Linux Standard Base Specification 1.1.0

This material may be distributed only subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the Open Publication License, v1.0 or later (the latest version is presently available at http://www.opencontent.org/openpub/) and provided that neither the name of the Free Standards Group, the name of the Linux Standard Base, nor the names of its contributors may be used to endorse or promote derived works without specific prior written permission.

Portions of the text were taken from other copyrighted documents in accordance with the respective license of those documents.


Table of Contents
I. Introduction
1. Introduction
Introduction
Purpose
Related Standards
Related Implementations
Relevant Libraries
How to Use this Standard
Definitions
Terminology
II. Object Format
2. Object Files
3. Sections
ELF Section Types
Linux Section Types
4. Special Sections
ELF Special Sections
Linux Special Sections
5. Symbol Mapping
C Language
C++ Language
6. Symbol Versioning
Symbol Version Table
Version Definitions
Version Requirements
Startup Sequence
Symbol Resolution
III. Dynamic Linking
7. Program Loading and Dynamic Linking
8. Dynamic Entries
ELF Dynamic Entries
Linux Dynamic Entries
9. Program Interpreter
IV. Base Libraries
10. Libraries
Interfaces for libc
Data Definitions for libc
Interfaces Definitions for libc
Interfaces for libm
Data Definitions for libm
Interfaces for libpthread
Data Definitions for libpthread
Interfaces Definitions for libpthread
Interfaces for libdl
Data Definitions for libdl
Interfaces Definitions for libdl
Interfaces for libcrypt
Data Definitions for libcrypt
Interfaces for librt
Data Definitions for librt
V. Utility Libraries
11. Libraries
Interfaces for libz
Data Definitions for libz
Interfaces for libncurses
Data Definitions for libncurses
Interfaces for libutil
Interfaces Definitions for libutil
VI. Graphic Libraries
12. Libraries
Interfaces for libX11
Data Definitions for libX11
Interfaces for libXext
Data Definitions for libXext
Interfaces for libSM
Data Definitions for libSM
Interfaces for libICE
Data Definitions for libICE
Interfaces for libXt
Data Definitions for libXt
Interfaces Definitions for libXt
Interfaces for libGL
Data Definitions for libGL
VII. Package Format and Installation
13. Software Installation
Package Format
Package Tools
Package Naming
Package Dependencies
VIII. Commands and Utilities
14. Command and Utilities
Command and Utilities
Command Behavior
IX. Standard Shell
15. Standard Shell
Introduction
Standard Shell Exceptions
Standard Shell Rationale
X. Users & Groups
16. Users & Groups
User and Group Database
User & Group Names
UID Ranges
XI. Execution Environment
17. File System Hierarchy
/dev
18. Additional Recommendations
Minimal granted Directory and File permissions
Recommendations for applications on ownership and permissions
XII. System Initialization
19. System Initialization
Cron Jobs
Run Levels
Init Script Actions
Comment conventions for init scripts
Installation and removal of init.d files
Facility names
Script names
Init script Functions
A. Alphabetical Listing of Interfaces
libX11
libXt
libm
libGL
libXext
libICE
libSM
libdl
libcrypt
libz
libncurses
libutil
libc
libpthread
librt
List of Tables
1-1. Related Standards
1-2. Related Implementations
1-3. Relevant Libraries
3-1.
3-2.
4-1.
4-2.
10-1. libc - RPC Interfaces Function Interfaces
10-2. libc - System Calls Function Interfaces
10-3. libc - Standard I/O Function Interfaces
10-4. libc - Standard I/O Data Interfaces
10-5. libc - Signal Handling Function Interfaces
10-6. libc - Signal Handling Data Interfaces
10-7. libc - Standard Library Function Interfaces
10-8. libc - Standard Library Data Interfaces
10-9. libc - Localization Functions Function Interfaces
10-10. libc - Localization Functions Data Interfaces
10-11. libc - Socket Interface Function Interfaces
10-12. libc - Socket Interface Data Interfaces
10-13. libc - Wide Characters Function Interfaces
10-14. libc - String Functions Function Interfaces
10-15. libc - IPC Functions Function Interfaces
10-16. libc - Regular Expressions Function Interfaces
10-17. libc - Regular Expressions Data Interfaces
10-18. libc - Character Type Functions Function Interfaces
10-19. libc - Character Type Functions Data Interfaces
10-20. libc - Time Manipulation Function Interfaces
10-21. libc - Time Manipulation Data Interfaces
10-22. libc - Terminal Interface Functions Function Interfaces
10-23. libc - System Database Interface Function Interfaces
10-24. libc - Language Support Function Interfaces
10-25. libc - Large File Support Function Interfaces
10-26. libc - libc - deprecated Function Interfaces
10-27. libc - libc - deprecated Data Interfaces
10-28. libm - Math Function Interfaces
10-29. libm - Math Data Interfaces
10-30. libpthread - Posix Threads Function Interfaces
10-31. libdl Definition
10-32. libdl - Dynamic Loader Function Interfaces
10-33. libcrypt Definition
10-34. libcrypt - Encryption Function Interfaces
10-35. librt - Asynchronous I/O Function Interfaces
11-1. libz Definition
11-2. libz - Compression Library Function Interfaces
11-3. libncurses Definition
11-4. libncurses - Curses Function Interfaces
11-5. libncurses - Curses Data Interfaces
11-6. libutil - Utility Functions Function Interfaces
12-1. libX11 Definition
12-2. libX11 - X Windows System Interface Function Interfaces
12-3. libXext Definition
12-4. libXext - X Shape Extension Function Interfaces
12-5. libXext - X Display Power Management Signaling Extension Function Interfaces
12-6. libXext - X Shared Memory Extensions Function Interfaces
12-7. libXext - X Synchronization Extension Function Interfaces
12-8. libXext - X Security Extension Function Interfaces
12-9. libXext - X Double Buffer Extension Function Interfaces
12-10. libSM Definition
12-11. libSM - Session Management Functions Function Interfaces
12-12. libICE Definition
12-13. libICE - ICE Functions Function Interfaces
12-14. libXt Definition
12-15. libXt - X Toolkit Function Interfaces
12-16. libXt - X Toolkit Data Interfaces
12-17. libGL Definition
12-18. libGL - GL X interface Function Interfaces
12-19. libGL - OpenGL Function Interfaces
14-1. Commands and Utilities
16-1. Required User & Group Names
16-2. Optional User & Group Names
A-1. libX11 Function Interfaces
A-2. libXt Function Interfaces
A-3. libXt Data Interfaces
A-4. libm Function Interfaces
A-5. libm Data Interfaces
A-6. libGL Function Interfaces
A-7. libXext Function Interfaces
A-8. libICE Function Interfaces
A-9. libSM Function Interfaces
A-10. libdl Function Interfaces
A-11. libcrypt Function Interfaces
A-12. libz Function Interfaces
A-13. libncurses Function Interfaces
A-14. libncurses Data Interfaces
A-15. libutil Function Interfaces
A-16. libc Function Interfaces
A-17. libc Data Interfaces
A-18. libpthread Function Interfaces
A-19. librt Function Interfaces
List of Figures
6-1. Version Definition Entries
6-2. Version Definition Auxiliary Entries
6-3. Version Needed Entries
6-4. Version Needed Auxiliary Entries

I. Introduction

Table of Contents
1. Introduction

Chapter 1. Introduction

Introduction

This is version 1.1.0 of the Linux Standard Base Specification. An implementation of this version of the specification may not claim to be an implementation of the Linux Standard Base unless it has successfully completed the compliance process as defined by the Free Standards Group.


Purpose

The Linux Standard Base (LSB) defines a system interface for compiled applications and a minimal environment for support of installation scripts. Its purpose is to enable a uniform industry standard environment for high-volume applications conforming to the LSB.

The LSB defines a binary interface for application programs that are compiled and packaged for LSB-conforming implementations on many different hardware architectures. Since a binary specification must include information specific to the computer processor architecture for which it is intended, it is not possible for a single document to specify the interface for all possible LSB-conforming implementations. Therefore, the LSB is a family of specifications, rather than a single one.

The LSB is composed of two basic parts: A common part of the specification describes those parts of the interface that remain constant across all hardware implementations of the LSB, and an architecture-specific part of the specification describes the parts of the specification that are specific to a particular processor architecture. Together, the generic LSB and the architecture-specific supplement for a single hardware architecture provide a complete interface specification for compiled application programs on systems that share a common hardware architecture.

This document is the generic LSB. It must be used in conjunction with an architecture-specific supplement. Whenever a section of this specification must be supplemented by architecture-specific information, this document includes a reference to the architecture supplement. Architecture supplements may also contain additional information that is not referenced here.

This document should be used in conjunction with the documents it references. This document enumerates the system components it includes, but descriptions of those components may be included entirely or partly in this document, partly in other documents, or entirely in other reference documents. For example, the section that describes system service routines includes a list of the system routines supported in this interface, formal declarations of the data structures they use that are visible to applications, and a pointer to the underlying referenced specification for information about the syntax and semantics of each call. Only those routines not described in standards referenced by this document, or extensions to those standards, are described in the detail. Information referenced in this way is as much a part of this document as is the information explicitly included here.


Related Standards

The specifications listed below are referenced in whole or in part by the Linux Standard Base. Such references may be normative or non-normative; a reference to specification shall only be considered normative if it is explicitly cited as such. The LSB may make normative references to a portion of these specifications (that is, to define a specific function or group of functions); in such cases, only the explicitly referenced portion of the specification is to be considered normative.

