILE

reload a frozen state from FILE at start

-d, --debug=[FLAGS]

set debug level (no FLAGS implies 'aeq'). FLAGS is any of:

t

trace for all macro calls, not only 'ed

a

show actual arguments

e

show expansion

q

quote values as necessary, with a or e flag

c

show before collect, after collect and after call

x

add a unique macro call id, useful with c flag

f

say current input file name

l

say current input line number

p

show results of path searches

i

show changes in input files

V

shorthand for all of the above flags

-t, --trace=NAME

trace NAME when it will be defined

-l, --arglength=NUM

restrict macro tracing size

-o, --error-output=FILE

redirect debug and trace output

make

Name

make -- maintain, update and regenerate groups of programs

Description

The specification for "make" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below. GNU make which contains syntax extensions from what is specified in the SUS.

Differences

-C dir

Change to directory dir before reading the makefiles or doing anything else. If multiple -C options are specified, each is interpreted relative to the previous one: -C / -C etc is equivalent to -C /etc. This is typically used with recursive invocations of make.

-d

Print debugging information in addition to normal processing. The debugging information says which files are being considered for remaking, which filetimes are being compared and with what results, which files actually need to be remade, which implicit rules are considered and which are applied---everything interesting about how make decides what to do.

-I dir

Specifies a directory dir to search for included makefiles. If several -I options are used to specify several directories, the directories are searched in the order specified. Unlike the arguments to other flags of make, directories given with -I flags may come directly after the flag: -Idir is allowed, as well as -I dir. This syntax is allowed for compatibility with the C preprocessor's -I flag.

-j jobs

Specifies the number of jobs (commands) to run simultaneously. If there is more than one -j option, the last one is effective. If the -j option is given without an argument, make will not limit the number of jobs that can run simultaneously.

-l [load]

Specifies that no new jobs (commands) should be started if there are others jobs running and the load average is at least load (a floating-point number). With no argument, removes a previous load limit.

-o file

Do not remake the file file even if it is older than its dependencies, and do not remake anything on account of changes in file. Essentially the file is treated as very old and its rules are ignored.

-v

Print the version of the make program plus a copyright, a list of authors and a notice that there is no warranty.

-w

Print a message containing the working directory before and after other processing. This may be use­ ful for tracking down errors from complicated nests of recursive make commands.

-W file

Pretend that the target file has just been modified. When used with the -n flag, this shows you what would happen if you were to modify that file. Without -n, it is almost the same as running a touch command on the given file before running make, except that the modification time is changed only in the imagination of make.

man

Name

man -- display system documentation

Description

The specification for "man" is as specified in the SUS. While additional features my be found in Linux versions of this command, the SUS specified interface is correctly and completely implemented.

md5sum

Name

md5sum -- generates or checks MD5 message digests

Synopsis

md5sum [-b] [-c [file]] | [file...]

Options

-b

Use binary mode.

-c [file]

Check md5sum of all files listed in file against the checksum listed in the same file. The actual of that file is the same as output of md5sum. That is, each line in the file describes a file.

mkdir

Name

mkdir -- make directories

Description

The specification for "mkdir" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Differences

--verbose

print a message for each created directory

--version

output version information and exit

mknod

Name

mknod -- make block or character special files

Synopsis

mknod [OPTION]... NAME TYPE [MAJOR MINOR]

Description

Create the special file NAME of the given TYPE.

MAJOR MINOR are forbidden for TYPE p, mandatory otherwise. TYPE may be:

b

create a block (buffered) special file

c, u

create a character (unbuffered) special file

p

create a FIFO

Standard Options

-m, --mode=MODE

set permission mode (as in chmod), not a=rw - umask

--version

output version information and exit

mktemp

Name

mktemp -- make temporary file name (unique)

Synopsis

mktemp [-q] [-u] template

Description

The mktemp utility takes the given file name template and overwrites a portion of it to create a file name. This file name is unique and suitable for use by the application.

Options

-q

Fail silently if an error occurs. This is useful if a script does not want error output to go to standard error.

-u

Operate in `unsafe' mode. The temp file will be unlinked before mktemp exits. This is slightly better than mktemp(3) but still introduces a race condition. Use of this option is not encouraged.

more

Name

more -- file perusal filter for crt viewing

Description

The specification for "more" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Differences

-num

This option specifies an integer which is the screen size (in lines).

-d

more will prompt the user with the message "[Press space to contin­ ue, 'q' to quit.]" and will display "[Press 'h' for instructions.]" instead of ringing the bell when an illegal key is pressed.

-e

This option is not supported

-l

more usually treats ^L (form feed) as a special character, and will pause after any line that contains a form feed. The -l option will prevent this behavior.

-i

This option is not supported

-f

Causes more to count logical, rather than screen lines (i.e., long lines are not folded).

-n

This option is not supported.

-p

Do not scroll. Instead, clear the whole screen and then display the text.

+/

The option specifies a string that will be searched for before each file is displayed.

+num

Start at line number num.

mount

Name

mount -- Create a new user or update default new user information

Synopsis

mount [-hV]
mount -a [-fFnrsvw] [-t vfstype]
mount [-fnrsvw] [-o options [,...]] device | dir
mount [-fnrsvw] [-t vfstype] [-o options] device dir

Description

All files accessible in a Unix system are arranged in one big tree, the file hierarchy, rooted at /. These files can be spread out over several devices. The mount command serves to attach the file system found on some device to the big file tree. Conversely, the umount(8) command will detach it again.

Standard Options

-V

Output version.

-v

Verbose mode.

-a

Mount all filesystems (of the given types) mentioned in fstab.

-F

(Used in conjunction with -a.) Fork off a new incarnation of mount for each device. This will do the mounts on different devices or different NFS servers in parallel.

-f

Causes everything to be done except for the actual system call; if it's not obvious, this `fakes' mounting the file system.

-n

Mount without writing in /etc/mtab. This is necessary for example when /etc is on a read-only file system.

-s

Tolerate sloppy mount options rather than failing. This will ignore mount options not supported by a filesystem type. Not all filesystems support this option.

-r

Mount the file system read-only. A synonym is -o ro.

-w

Mount the file system read/write. This is the default. A synonym is -o rw.

-L label

Mount the partition that has the specified label.

-U uuid

Mount the partition that has the specified uuid. These two options require the file /proc/partitions to exist.

-t vfstype

The argument following the -t is used to indicate the file system type.

More than one type may be specified in a comma separated list. The list of file system types can be prefixed with no to specify the file system types on which no action should be taken.

-o

Options are specified with a -o flag followed by a comma separated string of options. Some of these options are only useful when they appear in the /etc/fstab file. The following options apply to any file system that is being mounted:

async

All I/O to the file system should be done asynchronously.

atime

Update inode access time for each access. This is the default.

auto

Can be mounted with the -a option.

defaults

Use default options: rw, suid, dev, exec, auto, nouser, and async.

dev

Interpret character or block special devices on the file system.

exec

Permit execution of binaries

noatime

Do not update inode access times on this file system.

noauto

Can only be mounted explicitly.

nodev

Do not interpret character or block special devices on the file system.

noexec

Do not allow execution of any binaries on the mounted file system.

nosuid

Do not allow set-user-identifier or set-group-identifier bits to take effect.

nouser

Forbid an ordinary (i.e., non-root) user to mount the file system. This is the default.

remount

Attempt to remount an already-mounted file system. This is commonly used to change the mount flags for a file system, especially to make a read-only file system writable.

ro

Mount the file system read-only

rw

Mount the file system read-write

suid

Allow set-user-identifier or set-group-iden­tifier bits to take effect.

sync

All I/O to the file system should be done synchronously.

user

Allow an ordinary user to mount the file system. This option implies the options noexec, nosuid, and nodev (unless overridden by subsequent options, as in the option line user,exec,dev,suid).

mv

Name

mv -- move (rename) files

Description

The specification for "mv" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Differences

-b, --backup[=CONTROL]

make backup before removal

-S, --suffix=SUFFIX

override the usual backup suffix

--strip-trailing-slashes

remove any trailing slashes from each SOURCE argument

-S, --suffix=SUFFIX

override the usual backup suffix

--target-directory=DIRECTORY

move all SOURCE arguments into DIRECTORY

-u, --update

move only older or brand new non-directories

-v, --verbose

explain what is being done

--version

output version information and exit

Notes

The backup suffix is ~, unless set with --suffix or SIMPLE_BACKUP_SUFFIX. The version control method may be selected via the --backup option or through the VERSION_CONTROL environment variable. Here are the values:

none, off

never make backups (even if --backup is given)

numbered, t

make numbered backups

existing, nil

numbered if numbered backups exist, simple otherwise

simple, never

always make simple backups

newgrp

Name

newgrp -- Change group ID

Synopsis

newgrp [-] [group]

Description

newgrp is used to change the current group ID during a login session. If the optional - flag is given, the user's environment will be reinitialized as though the user had logged in, otherwise the current environment, including current working directory, remains unchanged.

nice

Name

nice -- nice run a program with modified scheduling priority

Description

The specification for "nice" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Differences

-ADJUST

increment priority by ADJUST first

--help

display this help and exit

--version

output version information and exit

nl

Name

nl -- number lines of files

Description

The specification for "nl" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Differences

--help

display this help and exit

--version

output version information and exit

nohup

Name

nohup -- nohup run a command immune to hangups, with output to a non-tty

Description

The specification for "nohup" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Differences

--help

display this help and exit

--version

output version information and exit

od

Name

od -- dump files in octal and other formats

Description

The specification for "od" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Differences

-w, --width[=BYTES]

output BYTES bytes per output line

--traditional

accept arguments in pre-POSIX form

--help

display this help and exit

--version

output version information and exit

Pre-POSIX specifications may be intermixed, they accumulate

-a

same as -t a, select named characters

-f

same as -t fF, select floats

-h

same as -t x2, select hexadecimal shorts

-i

same as -t d2, select decimal shorts

-l

same as -t d4, select decimal longs

passwd

Name

passwd -- change user password

Synopsis

passwd [-g] [-r|R] group
passwd [-x max] [-n min] [-w warn] [-i inact] name
passwd {-l|-u} name

Description

passwd changes passwords for user and group accounts. A normal user may only change the password for their own account, the super user may change the password for any account. The administrator of a group may change the password for the group. passwd also changes password expiry dates and intervals.

Options

-g

Change the password for the named group.

-r

Used in conjunction with the -g option to remove the current password from the named group.

-R

Used in conjunction with the -g option to restrict the named group for all users.

-x max

Set the maximum number of days a password remains valid.

-n min

Set the minimum number of days before a password may be changed.

-w warn

Set the number of days warning the user will receive before their password will expire.

-i inactive

Disable an account after the password has been expired for the given number of days.

-l

Disable an account by changing the password to a value which matches no possible encrypted value.

-u

Re-enables an account by changing the password back to its previous value.

paste

Name

paste -- merge lines of files

Description

The specification for "paste" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Differences

--help

display this help and exit

--version

output version information and exit

patch

Name

patch -- apply a diff file to an original

Description

The specification for "patch" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Differences

--backup-if-mismatch

Back up a file if the patch does not match the file exactly and if backups are not otherwise requested.

--no-backup-if-mismatch

Do not back up a file if the patch does not match the file exactly and if backups are not otherwise requested.

-B pref, --prefix=pref

prefix pref to a file name when generating its simple backup file name.

--binary

Read and write all files in binary mode, except for standard output and /dev/tty. This option has no effect on POSIX-compliant systems.

--dry-run

Print the results of applying the patches without actually changing any files.

-E, --remove-empty-files

Remove output files that are empty after the patches have been applied. When patch removes a file, it also attempts to remove any empty ancestor directories.

-f, --force

Skip patches whose headers do not say which file is to be patched; patch files even though they have the wrong version for the Prereq: line in the patch; and assume that patches are not reversed even if they look like they are.

-F num, --fuzz=num

Set the maximum fuzz factor. This option only applies to diffs that have context, and causes patch to ignore up to that many lines in looking for places to install a hunk.

-g num, --get=num

This option controls patch's actions when a file is under RCS or SCCS control, and does not exist or is read-only and matches the default version. If num is positive, patch gets (or checks out) the file from the revision control system; if zero, patch ignores RCS and SCCS and does not get the file; and if negative, patch asks the user where to get the file.

-s, --silent, --quiet

Work silently, unless an error occurs.

-t, --batch

Suppress questions like -f, but make some different assumptions: skip patches whose headers do not contain file names; skip patches for which the file has thewrong version for the Prereq: line in the patch; and assume that patches are reversed if they look like they are.

-T, --set-time

Set the modification and access times of patched files from time stamps given in context diff headers, assuming that the context diff headers use local time.

-u, --unified

Interpret the patch file as a unified context diff.

-v, --version

Print out patch's revision header and patch level, and exit.

-V method, --version-control=method

Use method to determine backup file names. The method can also be given by the PATCH_VERSION_CONTROL environment variable, which is overridden by this option.

--verbose

Output extra information about the work being done.

-x num, --debug=num

Set internal debugging flags of interest only to patch patchers.

-Y pref, --basename-prefix=pref

Prefix pref to the basename of a file name when generating its simple backup file name.

-z suffix, --suffix=suffix

Use suffix as the simple backup suffix.

-Z, --set-utc

Set the modification and access times of patched files from time stamps given in context diff headers.

--help

display this help and exit

pathchk

Name

pathchk -- check whether file names are valid or portable.

Description

The specification for "pathchk" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Differences

--help

display this help and exit

--version

output version information and exit

pidof

Name

pidof -- find the process ID of a running program.

Synopsis

pidof [-s] [-x] [-o omitpid..] program [program..]

Options

-s

Single shot - this instructs the program to only return one pid.

-x

scripts too - this causes the program to also return process id's of shells running the named scripts.

-o

Tells pidof to omit processes with that process id.

pr

Name

pr -- split a file into sections determined by context lines

Description

The specification for "pr" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Differences

-P

This option as specified in the SUS is not supported

-c, --show-control-chars

use hat notation (^G) and octal backslash notation.

-J, --join-lines

merge full lines, turns off -W line truncation, no column alignment.

-N NUMBER, --first-line-number=NUMBER

start counting with NUMBER at 1st line of first page printed.

-S[STRING], --sep-string=[=STRING]

separate columns by an optional STRING, don't use -S "STRING", -S only: No separator used without -S.

-T, --omit-pagination

omit page headers and trailers, eliminate any pagination by form feeds set in input files.

-v, --show-nonprinting

use octal backslash notation

-W PAGE_WIDTH, --page-width=PAGE_WIDTH

set page width to PAGE_WIDTH (72) characters always, truncate lines, except -J option is set, no interference with -S or -s.

--help

display this help and exit

--version

output version information and exit

printf

Name

printf --  and print data.

Description

The specification for "printf" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Differences

--help

display this help and exit

--version

output version information and exit

pwd

Name

pwd -- print name of current/working directory.

Description

The specification for "pwd" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Differences

--help

display this help and exit

--version

output version information and exit

renice

Name

renice -- alter priority of running processes

Description

The specification for "renice" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Differences

-n increment

This option is not supported

rm

Name

rm -- remove files or directories.

Description

The specification for "rm" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Differences

-v, --verbose

explain what is being done.

--help

display this help and exit

--version

output version information and exit

rmdir

Name

rmdir -- remove empty directories.

Description

The specification for "rmdir" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Differences

--ignore-fail-on-non-empty

ignore each failure that is solely because a directory is non-empty.

--verbose

output a diagnostic for every directory processed.

--help

display this help and exit

--version

output version information and exit

rsync

Name

rsync -- faster, flexible replacement for rcp

Synopsis

rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... [USER@]HOST:DEST
rsync [OPTION]... [USER@]HOST:SRC DEST
rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... DEST
rsync [OPTION]... [USER@]HOST::SRC [DEST]
rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... [USER@]HOST::DEST
rsync [OPTION]... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC [DEST]

Description

rsync is a program that behaves in much the same way that rcp does, but has many more options and uses the rsync remote-update protocol to greatly speedup file transfers when the destination file already exists.

The rsync remote-update protocol allows rsync to transfer just the differences between two sets of files across the network link, using an efficient checksum-search algorithm described in the technical report that accompanies this package.

Standard Options

--version

print the rsync version number and exit

-v, --verbose

This option increases the amount of information you are given during the transfer. By default, rsync works silently. A single -v will give you information about what files are being transferred and a brief summary at the end. Two -v flags will give you information on what files are being skipped and slightly more information at the end.

-q, --quiet

This option decreases the amount of information you are given during the transfer, notably suppressing information messages from the remote server. This flag is useful when invoking rsync from cron.

-I, --ignore-times

Normally rsync will skip any files that are already the same length and have the same time-stamp. This option turns off this behavior.

-c, --checksum

This forces the sender to checksum all files using a 128-bit MD4 checksum before transfer. The checksum is then explicitly checked on the receiver and any files of the same name which already exist and have the same checksum and size on the receiver are skipped. This option can be quite slow.

-a, --archive

A shortcut for specifying recursion and to preserve all attributes.

-r, --recursive

This tells rsync to copy directories recursively. If you donīt specify this then rsync wonīt copy directories at all.

-R, --relative

Use relative paths. This means that the full path names specified on the command line are sent to the server rather than just the last parts of the filenames.

-b, --backup

With this option preexisting destination files are renamed with a ~ extension as each file is transferred. You can control the backup suffix using the --suffix option.

--backup-dir=DIR

In combination with the --backup option, this tells rsync to store all backups in the specified directory. This is very useful for incremental backups.

--suffix=SUFFIX

This option allows you to override the default backup suffix used with the -b option. The default is a ~.

-u, --update

This forces rsync to skip any files for which the destination file already exists and has a date later than the source file.

-l, --links

This tells rsync to recreate symbolic links on the remote system to be the same as the local system. Without this option, all symbolic links are skipped.

-L, --copy-links

This tells rsync to transfer the file referenced by a symbolic link, rather than recreating the link.

--copy-unsafe-links

This tells rsync to treat symbolic links that point outside the source tree like ordinary files. Absolute symlinks are also treated like ordinary files, and so are any symlinks in the source path itself when --relative is used.

--safe-links

This tells rsync to ignore any symbolic links which point outside the destination tree. All absolute symlinks are also ignored.

-H, --hard-links

This tells rsync to recreate hard links on the remote system to be the same as the local system. Without this option hard links are treated like regular files.

-W, --whole-file

With this option the incremental rsync algorithm is not used and the whole file is sent as-is instead. This may be useful when using rsync with a local machine.

-p, --perms

This option causes rsync to update the remote permissions to be the same as the local permissions.

-o, --owner

This option causes rsync to update the remote owner of the file to be the same as the local owner. This is only available to the super-user. Note that if the source system is a daemon using chroot, the --numeric-ids option is implied because the source system cannot get access to the usernames.

-g, --group

This option causes rsync to update the remote group of the file to be the same as the local group. If the receiving system is not running as the super-user, only groups that the receiver is a member of will be preserved (by group name, not group id number).

-D, --devices

This option causes rsync to transfer character and block device information to the remote system to recreate these devices. This option is only available to the super-user.

-t, --times

This tells rsync to transfer modification times along with the files and update them on the remote system.

-n, --dry-run

This tells rsync to not do any file transfers, instead it will just report the actions it would have taken.

-x, --one-file-system

This tells rsync not to cross filesystem boundaries when recursing.

--existing

This tells rsync not to create any new files - only update files that already exist on the destination.

--max-delete=NUM

This tells rsync not to delete more than NUM files or directories.

--delete

This tells rsync to delete any files on the receiving side that arenīt on the sending side. Files that are excluded from transfer are excluded from being deleted unless you use --delete-excluded.

This option has no effect if directory recursion is not selected.

--delete-excluded

In addition to deleting the files on the receiving side that are not on the sending side, this tells rsync to also delete any files on the receiving side that are excluded (see --exclude).

--delete-after

By default rsync does file deletions before transferring files to try to ensure that there is sufficient space on the receiving filesystem. If you want to delete after transferring then use the --delete-after switch.

-B, --block-size=BLOCKSIZE

This controls the block size used in the rsync algorithm. See the technical report for details.

-e, --rsh=COMMAND

This option allows you to specify the remote shell program to use for communication between the local and remote copies of rsync.

You can also choose the remote shell program using the RSYNC_RSH environment variable.

--rsync-path=PATH

Use this to specify the path to the copy of rsync on the remote machine. Note that this is the full path to the binary, not just the directory that the binary is in.

--exclude=PATTERN

This option allows you to selectively exclude certain files from the list of files to be transferred.

You may use as many --exclude options on the command line as you like to build up the list of files to exclude.

--exclude-from=FILE

This option is similar to the --exclude option, but instead it adds all exclude patterns listed in the file FILE to the exclude list. Blank lines in FILE and lines starting with ī;ī or ī#ī are ignored.

--include=PATTERN

This option tells rsync to not exclude the specified pattern of filenames. This is useful as it allows you to build up quite complex exclude/include rules.

--include-from=FILE

This specifies a list of include patterns from a file.

-T, --temp-dir=DIR

This option instructs rsync to use DIR as a scratch directory when creating temporary copies of the files transferred on the receiving side. The default behavior is to create the temporary files in the receiving directory.

-z, --compress

With this option, rsync compresses any data from the source file(s) which it sends to the destination machine.

--numeric-ids

With this option rsync will transfer numeric group and user ids rather than using user and group names and mapping them at both ends.

By default rsync will use the user name and group name to determine what ownership to give files. The special uid 0 and the special group 0 are never mapped via user/group names even if the --numeric-ids option is not specified.

--timeout=TIMEOUT

This option allows you to set a maximum IO timeout in seconds. If no data is transferred for the specified time then rsync will exit. The default is 0, which means no timeout.

--port=PORT

This specifies an alternate TCP port number to use rather than the default port 873. This only has effect when using rsync to connect to a remote rsync daemon.

--blocking-io

This specifies whether rsync will use blocking IO when launching a remote shell transport. You may find this is needed for some remote shells that canīt handle the default non-blocking IO.

--partial

By default, rsync will delete any partially transferred file if the transfer is interrupted. In some circumstances it is more desirable to keep partially transferred files. Using the --partial option tells rsync to keep the partial file which should make a subsequent transfer of the rest of the file much faster.

--progress

This option tells rsync to print information showing the progress of the transfer.

-P

Equivalent to --partial --progress

--password-file

This option allows you to provide a password in a file for accessing a remote rsync server. Note that this option is only useful when accessing a rsync server using the built in transport, not when using a remote shell as the transport. The file must not be world readable. It should contain just the password as a single line.

--bwlimit=KBPS

This option allows you to specify a maximum transfer rate in kilobytes per second. A value of zero specifies no limit.

sed

Name

sed -- stream editor

Description

The specification for "sed" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Differences

-V, --version

Print out the version of sed that is being run and a copyright notice, then exit.

--quiet, --silent

Equivalent to the -n option

--expression

Equivalent to the -e option

--file=script-file

Equivalent to the -f option.

sendmail

Name

sendmail -- an electronic mail transport agent

Synopsis

sendmail [flags] [address ...]

Sending electronic mail

To deliver electronic mail (email), applications shall support the interface provided by /usr/sbin/sendmail (described here). The /usr/sbin/sendmail interface shall be the default delivery method for applications.

Description

This program sends an email message to one or more recipients, routing the message as necessary. This program is not intended as a user interface routine.

With no flags, sendmail reads its standard input up to an end-of-file or a line consisting only of a single dot and sends a copy of the message found there to all of the addresses listed. It determines the network(s) to use based on the syntax and contents of the addresses.

It is recommended that applications use as few flags as necessary, none if possible.

Some agents allow aliasing on the local system to be prevented by preceding the address with a backslash.

The of messages must be as defined in RFC 2822.

Options

-bm

Read mail from standard input and deliver to the recipient addresses. This is the default mode of operation.

-bp

List information about messages currently in the input mail queue.

-bs

Use the SMTP protocol as described in RFC 2821. (Read SMTP commands on standard input and write SMTP responses on standard output.)

Note that RFC 2821 specifies \r\n (CR-LF) be used at the end of each line, but Unix pipes almost always use \n (LF) instead. To deal with this, agents will accept both \r\n and \n at the end of each line. When accepting \r\n, the \r before the \n is silently discarded.

-F fullname

Explicitly set the full name of the sender for incoming mail unless the message already contains a From: message header.

If the user running sendmail is not sufficiently trusted, then the actual sender may be indicated in the message, depending on the behavior of the agent.

-f name

Explicitly set the envelope sender address for incoming mail. If there is no From: header, the address specified in the From: header will also be set.

If the user running sendmail is not sufficiently trusted, then the actual sender will be indicated in the message.

-i

Ignore dots alone on lines by themselves in incoming messages. This option is ignored when -bs is used.

-odb

If supported, deliver any mail in background. Otherwise, this option is ignored.

-odf

If supported, deliver any mail in foreground. Otherwise, this option is ignored.

-oem or -em

Mail errors back to the sender (default).

-oep or -ep

Write errors to the standard error output.

-oeq or -eq

Do not send notification of errors to the sender. This only works for mail delivered locally.

-oew or -ew

Write errors to the sender's terminal using the write(1) command, if he is logged in. Otherwise, mail errors back to the sender. If not supported, report errors in the same manner as -oem.

-oi

Same as -i.

-om

This option means 'me too', indicating that the sender of a message should receive a copy of the message if the sender appears in an alias expansion. Ignored if aliases are not supported.

-t

Read the message to obtain recipients from the To:, Cc:, and Bcc: headers in the message instead of from the command arguments. If a Bcc: header is present, it is removed from the message unless there is no To: or Cc: header, in which case a Bcc: header with no data is created, in accordance with RFC 2822.

If there are any arguments, they specify addresses to which the message is not to be delivered. That is, the argument addresses are removed from the recipients list obtained from the headers. Note: some agents implement this behavior in reverse, adding addresses instead of removing them. Others may disallow addresses in argument list. Therefore, applications should not put addresses in the argument list if -t is used.

This option is sometimes ignored when not in -bm mode (the default).

-v

Be more verbose. Additional -v options may make the software increasingly verbose.

Exit status

0

Successful completion on all addresses. This does not indicate successful delivery.

>0

There was an error.

Notes/Rationale

This page is believed to reflect functionality provided by smail, exim and other implementations, just not the sendmail implementation.

There has been a suggestion to remove -oew, -ew, -om, -t, and -v. Also to disallow -i when -bs is specified. Most of this strikes me as a good idea, but it might want further discussion. Seems to me that the text "Some agents allow aliasing on the local system to be prevented by preceding the address with a backslash" needs to remain, if the behavior of different implementations really does vary.

shutdown

Name

shutdown -- bring the system down

Synopsis

/sbin/shutdown [-t sec] [-arkhcfF] time [warning-message]

Description

shutdown brings the system down in a secure way. All logged-in users are notified that the system is going down, and login(1) is blocked. It is possible to shut the system down immediately or after a specified delay. All processes are first notified that the system is going down by the signal SIGTERM.

Standard Options

-a

Use /etc/shutdown.allow

-t sec

Tell init(8) to wait sec seconds between sending processes the warning and the kill signal, before changing to another runlevel.

-k

Don't really shutdown; only send the warning messages to everybody.

-r

Reboot after shutdown

-h

Halt after shutdown

-f

Skip fsck on reboot

-F

Force fsck on reboot

-c

Cancel an already running shutdown. With this option it is of course not possible to give the time argument, but you can enter a explanatory message on the command line that will be sent to all users.

time

When to shutdown

The time argument can have different formats. First, it can be an absolute time in the hh:mm, in which hh is the hour (1 or 2 digits) and mm is the minute of the hour (in two digits). Second, it can be in the +m, in which m is the number of minutes to wait. The word now is an alias for +0.

If shutdown is called with a delay, it creates the advisory file /etc/nologin which causes programs such as login(1) to not allow new user logins. Shutdown only removes this file if it is stopped before it can signal init (i.e. it is cancelled or something goes wrong). Otherwise it is the responsibility of the system shutdown or startup scripts to remove this file so that users can login.

warning-message

Message to send all users.

sleep

Name

sleep -- delay for a specified amount of time

Synopsis

sleep [OPTION]... NUMBER[SUFFIX]

Description

Pause for NUMBER seconds. SUFFIX may be s to keep seconds, m for minutes, h for hours or d for days.

Standard Options

--help

display help and exit

--version

output version information and exit

sort

Name

sort -- sort, merge or sequence check text files

Description

The specification for "sort" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Differences

-g

compare according to general numerical value, imply -b

-M

compare (unknown) < JAN < ... < DEC, imply -b

-s

stabilize sort by disabling last resort comparison

-T DIRECTORY

use DIRECTORY for temporary files, not $TMPDIR or /tmp

-z

Incompatible with SUS definition. End lines with 0 byte, not newline.

--version

output version information and exit

split

Name

split -- split a file into pieces

Description

The specification for "split" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Differences

-a suffix_length

This option is not supported

--bytes=SIZE

equivalent to the -b option

-C, --line-bytes

put at most SIZE bytes of lines per output file

--lines

equivalent to the -l option

--verbose

print a diagnostic to standard error just

--version

output version information and exit

strip

Name

strip -- remove unnecessary information from executable files

Description

The specification for "strip" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Differences

-F bdfname, --target=bfdname

Treat the original objfile as a file with the object code bfdname, and rewrite it in the same .

-I bfdname, --input-target=bfdname

Treat the original objfile as a file with the object code bfdname.

-O bdfname, --output-target=bfdname

Replace objfile with a file in the output bfdname.

-R sectionname, --remove-section=sectionname

Remove the named section from the file. This option may be given more than once. Note that using this option inappropriately may make the object file unusable.

-s, --strip-all

Remove all symbols.

-S, -g, --strip-debug

Remove debugging symbols only.

--strip-unneeded

Strip all symbols that are not needed for relocation processing.

-N symbolname, --strip-symbol=symbolname

Remove symbol symbolname from the source file. This option may be given more than once, and may be combined with other strip options.

-o file

Put the stripped output in file, rather than replacing the existing file. When this argument is used, only one objfile argument may be specified.

-p, --preserve-dates

Preserve the access and modification dates of the file.

-x, --discard-all

Remove non-global symbols.

-X, --discard-locals

Remove compiler-generated local symbols. (These usually start with `L' or `.'.)

-K symbolname, --keep-symbol=symbolname

Copy only symbol symbolname from the source file. This option may be given more than once.

-N symbolname, --strip-symbol=symbolname

Do not copy symbol symbolname from the source file. This option may be given more than once, and may be combined with strip options other than -K.

-v, --verbose

Verbose output: list all object files modified. In the case of archives, strip -v lists all members of the archive.

--version

Show the version number for strip and exit.

su

Name

su -- Change user ID or become super-user

Synopsis

su [OPTS] [-] [username [ARGS]]

Description

su is used to become another user during a login session. Invoked without a username, su defaults to becoming the super user. The optional argument - may be used to provide an environment similar to what the user would expect had the user logged in directly.

The user will be prompted for a password, if appropriate. Invalid passwords will produce an error message. All attempts, both valid and invalid, are logged to detect abuses of the system.

An optional command can be executed. This is done by the shell specified in /etc/passwd for the target user unless the -s or -m options are used. Any arguments supplied after the username will be passed to the invoked shell (shell must support the -c command line option in order for a command to be passed to it).

The current environment is passed to the new shell. The value of $PATH is reset to /bin:/usr/bin for normal users, or /sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin for the super user. This may be changed with the ENV_PATH and ENV_SUPATH definitions in /etc/login.defs. When using the -m or -p options, the users environment is not changed.

A subsystem login is indicated by the presense of a "*" as the first character of the login shell. The given home directory will be used as the root of a new filesystem which the user is actually logged into.

Standard Options

-

make this a login shell

-c, --comand=command

pass command to the invoked shell using its -c option

-m, -p, --preserve-environment

do not reset environment variables, and keep the same shell if it is present in /etc/shells

-s, --shell=shell

use shell instead of the default in /etc/passwd. The shell specified must be present in /etc/shells.

sum

Name

sum -- print checksum and block count of a file

Description

The specification for "sum" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Differences

-s, --sysv

use System V sum algorithm, use 512 bytes blocks

--version

output version information and exit

sync

Name

sync -- flush filesystem buffers

Synopsis

sync [OPTION]

Description

Force changed blocks to disk, update the super block.