Table 1-1. Related Standards

System V Application Binary Interface - DRAFT - 22 June 2000http://www.caldera.com/developers/gabi/2000-07-17/contents.html 
Filesystem Hierarchy Standard 2.2http://www.pathname.com/fhs/ 
IEEE Standard for Binary Floating-Point Arithmetichttp://www.ieee.org/ANSI/IEEE Standards 745-1985 and 854-1987
System V Application Binary Interface, Edition 4.1http://www.caldera.com/developers/devspecs/gabi41.pdf 
IA32 Architecture Software Developer's Manual Volume 1: Basic Architecturehttp://developer.intel.com/design/pentiium4/manuals/24570.ht 
IA32 Architecture Software Developer's Manual Volume 2: Instruction Set Referencehttp://developer.intel.com/design/pentiium4/manuals/24571.ht 
IA32 Architecture Software Developer's Manual Volume 3: System Programming Guidehttp://developer.intel.com/design/pentiium4/manuals/24572.ht 
System V Application Binary Interface - Intel386 Architecture Processor Supplementhttp://www.caldera.com/developers/devspecs/abi386-4.pdf 
Itanium Architecture Software Developer's Manual Volume 1: Application Architecturehttp://developer.intel.com/design/itanium/downloads/24531702 
Itanium Architecture Software Developer's Manual Volume 2: System Architecturehttp://developer.intel.com/design/itanium/downloads/24531802 
Itanium Architecture Software Developer's Manual Volume 3: Instruction Set Referencehttp://developer.intel.com/design/itanium/downloads/24531902 
Itanium Architecture Software Developer's Manual Volume 4: Itanium Processor Programmer's Guidehttp://developer.intel.com/design/itanium/downloads/24532002 
Itanium(R) Software Conventions & Runtime Architecture Guidehttp://developer.intel.com/design/ia-64/downloads/245358.htm 
ISO/IEC 9899: 1990, Programming Languages --C 
ISO/IEC 9899: 1999, Programming Languages --C 
Linux Assigned Names And Numbers Authorityhttp://www.lanana.org/ 
Large File Supporthttp://www.UNIX-systems.org/version2/whatsnew/lfs20mar.html 
Linux Standard Basehttp://www.linuxbase.org/spec/ 
OpenGL® Application Binary Interface for Linuxhttp://oss.sgi.com/projects/ogl-sample/ABI/ 
IEEE Std POSIX 1003.2-1992 (ISO/IEC 9945-2:1993)http://www.ieee.org/ 
POSIX 1003.1chttp://www.ieee.org/ 
CAE Specification, May 1996, X/Open Curses, Issue 4, Version 2 (ISBN: 1-85912-171-3, C610), plus Corrigendum U018http://www.opengroup.org/ 
CAE Specification, January 1997, System Interface Definitions (XBD), Issue 5 (ISBN: 1-85912-186-1, C605)http://www.opengroup.org/ 
CAE Specification, January 1997, Commands and Utilities (XCU), Issue 5 (ISBN: 1-85912-191-8, C604)http://www.opengroup.org/ 
CAE Specification, February 1997, Networking Services (XNS), Issue 5 (ISBN: 1-85912-165-9, C523)http://www.opengroup.org/ 
CAE Specification, January 1997, System Interfaces and Headers (XSH), Issue 5 (ISBN: 1-85912-181-0, C606)http://www.opengroup.org/ 
The Single UNIX Specification Version 1 (UNIX 95) System Interfaces & Headershttp://www.opengroup.org/ 
System V Interface Definition, Issue 3ISBN 0201566524
System V Interface Definition,Fourth Edition 
Double Buffer Extension Libraryhttp://www.x.org/ 
X Display Power Management Signaling (DPMS) Extension, Library Specificationhttp://www.x.org/ 
X Record Extension Libraryhttp://www.x.org/ 
Security Extension Specification, Version 7.1http://www.x.org/ 
X Nonrectangular Window Shape Extension Library Version 1.0http://www.x.org/ 
MIT-SHM--The MIT Shared Memory Extensionhttp://www.x.org/ 
X Synchronization Extension Libraryhttp://www.x.org/ 
XTEST Extension Libraryhttp://www.x.org/ 
X11R6.4 X Inter-Client Exchange (ICE) Protocolhttp://www.x.org/ 
X11R6.4 X11 Input Extension Libraryhttp://www.x.org/ 
X11R6.4 Xlib - C libraryhttp://www.x.org/ 
X/Open Portability Guide, Issue 4http://www.opengroup.org/ 
X11R6.4 X Session Management Libraryhttp://www.x.org/ 
X11R.4 X Toolkit Intrinsicshttp://www.x.org/ 
zlib 1.1.3 Manualhttp://www.gzip.org/zlib/See

Related Implementations

The implementations listed here are referenced in whole or in part by the Linux Standard Base when no formal specification is available.

Table 1-2. Related Implementations

BSD 4.4 Lite version 2 
GNU/Linux defacto standardhttp://www.gnu.org/ 
RFC 1831 & 1832http://www.ietf.org/Still need API reference, instead of protocol reference
RPM Package Format V3.0http://www.rpmdp.org/rpmbook/ 

Relevant Libraries

The libraries listed here shall be available on a Linux Standard Base system. This list may be supplemented or amended by the architecture-specific specifications.

Table 1-3. Relevant Libraries

LibraryRuntime Name
libX11libX11.so.6
libXtlibXt.so.6
libGLlibGL.so.1
libXextlibXext.so.6
libICElibICE.so.6
libSMlibSM.so.6
libdllibdl.so.2
libcryptlibcrypt.so.1
libzlibz.so.1
libncurseslibncurses.so.5

These libraries will be in an implementation-dependent directory which the dynamic linker will search by default.


How to Use this Standard

The complete LSB specification is composed of this generic LSB specification and the supplemental processor-specific specification for a particular processor architecture. These two documents constitute a specification that should be used in conjunction with the publicly-available standards documents it references. The LSB enumerates the system components it includes, but descriptions of those components may be included entirely in the LSB, partly in the LSB and partly in other documents, or entirely in other reference documents.


Definitions

gLSB

This document.

LSB-Compliant Application

An application written to include only the system routines, commands, and other resources included in this document, and that has been compiled into an executable file that has the formats and characteristics specified for such files in this document, and whose behavior complies, installs, and is executed in the environment with the rules given in this document.

LSB-Conforming Implementation

An implementation that provides the binary system interface for applications described in this document.

Non-LSB-Compliant Application

An application which has been written to include system routines, commands, or other resources not included in this document, or which has been compiled into a format different from those specified here, or which does not behave as specified in this document.

LSB Implementation Conformance

An implementation satisfying the following requirements:

  1. The implementation shall implement fully the architecture described in the hardware manual for the target processor architecture.

  2. The implementation shall be capable of executing compiled applications having the format and using the system interfaces described in this document.

  3. The implementation shall provide libraries containing the interfaces specified by this document, and shall provide a dynamic linking mechanism that allows these interfaces to be attached to applications at runtime. All the interfaces shall behave as specified in the normative references and requirements of this document.

  4. The map of virtual memory provided by the implementation shall conform to the requirements of this document.

  5. The implementation's low-level behavior with respect to function call linkage, system traps, signals, and other such activities shall conform to the formats described in this document.

  6. The compilation system shall compile source code into executable files having the formats and characteristics specified in this document.

  7. The implementation shall provide all of the mandatory interfaces in their entirety.

  8. The implementation may provide one or more of the optional interfaces. Each optional interface that is provided shall be provided in its entirety. The product documentation shall state which optional interfaces are provided.

  9. The implementation shall provide all files and utilities specified as part of this document in the format defined here and in other referenced documents. All commands and utilities shall behave as required by this document. The implementation shall also provide all mandatory components of an application's runtime environment that are included or referenced in this document.

  10. The implementation, when provided with standard data formats and values at a named interface, shall provide the behavior defined for those values and data formats at that interface. However, a conforming implementation may consist of components which are separately packaged and/or sold. For example, a vendor of a conforming implementation might sell the hardware, operating system, and windowing system as separately packaged items.

  11. The implementation may provide additional interfaces with different names. It may also provide additional behavior corresponding to data values outside the standard ranges, for standard named interfaces.

LSB Application Conformance

An application with the following characteristics:

  1. Its executable files are either shell scripts or object files in the format defined for the Object File Format system interface.

  2. Its object files participate in dynamic linking as defined in the Program Loading and Linking System interface.

  3. It employs only the instructions, traps, and other low-level facilities defined in the Low-Level System interface as being for use by applications.

  4. If it requires any optional interface defined in this document in order to be installed or to execute successfully, the requirement for that optional interface is stated in the application's documentation.

  5. It does not use any interface or data format that is not required to be provided by a conforming implementation, unless:

    • If such an interface or data format is supplied by another application through direct invocation of that application during execution, that application is in turn an LSB-compliant application.

    • The use of that interface or data format, as well as its source, is identified in the documentation of the application.

  6. It must not use any values for a named interface that are reserved for vendor extensions.

A strictly conforming application does not require or use any interface, facility, or implementation-defined extension that is not defined in this document in order to be installed or to execute successfully.

Rationale

An LSB-compliant application is expected to have no dependencies on any vendor extensions to this document. The most common such extensions are additional function entry points and additional libraries other than the ones defined in this document. If an application requires such extensions, it is not portable, since other LSB-conforming implementations may not provide those extensions.

An LSB-compliant application is required to use system services on the implementation on which it is running, rather than importing system routines from some other implementation. Thus, it must link dynamically to any routines in the implementation that perform system traps to kernel services.

It is to be expected that some applications may be companion applications to other applications. For example, a query application may be a companion to a database application; a preprocessor may be an adjunct to one or more compilers; a data reformatter may convert data from one document manager to another. In such cases, the application may or may not be LSB-compliant, regardless of whether the other application on which it is dependent is LSB-compliant. If such an application merely uses data produced by another application, the application's compliance is independent of the other application's compliance. If such an application actually invokes another application during execution (as, for example, a third-party math library), the invoking application is LSB-compliant only if it also constitutes a LSB-compliant application in combination with the invoked application.

Shell Script

A file that is read by an interpreter (e.g., awk). The first line of the shell script includes a reference to its interpreter binary.


Terminology

can

Describes a permissible optional feature or behavior available to the user or application. The feature or behavior is mandatory for an implementation that conforms to this document. An application can rely on the existence of the feature or behavior.

implementation-defined

Describes a value or behavior that is not defined by this document but is selected by an implementor. The value or behavior may vary among implementations that conform to this document. An application should not rely on the existence of the value or behavior. An application that relies on such a value or behavior cannot be assured to be portable across conforming implementations. The implementor shall document such a value or behavior so that it can be used correctly by an application.

Same as implementation-dependent.

may

Describes a feature or behavior that is optional for an implementation that conforms to this document. An application should not rely on the existence of the feature or behavior. An application that relies on such a feature or behavior cannot be assured to be portable across conforming implementations.

To avoid ambiguity, the opposite of may is expressed as need not, instead of may not.

must

Describes a feature or behavior that is mandatory for an application or user. An implementation that conforms to this document shall support this feature or behavior.

shall

Describes a feature or behavior that is mandatory for an implementation that conforms to this document. An application can rely on the existence of the feature or behavior.

should

For an implementation that conforms to this document, describes a feature or behavior that is recommended but not mandatory. An application should not rely on the existence of the feature or behavior. An application that relies on such a feature or behavior cannot be assured to be portable across conforming implementations.

For an application, describes a feature or behavior that is recommended programming practice for optimum portability.

undefined

Describes the nature of a value or behavior not defined by this document which results from use of an invalid program construct or invalid data input. The value or behavior may vary among implementations that conform to this document. An application should not rely on the existence or validity of the value or behavior. An application that relies on any particular value or behavior cannot be assured to be portable across conforming implementations.

unspecified

Describes the nature of a value or behavior not specified by this document which results from use of a valid program construct or valid data input. The value or behavior may vary among implementations that conform to this document. An application should not rely on the existence or validity of the value or behavior. An application that relies on any particular value or behavior cannot be assured to be portable across conforming implementations.

will

Same meaning as shall; shall is the preferred term.