Standard Options

--help

display help and exit

--version

output version information and exit

tail

Name

tail -- output the last part of files

Description

The specification for "tail" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Differences

--retry

keep trying to open a file even if it is inaccessible when tail starts or if it becomes inaccessible later -- useful only with -f

--bytes=N

output the last N bytes

--follow

equivalent to the -f option

--lines=N

equivalent to the -n option

--max-unchanged-stats=N

When tailing a file by name, if there have been this many consecutive iterations for which the size has remained the same, then open/fstat the file to determine if that file name is still associated with the same device/inode-number pair as before.

--max-consecutive-size-changes=N

This option is meaningful only when following by name. Use it to control how long tail follows the descriptor of a file that continues growing at a rapid pace even after it is deleted or renamed. After detecting N consecutive size changes for a file, open/fstat the file to determine if that file name is still associated with the same device/inode-number pair as before.

--pid=PID

with -f, terminate after process ID, PID dies

-q, --quiet, --silent

never output headers giving file names

-s, --sleep-interval=S

with -f, sleep S seconds between iterations

-v, --verbose

always output headers giving file names

+NUMBER, -NUMBER

This option does not support the c or l suffixes as stated in the SUS. The suffixes b, k, m are supported instead which refer to multipliers 512, 1024 and 1048576 respectively.

tar

Name

tar -- file archiver

Description

The specification for "tar" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Differences

-A, --catenate, --concatenate

append tar files to an archive

--create

Equivalent to the -c option

-d, --diff, --compare

find differences between archive and file system

--delete

delete from the archive (not for use on mag tapes!)

--apend

Equivalent to the -r option.

--list

Equivalent to the the -t option

--update

Equivalent to the -u option

--extract, --get

extract files from an archive

--atime-preserve

don't change access times on dumped files

--block-size N

Equivalent to the -b option

-B, --read-full-blocks

reblock as we read (for reading 4.2BSD pipes)

-C, --directory DIR

change to directory DIR

--checkpoint

print directory names while reading the archive

-f, --file [HOSTNAME:]F

use archive file or device F (default "-", meaning stdin/stdout).

--force-local

archive file is local even if has a colon

-F, --info-script F, --new-volume-script F

run script at end of each tape (implies -M)

-G, --incremental

create/list/extract old GNU- incremental backup

-g, --listed-incremental F

create/list/extract new GNU- incremental backup

-h, --dereference

don't dump symlinks; dump the files they point to

-i, --ignore-zeros

ignore blocks of zeros in archive (normally mean EOF)

--bzip2

filter archive through bzip2, use to decompress .bz2 files

--ignore-failed-read

don't exit with non-zero status on unreadable files

-k, --keep-old-files

keep existing files; don't overwrite them from archive

-K, --starting-file F

begin at file F in the archive

-l, --one-file-system

stay in local file system when creating an archive

-L, --tape-length N

change tapes after writing N*1024 bytes

--modification-time

Equivalent to the -m option

-M, --multi-volume

create/list/extract multi-volume archive

-N, --after-date DATE, --newer DATE

only store files newer than DATE

-o, --old-archive, --portability

write a V7 archive, rather than ANSI . Note that for the -o option the behaviour is different than what is specified in the SUSv2

-O, --to-stdout

extract files to standard output

-p, --same-permissions, --preserve-permissions

extract all protection information

-P, --absolute-paths

don't strip leading /s from file names

--preserve

Equvilent to -p -s

-R, --record-number

show record number within archive with each message

--remove-files

remove files after adding them to the archive

-s, --same-order, --preserve-order

list of names to extract is sorted to match archive

--same-owner

create extracted files with the same ownership

-S, --sparse

handle sparse files efficiently

-T, --files-from F

get names to extract or create from file F

--null

-T reads null-terminated names, disable -C

--totals

print total bytes written with --create

--verbose

Equivalent to the -v option

-V, --label NAME

create archive with volume name NAME

--version

print tar program version number

-w, --interactive, --confirmation

ask for confirmation for every action

-W, --verify

attempt to verify the archive after writing it

--exclude FILE

exclude file FILE

-X, --exclude-from FILE

exclude files listed in FILE

-Z, --compress, --uncompress

filter the archive through compress

-z, --gzip, --ungzip

filter the archive through gzip

--use-compress-program PROG

filter the archive through PROG (which must accept -d)

--block-compress

block the output of compression program for tapes

-[0-7][lmh]

specify drive and density

tee

Name

tee -- read from standard input and write to standard output and files

Description

The specification for "tee" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Differences

--append

equivalent to the -a option

--ignore-interrupts

equivalent to the -i option

--version

output version information and exit

test

Name

test -- check file types and compare values

Description

The specification for "test" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Differences

-G FILE

FILE exists and is owned by the effective group ID

-k FILE

FILE exists and has its sticky bit set

-L FILE

FILE exists and is a symbolic link

-O FILE

FILE exists and is owned by the effective user ID

-S

FILE exists and is a socket

time

Name

time -- run programs and summarize system resource usage

Description

The specification for "time" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Differences

-o FILE, --output=FILE

Write the resource use statistics to FILE instead of to the standard error stream. By default, this overwrites the file, destroying the file's previous contents.

-a, --append

Append the resource use information to the output file instead of overwriting it.

-f FORMAT, --=FORMAT

Use FORMAT as the string that controls the output of time. See the below more information.

--portability

Equivalent to the -p option

-v, --verbose

Use the built-in verbose , which displays each available piece of information on the program's resource use on its own line, with an English description of its meaning.

-V, --version

Print the version number of time and exit.

Formatting the Output

The string FORMAT controls the contents of the time output. The string can be set using the -f or --format, -v or --verbose, or -p or --portabili­ ty options. If they are not given, but the TIME environ­ ment variable is set, its value is used as the string. Otherwise, a built-in default is used.

The default is:

%Uuser %Ssystem %Eelapsed %PCPU (%Xtext+%Ddata %Mmax)k
%Iinputs+%Ooutputs (%Fmajor+%Rminor)pagefaults %Wswaps

The string usually consists of resource specifiers interspersed with plain text. A percent sign (%) in the string causes the following character to be interpreted as a resource specifier, which is similar to the formatting characters in the printf(3) function.

A backslash (\) introduces a backslash escape, which is translated into a single printing character upon output. \t outputs a tab character, \n outputs a newline, and \\ outputs a backslash. A backslash followed by any other character outputs a question mark (?) followed by a backslash, to indicate that an invalid backslash escape was given.

Other text in the string is copied verbatim to the output. time always prints a newline after printing the resource use information, so normally strings do not end with a newline character (or 0).

There are many resource specifications. Not all resources are measured by all versions of Unix, so some of the values might be reported as zero. Any character following a percent sign that is not listed in the table below causes a question mark (`?') to be output, followed by that character, to indicate that an invalid resource listed in the table below causes a question mark (`?') to be output, followed by that character, to indicate that an invalid resource specifier was given.

The resource specifiers, which are a superset of those recognized by the tcsh(1) builtin `time' command, are:

%

A literal `%'.

C

Name and command line arguments of the command being timed.

D

Average size of the processs unshared data area, in Kilobytes.

E

Elapsed real (wall clock) time used by the process, in [hours:]minutes:seconds.

F

Number of major, or I/O-requiring, page faults that occurred while the process was running. These are faults where the page has actually migrated out of primary memory.

I

Number of file system inputs by the process.

K

Average total (data+stack+text) memory use of the process, in Kilobytes.

M

Maximum resident set size of the process during its lifetime, in Kilobytes.

O

Number of file system outputs by the process.

P

Percentage of the CPU that this job got. This is just user + system times divided by the total running time.

R

Number of minor, or recoverable, page faults. These are pages that are not valid (so they fault) but which have not yet been claimed by other virtual pages. Thus the data in the page is still valid but the system tables must be updated.

S

Total number of CPU-seconds used by the system on behalf of the process (in kernel mode), in seconds.

U

Total number of CPU-seconds that the process used directly (in user mode), in seconds.

W

Number of times the process was swapped out of main memory.

X

Average amount of shared text in the process, in Kilobytes.

Z

System's page size, in bytes. This is a per-system constant, but varies between systems.

c

Number of times the process was context-switched involuntarily (because the time slice expired).

e

Elapsed real (wall clock) time used by the process, in seconds.

k

Number of signals delivered to the process.

p

Average unshared stack size of the process, in Kilobytes.

r

Number of socket messages received by the process.

s

Number of socket messages sent by the process.

t

Average resident set size of the process, in Kilobytes.

w

Number of times that the program was context-switched voluntarily, for instance while waiting for an I/O operation to complete.

x

Exit status of the command.

touch

Name

touch -- change file access and modification times

Description

The specification for "touch" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Differences

--no-create

equivalent to the -c option

-d, --date=STRING

parse STRING and use it instead of current time

--reference=FILE

equivalent to the -r option

--time=WORD

set time given by WORD: access atime use (same as -a) modify mtime (same as -m)

--version

output version information and exit

tr

Name

tr -- translate or delete characters

Description

The specification for "tr" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Differences

--complement

equivalent to the -c option

--delete

equivalent to the -d option

--squeeze-repeats

equivalent to the -s option

-t, --truncate-set1

first truncate SET1 to length of SET2

--version

output version information and exit

tty

Name

tty -- print the file name of the terminal connected to standard input

Description

The specification for "tty" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Differences

--silent, --quiet

equivalent to the -s option

--delete

equivalent to the -d option

--squeeze-repeats

equivalent to the -s option

--version

output version information and exit

umount

Name

umount -- unmount file systems

Synopsis

umount [-hV]
umount -a [-nrv] [-t vfstype]
umount [-nrv] device | dir [...]

Description

The umount command detaches the file system(s) mentioned from the file hierarchy. A file system is specified by giving the directory where it has been mounted.

Standard Options

-V

Print version and exit.

-v

Verbose mode.

-n

Unmount without writing in /etc/mtab.

-r

In case unmounting fails, try to remount read-only.

-a

All of the file systems described in /etc/mtab are unmounted except for the proc filesystem.

-t vfstype

Indicate that the actions should only be taken on file systems of the specified type. More than one type may be specified in a comma separated list. The list of file system types can be prefixed with no to specify the file system types on which no action should be taken.

-f

Force unmount (in case of an unreachable NFS system).

uname

Name

uname -- return system name

Description

The specification for "uname" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Differences

-a, --all

print all information (not just the options specified in the SUS)

--machine

equivalent to the -m option

--nodename

equivalent to the -n option

--release

equivalent to the -r option

-p, --processor

print the host processor type

--sysname

equivalent to the -s option

--version

output version information and exit

unexpand

Name

unexpand -- convert spaces to tabs

Description

The specification for "unexpand" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Differences

--tabs=NUMBER, -NUMBER

equivalent to -t NUMBER

--tabs=LIST, -LIST

equivalent to -t LIST

uniq

Name

uniq -- remove duplicate lines from a sorted file

Description

The specification for "uniq" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Differences

--count

equivalent to the -c option

--repeated

equivalent to the -d option

-D, --all-repeated

print all duplicate lines

--skip-fields=N

equivalent to -f fields

-i, --ignore-case

ignore differences in case when comparing

--skip-chars=N

equivalent to the -s option

--unique

equivalent to the -u option

-w, --check-chars=N

compare no more than N characters in lines

--version

output version information and exit

useradd

Name

useradd -- Create a new user or update default new user information

Synopsis

useradd [-c comment] [-d home_dir]
        [-e expire_date] [-f inactive_time]
        [-g initial_group] [-G group[,...]]
        [-m [-k skeleton_dir]] [-p passwd] [-r]
        [-s shell] [-u uid [ -o]] login

useradd -D [-g default_group] [-b default_home]
           [-f default_inactive] [-e default_expire_date]
           [-s default_shell]

Description

When invoked without the -D option, the useradd command creates a new user account using the values specified on the command line and the default values from the system. The new user account will be entered into the system files as needed, the home directory will be created, and initial files copied, depending on the command line options.

When invoked with the -D option, useradd will either display the current default values, or update the default values from the command line. If no options are specified, useradd displays the current default values.

Standard Options

-c comment

The new user's password file comment field.

-d home_dir

The new user will be created using home_dir as the value for the user's login directory. The default is to append the login name to default_home and use that as the login directory name.

-e expire_date

The date on which the user account will be disabled. The date is specified in the YYYY-MM-DD.

-f inactive_days

The number of days after a password expires until the account is permanently disabled. A value of 0 disables the account as soon as the password has expired, and a value of -1 disables the feature. The default value is -1.

-g initial_group

The group name or number of the user's initial login group. The group name must exist. A group number must refer to an already existing group. The default group number is 1.

-G group,[...]

A list of supplementary groups which the user is also a member of. Each group is separated from the next by a comma, with no intervening whitespace. The groups are subject to the same restrictions as the group given with the -g option. The default is for the user to belong only to the initial group.

-m [-k skeleton_dir]

The user's home directory will be created if it does not exist. The files contained in skeleton_dir will be copied to the home directory if the -k option is used, otherwise the files contained in /etc/skel will be used instead. Any directories contained in skeleton_dir or /etc/skel will be created in the user's home directory as well. The -k option is only valid in conjunction with the -m option. The default is to not create the directory and to not copy any files.

-p passwd

The encrypted password, as returned by crypt(3). The default is to disable the account.

-r

This flag is used to create a system account. That is, a user with a UID in the range reserved for system account users. If there is not a UID free in the reserved range the command will fail.

-s shell

The name of the user's login shell. The default is to leave this field blank, which causes the system to select the default login shell.

-u uid [-o]

The numerical value of the user's ID. This value must be unique, unless the -o option is used. The value must be non-negative. The default is the smallest ID value greater than 499 which is not yet used.

Change Default Options

-b default_home

The initial path prefix for a new user's home directory. The user's name will be affixed to the end of default_home to create the new directory name if the -d option is not used when creating a new account.

-e default_expire_date

The date on which the user account is disabled.

-f default_inactive

The number of days after a password has expired before the account will be disabled.

-g default_group

The group name or ID for a new user's initial group. The named group must exist, and a numerical group ID must have an existing entry.

-s default_shell

The name of the new user's login shell. The named program will be used for all future new user accounts.

-c comment

The new user's password file comment field.

userdel

Name

userdel -- Delete a user account and related files

Synopsis

userdel [-r] login

Options

-r

Files in the user's home directory will be removed along with the home directory itself. Files located in other file system will have to be searched for and deleted manually.

usermod

Name

usermod -- Modify a user account

Synopsis

usermod [-c comment] [-d home_dir [ -m]]
        [-e expire_date] [-f inactive_time]
        [-g initial_group] [-G group[,...]]
        [-l login_name] [-p passwd]
        [-s shell] [-u uid [ -o]] login

Options

-c comment

The new value of the user's password file comment field.

-d home_dir

The user's new login directory. If the -m option is given the contents of the current home directory will be moved to the new home directory, which is created if it does not already exist.

-e expire_date

The date on which the user account will be disabled. The date is specified in the YYYY-MM-DD.

-f inactive_days

The number of days after a password expires until the account is permanently disabled. A value of 0 disables the account as soon as the password has expired, and a value of -1 disables the feature. The default value is -1.

-g initial_group

The group name or number of the user's new initial login group. The group name must exist. A group number must refer to an already existing group.

-G group,[...]

A list of supplementary groups which the user is also a member of. Each group is separated from the next by a comma, with no intervening whitespace. The groups are subject to the same restrictions as the group given with the -g option. If the user is currently a member of a group which is not listed, the user will be removed from the group.

-l login_name

The name of the user will be changed from login to login_name. Nothing else is changed. In particular, the user's home directory name should probably be changed to reflect the new login name.

-p passwd

The encrypted password, as returned by crypt(3).

-s shell

The name of the user's new login shell. Setting this field to blank causes the system to select the default login shell.

-u uid [-o]

The numerical value of the user's ID. This value must be unique, unless the -o option is used. The value must be non-negative. Any files which the user owns and which are located in the directory tree rooted at the user's home directory will have the file user ID changed automatically. Files outside of the user's home directory must be altered manually.

wc

Name

wc -- print the number of bytes, words, and lines in files

Description

The specification for "wc" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Differences

--bytes, --chars

equivalent to the -c option

--lines

equivalent to the -l option

-L, --max-line-length

print the length of the longest line

-m

This option as described in the SUS is not supported

--words

equivalent to the -w option

--version

output version information and exit

xargs

Name

xargs -- build and execute command lines from standard input

Description

The specification for "xargs" is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Differences

--null, -0

Input filenames are terminated by a null character instead of by whitespace, and the quotes and backslash are not special (every character is taken literally). Disables the end of file string, which is treated like any other argument. Useful when arguments might contain white space, quote marks, or backslashes. The GNU find -print0 option produces input suitable for this mode.

--eof[=eof-str]

Equivalent to the -e option

-E

This option is not supported

--replace[=replace-str]

Use FORMAT as the string that controls the output of time. See the below more information.

-I

This option is not supported

--max-lines[=max-lines]

Equivalent to the the -l option

-L

This option is not supported

--max-args=max-args

Equivalent to the -n option

--interactive

Equivalent to the -p option

--no-run-if-empty, -r

If the standard input does not contain any nonblanks, do not run the command. Normally, the command is run once even if there is no input.

--max-chars

Equivalent to the -s option

--verbose

Equivalent to the -t option

--version

Print the version number of xargs and exit.

--exit

Equivalent to the -x option

--max-procs=max-procs, -P max-procs

Run up to max-procs processes at a time; the default is 1. If max-procs is 0, xargs will run as many processes as possible at a time. Use the -n option with -P; otherwise chances are that only one exec will be done.

IX. Standard Shell

Table of Contents
15. Standard Shell

Chapter 15. Standard Shell

Introduction

The process of identifying a single GNU/Linux shell as a standard requires that features intrinsic to the shell be analyzed alongside attributes relating to its usability and availability. Among the many shells existing at the time of the evaluation, two in particular possessed a favorable array of features -- Bash and Pdksh.

After careful research and testing, Bash shell was adopted as the standard for GNU/Linux. At the time of evaluation, Bash was found mostly compliant with the POSIX-1003.2 standard, and its maintainer demonstrated interest in bringing the shell to full compliance. Bash already enjoys wide use among shell users, and is even included in many distributions as the default shell. Further, the abundance of documentation found both on the Internet and in the bookstore makes Bash an easy shell to use.

It should be noted that Bash supports many extensions -- features of a supplemental nature -- to those explicitly specified in POSIX-1003.2. Such extensions to POSIX are not beneficial to the portability of a shell script. The use of extensions must be avoided in order for a shell implementation or shell script to be considered LSB-compliant.

Provisions of the shell command language standard as documented in Section 3 of POSIX-1003.2 are applicable as specified. GNU exceptions to certain standards exist, and in such instances, the GNU method is preferred. Either variation, however, may be used to achieve LSB-compliance. The exceptions follow.


Standard Shell Exception: pathname of $0

POSIX Standard, section: 3.9.1.1, line: 779-784

When the search for command name using the PATH environment variable succeeds, the command is executed with actions equivalent to calling 'execve()' with the path argument set to the pathname resulting from the search, 'argv[0]' set to the command name and the remaining arguments set to the operands.

if [ $0 = (basename $0) ]; then
	echo "command name: " $0
fi

GNU Exception

When the search for command name using the PATH environment variable succeeds, the command is executed with actions equivalent to calling 'execve()' with the path argument set to the pathname resulting from the search, 'argv[0]' set to the full-path command name and the remaining arguments set to the operands.

if [ $0 = (realpath $0) ]; then
	echo "full pathname: " $0
fi

Standard Shell Exception: sourcing non-executable files

POSIX Standard, section: 3.14.4, line: 1493-1498

When PATH is used to locate a file for the dot utility[37] , the file's readable bit has to be set. The executable bit is not important. The POSIX shell ignores non-readable files.

GNU Exception

When PATH is used to locate a file for the dot utility, the file's readable bit has to be set. The executable bit is not important. If file is executable and not readable, then the interactive shell displays a diagnostic message to standard error, and the non-interactive shell aborts.

X. Users & Groups

Table of Contents
16. Users & Groups

Chapter 16. Users & Groups

A "user name" is a string that is used to identify a user. A "login name" is a user name that is associated with a system login. A "user id" is a non negative integer, which can be contained in an object of type uid_t, that is used to identify a system user. When the identity of a user is associated with a process, a user ID value is referred to as a real user ID, or an effective user ID. [POSIX 1.003.1-1996]

A "group name" is a string that is used to identify a set of users. A "group id" is a non negative interger, which can be contained in a object of type gid_t, that is used to identify a group of system users. Each system user is a member of at least one group. When the identity of a group is associated with a process, agroup ID value is referred to as a real group ID, or an effective group ID. [POSIX 1003.1-1996]


User and Group Database

The format of the User and Group databases is not specified. Programs may only read these databases using the provided API. Changes to these databases should be made using the provided commands.


User & Group Names

Below is a table of required mnemonic user and group names. This specification makes no attempt to numerically assign uid or gid numbers. The exceptions are the uid and gid for "root" which is equal to 0, and the uid and gid for "bin" which is equal to 1.

Table 16-1. Required User & Group Names

UserGroupComments
rootrootAdministrative user with no restrictions
binbinAdministrative user with some restrictions
daemondaemonSubprocess special privileges

Below is a table of optional mnemonic user and group names. This specification makes no attempt to numerically assign uid or gid numbers. If the username exists on a system, then they should be in the suggested corresponding group.

Table 16-2. Optional User & Group Names

UserGroupComments
admadmAdministrative special privileges
lplpPrinter special privileges
syncsyncLogin to sync the system
shutdownshutdownLogin to shutdown the system
halthaltLogin to halt the system
mailmailMail special privileges
newsnewsNews special privileges
uucpuucpUUCP special privileges
operatorrootOperator special privileges
manmanMan special privileges
nobodynobodyUsed by NFS

The differences in numeric values of the uids and gids between systems on a network can be reconciled via NIS, rdist(1), rsync(1), or ugidd(8). Only a minimum working set of "user names" and their corresponding "user groups" are required. Applications cannot assume non system user or group names will be defined.

Applications cannot assume any policy for the default umask or the default directory permissions a user may have. Applications should enforce user only file permissions on private files such as mailboxes. The location of the users home directory is also not defined by policy other than the recommendations of the FHS and must be obtained by the *pwnam(3) calls.


UID Ranges

The system UIDs from 0 to 99 should be statically allocated by the system. These static assignments should be defined by a common registry.

The system UIDs from 100 to 499 should be reserved for dynamically allocation by system administrators and post install scripts using useradd(1).

XI. File System Hierarchy

Table of Contents
17. FHS

Chapter 17. FHS

An LSB conforming system must adhere to the FHS 2.2.

LSB applications must not access files in /proc.


Minimal granted Directory and File permissions

In this Chapter "System" means a "LSB compliant system" and "application" means a "LSB compliant (third party vendor) application".

The system must grant to the application read and execute permissions needed to use all system interfaces (ABIs) mentioned in the LSB document and included standards.


Recommendations for applications on ownership and permissions

Directory Write Permissions

The application should not depend on having directory write permission outside /tmp, /var/tmp, it's home directory and /var/opt/<package>, where <package> is the name of the application package.

The application should not depend on owning these directories.

For these directories the application should be able to work with directory write permissions restricted by the "sticky bit". (Which prevents the application to remove files owned by another user. This is classically done with /tmp, to prevent accidental deletion of "foreign" files.)


File Write Permissions

The application should not depend on file write permission on files not owned by the user it runs under with the exception of its personal inbox /var/mail/<username>


File Read and execute Permissions

The application should not depend on having read permission to every file and directory.


Suid and Sgid Permissions

The application should not depend on suid/sgid permissions on a file not packaged with the application. Instead, the distribution is responsible for all system commands having the required permissions and working correctly.

Rationale: Let us make security officers happy. Lets give them the freedom to take sgid/suid perms away, as long as they do not break the systems functionality.


Privileged users

"Normal" Applications should not depend on running as a privileged user

Special applications that have a reason to run under a privileged user, should outline these reasons clearly in their documentation, if they are not obvious as in the case of a backup/restore program. Users of the application should be informed, that "this application demands security privileges, which could infer with system security".

The application should not contain binary only software which it depends on running as root, as this makes security auditing harder or even impossible.


Changing permissions

The application should not change permissions of files and directories not being part of their package. To do so without a warning notice in the documentation is regarded as unfriendly act.


Removable Media (Cdrom, Floppy,...)

The application should be prepared on removable media being mounted with some of the options "noauto", "nouser", "nosuid" or "nodev". Also the mount options "uid=X", "gid=X" should be awaited with a non-zero uid/gid value X.

Rationale: System vendors and local system administrators want to run applications from removable media, but want the possibility to control what the application can do.

Run-from-removable media applications should not depend on logging in as a privileged user.


Installable applications

If the Installation of an Applications requires the execution of programmes with superuser privileges, then this programmes should be supplied (also) in a human readable form.

If not doing so, the local system administrator would have to blindly trust a piece of software, he can not check for security.

XII. System Initialization

Table of Contents
18. System Initialization

Chapter 18. System Initialization

Cron Jobs

Packages may not touch the configuration file /etc/crontab, nor may they modify the files in /var/spool/cron/crontabs.

If a package wants to install a job that has to be executed via cron, it shall place a file with the name if the package in one of the following directories:

/etc/cron.daily
/etc/cron.weekly
/etc/cron.monthly

As these directory names say, the files within them are executed on a daily, weekly, or monthly basis, respectively.

If a certain job has to be executed more frequently than daily, the package shall install a file /etc/cron.d/<package-name> tagged as configuration file. This file uses the same syntax as /etc/crontab and is processed by cron automatically.

It is recommended that files installed in any of these directories be scripts (shell scripts, Perl scripts, etc.) so that they may be modified by the local system administrator. In addition, they must be registered as configuration file.

The scripts in these directories have to check, if all necessary programs are installed before they try to execute them. Otherwise, problems will arise when a package was removed (but not purged), since the configuration files are kept on the system in this situation.

To avoid namespace conflicts in the /etc/cron.* directories, the filenames used by LSB-compliant packages in /etc/cron.daily, /etc/cron.weekly, /etc/cron.monthly, or /etc/cron.d must come from a managed namespace. These filenames may be assigned using one of the following methods:

  • Assigned namespace. This namespace consists of names which only use the character set [a-z0-9]. In order to avoid conflicts these cron script names must be reserved through the Linux Assigned Names and Numbers Authority (LANANA). Information about the LANANA may be found at www.lanana.org.

    Commonly used names shall be reserved in advance; developers for projects should be encouraged reserve names from LANA, so that each distribution can use the same name, and to avoid conflicts with other projects.

  • Hierarchical namespace. This namespace consists of scripts names which look like this: [hier1]-[hier2]-...-[name], where name is again taken the character set [a-z0-9], and where there may be one or more [hier-n] components. [hier1] may either be an LSB provider name assigned by the LANANA, or it may be owners' DNS name in lower case, with at least one '.'. I.e., "debian.org", "staroffice.sun.com", etc. The LSB provider name assigned by LANANA must only consist of the ASCII characters [a-z0-9].

  • Reserved namespace. This namespace consists of script names which begin with the character '_', and is reserved for distribution use only. This namespace should be used for core packages only, and in general use of this namespace is highly discouraged.


Run Levels

0halt
1single user mode
2multiuser with no network services exported
3normal/full multiuser
4reserved for local use, default is normal/full multiuser
5multiuser with xdm or equivalent
6reboot


Init Script Actions

Init files shall accept one argument, saying what to do:

startstart the service
stopstop the service
restartstop and restart the service if the service is already running, otherwise start the service
reloadcause the configuration of the service to be reloaded without actually stopping and restarting the service
force-reloadcause the configuration to be reloaded if the service supports this, otherwise restart the service
statusprint the current status of the service

The start, stop, restart, force-reload, and status commands must be supported by all init files; the reload option is optional. Other init script actions may be defined by the init script.

Init files must ensure that they will behave sensibly if invoked with start when the service is already running, or with stop when it isn't, and that they don't kill unfortunately-named user processes. The best way to achieve this is to use the init-script functions provided by /lib/lsb/init-functions.

If a service reloads its configuration automatically (as in the case of cron, for example), the reload option of the init file must behave as if the configuration has been reloaded successfully.

These executable files must not fail obscurely when the configuration files remain but the package has been removed, as the default in [the packaging system] is to leave configuration files on the system after the package has been removed. Only when it is executed with the [purge] option will [the packaging system] remove configuration files. Therefore, you should include a test statement at the top of the file, like this:
test -f program-executed-later-in-file || exit 5
or take the equivalent action if the init file is not a shell script.

If the status command is given, the init script will return the following exit status codes.

0program is running
1program is dead and /var/run pid file exists
2program is dead and /var/lock lock file exists
3program is stopped
4-100reserved for future LSB use
100-149reserved for distribution use
150-199reserved for application use
200-254reserved

In the case of init script commands other than "status" (i.e., "start", "stop", "restart", "reload", and "force-reload"), the init script must return an exit status of zero if the action described by the argument has been successful. Otherwise, the exit status shall be non-zero, as defined below. In addition to straightforward success, the following situations are also to be considered successful:

  • restarting a service (instead of reloading it) with the "force-reload" argument

  • running "start" on a service already running

  • running "stop" on a service already stopped or not running

  • running "restart" on a service already stopped or not running

In case of an error, while processing any init script action except for "status", the init script must print an error message and return one of the following non-zero exit status codes.

1generic or unspecified error (current practice)
2invalid or excess argument(s)
3unimplemented feature (for example, "reload")
4user had insufficient privilege
5program is not installed
6program is not configured
7program is not running
8-100reserved for future LSB use
100-149reserved for distribution use
150-199reserved for application use
200-254reserved

All error messages must be printed on standard error. All status messages must be printed on standard output.

Since init files may be run manually by a system administrator with non-standard environment variable values for PATH, USER, LOGNAME, etc. init files must not depend on the values of these environment variables. They should set them to some known/default values if they are needed.


Comment conventions for init scripts

LSB applications which need to execute script(s) at bootup and/or shutdown may provide one or more init.d files. These files are installed by the install_initd program described below, which copies it into a standard directory and makes whatever other adjustments (creation of symlinks, creation of entries in a database, etc.) are necessary so that the script can be run at boot-time. [38]

In the init.d file, information about the shell script shall be delimited by the lines "### BEGIN INIT INFO" and "### END INIT INFO". These delimiter lines may containg trailing whitespace, which shall be ignored. Inside this block there shall be lines of the form "# {keyword}: [arg1] [arg2] ...". (All lines inside this block start with a hash ('#') character in the first column, so that shell treats them as comments.) The following keywords, with their arguments are defined in this specification:

	# Provides: boot_facility_1 [ boot_facility_2 ...]
	# Required-Start: boot_facility_1 [ boot_facility_2 ...]
	# Required-Stop: boot_facility_1 [ boot_facility_2 ...]
	# Default-Start: run_level_1 [ run_level_2 ...]
	# Default-Stop: run_level_1 [ run_level_2 ...]
	# Description: multiline_description

Additional keywords may be defined in future LSB specifications. Distributions may define local extensions by using the prefix "X-[distribution name]" --- for example, "X-RedHat-foobardecl", or "X-Debian-xyzzydecl".

An init.d shell script may declare using the "Required-Start: " header that it must not be run until certain boot facilities are provided. This information is used by the installation tool or the boot-time boot-script execution facility to assure that init scripts are run in the correct order.

Similarly, the "Required-Stop:" header defines which facilities must still be available during the shutdown of that service. Hence, the initscript system should avoid stopping shell scripts which provide those facilities until this shell script is stopped.