II. Object Format


Chapter 2. Object Files

LSB-conforming implementations shall support the object file Executable and Linking Format (ELF), which is defined by the following documents:

  • System V Application Binary Interface, Edition 4.1

  • System V Application Binary Interface - DRAFT - April 29, 1998

  • this document

  • an architecture-specific LSB specification

Conforming implementations may also support other unspecified object file formats.


Chapter 3. Sections


ELF Section Types

The following sections types are defined in the System V Application Binary Interface, Edition 4.1.

Table 3-1.

NameValueDescription
SHT_DYNAMIC0x6The section holds information for dynamic linking. Currently, an object file may have only one dynamic section, but this restriction may be relaxed in the future. See `Dynamic Section' in Chapter 5 for details.
SHT_DYNSYM0xb 
SHT_FINI_ARRAY0xfThis section contains an array of pointers to termination functions, as described in `Initialization and Termination Functions' in Chapter 5. Each pointer in the array is taken as a parameterless procedure with a void return.
SHT_HASH0x5The section holds a symbol hash table. Currently, an object file may have only one hash table, but this restriction may be relaxed in the future. See `Hash Table' in the Chapter 5 for details.
SHT_HIPROC0x7fffffffValues in this inclusive range are reserved for processor-specific semantics.
SHT_HIUSER0xffffffffThis value specifies the upper bound of the range of indexes reserved for application programs. Section types between SHT_LOUSER and SHT_HIUSER may be used by the application, without conflicting with current or future system-defined section types.
SHT_INIT_ARRAY0xeThis section contains an array of pointers to initialization functions, as described in `Initialization and Termination Functions' in Chapter 5. Each pointer in the array is taken as a parameterless procedure with a void return.
SHT_LOPROC0x70000000Values in this inclusive range are reserved for processor-specific semantics.
SHT_LOUSER0x80000000This value specifies the lower bound of the range of indexes reserved for application programs.
SHT_NOBITS0x8A section of this type occupies no space in the file but otherwise resembles SHT_PROGBITS. Although this section contains no bytes, the sh_offset member contains the conceptual file offset.
SHT_NOTE0x7The section holds information that marks the file in some way. See `Note Section' in Chapter 5 for details.
SHT_NULL0x0This value marks the section header as inactive; it does not have an associated section. Other members of the section header have undefined values.
SHT_PREINIT_ARRAY0x10This section contains an array of pointers to functions that are invoked before all other initialization functions, as described in `Initialization and Termination Functions' in Chapter 5. Each pointer in the array is taken as a parameterless proceure with a void return.
SHT_PROGBITS0x1The section holds information defined by the program, whose format and meaning are determined solely by the program.
SHT_REL0x9The section holds relocation entries without explicit addends, such as type Elf32_Rel for the 32-bit class of object files or type Elf64_Rel for the 64-bit class of object files. An object file may have multiple relocation sections. See "Relocation"
SHT_RELA0x4The section holds relocation entries with explicit addends, such as type Elf32_Rela for the 32-bit class of object files or type Elf64_Rela for the 64-bit class of object files. An object file may have multiple relocation sections. `Relocation' b
SHT_SHLIB0xaThis section type is reserved but has unspecified semantics.
SHT_STRTAB0x3The section holds a string table. An object file may have multiple string table sections. See `String Table' below for details.
SHT_SYMTAB0x2These sections hold a symbol table. Currently, an object file may have only one section of each type, but this restriction may be relaxed in the future. Typically, SHT_SYMTAB provides symbols for link editing, though it may also be used for dynamic l


Linux Section Types

The following Linux section types are defined here.

Table 3-2.

NameValueDescription
SHT_GNU_verdef0x6ffffffdThis section contains the symbol versions that are provided.
SHT_GNU_verneed0x6ffffffeThis section contains the symbol versions that are required.
SHT_GNU_versym0x6fffffffThis section contains the Symbol Version Table.


Chapter 4. Special Sections

ELF Special Sections

The following sections are defined in the ELF reference specification.

Table 4-1.

NameTypeAttributes
.bssSHT_NOTESHF_ALLOC+SHF_WRITE
.commentSHT_NULL0
.dataSHT_NULLSHF_ALLOC+SHF_WRITE
.data1SHT_NULLSHF_ALLOC+SHF_WRITE
.debugSHT_NULL0
.dynamicSHT_HASHSHF_ALLOC+SHF_WRITE
.dynstrSHT_SYMTABSHF_ALLOC
.dynsymSHT_SHLIBSHF_ALLOC
.finiSHT_NULLSHF_ALLOC+SHF_EXECINSTR
.fini_array SHF_ALLOC+SHF_WRITE
.gotSHT_NULLSHF_ALLOC+SHF_WRITE
.hashSHT_RELASHF_ALLOC
.initSHT_NULLSHF_ALLOC+SHF_EXECINSTR
.init_array  SHF_ALLOC+SHF_WRITE
.interpSHT_NULLSHF_ALLOC
.lineSHT_NULL0
.noteSHT_DYNAMIC0
.pltSHT_NULLSHF_ALLOC+SHF_EXECINSTR
.preinit_array SHF_ALLOC+SHF_WRITE
.rel.bssSHT_NOBITSSHF_ALLOC
.rel.dataSHT_NOBITS0
.rel.gotSHT_NOBITSSHF_ALLOC
.rel.pltSHT_NOBITSSHF_ALLOC
.rel.textSHT_NOBITS0
.rodataSHT_NULLSHF_ALLOC
.rodata1SHT_NULLSHF_ALLOC
.shstrtabSHT_SYMTAB0
.strtabSHT_SYMTABSHF_ALLOC
.symtabSHT_PROGBITSSHF_ALLOC
.textSHT_NULLSHF_ALLOC+SHF_EXECINSTR

.bss

This section holds uninitialized data that contribute to the program's memory image. By definition, the system initializes the data with zeros when the program begins to run. The section occupies no file space, as indicated by the section type, SHT_NOBITS

.comment

This section holds version control information.

.data

This section holds initialized data that contribute to the program's memory image.

.data1

This section holds initialized data that contribute to the program's memory image.

.debug

This section holds information for symbolic debugging. The contents are unspecified. All section names with the prefix .debug are reserved for future use in the ABI.

.dynamic

This section holds dynamic linking information. The section's attributes will include the SHF_ALLOC bit. Whether the SHF_WRITE bit is set is processor specific. See Chapter 5 for more information.

.dynstr

This section holds strings needed for dynamic linking, most commonly the strings that represent the names associated with symbol table entries. See Chapter 5 for more information.

.dynsym

This section holds the dynamic linking symbol table, as described in `Symbol Table'. See Chapter 5 for more information.

.fini

This section holds executable instructions that contribute to the process termination code. That is, when a program exits normally, the system arranges to execute the code in this section.

.fini_array

This section holds an array of function pointers that contributes to a single termination array for the executable or shared object containing the section.

.got

This section holds the global offset table. See `Coding Examples' in Chapter 3, `Special Sections' in Chapter 4, and `Global Offset Table' in Chapter 5 of the processor supplement for more information.

.hash

This section holds a symbol hash table. See `Hash Table' in Chapter 5 for more information.

.init

This section holds executable instructions that contribute to the process initialization code. When a program starts to run, the system arranges to execute the code in this section before calling the main program entry point (called main for C programs)

.init_array

This section holds an array of function pointers that contributes to a single initialization array for the executable or shared object containing the section.

.interp

This section holds the path name of a program interpreter. If the file has a loadable segment that includes relocation, the sections' attributes will include the SHF_ALLOC bit; otherwise, that bit will be off. See Chapter 5 for more information.

.line

This section holds line number information for symbolic debugging, which describes the correspondence between the source program and the machine code. The contents are unspecified.

.note

This section holds information in the format that `Note Section'. in Chapter 5 describes.

.plt

This section holds the procedure linkage table. See `Special Sections' in Chapter 4 and `Procedure Linkage Table' in Chapter 5 of the processor supplement for more information.

.preinit_array

This section holds an array of function pointers that contributes to a single pre-initialization array for the executable or shared object containing the section.

.rel.bss

This section holds relocation information, as described in `Relocation'. These relocations are applied to the .bss section.

.rel.data

This section holds relocation information, as described in `Relocation'. These relocations are applied to the .data section.

.rel.got

This section holds relocation information, as described in `Relocation'. These relocations are applied to the .got section.

.rel.plt

This section holds relocation information, as described in `Relocation'. These relocations are applied to the .plt section.

.rel.text

This section holds relocation information, as described in `Relocation'. These relocations are applied to the .text section.

.rodata

This section holds read-only data that typically contribute to a non-writable segment in the process image. See `Program Header' in Chapter 5 for more information.

.rodata1

This section hold sread-only data that typically contribute to a non-writable segment in the process image. See `Program Header' in Chapter 5 for more information.

.shstrtab

This section holds section names.

.strtab

This section holds strings, most commonly the strings that represent the names associated with symbol table entries. If the file has a loadable segment that includes the symbol string table, the section's attributes will include the SHF_ALLOC bit; otherwi

.symtab

This section holds a symbol table, as `Symbol Table'. in this chapter describes. If the file has a loadable segment that includes the symbol table, the section's attributes will include the SHF_ALLOC bit; otherwise, that bit will be off.

.text

This section holds the `text,' or executable instructions, of a program.


Linux Special Sections

The following Linux-specific sections are defined here.

Table 4-2.

NameTypeAttributes
.ctorsSHT_NULLSHF_ALLOC+SHF_WRITE
.dtorsSHT_NULLSHF_ALLOC+SHF_WRITE
.eh_frameSHT_NULLSHF_ALLOC+SHF_WRITE
.gnu.version SHF_ALLOC
.gnu.version_d SHF_ALLOC
.gnu.version_r SHF_ALLOC
.note.ABI-tagSHT_DYNAMICSHF_ALLOC
.rel.dyn SHF_ALLOC
.stabSHT_NULL0
.stabstrSHT_SYMTAB0

.ctors

This section contains a list of global constructor function pointers.

.dtors

This section contains a list of global destructor function pointers.

.eh_frame

This section contains information necessary for frame unwinding during exception handling. The format is the same as for .debug_frame as described by DWARF2.

.gnu.version

This section contains the Symbol Version Table.

.gnu.version_d

This section contains the Version Definitions.

.gnu.version_r

This section contains the Version Requirments.

.note.ABI-tag

.rel.dyn

This section holds relocation information, as described in `Relocation'. These relocations are applied to the .dyn section.