In a multiline description, each continuation line must begin with a '#' followed by tab character or a '#' followed by at least two space characters. The multiline description is terminated by the first line that does not match this criteria.


Installation and removal of init.d files

An init.d file is installed by copying it into /etc/init.d (which may be a symlink to another location). This can be done by the package installer. During the package's postinstall script, the program "/usr/lib/lsb/install_initd" to configure the distribution's boot script system to call the package's init.d file at the appropriate time.

The install_initd program takes a single argument, the pathanme to the /etc/init.d file. For example:

	/usr/lib/lsb/install_initd /etc/init.d/inet

When a software package is removed, the package's preuninstall script shall call /usr/lib/lsb/remove_initd and pass the pathname to the /etc/init.d file. The package manager is still responsible for removing the /etc/init.d file; the remove_initd program is provided in case the distribution needs to clean up any other modifications the distribution's boot script system which might have been made by the install_initd program. For example:

	/usr/lib/lsb/remove_initd /etc/init.d/inet

There should be a tool available to the user (ala RedHat's chkconfig) which can be used by the system administrator to easily manipulate at which init levels a particular init.d script is started or stopped. This specification currently does not specify such an interface, however.


Facility names

Facility names that begin with a dollar sign ('$') are system facility names, defined by the LSB, and MUST be provided by distributions. LSB applications should not provide system facilities. This document defines the following system facility names:

$local_fsall local filesystems are mounted
$networklow level networking (ethernet card; may imply PCMCIA running)
$namednamed is operational
$remote_fsall remote filesystems are mounted (note in some cases /usr may be remote. Most applications that care will probably require both $local_fs and $remote_fs)
$syslogsystem logger is operational
$netdaemonsall network daemons are running

Other system facilities may be defined by other LSB applications.

Facility names may also be init.d script names, although LSB applications SHOULD NOT use script names, especially script names which are provided by distributions, as these may not necessarily be the same across different distributions.


Script names

Since the init.d scripts must live in a single directory, they must come from a single namespace. Three means of assigning names from this namespace are available:

  • Assigned namespace. This namespace consists of names which only use the character set [a-z0-9]. This space is desirable for scripts which system administrators may often wish to run manually: e.g., "/etc/init.d/named restart" In order to avoid conflicts these init.d names must be reserved through the Linux Assigned Names and Numbers Authority (LANANA). Information about the LANANA may be found at www.lanana.org.

    Commonly used names shall be reserved in advance; developers for projects should be encouraged reserve names from LANA, so that each distribution can use the same name, and to avoid conflicts with other projects.

  • Hierarchical namespace. This namespace consists of scripts names which look like this: [hier1]-[hier2]-...-[name], where name is again taken the character set [a-z0-9], and where there may be one or more [hier-n] components. [hier1] may either be an LSB provider name assigned by the LANANA, or it may be owners' DNS name in lower case, with at least one '.'. I.e., "debian.org", "staroffice.sun.com", etc. The LSB provider name assigned by LANANA must only consist of the ASCII characters [a-z0-9].

  • Reserved namespace. This namespace consists of script names which begin with the character '_', and is reserved for distribution use only. This namespace should be used for core packages only, and in general use of this namespace is highly discouraged.

In general, if a package or some system function is likely to be used on multiple systems, the package developers or the distribution SHOULD get a registered name through LANA, and distributions should strive to use the same name whenever possible. For applications which may not be "core" or may not be commonly installed, the hierarchical namespace may be more appropriate. An advantage to the hierarchical namespace is that there is no need to consult with the LANA before obtaining an assigned name.

Obviously, short names are highly desirable, since many system administrators like to use them to manually start and stop services. Given this, they should be standardized on a per-package basis. This is the rationale behind having a LANA organization to assign these names. The LANA may be called upon to handle other namespace issues, such as package/prerequisites naming (which I'm sure will be a hot political topic, but essential to make prerequisites to work correctly).

This specification shall pre-define the following script names as being reserved to the LANA. They reflect names which are commonly in use today by distributions to start up various sytem programs/daemons. The behaviour of these scripts are not specified here, and not all distributions may use all of these script names.

  • autofs

  • apmd

  • atd

  • crond

  • dhclient

  • dhcpcd

  • gpm

  • exim

  • halt

  • identd

  • inet

  • httpd

  • kudzu

  • klogd

  • lpd

  • mcserv

  • named

  • nfs

  • nfslock

  • pcmcia

  • portmap

  • postfix

  • random

  • routed

  • rstatd

  • rusersd

  • rwhod

  • sendmail

  • samba

  • smb

  • snmpd

  • sshd

  • syslog

  • xfs

  • xntpd

  • ypbind


Init script Functions

Each LSB compliant init.d script must source the file /lib/lsb/init-functions. This file must cause the following shell script commands to be defined. This can be done either by adding a directory to the PATH variable which defines these commands, or by defining sh aliases. While the distribution-provided aliases may choose to use bash extensions (at the distribution's option), the LSB init.d files themselves should only depend in /bin/sh features as defined by POSIX.2.

start_daemon [-f] [-n nicelevel] pathname [args] This runs the specified program as a daemon. start_daemon will check to see if there is a program named "daemon" already running. If so, it will not start another copy of the daemon unless the -f option is given. The -n option specifies a nice level. See nice(1).
killproc basename [signal] This stops the specified program. The program is found using the algorithm given by pidofproc. If a signal is specified, the program is sent that signal. Otherwise, a SIGTERM followed by a SIGKILL after some number of seconds is sent.
pidofproc basename This function returns one or more pid(s) for a particular daemon. If an entry is found in /var/run/basename.pid, then that value is returned. Compliant implementations of the LSB may attempt other mechanisms for determining the pid(s), although this is not required. (And not recommended, since a user can trick startup scripts by creating processes that appear to be system programs in the process list thus creating a potential security exposure.) Hence, LSB complaint applications who wish to use the pidofproc function in their init scripts must store the pid in /var/run/basename.pid.
log_success_msg "message" This requests the distribution to print a success message. The message should be relatively short; no More than 60 characters is highly desirable.
log_failure_msg "message" This requests the distribution to print a failure message. The message should be relatively short; no more than 60 characters is highly desirable.
log_warning_msg "message" This requests the distribution to print a warning message. The message should be relatively short; no more than 60 characters is highly desirable.


Appendix A. Alphabetical Listing of Interfaces

libX11

The behaviour of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following Standards.