.stab

This section contains debugging information. The contents are not specified as part of the LSB.

.stabstr

This section contains strings associated with the debugging infomation contained in the .stab section.


Chapter 5. Symbol Mapping

This chapter defines how names are mapped from the source symbol to the object symbol.


C Language

External C symbols have the same names in C and object files' symbol tables.


C++ Language

Because of the immaturity of the C++ ABI (for name mangling, exception handling, and other such issues), we do not standardize any libraries for C++ in this version of the Linux Standard Base. [1]

In a future version of this specification, name mangling rules will be specified so that C++ symbols can be mapped into symbol names in the object file.


Chapter 6. Symbol Versioning

This chapter describes the Symbol Versioning mechanism. All ELF objects may provide or depend on versioned symbols. Symbol Versioning is implemented by 3 section types: SHT_GNU_versym, SHT_GNU_verdef, and SHT_GNU_verneed.

The term "Elfxx" means "Elf32" or "Elf64" depending on the architecture.

Versions are described by strings. The structures that are used for symbol versions also contain a member that holds the ELF hashing values of the strings. This allows for more efficient processing.


Symbol Version Table

The Symbol Version Table is contained in the special section .gnu.version which has a section type of SHT_GNU_versym. This section has the same number of entries as the Dynamic Symbol Table.

This section contains an array of elements of type Elfxx_Half. Each entry specifies the version defined for or required by the corresponding symbol in the Dynamic Symbol Table.

The values in the Symbol Version Table are unique to the object in which they are located. These values are identifiers that are provided by the the vna_other member of the Elfxx_Vernaux structure or the vd_ndx member of the Elfxx_Verdef structure.

The values 0 and 1 are reserved.

0

The symbol is local, not available outside the object.

1

The symbol is defined in this object and is globally available.

All other values are used to identify version strings located in one of the other Symbol Version sections. The value itself is not the version associated with the symbol. The string identified by the value defines the version of the symbol.


Version Definitions

Symbol definitions are contained in the special section .gnu.version_d which has a section type of SHT_GNU_verdef. The number of entries in this section is contained in the DT_VERDEFNUM entry of the Dynamic Section. The sh_link member of the section header points to the section that contains the strings referenced by this section.

Figure 6-1. Version Definition Entries

typedef struct {
	Elfxx_Half    vd_version;
	Elfxx_Half    vd_flags;
	Elfxx_Half    vd_ndx;
	Elfxx_Half    vd_cnt;
	Elfxx_Word    vd_hash;
	Elfxx_Word    vd_aux;
	Elfxx_Word    vd_next;
} Elfxx_Verdef;

vd_version

Version revision. This value is currently set to 1, and will be reset if the versioning implementation is incompatibly altered.

vd_flags

Version information flag bitmask.

vd_ndx

Version index numeric value referencing the SHT_GNU_versym section.

vd_cnt

Number of associated verdaux array entries.

vd_hash

Version name hash value (ELF hash function).

vd_aux

Offset to a corresponding entry in the verdaux array, in bytes.

vd_next

Offset to the next verdef entry, in bytes.

Figure 6-2. Version Definition Auxiliary Entries

typedef struct {
	Elfxx_Word    vda_name;
	Elfxx_Word    vda_next;
} Elfxx_Verdaux;

vda_name

Offset to the version or dependency name string in the section header, in bytes.

vda_next

Offset to the next verdaux entry, in bytes.


Version Requirements

Symbol definitions are contained in the special section .gnu.version_r which has a section type of SHT_GNU_verneed. The number of entries in this section is contained in the DT_VERNEEDNUM entry of the Dynamic Section. The sh_link member of the section header points to the section that contains the strings referenced by this section.

Figure 6-3. Version Needed Entries

typedef struct {
	Elfxx_Half    vn_version;
	Elfxx_Half    vn_cnt;
	Elfxx_Word    vn_file;
	Elfxx_Word    vn_aux;
	Elfxx_Word    vn_next;
} Elfxx_Verneed;

vn_version

Version of structure. This value is currently set to 1, and will be reset if the versioning implementation is incompatibly altered.

vn_cnt

Number of associated verneed array entries.

vn_file

Offset to the file name string in the section header, in bytes.

vn_aux

Offset to a corresponding entry in the vernaux array, in bytes.

vn_next

Offset to the next verneed entry, in bytes.

Figure 6-4. Version Needed Auxiliary Entries

typedef struct {
	Elfxx_Word    vna_hash;
	Elfxx_Half    vna_flags;
	Elfxx_Half    vna_other;
	Elfxx_Word    vna_name;
	Elfxx_Word    vna_next;
} Elfxx_Vernaux;

vna_hash

Dependency name hash value (ELF hash function).

vna_flags

Dependency information flag bitmask.

vna_other

Object file version identifier used in the .gnu.version symbol version array. Bit number 15 controls whether or not the object is hidden; if this bit is set, the object cannot be used and the static linker will ignore the symbol's presence in the object.

vna_name

Offset to the dependency name string in the section header, in bytes.

vna_next

Offset to the next vernaux entry, in bytes.


Startup Sequence

When loading a sharable object, version definition data from the loaded object is analyzed to assure that it meets the version requirements of the calling object. The dynamic loader retrieves the entries in the caller's Elfxx_Verneed array and attempts to find matching definition information in the loaded Elfxx_Verdef table.

Each object and dependency is tested in turn. If a symbol definition is missing, the loader returns an error. A warning is issued instead of a hard error when the vna_flags bit for VER_FLG_WEAK is set in the Elfxx_Vernaux entry.

When the versions referenced by undefined symbols in the loaded object are found, version availability is certified. The test completes without error and the object is made available.


Symbol Resolution

When symbol versioning is used in an object, relocations extend the performance of definition testing beyond the simple match of symbol name strings: the version of the reference must also equal the name of the definition. The same index that is used in the symbol table can be referenced in the SHT_GNU_versym section, and the value of this index is then used to acquire name data. The corresponding requirement string is retrieved from the Elfxx_Verneed array, and likewise, the corresponding definition string from the Elfxx_Verdef table.

Bit number 15 of the version symbol controls whether or not the object is hidden; if this bit is set, the object cannot be used and the static linker will ignore the symbol's presence in the object.

Results differ in the interaction of objects that variously use symbol versioning.

  • The object with the reference and the object with the definitions may both use versioning. All described matching is processed in this case. A fatal error is triggered when no matching definition can be found in the object whose name is the one referenced by the vn_name element in the Elfxx_Verneed entry.

  • The object with the reference may not use versioning, while the object with the definitions does. In this instance, only the definition with index numbers 1 and 2 will be used in the reference match, the same identified by the static linker as the base definition. In infrequent cases where the static linker was not used, as in calls to dlopen(), a version that does not have the base definition index is acceptable as long as it is the only version for which the symbol is defined.

  • The object with the reference may use versioning, but the object with the definitions specifies none. A matching symbol is accepted in this case. A fatal error is triggered in the unlikely event that a corruption in the required symbols list obscured an outdated object file and caused a match on the object filename in the Elfxx_Verneed entry.

  • Finally, both the object with the reference and the object with the definitions may not use versioning. The behavior in this instance defaults to pre-existing symbol rules.

III. Dynamic Linking


Chapter 7. Program Loading and Dynamic Linking

LSB-conforming implementations shall support the object file information and system actions that create running programs as specified in the System V Application Binary Interface, Edition 4.1 and the System V Application Binary Interface - DRAFT - April 29, 1998 and as supplemented by this document and an architecture-specific LSB specification.

Any shared object that is loaded must contain sufficient DT_NEEDED records to satisfy the symbols on the shared library.


Chapter 8. Dynamic Entries


ELF Dynamic Entries

The following dynamic entries are defined in the System V Application Binary Interface, Edition 4.1.

DT_BIND_NOW

Process relocations of object

DT_DEBUG

For debugging; unspecified

DT_FINI

Address of termination function

DT_HASH

Address of symbol hash table

DT_HIPROC

End of processor-specific

DT_INIT

Address of init function

DT_JMPREL

Address of PLT relocs

DT_LOPROC

Start of processor-specific

DT_NEEDED

Name of needed library

DT_NULL

Marks end of dynamic section

DT_PLTREL

Type of reloc in PLT

DT_PLTRELSZ

Size in bytes of PLT relocs

DT_REL

Address of Rel relocs

DT_RELA

Address of Rela relocs

DT_RELAENT

Size of one Rela reloc

DT_RELASZ

Total size of Rela relocs

DT_RELENT

Size of one Rel reloc

DT_RELSZ

Total size of Rel relocs

DT_RPATH

Library search path

DT_SONAME

Name of shared object

DT_STRSZ

Size of string table

DT_STRTAB

Address of string table

DT_SYMBOLIC

Start symbol search here

DT_SYMENT

Size of one symbol table entry

DT_SYMTAB

Address of symbol table

DT_TEXTREL

Reloc might modify .text


Linux Dynamic Entries

The following dynamic entries are defined here.

DT_ADDRRNGLO

DT_AUXILIARY

Shared object to load before self

DT_FILTER

Shared object to get values from

DT_FINI_ARRAY

Array with addresses of fini fct

DT_FINI_ARRAYSZ

Size in bytes of DT_FINI_ARRAY

DT_FLAGS_1

State flags, see DF_1_* below

DT_HIOS

End of OS-specific

DT_INIT_ARRAY

Array with addresses of init fct

DT_INIT_ARRAYSZ

Size in bytes of DT_INIT_ARRAY

DT_LOOS

Start of OS-specific

DT_NUM

Number used

DT_POSFLAG_1

Flags for DT_* entries, effecting the following DT_* entry

DT_SYMINENT

Entry size of syminfo

DT_SYMINFO

syminfo table

DT_SYMINSZ

Size of syminfo table (in bytes)

DT_VALRNGHI

DT_VALRNGLO

DT_VERDEF

Address of version definition table

DT_VERDEFNUM

Number of version definitions

DT_VERNEED

Address of table with needed versions

DT_VERNEEDNUM

Number of needed versions

DT_VERSYM

GNU Symbol versioning


Chapter 9. Program Interpreter


The Program Interpreter is specified in the appropriate architecture-specific LSB specification.

IV. Base Libraries

Table of Contents
10. Libraries

Chapter 10. Libraries

An LSB-conforming implementation shall support some base libraries which provide interfaces for accessing the operating system, processor and other hardware in the system.[2]


Interfaces for libc

The behavior of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following standards.

ISO/IEC 9899: 1999, Programming Languages --C[3]
Large File Support[4]
Linux Standard Base[5]
IEEE Std POSIX.1-1996 [ISO/IEC 9945-1:1996][6]
CAE Specification, February 1997, Networking Services (XNS), Issue 5 (ISBN: 1-85912-165-9, C523)[7]
CAE Specification, January 1997, System Interfaces and Headers (XSH), Issue 5 (ISBN: 1-85912-181-0, C606)[8]
System V Interface Definition, Issue 3[9]
System V Interface Definition,Fourth Edition[10]


RPC Interfaces

Table 10-1. libc - RPC Interfaces Function Interfaces

authnone_create(GLIBC_2.0)[10]svcerr_auth(GLIBC_2.0)[9]xdr_bytes(GLIBC_2.0)[9]xdr_opaque(GLIBC_2.0)[9]xdr_u_short(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
clnt_create(GLIBC_2.0)[10]svcerr_decode(GLIBC_2.0)[9]xdr_callhdr(GLIBC_2.0)[9]xdr_opaque_auth(GLIBC_2.0)[9]xdr_union(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
clnt_pcreateerror(GLIBC_2.0)[10]svcerr_noproc(GLIBC_2.0)[9]xdr_callmsg(GLIBC_2.0)[9]xdr_pointer(GLIBC_2.0)[9]xdr_vector(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
clnt_perrno(GLIBC_2.0)[10]svcerr_noprog(GLIBC_2.0)[9]xdr_char(GLIBC_2.0)[9]xdr_reference(GLIBC_2.0)[9]xdr_void(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
clnt_perror(GLIBC_2.0)[10]svcerr_progvers(GLIBC_2.0)[9]xdr_double(GLIBC_2.0)[9]xdr_rejected_reply(GLIBC_2.0)[9]xdr_wrapstring(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
clnt_spcreateerror(GLIBC_2.0)[10]svcerr_systemerr(GLIBC_2.0)[9]xdr_enum(GLIBC_2.0)[9]xdr_replymsg(GLIBC_2.0)[9]xdrmem_create(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
clnt_sperrno(GLIBC_2.0)[10]svcerr_weakauth(GLIBC_2.0)[9]xdr_float(GLIBC_2.0)[9]xdr_short(GLIBC_2.0)[9]xdrrec_create(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
clnt_sperror(GLIBC_2.0)[10]xdr_accepted_reply(GLIBC_2.0)[9]xdr_free(GLIBC_2.0)[9]xdr_string(GLIBC_2.0)[9]xdrrec_eof(GLIBC_2.0)[9]
key_decryptsession(GLIBC_2.1)[9]xdr_array(GLIBC_2.1)[9]xdr_int(GLIBC_2.1)[9]xdr_u_char(GLIBC_2.1)[9] 
svc_getreqset(GLIBC_2.0)[9]xdr_bool(GLIBC_2.0)[9]xdr_long(GLIBC_2.0)[9]xdr_u_long(GLIBC_2.0)[9] 

System Calls

Table 10-2. libc - System Calls Function Interfaces

__fxstat(GLIBC_2.0)[5]fchown(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getwd(GLIBC_2.0)[8]putmsg(GLIBC_2.0)[8]setrlimit(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
__getpgid(GLIBC_2.0)[5]fcntl(GLIBC_2.0)[8]initgroups(GLIBC_2.0)[5]pwrite(GLIBC_2.0)[8]setsid(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
__lxstat(GLIBC_2.0)[5]fdatasync(GLIBC_2.0)[8]ioctl(GLIBC_2.0)[8]read(GLIBC_2.0)[8]setuid(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
__xmknod(GLIBC_2.0)[5]fdetach(GLIBC_2.0)[8]kill(GLIBC_2.0)[5]readdir(GLIBC_2.0)[8]sleep(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
__xstat(GLIBC_2.0)[5]flock(GLIBC_2.0)[5]killpg(GLIBC_2.0)[8]readlink(GLIBC_2.0)[8]statfs(GLIBC_2.0)[5]
access(GLIBC_2.0)[8]fork(GLIBC_2.0)[8]lchown(GLIBC_2.0)[8]readv(GLIBC_2.0)[8]statvfs(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
acct(GLIBC_2.0)[5]fstatfs(GLIBC_2.0)[5]link(GLIBC_2.0)[8]rename(GLIBC_2.0)[8]stime(GLIBC_2.0)[5]
alarm(GLIBC_2.0)[8]fsync(GLIBC_2.0)[8]lockf(GLIBC_2.0)[8]rmdir(GLIBC_2.0)[8]symlink(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
brk(GLIBC_2.0)[8]ftime(GLIBC_2.0)[8]lseek(GLIBC_2.0)[8]sbrk(GLIBC_2.0)[8]sync(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
chdir(GLIBC_2.0)[8]ftruncate(GLIBC_2.0)[8]mkdir(GLIBC_2.0)[8]sched_get_priority_max(GLIBC_2.0)[8]sysconf(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
chmod(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getcontext(GLIBC_2.0)[8]mkfifo(GLIBC_2.0)[8]sched_get_priority_min(GLIBC_2.0)[8]time(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
chown(GLIBC_2.1)[8]getegid(GLIBC_2.1)[8]mlock(GLIBC_2.1)[8]sched_getparam(GLIBC_2.1)[8]times(GLIBC_2.1)[8]
chroot(GLIBC_2.0)[8]geteuid(GLIBC_2.0)[8]mlockall(GLIBC_2.0)[8]sched_getscheduler(GLIBC_2.0)[8]truncate(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
clock(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getgid(GLIBC_2.0)[8]mmap(GLIBC_2.0)[8]sched_rr_get_interval(GLIBC_2.0)[8]ulimit(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
close(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getgroups(GLIBC_2.0)[8]mprotect(GLIBC_2.0)[8]sched_setparam(GLIBC_2.0)[8]umask(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
closedir(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getitimer(GLIBC_2.0)[8]msync(GLIBC_2.0)[8]sched_setscheduler(GLIBC_2.0)[8]uname(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
creat(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getloadavg(GLIBC_2.0)[5]munlock(GLIBC_2.0)[8]sched_yield(GLIBC_2.0)[8]unlink(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
dup(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getmsg(GLIBC_2.0)[8]munlockall(GLIBC_2.0)[8]select(GLIBC_2.0)[7]utime(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
dup2(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getpagesize(GLIBC_2.0)[8]munmap(GLIBC_2.0)[8]setcontext(GLIBC_2.0)[8]utimes(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
execl(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getpgid(GLIBC_2.0)[8]nanosleep(GLIBC_2.0)[8]setegid(GLIBC_2.0)[5]vfork(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
execle(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getpgrp(GLIBC_2.0)[8]nice(GLIBC_2.0)[8]seteuid(GLIBC_2.0)[5]wait(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
execlp(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getpid(GLIBC_2.0)[8]open(GLIBC_2.0)[8]setgid(GLIBC_2.0)[8]wait3(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
execv(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getppid(GLIBC_2.0)[8]opendir(GLIBC_2.0)[8]setitimer(GLIBC_2.0)[8]wait4(GLIBC_2.0)[5]
execve(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getpriority(GLIBC_2.0)[8]pathconf(GLIBC_2.0)[8]setpgid(GLIBC_2.0)[8]waitid(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
execvp(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getrlimit(GLIBC_2.0)[8]pause(GLIBC_2.0)[8]setpgrp(GLIBC_2.0)[8]waitpid(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
exit(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getrusage(GLIBC_2.0)[8]pipe(GLIBC_2.0)[8]setpriority(GLIBC_2.0)[8]write(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
fchdir(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getsid(GLIBC_2.0)[8]poll(GLIBC_2.0)[8]setregid(GLIBC_2.0)[8]writev(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
fchmod(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getuid(GLIBC_2.0)[8]pread(GLIBC_2.0)[8]setreuid(GLIBC_2.0)[8] 

Standard I/O

Table 10-3. libc - Standard I/O Function Interfaces

_IO_feof(GLIBC_2.0)[5]fgetpos(GLIBC_2.0)[8]fsetpos(GLIBC_2.0)[8]putc(GLIBC_2.0)[8]snprintf(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
_IO_getc(GLIBC_2.0)[5]fgets(GLIBC_2.0)[8]fstatvfs(GLIBC_2.0)[8]putc_unlocked(GLIBC_2.0)[8]sprintf(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
_IO_putc(GLIBC_2.0)[5]fgetwc_unlocked(GLIBC_2.0)[8]ftell(GLIBC_2.0)[8]putchar(GLIBC_2.0)[8]sscanf(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
_IO_puts(GLIBC_2.0)[5]fileno(GLIBC_2.0)[8]ftello(GLIBC_2.0)[8]putchar_unlocked(GLIBC_2.0)[8]telldir(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
alphasort(GLIBC_2.0)[5]flockfile(GLIBC_2.0)[8]fwrite(GLIBC_2.0)[8]puts(GLIBC_2.0)[8]tempnam(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
clearerr(GLIBC_2.0)[8]fopen(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getc(GLIBC_2.0)[8]putw(GLIBC_2.0)[8]ungetc(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
ctermid(GLIBC_2.0)[8]fprintf(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getc_unlocked(GLIBC_2.0)[8]remove(GLIBC_2.0)[8]vasprintf(GLIBC_2.0)[5]
fclose(GLIBC_2.1)[8]fputc(GLIBC_2.1)[8]getchar(GLIBC_2.1)[8]rewind(GLIBC_2.1)[8]vdprintf(GLIBC_2.1)[5]
fdopen(GLIBC_2.1)[8]fputs(GLIBC_2.1)[8]getchar_unlocked(GLIBC_2.1)[8]rewinddir(GLIBC_2.1)[8]vfprintf(GLIBC_2.1)[8]
feof(GLIBC_2.0)[8]fread(GLIBC_2.0)[8]gets(GLIBC_2.0)[8]scanf(GLIBC_2.0)[8]vprintf(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
ferror(GLIBC_2.0)[8]freopen(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getw(GLIBC_2.0)[8]seekdir(GLIBC_2.0)[8]vsnprintf(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
fflush(GLIBC_2.0)[8]fscanf(GLIBC_2.0)[8]pclose(GLIBC_2.0)[8]setbuf(GLIBC_2.0)[8]vsprintf(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
fflush_unlocked(GLIBC_2.0)[8]fseek(GLIBC_2.0)[8]popen(GLIBC_2.0)[8]setbuffer(GLIBC_2.0)[5]wprintf(GLIBC_2.0)[3]
fgetc(GLIBC_2.0)[8]fseeko(GLIBC_2.0)[8]printf(GLIBC_2.0)[8]setvbuf(GLIBC_2.0)[8]wscanf(GLIBC_2.0)[3]

Data Symbols

Table 10-4. libc - Standard I/O Data Interfaces

stderr[8]stdin[8]stdout[8]  