X11R6.4 Xlib - C library

Table A-1. libX11 Function Interfaces

XActivateScreenSaver[21]XInitExtension[21]XcmsCIELuvClipL[21]
XAddConnectionWatch[21]XInitImage[21]XcmsCIELuvClipLuv[21]
XAddExtension[21]XInitThreads[21]XcmsCIELuvClipuv[21]
XAddHost[21]XInsertModifiermapEntry[21]XcmsCIELuvQueryMaxC[21]
XAddHosts[21]XInstallColormap[21]XcmsCIELuvQueryMaxL[21]
XAddPixel[21]XInternAtom[21]XcmsCIELuvQueryMaxLC[21]
XAddToExtensionList[21]XInternAtoms[21]XcmsCIELuvQueryMinL[21]
XAddToSaveSet[21]XInternalConnectionNumbers[21]XcmsCIELuvToCIEuvY[21]
XAllPlanes[21]XIntersectRegion[21]XcmsCIELuvWhiteShiftColors[21]
XAllocClassHint[21]XKeycodeToKeysym[21]XcmsCIEXYZToCIELab[21]
XAllocColor[21]XKeysymToKeycode[21]XcmsCIEXYZToCIEuvY[21]
XAllocColorCells[21]XKeysymToString[21]XcmsCIEXYZToCIExyY[21]
XAllocColorPlanes[21]XKillClient[21]XcmsCIEXYZToRGBi[21]
XAllocIconSize[21]XLastKnownRequestProcessed[21]XcmsCIEuvYToCIELuv[21]
XAllocNamedColor[21]XListDepths[21]XcmsCIEuvYToCIEXYZ[21]
XAllocSizeHints[21]XListExtensions[21]XcmsCIEuvYToTekHVC[21]
XAllocStandardColormap[21]XListFonts[21]XcmsCIExyYToCIEXYZ[21]
XAllocWMHints[21]XListFontsWithInfo[21]XcmsClientWhitePointOfCCC[21]
XAllowEvents[21]XListHosts[21]XcmsConvertColors[21]
XAutoRepeatOff[21]XListInstalledColormaps[21]XcmsCreateCCC[21]
XAutoRepeatOn[21]XListPixmapFormats[21]XcmsDefaultCCC[21]
XBaseFontNameListOfFontSet[21]XListProperties[21]XcmsDisplayOfCCC[21]
XBell[21]XLoadFont[21]XcmsFormatOfPrefix[21]
XBitmapBitOrder[21]XLoadQueryFont[21]XcmsFreeCCC[21]
XBitmapPad[21]XLocaleOfFontSet[21]XcmsLookupColor[21]
XBitmapUnit[21]XLocaleOfIM[21]XcmsPrefixOfFormat[21]
XBlackPixel[21]XLocaleOfOM[21]XcmsQueryBlack[21]
XBlackPixelOfScreen[21]XLockDisplay[21]XcmsQueryBlue[21]
XCellsOfScreen[21]XLookupColor[21]XcmsQueryColor[21]
XChangeActivePointerGrab[21]XLookupKeysym[21]XcmsQueryColors[21]
XChangeGC[21]XLookupString[21]XcmsQueryGreen[21]
XChangeKeyboardControl[21]XLowerWindow[21]XcmsQueryRed[21]
XChangeKeyboardMapping[21]XMapRaised[21]XcmsQueryWhite[21]
XChangePointerControl[21]XMapSubwindows[21]XcmsRGBToRGBi[21]
XChangeProperty[21]XMapWindow[21]XcmsRGBiToCIEXYZ[21]
XChangeSaveSet[21]XMaskEvent[21]XcmsRGBiToRGB[21]
XChangeWindowAttributes[21]XMatchVisualInfo[21]XcmsScreenNumberOfCCC[21]
XCheckIfEvent[21]XMaxCmapsOfScreen[21]XcmsScreenWhitePointOfCCC[21]
XCheckMaskEvent[21]XMaxRequestSize[21]XcmsSetCCCOfColormap[21]
XCheckTypedEvent[21]XMinCmapsOfScreen[21]XcmsSetCompressionProc[21]
XCheckTypedWindowEvent[21]XMoveResizeWindow[21]XcmsSetWhiteAdjustProc[21]
XCheckWindowEvent[21]XMoveWindow[21]XcmsSetWhitePoint[21]
XCirculateSubwindows[21]XNewModifiermap[21]XcmsStoreColor[21]
XCirculateSubwindowsDown[21]XNextEvent[21]XcmsStoreColors[21]
XCirculateSubwindowsUp[21]XNextRequest[21]XcmsTekHVCClipC[21]
XClearArea[21]XNoOp[21]XcmsTekHVCClipV[21]
XClearWindow[21]XOMOfOC[21]XcmsTekHVCClipVC[21]
XClipBox[21]XOffsetRegion[21]XcmsTekHVCQueryMaxC[21]
XCloseDisplay[21]XOpenDisplay[21]XcmsTekHVCQueryMaxV[21]
XCloseIM[21]XOpenIM[21]XcmsTekHVCQueryMaxVC[21]
XCloseOM[21]XOpenOM[21]XcmsTekHVCQueryMaxVSamples[21]
XConfigureWindow[21]XParseColor[21]XcmsTekHVCQueryMinV[21]
XConnectionNumber[21]XParseGeometry[21]XcmsTekHVCToCIEuvY[21]
XContextDependentDrawing[21]XPeekEvent[21]XcmsTekHVCWhiteShiftColors[21]
XContextualDrawing[21]XPeekIfEvent[21]XcmsVisualOfCCC[21]
XConvertCase[21]XPending[21]XkbAllocClientMap[21]
XConvertSelection[21]XPlanesOfScreen[21]XkbAllocCompatMap[21]
XCopyArea[21]XPointInRegion[21]XkbAllocControls[21]
XCopyColormapAndFree[21]XPolygonRegion[21]XkbAllocGeomColors[21]
XCopyGC[21]XProcessInternalConnection[21]XkbAllocGeomDoodads[21]
XCopyPlane[21]XProtocolRevision[21]XkbAllocGeomKeyAliases[21]
XCreateBitmapFromData[21]XProtocolVersion[21]XkbAllocGeomKeys[21]
XCreateColormap[21]XPutBackEvent[21]XkbAllocGeomOutlines[21]
XCreateFontCursor[21]XPutImage[21]XkbAllocGeomOverlayKeys[21]
XCreateFontSet[21]XPutPixel[21]XkbAllocGeomOverlayRows[21]
XCreateGC[21]XQLength[21]XkbAllocGeomOverlays[21]
XCreateGlyphCursor[21]XQueryBestCursor[21]XkbAllocGeomPoints[21]
XCreateIC[21]XQueryBestSize[21]XkbAllocGeomProps[21]
XCreateImage[21]XQueryBestStipple[21]XkbAllocGeomRows[21]
XCreateOC[21]XQueryBestTile[21]XkbAllocGeomSectionDoodads[21]
XCreatePixmap[21]XQueryColor[21]XkbAllocGeomSections[21]
XCreatePixmapCursor[21]XQueryColors[21]XkbAllocGeomShapes[21]
XCreatePixmapFromBitmapData[21]XQueryExtension[21]XkbAllocGeometry[21]
XCreateRegion[21]XQueryFont[21]XkbAllocIndicatorMaps[21]
XCreateSimpleWindow[21]XQueryKeymap[21]XkbAllocKeyboard[21]
XCreateWindow[21]XQueryPointer[21]XkbAllocNames[21]
XDefaultColormap[21]XQueryTextExtents[21]XkbAllocServerMap[21]
XDefaultColormapOfScreen[21]XQueryTextExtents16[21]XkbApplyCompatMapToKey[21]
XDefaultDepth[21]XQueryTree[21]XkbApplyVirtualModChanges[21]
XDefaultDepthOfScreen[21]XRaiseWindow[21]XkbBell[21]
XDefaultGC[21]XReadBitmapFile[21]XkbBellEvent[21]
XDefaultGCOfScreen[21]XReadBitmapFileData[21]XkbChangeEnabledControls[21]
XDefaultRootWindow[21]XRebindKeysym[21]XkbChangeKeycodeRange[21]
XDefaultScreen[21]XRecolorCursor[21]XkbChangeMap[21]
XDefaultScreenOfDisplay[21]XReconfigureWMWindow[21]XkbChangeNames[21]
XDefaultString[21]XRectInRegion[21]XkbChangeTypesOfKey[21]
XDefaultVisual[21]XRefreshKeyboardMapping[21]XkbComputeEffectiveMap[21]
XDefaultVisualOfScreen[21]XRegisterIMInstantiateCallback[21]XkbComputeRowBounds[21]
XDefineCursor[21]XRemoveConnectionWatch[21]XkbComputeSectionBounds[21]
XDeleteContext[21]XRemoveFromSaveSet[21]XkbComputeShapeBounds[21]
XDeleteModifiermapEntry[21]XRemoveHost[21]XkbComputeShapeTop[21]
XDeleteProperty[21]XRemoveHosts[21]XkbCopyKeyType[21]
XDestroyIC[21]XReparentWindow[21]XkbCopyKeyTypes[21]
XDestroyImage[21]XResetScreenSaver[21]XkbFindOverlayForKey[21]
XDestroyOC[21]XResizeWindow[21]XkbForceBell[21]
XDestroyRegion[21]XResourceManagerString[21]XkbFreeClientMap[21]
XDestroySubwindows[21]XRestackWindows[21]XkbFreeCompatMap[21]
XDestroyWindow[21]XRootWindow[21]XkbFreeComponentList[21]
XDirectionalDependentDrawing[21]XRootWindowOfScreen[21]XkbFreeControls[21]
XDisableAccessControl[21]XRotateBuffers[21]XkbFreeGeomColors[21]
XDisplayCells[21]XRotateWindowProperties[21]XkbFreeGeomDoodads[21]
XDisplayHeight[21]XSaveContext[21]XkbFreeGeomKeyAliases[21]
XDisplayHeightMM[21]XScreenCount[21]XkbFreeGeomKeys[21]
XDisplayKeycodes[21]XScreenNumberOfScreen[21]XkbFreeGeomOutlines[21]
XDisplayMotionBufferSize[21]XScreenOfDisplay[21]XkbFreeGeomOverlayKeys[21]
XDisplayName[21]XScreenResourceString[21]XkbFreeGeomOverlayRows[21]
XDisplayOfIM[21]XSelectInput[21]XkbFreeGeomOverlays[21]
XDisplayOfOM[21]XSendEvent[21]XkbFreeGeomPoints[21]
XDisplayOfScreen[21]XServerVendor[21]XkbFreeGeomProperties[21]
XDisplayPlanes[21]XSetAccessControl[21]XkbFreeGeomRows[21]
XDisplayString[21]XSetAfterFunction[21]XkbFreeGeomSections[21]
XDisplayWidth[21]XSetArcMode[21]XkbFreeGeomShapes[21]
XDisplayWidthMM[21]XSetAuthorization[21]XkbFreeGeometry[21]
XDoesBackingStore[21]XSetBackground[21]XkbFreeIndicatorMaps[21]
XDoesSaveUnders[21]XSetClassHint[21]XkbFreeKeyboard[21]
XDrawArc[21]XSetClipMask[21]XkbFreeNames[21]
XDrawArcs[21]XSetClipOrigin[21]XkbFreeServerMap[21]
XDrawImageString[21]XSetClipRectangles[21]XkbGetAutoRepeatRate[21]
XDrawImageString16[21]XSetCloseDownMode[21]XkbGetCompatMap[21]
XDrawLine[21]XSetCommand[21]XkbGetControls[21]
XDrawLines[21]XSetDashes[21]XkbGetGeometry[21]
XDrawPoint[21]XSetErrorHandler[21]XkbGetIndicatorMap[21]
XDrawPoints[21]XSetFillRule[21]XkbGetIndicatorState[21]
XDrawRectangle[21]XSetFillStyle[21]XkbGetKeyActions[21]
XDrawRectangles[21]XSetFont[21]XkbGetKeyBehaviors[21]
XDrawSegments[21]XSetFontPath[21]XkbGetKeyExplicitComponents[21]
XDrawString[21]XSetForeground[21]XkbGetKeyModifierMap[21]
XDrawString16[21]XSetFunction[21]XkbGetKeySyms[21]
XDrawText[21]XSetGraphicsExposures[21]XkbGetKeyTypes[21]
XDrawText16[21]XSetICFocus[21]XkbGetKeyVirtualModMap[21]
XEHeadOfExtensionList[21]XSetICValues[21]XkbGetKeyboard[21]
XESetBeforeFlush[21]XSetIMValues[21]XkbGetKeyboardByName[21]
XESetCloseDisplay[21]XSetIOErrorHandler[21]XkbGetMap[21]
XESetCopyGC[21]XSetIconName[21]XkbGetMapChanges[21]
XESetCreateFont[21]XSetIconSizes[21]XkbGetNamedGeometry[21]
XESetCreateGC[21]XSetInputFocus[21]XkbGetNamedIndicator[21]
XESetError[21]XSetLineAttributes[21]XkbGetNames[21]
XESetErrorString[21]XSetLocaleModifiers[21]XkbGetState[21]
XESetEventToWire[21]XSetModifierMapping[21]XkbGetUpdatedMap[21]
XESetFreeFont[21]XSetNormalHints[21]XkbGetVirtualMods[21]
XESetFreeGC[21]XSetOCValues[21]XkbGetXlibControls[21]
XESetPrintErrorValues[21]XSetOMValues[21]XkbIgnoreExtension[21]
XESetWireToError[21]XSetPlaneMask[21]XkbInitCanonicalKeyTypes[21]
XESetWireToEvent[21]XSetPointerMapping[21]XkbKeyTypesForCoreSymbols[21]
XEmptyRegion[21]XSetRGBColormaps[21]XkbKeycodeToKeysym[21]
XEnableAccessControl[21]XSetRegion[21]XkbKeysymToModifiers[21]
XEqualRegion[21]XSetScreenSaver[21]XkbLatchGroup[21]
XEventMaskOfScreen[21]XSetSelectionOwner[21]XkbLatchModifiers[21]
XEventsQueued[21]XSetSizeHints[21]XkbLibraryVersion[21]
XExtendedMaxRequestSize[21]XSetStandardColormap[21]XkbListComponents[21]
XExtentsOfFontSet[21]XSetStandardProperties[21]XkbLockGroup[21]
XFetchBuffer[21]XSetState[21]XkbLockModifiers[21]
XFetchBytes[21]XSetStipple[21]XkbLookupKeyBinding[21]
XFetchName[21]XSetSubwindowMode[21]XkbLookupKeySym[21]
XFillArc[21]XSetTSOrigin[21]XkbNoteControlsChanges[21]
XFillArcs[21]XSetTextProperty[21]XkbNoteMapChanges[21]
XFillPolygon[21]XSetTile[21]XkbNoteNameChanges[21]
XFillRectangle[21]XSetTransientForHint[21]XkbOpenDisplay[21]
XFillRectangles[21]XSetWMClientMachine[21]XkbQueryExtension[21]
XFilterEvent[21]XSetWMColormapWindows[21]XkbRefreshKeyboardMapping[21]
XFindContext[21]XSetWMHints[21]XkbResizeKeyActions[21]
XFindOnExtensionList[21]XSetWMIconName[21]XkbResizeKeySyms[21]
XFlush[21]XSetWMName[21]XkbResizeKeyType[21]
XFlushGC[21]XSetWMNormalHints[21]XkbSelectEventDetails[21]
XFontsOfFontSet[21]XSetWMProperties[21]XkbSelectEvents[21]
XForceScreenSaver[21]XSetWMProtocols[21]XkbSetAtomFuncs[21]
XFree[21]XSetWMSizeHints[21]XkbSetAutoRepeatRate[21]
XFreeColormap[21]XSetWindowBackground[21]XkbSetAutoResetControls[21]
XFreeColors[21]XSetWindowBackgroundPixmap[21]XkbSetCompatMap[21]
XFreeCursor[21]XSetWindowBorder[21]XkbSetControls[21]
XFreeExtensionList[21]XSetWindowBorderPixmap[21]XkbSetDebuggingFlags[21]
XFreeFont[21]XSetWindowBorderWidth[21]XkbSetDetectableAutoRepeat[21]
XFreeFontInfo[21]XSetWindowColormap[21]XkbSetGeometry[21]
XFreeFontNames[21]XSetZoomHints[21]XkbSetIgnoreLockMods[21]
XFreeFontPath[21]XShrinkRegion[21]XkbSetIndicatorMap[21]
XFreeFontSet[21]XStoreBuffer[21]XkbSetMap[21]
XFreeGC[21]XStoreBytes[21]XkbSetNamedIndicator[21]
XFreeModifiermap[21]XStoreColor[21]XkbSetNames[21]
XFreePixmap[21]XStoreColors[21]XkbSetServerInternalMods[21]
XFreeStringList[21]XStoreName[21]XkbSetXlibControls[21]
XGContextFromGC[21]XStoreNamedColor[21]XkbToControl[21]
XGeometry[21]XStringListToTextProperty[21]XkbTranslateKey[21]
XGetAtomName[21]XStringToKeysym[21]XkbTranslateKeyCode[21]
XGetAtomNames[21]XSubImage[21]XkbTranslateKeySym[21]
XGetClassHint[21]XSubtractRegion[21]XkbUpdateActionVirtualMods[21]
XGetCommand[21]XSupportsLocale[21]XkbUpdateKeyTypeVirtualMods[21]
XGetDefault[21]XSync[21]XkbUpdateMapFromCore[21]
XGetErrorDatabaseText[21]XSynchronize[21]XkbUseExtension[21]
XGetErrorText[21]XTextExtents[21]XkbVirtualModsToReal[21]
XGetFontPath[21]XTextExtents16[21]XkbXlibControlsImplemented[21]
XGetFontProperty[21]XTextPropertyToStringList[21]XmbDrawImageString[21]
XGetGCValues[21]XTextWidth[21]XmbDrawString[21]
XGetGeometry[21]XTextWidth16[21]XmbDrawText[21]
XGetICValues[21]XTranslateCoordinates[21]XmbLookupString[21]
XGetIMValues[21]XUndefineCursor[21]XmbResetIC[21]
XGetIconName[21]XUngrabButton[21]XmbSetWMProperties[21]
XGetIconSizes[21]XUngrabKey[21]XmbTextEscapement[21]
XGetImage[21]XUngrabKeyboard[21]XmbTextExtents[21]
XGetInputFocus[21]XUngrabPointer[21]XmbTextListToTextProperty[21]
XGetKeyboardControl[21]XUngrabServer[21]XmbTextPerCharExtents[21]
XGetKeyboardMapping[21]XUninstallColormap[21]XmbTextPropertyToTextList[21]
XGetModifierMapping[21]XUnionRectWithRegion[21]XrmCombineDatabase[21]
XGetMotionEvents[21]XUnionRegion[21]XrmCombineFileDatabase[21]
XGetNormalHints[21]XUnloadFont[21]XrmDestroyDatabase[21]
XGetOCValues[21]XUnlockDisplay[21]XrmEnumerateDatabase[21]
XGetOMValues[21]XUnmapSubwindows[21]XrmGetDatabase[21]
XGetPixel[21]XUnmapWindow[21]XrmGetFileDatabase[21]
XGetPointerControl[21]XUnregisterIMInstantiateCallback[21]XrmGetResource[21]
XGetPointerMapping[21]XUnsetICFocus[21]XrmGetStringDatabase[21]
XGetRGBColormaps[21]XVaCreateNestedList[21]XrmInitialize[21]
XGetScreenSaver[21]XVendorRelease[21]XrmLocaleOfDatabase[21]
XGetSelectionOwner[21]XVisualIDFromVisual[21]XrmMergeDatabases[21]
XGetSizeHints[21]XWMGeometry[21]XrmParseCommand[21]
XGetStandardColormap[21]XWarpPointer[21]XrmPermStringToQuark[21]
XGetSubImage[21]XWhitePixel[21]XrmPutFileDatabase[21]
XGetTextProperty[21]XWhitePixelOfScreen[21]XrmPutLineResource[21]
XGetTransientForHint[21]XWidthMMOfScreen[21]XrmPutResource[21]
XGetVisualInfo[21]XWidthOfScreen[21]XrmPutStringResource[21]
XGetWMClientMachine[21]XWindowEvent[21]XrmQGetResource[21]
XGetWMColormapWindows[21]XWithdrawWindow[21]XrmQGetSearchList[21]
XGetWMHints[21]XWriteBitmapFile[21]XrmQGetSearchResource[21]
XGetWMIconName[21]XXorRegion[21]XrmQPutResource[21]
XGetWMName[21]XauDisposeAuth[21]XrmQPutStringResource[21]
XGetWMNormalHints[21]XauFileName[21]XrmQuarkToString[21]
XGetWMProtocols[21]XauGetBestAuthByAddr[21]XrmSetDatabase[21]
XGetWMSizeHints[21]XauReadAuth[21]XrmStringToBindingQuarkList[21]
XGetWindowAttributes[21]XcmsAddColorSpace[21]XrmStringToQuark[21]
XGetWindowProperty[21]XcmsAddFunctionSet[21]XrmStringToQuarkList[21]
XGetZoomHints[21]XcmsAllocColor[21]XrmUniqueQuark[21]
XGrabButton[21]XcmsAllocNamedColor[21]XwcDrawImageString[21]
XGrabKey[21]XcmsCCCOfColormap[21]XwcDrawString[21]
XGrabKeyboard[21]XcmsCIELabClipL[21]XwcDrawText[21]
XGrabPointer[21]XcmsCIELabClipLab[21]XwcFreeStringList[21]
XGrabServer[21]XcmsCIELabClipab[21]XwcLookupString[21]
XHeightMMOfScreen[21]XcmsCIELabQueryMaxC[21]XwcResetIC[21]
XHeightOfScreen[21]XcmsCIELabQueryMaxL[21]XwcTextEscapement[21]
XIMOfIC[21]XcmsCIELabQueryMaxLC[21]XwcTextExtents[21]
XIconifyWindow[21]XcmsCIELabQueryMinL[21]XwcTextListToTextProperty[21]
XIfEvent[21]XcmsCIELabToCIEXYZ[21]XwcTextPerCharExtents[21]
XImageByteOrder[21]XcmsCIELabWhiteShiftColors[21]XwcTextPropertyToTextList[21]

libXt

The behaviour of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following Standards.