Signal Handling

Table 10-5. libc - Signal Handling Function Interfaces

__libc_current_sigrtmax(GLIBC_2.1)[5]sigaddset(GLIBC_2.1)[8]sighold(GLIBC_2.1)[8]sigpause(GLIBC_2.1)[8]sigsuspend(GLIBC_2.1)[8]
__libc_current_sigrtmin(GLIBC_2.1)[5]sigaltstack(GLIBC_2.1)[8]sigignore(GLIBC_2.1)[8]sigpending(GLIBC_2.1)[8]sigtimedwait(GLIBC_2.1)[8]
__sigsetjmp(GLIBC_2.0)[5]sigandset(GLIBC_2.0)[5]siginterrupt(GLIBC_2.0)[8]sigprocmask(GLIBC_2.0)[8]sigwait(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
__sysv_signal(GLIBC_2.0)[5]sigblock(GLIBC_2.0)[5]sigisemptyset(GLIBC_2.0)[5]sigqueue(GLIBC_2.0)[8]sigwaitinfo(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
bsd_signal(GLIBC_2.0)[8]sigdelset(GLIBC_2.0)[8]sigismember(GLIBC_2.0)[8]sigrelse(GLIBC_2.0)[8] 
psignal(GLIBC_2.0)[5]sigemptyset(GLIBC_2.0)[8]siglongjmp(GLIBC_2.0)[8]sigreturn(GLIBC_2.0)[5] 
raise(GLIBC_2.0)[8]sigfillset(GLIBC_2.0)[8]signal(GLIBC_2.0)[8]sigset(GLIBC_2.0)[8] 
sigaction(GLIBC_2.0)[8]siggetmask(GLIBC_2.0)[5]sigorset(GLIBC_2.0)[5]sigstack(GLIBC_2.0)[8] 

Data Symbols

Table 10-6. libc - Signal Handling Data Interfaces

_sys_siglist[5]    

Standard Library

Table 10-7. libc - Standard Library Function Interfaces

_Exit(GLIBC_2.1.1)[3]ecvt(GLIBC_2.1.1)[8]hcreate(GLIBC_2.1.1)[8]lsearch(GLIBC_2.1.1)[8]setstate(GLIBC_2.1.1)[8]
__assert_fail(GLIBC_2.0)[5]erand48(GLIBC_2.0)[8]hdestroy(GLIBC_2.0)[8]makecontext(GLIBC_2.0)[8]srand(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
__cxa_atexit(GLIBC_2.1.3)[5]err(GLIBC_2.1.3)[5]hsearch(GLIBC_2.1.3)[8]malloc(GLIBC_2.1.3)[8]srand48(GLIBC_2.1.3)[8]
__errno_location(GLIBC_2.0)[5]error(GLIBC_2.0)[5]htonl(GLIBC_2.0)[7]memmem(GLIBC_2.0)[5]srandom(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
__fpending(GLIBC_2.2)[5]errx(GLIBC_2.2)[5]htons(GLIBC_2.2)[7]mkstemp(GLIBC_2.2)[8]strtod(GLIBC_2.2)[8]
__getpagesize(GLIBC_2.0)[5]fcvt(GLIBC_2.0)[8]imaxabs(GLIBC_2.0)[3]mktemp(GLIBC_2.0)[8]strtol(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
__sysconf(GLIBC_2.2)[5]fmtmsg(GLIBC_2.2)[8]imaxdiv(GLIBC_2.2)[3]mrand48(GLIBC_2.2)[8]strtoul(GLIBC_2.2)[8]
_exit(GLIBC_2.0)[8]fnmatch(GLIBC_2.0)[8]inet_addr(GLIBC_2.0)[7]nftw(GLIBC_2.0)[8]swapcontext(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
_longjmp(GLIBC_2.0)[8]fpathconf(GLIBC_2.0)[8]inet_aton(GLIBC_2.0)[7]nrand48(GLIBC_2.0)[8]syslog(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
_setjmp(GLIBC_2.0)[8]free(GLIBC_2.0)[8]inet_ntoa(GLIBC_2.0)[7]ntohl(GLIBC_2.0)[7]system(GLIBC_2.0)[5]
a64l(GLIBC_2.0)[8]ftrylockfile(GLIBC_2.0)[8]initstate(GLIBC_2.0)[8]ntohs(GLIBC_2.0)[7]textdomain(GLIBC_2.0)[5]
abort(GLIBC_2.0)[8]ftw(GLIBC_2.0)[8]insque(GLIBC_2.0)[8]openlog(GLIBC_2.0)[8]tfind(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
abs(GLIBC_2.0)[8]funlockfile(GLIBC_2.0)[8]isatty(GLIBC_2.0)[8]perror(GLIBC_2.0)[8]tmpfile(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
atexit(GLIBC_2.0)[8]gcvt(GLIBC_2.0)[8]isblank(GLIBC_2.0)[5]posix_memalign(GLIBC_2.0)[6]tmpnam(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
atof(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getcwd(GLIBC_2.0)[8]isinf(GLIBC_2.0)[3]ptsname(GLIBC_2.0)[8]tsearch(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
atoi(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getdate(GLIBC_2.0)[8]isinfl(GLIBC_2.0)[3]putenv(GLIBC_2.0)[8]ttyname(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
atol(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getenv(GLIBC_2.0)[8]isnan(GLIBC_2.0)[3]qsort(GLIBC_2.0)[8]ttyname_r(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
basename(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getlogin(GLIBC_2.0)[8]isnanf(GLIBC_2.0)[3]rand(GLIBC_2.0)[8]twalk(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
bindtextdomain(GLIBC_2.0)[5]getopt(GLIBC_2.0)[5]isnanl(GLIBC_2.0)[3]rand_r(GLIBC_2.0)[8]unlockpt(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
bsearch(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getopt_long(GLIBC_2.0)[5]jrand48(GLIBC_2.0)[8]random(GLIBC_2.0)[8]usleep(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
calloc(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getopt_long_only(GLIBC_2.0)[5]l64a(GLIBC_2.0)[8]random_r(GLIBC_2.0)[5]verrx(GLIBC_2.0)[5]
closelog(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getsubopt(GLIBC_2.0)[8]labs(GLIBC_2.0)[8]realloc(GLIBC_2.0)[8]warn(GLIBC_2.0)[5]
confstr(GLIBC_2.0)[8]gettimeofday(GLIBC_2.0)[8]ldiv(GLIBC_2.0)[8]realpath(GLIBC_2.0)[8]warnx(GLIBC_2.0)[5]
cuserid(GLIBC_2.0)[8]glob(GLIBC_2.0)[8]lfind(GLIBC_2.0)[8]remque(GLIBC_2.0)[8]wordexp(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
daemon(GLIBC_2.0)[5]glob64(GLIBC_2.0)[5]llabs(GLIBC_2.0)[3]seed48(GLIBC_2.0)[8]wordfree(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
dirname(GLIBC_2.0)[8]globfree(GLIBC_2.0)[8]lldiv(GLIBC_2.0)[3]sethostid(GLIBC_2.0)[5] 
div(GLIBC_2.0)[8]globfree64(GLIBC_2.0)[5]longjmp(GLIBC_2.0)[8]sethostname(GLIBC_2.0)[5] 
drand48(GLIBC_2.0)[8]grantpt(GLIBC_2.0)[8]lrand48(GLIBC_2.0)[8]setlogmask(GLIBC_2.0)[8] 

Data Symbols

Table 10-8. libc - Standard Library Data Interfaces

__environ[5]_sys_errlist[5]getdate_err[8]opterr[5]optopt[5]
_environ[5]environ[8]optarg[8]optind[5] 

Localization Functions

Table 10-9. libc - Localization Functions Function Interfaces

__dcgettext(GLIBC_2.0)[5]catgets(GLIBC_2.0)[8]dcgettext(GLIBC_2.0)[5]iconv(GLIBC_2.0)[8]nl_langinfo(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
catclose(GLIBC_2.0)[8]catopen(GLIBC_2.0)[8]gettext(GLIBC_2.0)[5]localeconv(GLIBC_2.0)[8]setlocale(GLIBC_2.0)[8]

Data Symbols

Table 10-10. libc - Localization Functions Data Interfaces

_nl_msg_cat_cntr[5]    

Socket Interface

Table 10-11. libc - Socket Interface Function Interfaces

accept(GLIBC_2.0)[7]gethostid(GLIBC_2.0)[8]listen(GLIBC_2.0)[7]sendmsg(GLIBC_2.0)[7]socketpair(GLIBC_2.0)[7]
bind(GLIBC_2.0)[7]gethostname(GLIBC_2.0)[7]recv(GLIBC_2.0)[7]sendto(GLIBC_2.0)[7] 
bindresvport(GLIBC_2.0)[5]getpeername(GLIBC_2.0)[7]recvfrom(GLIBC_2.0)[7]setsockopt(GLIBC_2.0)[7] 
connect(GLIBC_2.0)[7]getsockname(GLIBC_2.0)[7]recvmsg(GLIBC_2.0)[7]shutdown(GLIBC_2.0)[7] 
gethostbyname_r(GLIBC_2.1.2)[5]getsockopt(GLIBC_2.1.2)[7]send(GLIBC_2.1.2)[7]socket(GLIBC_2.1.2)[7] 

Data Symbols

Table 10-12. libc - Socket Interface Data Interfaces

h_errno[7]    