Linux Standard Base
X11R.4 X Toolkit Intrinsics

Table A-2. libXt Function Interfaces

XtAddActions[31]XtCvtStringToInt[31]XtParseAcceleratorTable[31]
XtAddCallback[31]XtCvtStringToPixel[31]XtParseTranslationTable[31]
XtAddCallbacks[31]XtCvtStringToRestartStyle[31]XtPeekEvent[31]
XtAddConverter[31]XtCvtStringToShort[31]XtPending[31]
XtAddEventHandler[31]XtCvtStringToTranslationTable[31]XtPopdown[31]
XtAddExposureToRegion[31]XtCvtStringToUnsignedChar[31]XtPopup[31]
XtAddGrab[31]XtCvtStringToVisual[31]XtPopupSpringLoaded[31]
XtAddInput[31]XtDatabase[31]XtProcessEvent[31]
XtAddRawEventHandler[31]XtDestroyApplicationContext[31]XtProcessLock[31]
XtAddSignal[31]XtDestroyGC[31]XtProcessUnlock[31]
XtAddTimeOut[31]XtDestroyWidget[31]XtQueryGeometry[31]
XtAddWorkProc[31]XtDirectConvert[31]XtRealizeWidget[31]
XtAllocateGC[31]XtDisownSelection[31]XtRealloc[31]
XtAppAddActionHook[31]XtDispatchEvent[31]XtRegisterCaseConverter[31]
XtAppAddActions[31]XtDispatchEventToWidget[31]XtRegisterDrawable[31]
XtAppAddBlockHook[31]XtDisplay[31]XtRegisterExtensionSelector[31]
XtAppAddConverter[31]XtDisplayInitialize[31]XtRegisterGrabAction[31]
XtAppAddInput[31]XtDisplayOfObject[31]XtReleaseGC[31]
XtAppAddSignal[31]XtDisplayStringConversionWarning[31]XtReleasePropertyAtom[31]
XtAppAddTimeOut[31]XtDisplayToApplicationContext[31]XtRemoveActionHook[31]
XtAppAddWorkProc[31]XtError[31]XtRemoveAllCallbacks[31]
XtAppCreateShell[31]XtErrorMsg[31]XtRemoveBlockHook[31]
XtAppError[31]XtFindFile[31]XtRemoveCallback[31]
XtAppErrorMsg[31]XtFree[31]XtRemoveCallbacks[31]
XtAppGetErrorDatabase[31]XtGetActionKeysym[31]XtRemoveEventHandler[31]
XtAppGetErrorDatabaseText[31]XtGetActionList[31]XtRemoveEventTypeHandler[31]
XtAppGetExitFlag[31]XtGetApplicationNameAndClass[31]XtRemoveGrab[31]
XtAppGetSelectionTimeout[31]XtGetApplicationResources[31]XtRemoveInput[31]
XtAppInitialize[31]XtGetClassExtension[31]XtRemoveRawEventHandler[31]
XtAppLock[31]XtGetConstraintResourceList[31]XtRemoveSignal[31]
XtAppMainLoop[31]XtGetDisplays[31]XtRemoveTimeOut[31]
XtAppNextEvent[31]XtGetErrorDatabase[31]XtRemoveWorkProc[31]
XtAppPeekEvent[31]XtGetErrorDatabaseText[31]XtReservePropertyAtom[31]
XtAppPending[31]XtGetGC[31]XtResizeWidget[31]
XtAppProcessEvent[31]XtGetKeyboardFocusWidget[31]XtResizeWindow[31]
XtAppReleaseCacheRefs[31]XtGetKeysymTable[31]XtResolvePathname[31]
XtAppSetErrorHandler[31]XtGetMultiClickTime[31]XtScreen[31]
XtAppSetErrorMsgHandler[31]XtGetResourceList[31]XtScreenDatabase[31]
XtAppSetExitFlag[31]XtGetSelectionParameters[31]XtScreenOfObject[31]
XtAppSetFallbackResources[31]XtGetSelectionRequest[31]XtSendSelectionRequest[31]
XtAppSetSelectionTimeout[31]XtGetSelectionTimeout[31]XtSessionGetToken[31]
XtAppSetTypeConverter[31]XtGetSelectionValue[31]XtSessionReturnToken[31]
XtAppSetWarningHandler[31]XtGetSelectionValueIncremental[31]XtSetErrorHandler[31]
XtAppSetWarningMsgHandler[31]XtGetSelectionValues[31]XtSetErrorMsgHandler[31]
XtAppUnlock[31]XtGetSelectionValuesIncremental[31]XtSetEventDispatcher[31]
XtAppWarning[31]XtGetSubresources[31]XtSetKeyTranslator[31]
XtAppWarningMsg[31]XtGetSubvalues[31]XtSetKeyboardFocus[31]
XtAugmentTranslations[31]XtGetValues[31]XtSetLanguageProc[31]
XtBuildEventMask[31]XtGrabButton[31]XtSetMappedWhenManaged[31]
XtCallAcceptFocus[31]XtGrabKey[31]XtSetMultiClickTime[31]
XtCallActionProc[31]XtGrabKeyboard[31]XtSetSelectionParameters[31]
XtCallCallbackList[31]XtGrabPointer[31]XtSetSelectionTimeout[31]
XtCallCallbacks[31]XtHasCallbacks[31]XtSetSensitive[31]
XtCallConverter[31]XtHooksOfDisplay[31]XtSetSubvalues[31]
XtCallbackExclusive[31]XtInitialize[31]XtSetTypeConverter[31]
XtCallbackNone[31]XtInitializeWidgetClass[31]XtSetValues[31]
XtCallbackNonexclusive[31]XtInsertEventHandler[31]XtSetWMColormapWindows[31]
XtCallbackPopdown[31]XtInsertEventTypeHandler[31]XtSetWarningHandler[31]
XtCallbackReleaseCacheRef[31]XtInsertRawEventHandler[31]XtSetWarningMsgHandler[31]
XtCallbackReleaseCacheRefList[31]XtInstallAccelerators[31]XtShellStrings[31]
XtCalloc[31]XtInstallAllAccelerators[31]XtStringConversionWarning[31]
XtCancelSelectionRequest[31]XtIsApplicationShell[31]XtStrings[31]
XtChangeManagedSet[31]XtIsComposite[31]XtSuperclass[31]
XtClass[31]XtIsConstraint[31]XtToolkitInitialize[31]
XtCloseDisplay[31]XtIsManaged[31]XtToolkitThreadInitialize[31]
XtConfigureWidget[31]XtIsObject[31]XtTranslateCoords[31]
XtConvert[31]XtIsOverrideShell[31]XtTranslateKey[31]
XtConvertAndStore[31]XtIsRealized[31]XtTranslateKeycode[31]
XtConvertCase[31]XtIsRectObj[31]XtUngrabButton[31]
XtCreateApplicationContext[31]XtIsSensitive[31]XtUngrabKey[31]
XtCreateApplicationShell[31]XtIsSessionShell[31]XtUngrabKeyboard[31]
XtCreateManagedWidget[31]XtIsShell[31]XtUngrabPointer[31]
XtCreatePopupShell[31]XtIsSubclass[31]XtUninstallTranslations[31]
XtCreateSelectionRequest[31]XtIsTopLevelShell[31]XtUnmanageChild[31]
XtCreateWidget[31]XtIsTransientShell[31]XtUnmanageChildren[31]
XtCreateWindow[31]XtIsVendorShell[31]XtUnmapWidget[31]
XtCvtColorToPixel[31]XtIsWMShell[31]XtUnrealizeWidget[31]
XtCvtIntToBool[31]XtIsWidget[31]XtUnregisterDrawable[31]
XtCvtIntToBoolean[31]XtKeysymToKeycodeList[31]XtVaAppCreateShell[31]
XtCvtIntToColor[31]XtLastEventProcessed[31]XtVaAppInitialize[31]
XtCvtIntToFloat[31]XtLastTimestampProcessed[31]XtVaCreateArgsList[31]
XtCvtIntToFont[31]XtMainLoop[31]XtVaCreateManagedWidget[31]
XtCvtIntToPixel[31]XtMakeGeometryRequest[31]XtVaCreatePopupShell[31]
XtCvtIntToPixmap[31]XtMakeResizeRequest[31]XtVaCreateWidget[31]
XtCvtIntToShort[31]XtMalloc[31]XtVaGetApplicationResources[31]
XtCvtIntToUnsignedChar[31]XtManageChild[31]XtVaGetSubresources[31]
XtCvtStringToAcceleratorTable[31]XtManageChildren[31]XtVaGetSubvalues[31]
XtCvtStringToAtom[31]XtMapWidget[31]XtVaGetValues[31]
XtCvtStringToBool[31]XtMenuPopupAction[31]XtVaOpenApplication[31]
XtCvtStringToBoolean[31]XtMergeArgLists[31]XtVaSetSubvalues[31]
XtCvtStringToCommandArgArray[31]XtMoveWidget[31]XtVaSetValues[31]
XtCvtStringToCursor[31]XtName[31]XtWarning[31]
XtCvtStringToDimension[31]XtNameToWidget[31]XtWarningMsg[31]
XtCvtStringToDirectoryString[31]XtNewString[31]XtWidgetToApplicationContext[31]
XtCvtStringToDisplay[31]XtNextEvent[31]XtWindow[31]
XtCvtStringToFile[31]XtNoticeSignal[31]XtWindowOfObject[31]
XtCvtStringToFloat[31]XtOpenApplication[31]XtWindowToWidget[31]
XtCvtStringToFont[31]XtOpenDisplay[31]_XtCopyFromArg[30]
XtCvtStringToFontSet[31]XtOverrideTranslations[31]_XtInherit[30]
XtCvtStringToFontStruct[31]XtOwnSelection[31]_XtIsSubclassOf[30]
XtCvtStringToGravity[31]XtOwnSelectionIncremental[31] 
XtCvtStringToInitialState[31]XtParent[31] 

Table A-3. libXt Data Interfaces

XtCXtToolkitError[31]objectClassRec[31]topLevelShellClassRec[31]
_XtInheritTranslations[30]overrideShellClassRec[31]topLevelShellWidgetClass[31]
applicationShellWidgetClass[31]overrideShellWidgetClass[31]transientShellClassRec[31]
compositeClassRec[31]rectObjClass[31]transientShellWidgetClass[31]
compositeWidgetClass[31]rectObjClassRec[31]widgetClass[31]
constraintClassRec[31]sessionShellClassRec[31]widgetClassRec[31]
constraintWidgetClass[31]sessionShellWidgetClass[31]wmShellClassRec[31]
coreWidgetClass[31]shellClassRec[31]wmShellWidgetClass[31]
objectClass[31]shellWidgetClass[31] 

libm

The behaviour of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following Standards.

ISO/IEC 9899: 1999, Programming Languages --C
CAE Specification, January 1997, System Interfaces and Headers (XSH), Issue 5 (ISBN: 1-85912-181-0, C606)

Table A-4. libm Function Interfaces

acos(GLIBC_2.0)[10]csinhf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]llroundf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
acosf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]csinhl(GLIBC_2.0)[9]llroundl(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
acosh(GLIBC_2.0)[10]csinl(GLIBC_2.0)[9]log(GLIBC_2.0)[10]
acoshf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]csqrt(GLIBC_2.0)[9]log10(GLIBC_2.0)[10]
acoshl(GLIBC_2.0)[9]csqrtf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]log1p(GLIBC_2.0)[10]
acosl(GLIBC_2.0)[9]csqrtl(GLIBC_2.0)[9]logb(GLIBC_2.0)[10]
asin(GLIBC_2.0)[10]ctan(GLIBC_2.0)[9]lrint(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
asinf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]ctanf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]lrintf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
asinh(GLIBC_2.0)[10]ctanh(GLIBC_2.0)[9]lrintl(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
asinhf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]ctanhf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]lround(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
asinhl(GLIBC_2.0)[9]ctanhl(GLIBC_2.0)[9]lroundf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
asinl(GLIBC_2.0)[9]ctanl(GLIBC_2.0)[9]lroundl(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
atan(GLIBC_2.0)[10]dremf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]matherr(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
atan2(GLIBC_2.0)[10]dreml(GLIBC_2.0)[9]modf(GLIBC_2.0)[10]
atan2f(GLIBC_2.0)[9]erf(GLIBC_2.0)[10]modff(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
atan2l(GLIBC_2.0)[9]erfc(GLIBC_2.0)[10]modfl(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
atanf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]erfcf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]nan(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
atanh(GLIBC_2.0)[10]erfcl(GLIBC_2.0)[9]nanf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
atanhf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]erff(GLIBC_2.0)[9]nanl(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
atanhl(GLIBC_2.0)[9]erfl(GLIBC_2.0)[9]nearbyint(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
atanl(GLIBC_2.0)[9]exp(GLIBC_2.0)[10]nearbyintf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
cabs(GLIBC_2.1)[10]expm1(GLIBC_2.1)[10]nearbyintl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
cabsf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]fabs(GLIBC_2.1)[10]nextafter(GLIBC_2.1)[10]
cabsl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]fabsf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]nextafterf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
cacos(GLIBC_2.1)[9]fabsl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]nextafterl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
cacosf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]fdim(GLIBC_2.1)[9]nexttoward(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
cacosh(GLIBC_2.1)[9]fdimf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]nexttowardf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
cacoshf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]fdiml(GLIBC_2.1)[9]nexttowardl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
cacoshl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]feclearexcept(GLIBC_2.1)[9]pow(GLIBC_2.1)[10]
cacosl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]fegetenv(GLIBC_2.1)[9]pow10(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
carg(GLIBC_2.1)[9]fegetexceptflag(GLIBC_2.1)[9]pow10f(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
cargf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]fegetround(GLIBC_2.1)[9]pow10l(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
cargl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]feholdexcept(GLIBC_2.1)[9]powf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
casin(GLIBC_2.1)[9]feraiseexcept(GLIBC_2.1)[9]powl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
casinf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]fesetenv(GLIBC_2.1)[9]remainder(GLIBC_2.1)[10]
casinh(GLIBC_2.1)[9]fesetexceptflag(GLIBC_2.1)[9]remainderf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
casinhf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]fesetround(GLIBC_2.1)[9]remainderl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
casinhl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]fetestexcept(GLIBC_2.1)[9]remquo(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
casinl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]feupdateenv(GLIBC_2.1)[9]remquof(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
catan(GLIBC_2.1)[9]finite(GLIBC_2.1)[10]remquol(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
catanf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]finitef(GLIBC_2.1)[9]rint(GLIBC_2.1)[10]
catanh(GLIBC_2.1)[9]finitel(GLIBC_2.1)[9]rintf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
catanhf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]floor(GLIBC_2.1)[10]rintl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
catanhl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]floorf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]round(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
catanl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]floorl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]roundf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
cbrt(GLIBC_2.0)[10]fma(GLIBC_2.0)[9]roundl(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
cbrtf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]fmaf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]scalb(GLIBC_2.0)[10]
cbrtl(GLIBC_2.0)[9]fmal(GLIBC_2.0)[9]scalbf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
ccos(GLIBC_2.1)[9]fmax(GLIBC_2.1)[9]scalbl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
ccosf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]fmaxf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]scalbln(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
ccosh(GLIBC_2.1)[9]fmaxl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]scalblnf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
ccoshf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]fmin(GLIBC_2.1)[9]scalblnl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
ccoshl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]fminf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]scalbn(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
ccosl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]fminl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]scalbnf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
ceil(GLIBC_2.0)[10]fmod(GLIBC_2.0)[10]scalbnl(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
ceilf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]fmodf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]significand(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
ceill(GLIBC_2.0)[9]fmodl(GLIBC_2.0)[9]significandf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
cexp(GLIBC_2.1)[9]frexp(GLIBC_2.1)[10]significandl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
cexpf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]frexpf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]sin(GLIBC_2.1)[10]
cexpl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]frexpl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]sincos(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
cimag(GLIBC_2.1)[9]gamma(GLIBC_2.1)[10]sincosf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
cimagf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]gammaf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]sincosl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
cimagl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]gammal(GLIBC_2.1)[9]sinf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
clog10(GLIBC_2.1)[9]hypot(GLIBC_2.1)[10]sinh(GLIBC_2.1)[10]
clog10f(GLIBC_2.1)[9]hypotf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]sinhf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
clog10l(GLIBC_2.1)[9]hypotl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]sinhl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
clogf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]ilogb(GLIBC_2.1)[10]sinl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
clogl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]ilogbf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]sqrt(GLIBC_2.1)[10]
conj(GLIBC_2.1)[9]ilogbl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]sqrtf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
conjf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]j0(GLIBC_2.1)[10]sqrtl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
conjl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]j0f(GLIBC_2.1)[9]tan(GLIBC_2.1)[10]
copysign(GLIBC_2.0)[9]j0l(GLIBC_2.0)[9]tanf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
copysignf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]j1(GLIBC_2.0)[10]tanh(GLIBC_2.0)[10]
copysignl(GLIBC_2.0)[9]j1f(GLIBC_2.0)[9]tanhf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
cos(GLIBC_2.0)[10]j1l(GLIBC_2.0)[9]tanhl(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
cosf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]jn(GLIBC_2.0)[10]tanl(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
cosh(GLIBC_2.0)[10]jnf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]tgamma(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
coshf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]jnl(GLIBC_2.0)[9]tgammaf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
coshl(GLIBC_2.0)[9]ldexp(GLIBC_2.0)[10]tgammal(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
cosl(GLIBC_2.0)[9]ldexpf(GLIBC_2.0)[9]trunc(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
cpow(GLIBC_2.1)[9]ldexpl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]truncf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
cpowf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]lgamma(GLIBC_2.1)[10]truncl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
cpowl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]lgamma_r(GLIBC_2.1)[9]y0(GLIBC_2.1)[10]
cproj(GLIBC_2.1)[9]lgammaf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]y0f(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
cprojf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]lgammaf_r(GLIBC_2.1)[9]y0l(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
cprojl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]lgammal(GLIBC_2.1)[9]y1(GLIBC_2.1)[10]
creal(GLIBC_2.1)[9]lgammal_r(GLIBC_2.1)[9]y1f(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
creall(GLIBC_2.1)[9]llrint(GLIBC_2.1)[9]y1l(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
csin(GLIBC_2.1)[9]llrintf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]yn(GLIBC_2.1)[10]
csinf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]llrintl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]ynf(GLIBC_2.1)[9]
csinh(GLIBC_2.1)[9]llround(GLIBC_2.1)[9]ynl(GLIBC_2.1)[9]

Table A-5. libm Data Interfaces

clog[9]signgam[10] 

libGL

The behaviour of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following Standards.