Wide Characters

Table 10-13. libc - Wide Characters Function Interfaces

btowc(GLIBC_2.0)[8]mbsrtowcs(GLIBC_2.0)[8]wcpcpy(GLIBC_2.0)[5]wcsnlen(GLIBC_2.0)[5]wcstoull(GLIBC_2.0)[3]
fgetwc(GLIBC_2.2)[8]mbstowcs(GLIBC_2.2)[8]wcpncpy(GLIBC_2.2)[5]wcsnrtombs(GLIBC_2.2)[5]wcstoumax(GLIBC_2.2)[3]
fgetws(GLIBC_2.2)[3]mbtowc(GLIBC_2.2)[8]wcrtomb(GLIBC_2.2)[8]wcspbrk(GLIBC_2.2)[3]wcstouq(GLIBC_2.2)[5]
fputwc(GLIBC_2.2)[3]putwc(GLIBC_2.2)[3]wcscasecmp(GLIBC_2.2)[5]wcsrchr(GLIBC_2.2)[8]wcswcs(GLIBC_2.2)[8]
fputws(GLIBC_2.2)[3]putwchar(GLIBC_2.2)[3]wcscat(GLIBC_2.2)[8]wcsrtombs(GLIBC_2.2)[8]wcswidth(GLIBC_2.2)[8]
fwide(GLIBC_2.2)[3]swprintf(GLIBC_2.2)[8]wcschr(GLIBC_2.2)[8]wcsspn(GLIBC_2.2)[8]wcsxfrm(GLIBC_2.2)[8]
fwprintf(GLIBC_2.2)[5]swscanf(GLIBC_2.2)[3]wcscmp(GLIBC_2.2)[8]wcsstr(GLIBC_2.2)[8]wctob(GLIBC_2.2)[8]
fwscanf(GLIBC_2.2)[3]towctrans(GLIBC_2.2)[8]wcscoll(GLIBC_2.2)[8]wcstod(GLIBC_2.2)[8]wctomb(GLIBC_2.2)[8]
getwc(GLIBC_2.2)[3]towlower(GLIBC_2.2)[3]wcscpy(GLIBC_2.2)[8]wcstof(GLIBC_2.2)[3]wctrans(GLIBC_2.2)[8]
getwchar(GLIBC_2.2)[8]towupper(GLIBC_2.2)[8]wcscspn(GLIBC_2.2)[8]wcstoimax(GLIBC_2.2)[3]wctype(GLIBC_2.2)[8]
iconv_close(GLIBC_2.1)[8]ungetwc(GLIBC_2.1)[3]wcsdup(GLIBC_2.1)[5]wcstok(GLIBC_2.1)[8]wcwidth(GLIBC_2.1)[8]
iconv_open(GLIBC_2.1)[8]vfwprintf(GLIBC_2.1)[3]wcsftime(GLIBC_2.1)[3]wcstol(GLIBC_2.1)[8]wmemchr(GLIBC_2.1)[8]
mblen(GLIBC_2.0)[8]vfwscanf(GLIBC_2.0)[3]wcslen(GLIBC_2.0)[8]wcstold(GLIBC_2.0)[3]wmemcmp(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
mbrlen(GLIBC_2.0)[8]vswprintf(GLIBC_2.0)[3]wcsncasecmp(GLIBC_2.0)[5]wcstoll(GLIBC_2.0)[3]wmemcpy(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
mbrtowc(GLIBC_2.0)[8]vswscanf(GLIBC_2.0)[3]wcsncat(GLIBC_2.0)[8]wcstombs(GLIBC_2.0)[8]wmemmove(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
mbsinit(GLIBC_2.0)[8]vwprintf(GLIBC_2.0)[3]wcsncmp(GLIBC_2.0)[8]wcstoq(GLIBC_2.0)[5]wmemset(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
mbsnrtowcs(GLIBC_2.0)[5]vwscanf(GLIBC_2.0)[3]wcsncpy(GLIBC_2.0)[8]wcstoul(GLIBC_2.0)[8] 

String Functions

Table 10-14. libc - String Functions Function Interfaces

__mempcpy(GLIBC_2.0)[5]bzero(GLIBC_2.0)[8]strcasestr(GLIBC_2.0)[5]strncasecmp(GLIBC_2.0)[8]strtoimax(GLIBC_2.0)[3]
__rawmemchr(GLIBC_2.1)[5]ffs(GLIBC_2.1)[8]strcat(GLIBC_2.1)[8]strncat(GLIBC_2.1)[8]strtok(GLIBC_2.1)[8]
__stpcpy(GLIBC_2.0)[5]index(GLIBC_2.0)[8]strchr(GLIBC_2.0)[8]strncmp(GLIBC_2.0)[8]strtok_r(GLIBC_2.0)[5]
__strdup(GLIBC_2.0)[5]memccpy(GLIBC_2.0)[8]strcmp(GLIBC_2.0)[8]strncpy(GLIBC_2.0)[8]strtold(GLIBC_2.0)[3]
__strtod_internal(GLIBC_2.0)[5]memchr(GLIBC_2.0)[8]strcoll(GLIBC_2.0)[8]strndup(GLIBC_2.0)[5]strtoll(GLIBC_2.0)[3]
__strtof_internal(GLIBC_2.0)[5]memcmp(GLIBC_2.0)[8]strcpy(GLIBC_2.0)[8]strnlen(GLIBC_2.0)[5]strtoq(GLIBC_2.0)[5]
__strtok_r(GLIBC_2.0)[5]memcpy(GLIBC_2.0)[8]strcspn(GLIBC_2.0)[8]strpbrk(GLIBC_2.0)[8]strtoull(GLIBC_2.0)[3]
__strtol_internal(GLIBC_2.0)[5]memmove(GLIBC_2.0)[8]strdup(GLIBC_2.0)[8]strptime(GLIBC_2.0)[8]strtoumax(GLIBC_2.0)[3]
__strtold_internal(GLIBC_2.0)[5]memrchr(GLIBC_2.0)[5]strerror(GLIBC_2.0)[8]strrchr(GLIBC_2.0)[8]strtouq(GLIBC_2.0)[5]
__strtoll_internal(GLIBC_2.0)[5]memset(GLIBC_2.0)[8]strerror_r(GLIBC_2.0)[5]strsep(GLIBC_2.0)[5]strverscmp(GLIBC_2.0)[5]
__strtoul_internal(GLIBC_2.0)[5]rindex(GLIBC_2.0)[8]strfmon(GLIBC_2.0)[8]strsignal(GLIBC_2.0)[5]strxfrm(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
__strtoull_internal(GLIBC_2.0)[5]stpcpy(GLIBC_2.0)[5]strfry(GLIBC_2.0)[5]strspn(GLIBC_2.0)[8]swab(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
bcmp(GLIBC_2.0)[8]stpncpy(GLIBC_2.0)[5]strftime(GLIBC_2.0)[8]strstr(GLIBC_2.0)[8] 
bcopy(GLIBC_2.0)[8]strcasecmp(GLIBC_2.0)[8]strlen(GLIBC_2.0)[8]strtof(GLIBC_2.0)[3] 

IPC Functions

Table 10-15. libc - IPC Functions Function Interfaces

ftok(GLIBC_2.0)[8]msgrcv(GLIBC_2.0)[8]semget(GLIBC_2.0)[8]shmctl(GLIBC_2.0)[8] 
msgctl(GLIBC_2.0)[8]msgsnd(GLIBC_2.0)[8]semop(GLIBC_2.0)[8]shmdt(GLIBC_2.0)[8] 
msgget(GLIBC_2.0)[8]semctl(GLIBC_2.0)[8]shmat(GLIBC_2.0)[8]shmget(GLIBC_2.0)[8] 

Regular Expressions

Table 10-16. libc - Regular Expressions Function Interfaces

advance(GLIBC_2.0)[8]re_exec(GLIBC_2.0)[8]regerror(GLIBC_2.0)[8]regfree(GLIBC_2.0)[8] 
re_comp(GLIBC_2.0)[8]regcomp(GLIBC_2.0)[8]regexec(GLIBC_2.0)[8]step(GLIBC_2.0)[8] 

Data Symbols

Table 10-17. libc - Regular Expressions Data Interfaces

loc1[8]loc2[8]locs[8]  

Character Type Functions

Table 10-18. libc - Character Type Functions Function Interfaces

__ctype_get_mb_cur_max(GLIBC_2.0)[5]isdigit(GLIBC_2.0)[8]iswalnum(GLIBC_2.0)[8]iswlower(GLIBC_2.0)[8]toascii(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
_tolower(GLIBC_2.0)[8]isgraph(GLIBC_2.0)[8]iswalpha(GLIBC_2.0)[8]iswprint(GLIBC_2.0)[8]tolower(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
_toupper(GLIBC_2.0)[8]islower(GLIBC_2.0)[8]iswblank(GLIBC_2.0)[5]iswpunct(GLIBC_2.0)[8]toupper(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
isalnum(GLIBC_2.0)[8]isprint(GLIBC_2.0)[8]iswcntrl(GLIBC_2.0)[8]iswspace(GLIBC_2.0)[8] 
isalpha(GLIBC_2.0)[8]ispunct(GLIBC_2.0)[8]iswctype(GLIBC_2.0)[5]iswupper(GLIBC_2.0)[8] 
isascii(GLIBC_2.0)[8]isspace(GLIBC_2.0)[8]iswdigit(GLIBC_2.0)[8]iswxdigit(GLIBC_2.0)[8] 
iscntrl(GLIBC_2.0)[8]isupper(GLIBC_2.0)[8]iswgraph(GLIBC_2.0)[8]isxdigit(GLIBC_2.0)[8] 

Data Symbols

Table 10-19. libc - Character Type Functions Data Interfaces

__ctype_b[5]__ctype_tolower[5]__ctype_toupper[5]  

Time Manipulation

Table 10-20. libc - Time Manipulation Function Interfaces

adjtime(GLIBC_2.0)[5]asctime_r(GLIBC_2.0)[8]difftime(GLIBC_2.0)[8]localtime(GLIBC_2.0)[8]tzset(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
adjtimex(GLIBC_2.0)[5]ctime(GLIBC_2.0)[8]gmtime(GLIBC_2.0)[8]localtime_r(GLIBC_2.0)[8]ualarm(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
asctime(GLIBC_2.0)[8]ctime_r(GLIBC_2.0)[8]gmtime_r(GLIBC_2.0)[8]mktime(GLIBC_2.0)[8] 

Data Symbols

Table 10-21. libc - Time Manipulation Data Interfaces

__daylight[5]__tzname[5]timezone[8]  
__timezone[5]daylight[8]tzname[8]  

Terminal Interface Functions

Table 10-22. libc - Terminal Interface Functions Function Interfaces

cfgetispeed(GLIBC_2.0)[8]cfsetispeed(GLIBC_2.0)[8]tcdrain(GLIBC_2.0)[8]tcgetattr(GLIBC_2.0)[8]tcsendbreak(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
cfgetospeed(GLIBC_2.0)[8]cfsetospeed(GLIBC_2.0)[8]tcflow(GLIBC_2.0)[8]tcgetpgrp(GLIBC_2.0)[8]tcsetattr(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
cfmakeraw(GLIBC_2.0)[5]cfsetspeed(GLIBC_2.0)[5]tcflush(GLIBC_2.0)[8]tcgetsid(GLIBC_2.0)[8]tcsetpgrp(GLIBC_2.0)[8]