OpenGLŪ Application Binary Interface for Linux

Table A-6. libGL Function Interfaces

glAccum[32]glGetSeparableFilter[32]glRasterPos4iv[32]
glActiveTextureARB[32]glGetString[32]glRasterPos4s[32]
glAlphaFunc[32]glGetTexEnvfv[32]glRasterPos4sv[32]
glAreTexturesResident[32]glGetTexEnviv[32]glReadBuffer[32]
glArrayElement[32]glGetTexGendv[32]glReadPixels[32]
glBegin[32]glGetTexGenfv[32]glRectd[32]
glBindTexture[32]glGetTexGeniv[32]glRectdv[32]
glBitmap[32]glGetTexImage[32]glRectf[32]
glBlendColor[32]glGetTexLevelParameterfv[32]glRectfv[32]
glBlendColorEXT[32]glGetTexLevelParameteriv[32]glRecti[32]
glBlendEquation[32]glGetTexParameterfv[32]glRectiv[32]
glBlendEquationEXT[32]glGetTexParameteriv[32]glRects[32]
glBlendFunc[32]glHint[32]glRectsv[32]
glCallList[32]glHistogram[32]glRenderMode[32]
glCallLists[32]glIndexMask[32]glResetHistogram[32]
glClear[32]glIndexPointer[32]glResetMinmax[32]
glClearAccum[32]glIndexd[32]glRotated[32]
glClearColor[32]glIndexdv[32]glRotatef[32]
glClearDepth[32]glIndexf[32]glScaled[32]
glClearIndex[32]glIndexfv[32]glScalef[32]
glClearStencil[32]glIndexi[32]glScissor[32]
glClientActiveTextureARB[32]glIndexiv[32]glSelectBuffer[32]
glClipPlane[32]glIndexs[32]glSeparableFilter2D[32]
glColor3b[32]glIndexsv[32]glShadeModel[32]
glColor3bv[32]glIndexub[32]glStencilFunc[32]
glColor3d[32]glIndexubv[32]glStencilMask[32]
glColor3dv[32]glInitNames[32]glStencilOp[32]
glColor3f[32]glInterleavedArrays[32]glTexCoord1d[32]
glColor3fv[32]glIsEnabled[32]glTexCoord1dv[32]
glColor3i[32]glIsList[32]glTexCoord1f[32]
glColor3iv[32]glIsTexture[32]glTexCoord1fv[32]
glColor3s[32]glLightModelf[32]glTexCoord1i[32]
glColor3sv[32]glLightModelfv[32]glTexCoord1iv[32]
glColor3ub[32]glLightModeli[32]glTexCoord1s[32]
glColor3ubv[32]glLightModeliv[32]glTexCoord1sv[32]
glColor3ui[32]glLightf[32]glTexCoord2d[32]
glColor3uiv[32]glLightfv[32]glTexCoord2dv[32]
glColor3us[32]glLighti[32]glTexCoord2f[32]
glColor3usv[32]glLightiv[32]glTexCoord2fv[32]
glColor4b[32]glLineStipple[32]glTexCoord2i[32]
glColor4bv[32]glLineWidth[32]glTexCoord2iv[32]
glColor4d[32]glListBase[32]glTexCoord2s[32]
glColor4dv[32]glLoadIdentity[32]glTexCoord2sv[32]
glColor4f[32]glLoadMatrixd[32]glTexCoord3d[32]
glColor4fv[32]glLoadMatrixf[32]glTexCoord3dv[32]
glColor4i[32]glLoadName[32]glTexCoord3f[32]
glColor4iv[32]glLogicOp[32]glTexCoord3fv[32]
glColor4s[32]glMap1d[32]glTexCoord3i[32]
glColor4sv[32]glMap1f[32]glTexCoord3iv[32]
glColor4ub[32]glMap2d[32]glTexCoord3s[32]
glColor4ubv[32]glMap2f[32]glTexCoord3sv[32]
glColor4ui[32]glMapGrid1d[32]glTexCoord4d[32]
glColor4uiv[32]glMapGrid1f[32]glTexCoord4dv[32]
glColor4us[32]glMapGrid2d[32]glTexCoord4f[32]
glColor4usv[32]glMapGrid2f[32]glTexCoord4fv[32]
glColorMask[32]glMaterialf[32]glTexCoord4i[32]
glColorMaterial[32]glMaterialfv[32]glTexCoord4iv[32]
glColorPointer[32]glMateriali[32]glTexCoord4s[32]
glColorSubTable[32]glMaterialiv[32]glTexCoord4sv[32]
glColorTable[32]glMatrixMode[32]glTexCoordPointer[32]
glColorTableParameterfv[32]glMinmax[32]glTexEnvf[32]
glColorTableParameteriv[32]glMultMatrixd[32]glTexEnvfv[32]
glConvolutionFilter1D[32]glMultMatrixf[32]glTexEnvi[32]
glConvolutionFilter2D[32]glMultiTexCoord1dARB[32]glTexEnviv[32]
glConvolutionParameterf[32]glMultiTexCoord1dvARB[32]glTexGend[32]
glConvolutionParameterfv[32]glMultiTexCoord1fARB[32]glTexGendv[32]
glConvolutionParameteri[32]glMultiTexCoord1fvARB[32]glTexGenf[32]
glConvolutionParameteriv[32]glMultiTexCoord1iARB[32]glTexGenfv[32]
glCopyColorSubTable[32]glMultiTexCoord1ivARB[32]glTexGeni[32]
glCopyColorTable[32]glMultiTexCoord1sARB[32]glTexGeniv[32]
glCopyConvolutionFilter1D[32]glMultiTexCoord1svARB[32]glTexImage1D[32]
glCopyConvolutionFilter2D[32]glMultiTexCoord2dARB[32]glTexImage2D[32]
glCopyPixels[32]glMultiTexCoord2dvARB[32]glTexImage3D[32]
glCopyTexImage1D[32]glMultiTexCoord2fARB[32]glTexParameterf[32]
glCopyTexImage2D[32]glMultiTexCoord2fvARB[32]glTexParameterfv[32]
glCopyTexSubImage1D[32]glMultiTexCoord2iARB[32]glTexParameteri[32]
glCopyTexSubImage2D[32]glMultiTexCoord2ivARB[32]glTexParameteriv[32]
glCopyTexSubImage3D[32]glMultiTexCoord2sARB[32]glTexSubImage1D[32]
glCullFace[32]glMultiTexCoord2svARB[32]glTexSubImage2D[32]
glDeleteLists[32]glMultiTexCoord3dARB[32]glTexSubImage3D[32]
glDeleteTextures[32]glMultiTexCoord3dvARB[32]glTranslated[32]
glDepthFunc[32]glMultiTexCoord3fARB[32]glTranslatef[32]
glDepthMask[32]glMultiTexCoord3fvARB[32]glVertex2d[32]
glDepthRange[32]glMultiTexCoord3iARB[32]glVertex2dv[32]
glDisable[32]glMultiTexCoord3ivARB[32]glVertex2f[32]
glDisableClientState[32]glMultiTexCoord3sARB[32]glVertex2fv[32]
glDrawArrays[32]glMultiTexCoord3svARB[32]glVertex2i[32]
glDrawBuffer[32]glMultiTexCoord4dARB[32]glVertex2iv[32]
glDrawElements[32]glMultiTexCoord4dvARB[32]glVertex2s[32]
glDrawPixels[32]glMultiTexCoord4fARB[32]glVertex2sv[32]
glDrawRangeElements[32]glMultiTexCoord4fvARB[32]glVertex3d[32]
glEdgeFlag[32]glMultiTexCoord4iARB[32]glVertex3dv[32]
glEdgeFlagPointer[32]glMultiTexCoord4ivARB[32]glVertex3f[32]
glEdgeFlagv[32]glMultiTexCoord4sARB[32]glVertex3fv[32]
glEnable[32]glMultiTexCoord4svARB[32]glVertex3i[32]
glEnableClientState[32]glNewList[32]glVertex3iv[32]
glEnd[32]glNormal3b[32]glVertex3s[32]
glEndList[32]glNormal3bv[32]glVertex3sv[32]
glEvalCoord1d[32]glNormal3d[32]glVertex4d[32]
glEvalCoord1dv[32]glNormal3dv[32]glVertex4dv[32]
glEvalCoord1f[32]glNormal3f[32]glVertex4f[32]
glEvalCoord1fv[32]glNormal3fv[32]glVertex4fv[32]
glEvalCoord2d[32]glNormal3i[32]glVertex4i[32]
glEvalCoord2dv[32]glNormal3iv[32]glVertex4iv[32]
glEvalCoord2f[32]glNormal3s[32]glVertex4s[32]
glEvalCoord2fv[32]glNormal3sv[32]glVertex4sv[32]
glEvalMesh1[32]glNormalPointer[32]glVertexPointer[32]
glEvalMesh2[32]glOrtho[32]glViewport[32]
glEvalPoint1[32]glPassThrough[32]glXChooseFBConfig[32]
glEvalPoint2[32]glPixelMapfv[32]glXChooseVisual[32]
glFeedbackBuffer[32]glPixelMapuiv[32]glXCopyContext[32]
glFinish[32]glPixelMapusv[32]glXCreateContext[32]
glFlush[32]glPixelStoref[32]glXCreateGLXPixmap[32]
glFogf[32]glPixelStorei[32]glXCreateNewContext[32]
glFogfv[32]glPixelTransferf[32]glXCreatePbuffer[32]
glFogi[32]glPixelTransferi[32]glXCreatePixmap[32]
glFogiv[32]glPixelZoom[32]glXCreateWindow[32]
glFrontFace[32]glPointSize[32]glXDestroyContext[32]
glFrustum[32]glPolygonMode[32]glXDestroyGLXPixmap[32]
glGenLists[32]glPolygonOffset[32]glXDestroyPbuffer[32]
glGenTextures[32]glPolygonStipple[32]glXDestroyPixmap[32]
glGetBooleanv[32]glPopAttrib[32]glXDestroyWindow[32]
glGetClipPlane[32]glPopClientAttrib[32]glXFreeContextEXT[32]
glGetColorTable[32]glPopMatrix[32]glXGetClientString[32]
glGetColorTableParameterfv[32]glPopName[32]glXGetConfig[32]
glGetColorTableParameteriv[32]glPrioritizeTextures[32]glXGetContextIDEXT[32]
glGetConvolutionFilter[32]glPushAttrib[32]glXGetCurrentContext[32]
glGetConvolutionParameterfv[32]glPushClientAttrib[32]glXGetCurrentDisplay[32]
glGetConvolutionParameteriv[32]glPushMatrix[32]glXGetCurrentDrawable[32]
glGetDoublev[32]glPushName[32]glXGetCurrentReadDrawable[32]
glGetError[32]glRasterPos2d[32]glXGetFBConfigAttrib[32]
glGetFloatv[32]glRasterPos2dv[32]glXGetSelectedEvent[32]
glGetHistogram[32]glRasterPos2f[32]glXGetVisualFromFBConfig[32]
glGetHistogramParameterfv[32]glRasterPos2fv[32]glXImportContextEXT[32]
glGetHistogramParameteriv[32]glRasterPos2i[32]glXIsDirect[32]
glGetIntegerv[32]glRasterPos2iv[32]glXMakeContextCurrent[32]
glGetLightfv[32]glRasterPos2s[32]glXMakeCurrent[32]
glGetLightiv[32]glRasterPos2sv[32]glXQueryContext[32]
glGetMapdv[32]glRasterPos3d[32]glXQueryContextInfoEXT[32]
glGetMapfv[32]glRasterPos3dv[32]glXQueryDrawable[32]
glGetMapiv[32]glRasterPos3f[32]glXQueryExtension[32]
glGetMaterialfv[32]glRasterPos3fv[32]glXQueryExtensionsString[32]
glGetMaterialiv[32]glRasterPos3i[32]glXQueryServerString[32]
glGetMinmax[32]glRasterPos3iv[32]glXQueryVersion[32]
glGetMinmaxParameterfv[32]glRasterPos3s[32]glXSelectEvent[32]
glGetMinmaxParameteriv[32]glRasterPos3sv[32]glXSwapBuffers[32]
glGetPixelMapfv[32]glRasterPos4d[32]glXUseXFont[32]
glGetPixelMapuiv[32]glRasterPos4dv[32]glXWaitGL[32]
glGetPixelMapusv[32]glRasterPos4f[32]glXWaitX[32]
glGetPointerv[32]glRasterPos4fv[32] 
glGetPolygonStipple[32]glRasterPos4i[32] 

libXext

The behaviour of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following Standards.

Double Buffer Extension Library
X Display Power Management Signaling (DPMS) Extension, Library Specification
Security Extension Specification, Version 7.1
X Nonrectangular Window Shape Extension Library Version 1.0
MIT-SHM--The MIT Shared Memory Extension
X Synchronization Extension Library

Table A-7. libXext Function Interfaces

DPMSCapable[23]XShmCreateImage[26]XSyncQueryExtension[27]
DPMSDisable[23]XShmCreatePixmap[26]XSyncSetCounter[27]
DPMSEnable[23]XShmDetach[26]XSyncSetPriority[27]
DPMSForceLevel[23]XShmGetEventBase[26]XSyncValueAdd[27]
DPMSGetTimeouts[23]XShmGetImage[26]XSyncValueEqual[27]
DPMSGetVersion[23]XShmPixmapFormat[26]XSyncValueGreaterOrEqual[27]
DPMSInfo[23]XShmPutImage[26]XSyncValueGreaterThan[27]
DPMSQueryExtension[23]XShmQueryExtension[26]XSyncValueHigh32[27]
DPMSSetTimeouts[23]XShmQueryVersion[26]XSyncValueIsNegative[27]
XSecurityAllocXauth[24]XSyncAwait[27]XSyncValueIsPositive[27]
XSecurityFreeXauth[24]XSyncChangeAlarm[27]XSyncValueIsZero[27]
XSecurityGenerateAuthorization[24]XSyncChangeCounter[27]XSyncValueLessOrEqual[27]
XSecurityQueryExtension[24]XSyncCreateAlarm[27]XSyncValueLessThan[27]
XSecurityRevokeAuthorization[24]XSyncCreateCounter[27]XSyncValueLow32[27]
XShapeCombineMask[25]XSyncDestroyAlarm[27]XSyncValueSubtract[27]
XShapeCombineRectangles[25]XSyncDestroyCounter[27]XdbeAllocateBackBufferName[22]
XShapeCombineRegion[25]XSyncFreeSystemCounterList[27]XdbeBeginIdiom[22]
XShapeCombineShape[25]XSyncGetPriority[27]XdbeDeallocateBackBufferName[22]
XShapeGetRectangles[25]XSyncInitialize[27]XdbeEndIdiom[22]
XShapeInputSelected[25]XSyncIntToValue[27]XdbeFreeVisualInfo[22]
XShapeOffsetShape[25]XSyncIntsToValue[27]XdbeGetBackBufferAttributes[22]
XShapeQueryExtension[25]XSyncListSystemCounters[27]XdbeGetVisualInfo[22]
XShapeQueryExtents[25]XSyncMaxValue[27]XdbeQueryExtension[22]
XShapeQueryVersion[25]XSyncMinValue[27]XdbeSwapBuffers[22]
XShapeSelectInput[25]XSyncQueryAlarm[27] 
XShmAttach[26]XSyncQueryCounter[27] 

libICE

The behaviour of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following Standards.

X11R6.4 X Inter-Client Exchange (ICE) Protocol

Table A-8. libICE Function Interfaces

IceAcceptConnection[29]IceGetConnectionContext[29]IceProtocolVersion[29]
IceAddConnectionWatch[29]IceGetInBufSize[29]IceReadAuthFileEntry[29]
IceAllocScratch[29]IceGetListenConnectionNumber[29]IceRegisterForProtocolReply[29]
IceAppLockConn[29]IceGetListenConnectionString[29]IceRegisterForProtocolSetup[29]
IceAppUnlockConn[29]IceGetOutBufSize[29]IceRelease[29]
IceAuthFileName[29]IceInitThreads[29]IceRemoveConnectionWatch[29]
IceCheckShutdownNegotiation[29]IceLastReceivedSequenceNumber[29]IceSetErrorHandler[29]
IceCloseConnection[29]IceLastSentSequenceNumber[29]IceSetHostBasedAuthProc[29]
IceComposeNetworkIdList[29]IceListenForConnections[29]IceSetIOErrorHandler[29]
IceConnectionNumber[29]IceListenForWellKnownConnections[29]IceSetPaAuthData[29]
IceConnectionStatus[29]IceLockAuthFile[29]IceSetShutdownNegotiation[29]
IceConnectionString[29]IceOpenConnection[29]IceSwapping[29]
IceFlush[29]IcePing[29]IceUnlockAuthFile[29]
IceFreeAuthFileEntry[29]IceProcessMessages[29]IceVendor[29]
IceFreeListenObjs[29]IceProtocolRevision[29]IceWriteAuthFileEntry[29]
IceGenerateMagicCookie[29]IceProtocolSetup[29] 
IceGetAuthFileEntry[29]IceProtocolShutdown[29] 

libSM

The behav