System Database Interface

Table 10-23. libc - System Database Interface Function Interfaces

endgrent(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getgrent(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getprotoent(GLIBC_2.0)[5]getutent(GLIBC_2.0)[5]sethostent(GLIBC_2.0)[7]
endhostent(GLIBC_2.0)[7]getgrgid(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getpwent(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getutent_r(GLIBC_2.0)[5]setmntent(GLIBC_2.0)[5]
endnetent(GLIBC_2.0)[7]getgrnam(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getpwnam(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getutxent(GLIBC_2.0)[8]setnetent(GLIBC_2.0)[7]
endprotoent(GLIBC_2.0)[7]gethostbyaddr(GLIBC_2.0)[7]getpwuid(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getutxid(GLIBC_2.0)[8]setprotoent(GLIBC_2.0)[7]
endpwent(GLIBC_2.0)[8]gethostbyname(GLIBC_2.0)[5]getpwuid_r(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getutxline(GLIBC_2.0)[8]setpwent(GLIBC_2.0)[8]
endservent(GLIBC_2.0)[7]getnetbyaddr(GLIBC_2.0)[7]getservbyname(GLIBC_2.0)[5]pututxline(GLIBC_2.0)[8]setservent(GLIBC_2.0)[7]
endutent(GLIBC_2.0)[8]getprotobyname(GLIBC_2.0)[5]getservbyport(GLIBC_2.0)[7]setgrent(GLIBC_2.0)[8]setutent(GLIBC_2.0)[5]
endutxent(GLIBC_2.1)[8]getprotobynumber(GLIBC_2.1)[7]getservent(GLIBC_2.1)[5]setgroups(GLIBC_2.1)[5]setutxent(GLIBC_2.1)[8]

Language Support

Table 10-24. libc - Language Support Function Interfaces

__libc_start_main(GLIBC_2.0)[5]_obstack_begin(GLIBC_2.0)[5]_obstack_newchunk(GLIBC_2.0)[5]obstack_free(GLIBC_2.0)[5] 

Large File Support

Table 10-25. libc - Large File Support Function Interfaces

__fxstat64(GLIBC_2.2)[5]fopen64(GLIBC_2.2)[4]ftello64(GLIBC_2.2)[4]mkstemp64(GLIBC_2.2)[4]readdir64(GLIBC_2.2)[4]
__lxstat64(GLIBC_2.2)[5]freopen64(GLIBC_2.2)[4]ftruncate64(GLIBC_2.2)[4]mmap64(GLIBC_2.2)[4]tmpfile64(GLIBC_2.2)[4]
__xstat64(GLIBC_2.2)[5]fseeko64(GLIBC_2.2)[4]ftw64(GLIBC_2.2)[4]nftw64(GLIBC_2.2)[4]truncate64(GLIBC_2.2)[4]
alphasort64(GLIBC_2.1)[5]fsetpos64(GLIBC_2.1)[4]getrlimit64(GLIBC_2.1)[4]open64(GLIBC_2.1)[4] 
creat64(GLIBC_2.1)[4]fstatfs64(GLIBC_2.1)[4]lockf64(GLIBC_2.1)[4]pread64(GLIBC_2.1)[4] 
fgetpos64(GLIBC_2.1)[4]fstatvfs64(GLIBC_2.1)[4]lseek64(GLIBC_2.1)[4]pwrite64(GLIBC_2.1)[4] 

libc - deprecated

Table 10-26. libc - libc - deprecated Function Interfaces

__bzero(GLIBC_2.0)[5]__sigpause(GLIBC_2.0)[5]__wcstol_internal(GLIBC_2.0)[5]__wcstoul_internal(GLIBC_2.0)[5] 
__mbrlen(GLIBC_2.0)[5]__wcstod_internal(GLIBC_2.0)[5]__wcstold_internal(GLIBC_2.0)[5]__wcstoull_internal(GLIBC_2.0)[5] 
__secure_getenv(GLIBC_2.0)[5]__wcstof_internal(GLIBC_2.0)[5]__wcstoll_internal(GLIBC_2.0)[5]  

Data Symbols

Table 10-27. libc - libc - deprecated Data Interfaces

_IO_2_1_stderr_[5]_IO_2_1_stdin_[5]_IO_2_1_stdout_[5]  

Data Definitions for libc


assert.h


#define assert(expr) /**/

ctype.h


enum
{
  _ISupper,
  _ISlower,
  _ISalpha,
  _ISdigit,
  _ISxdigit,
  _ISspace,
  _ISprint,
  _ISgraph,
  _ISblank,
  _IScntrl,
  _ISpunct,
  _ISalnum
}
 ;

dirent.h


typedef struct __dirstream DIR;



struct dirent
{
  long d_ino;
  off_t d_off;
  unsigned short d_reclen;
  char d_name[1];
}
 ;

struct dirent64
{
  uint64_t d_ino;
  int64_t d_off;
  unsigned short d_reclen;
  unsigned char d_type;
  char d_name[1];
}
 ;

errno.h


#define errno	(*__errno_location())

#define EPERM	1
#define ECHILD	10
#define ENETDOWN	100
#define ENETUNREACH	101
#define ENETRESET	102
#define ECONNABORTED	103
#define ECONNRESET	104
#define ENOBUFS	105
#define EISCONN	106
#define ENOTCONN	107
#define ESHUTDOWN	108
#define ETOOMANYREFS	109
#define EAGAIN	11
#define ETIMEDOUT	110
#define ECONNREFUSED	111
#define EHOSTDOWN	112
#define EHOSTUNREACH	113
#define EALREADY	114
#define EINPROGRESS	115
#define ESTALE	116
#define EUCLEAN	117
#define ENOTNAM	118
#define ENAVAIL	119
#define ENOMEM	12
#define EISNAM	120
#define EREMOTEIO	121
#define EDQUOT	122
#define ENOMEDIUM	123
#define EMEDIUMTYPE	124
#define ECANCELED	125
#define EACCES	13
#define EFAULT	14
#define ENOTBLK	15
#define EBUSY	16
#define EEXIST	17
#define EXDEV	18
#define ENODEV	19
#define ENOENT	2
#define ENOTDIR	20
#define EISDIR	21
#define EINVAL	22
#define ENFILE	23
#define EMFILE	24
#define ENOTTY	25
#define ETXTBSY	26
#define EFBIG	27
#define ENOSPC	28
#define ESPIPE	29
#define ESRCH	3
#define EROFS	30
#define EMLINK	31
#define EPIPE	32
#define EDOM	33
#define ERANGE	34
#define EDEADLK	35
#define ENAMETOOLONG	36
#define ENOLCK	37
#define ENOSYS	38
#define ENOTEMPTY	39
#define EINTR	4
#define ELOOP	40
#define ENOMSG	42
#define EIDRM	43
#define ECHRNG	44
#define EL2NSYNC	45
#define EL3HLT	46
#define EL3RST	47
#define ELNRNG	48
#define EUNATCH	49
#define ENOANO	55
#define EBADRQC	56
#define EBADSLT	57
#define EBFONT	59
#define ENXIO	6
#define ENOSTR	60
#define ENODATA	61
#define ETIME	62
#define ENOSR	63
#define ENONET	64
#define ENOPKG	65
#define EREMOTE	66
#define ENOLINK	67
#define EADV	68
#define ESRMNT	69
#define E2BIG	7
#define ECOMM	70
#define EPROTO	71
#define EMULTIHOP	72
#define EDOTDOT	73
#define EBADMSG	74
#define EOVERFLOW	75
#define ENOTUNIQ	76
#define EBADFD	77
#define EREMCHG	78
#define ELIBACC	79
#define ENOEXEC	8
#define ELIBBAD	80
#define ELIBSCN	81
#define ELIBMAX	82
#define ELIBEXEC	83
#define EILSEQ	84
#define ERESTART	85
#define ESTRPIPE	86
#define EUSERS	87
#define ENOTSOCK	88
#define EDESTADDRREQ	89
#define EBADF	9
#define EMSGSIZE	90
#define EPROTOTYPE	91
#define ENOPROTOOPT	92
#define EPROTONOSUPPORT	93
#define ESOCKTNOSUPPORT	94
#define EOPNOTSUPP	95
#define EPFNOSUPPORT	96
#define EAFNOSUPPORT	97
#define EADDRINUSE	98
#define EADDRNOTAVAIL	99
#define EWOULDBLOCK	EAGAIN
#define EDEADLOCK	EDEADLK
#define ENOTSUP	EOPNOTSUPP

fcntl.h


#define O_RDONLY	00
#define O_ACCMODE	0003
#define O_WRONLY	01
#define O_CREAT	0100
#define O_TRUNC	01000
#define O_SYNC	010000
#define O_RDWR	02
#define O_EXCL	0200
#define O_APPEND	02000
#define O_ASYNC	020000
#define O_NOCTTY	0400
#define O_NONBLOCK	04000
#define O_NDELAY	04000



#define F_DUPFD	0
#define F_RDLCK	0
#define F_WRLCK	1
#define F_GETFD	1
#define F_SETFD	2
#define F_UNLCK	2
#define F_GETFL	3
#define F_SETFL	4
#define F_GETLK	5
#define F_SETLK	6
#define F_SETLKW	7
#define F_SETOWN	8
#define F_GETOWN	9

fnmatch.h


#define FNM_PATHNAME	(1<<0)
#define FNM_NOESCAPE	(1<<1)
#define FNM_PERIOD	(1<<2)
#define FNM_NOMATCH	1

ftw.h


enum
{
  FTW_F,
  FTW_D,
  FTW_DNR,
  FTW_NS,
  FTW_SL,
  FTW_DP,
  FTW_SLN
}
 ;

#define FTW_D	FTW_D
#define FTW_DNR	FTW_DNR
#define FTW_DP	FTW_DP
#define FTW_F	FTW_F
#define FTW_NS	FTW_NS
#define FTW_SL	FTW_SL
#define FTW_SLN	FTW_SLN

enum
{
  FTW_PHYS,
  FTW_MOUNT,
  FTW_CHDIR,
  FTW_DEPTH
}
 ;


struct FTW
{
  int base;
  int level;
}
 ;


typedef int (*__ftw_func_t) (char *__filename, struct stat * __status,
			     int __flag);

typedef int (*__ftw64_func_t) (char *__filename, struct stat64 * __status,
			       int __flag);

typedef int (*__nftw_func_t) (char *__filename, struct stat * __status,
			      int __flag, struct FTW * __info);

typedef int (*__nftw64_func_t) (char *__filename, struct stat64 * __status,
				int __flag, struct FTW * __info);

glob.h


typedef struct
{
  __size_t gl_pathc;
  char **gl_pathv;
  __size_t gl_offs;
  int gl_flags;
  void (*gl_closedir) ();
  Unknown Type:".." (*gl_readdir) ();
  void *(*gl_opendir) ();
  int (*gl_lstat) ();
  int (*gl_stat) ();
}
glob_t;


typedef struct
{
  __size_t gl_pathc;
  char **gl_pathv;
  __size_t gl_offs;
  int gl_flags;
  void (*gl_closedir) ();
  Unknown Type:".." (*gl_readdir) ();
  void *(*gl_opendir) ();
  int (*gl_lstat) ();
  int (*gl_stat) ();
}
glob64_t;


#define GLOB_ERR	(1<<0)
#define GLOB_MARK	(1<<1)
#define GLOB_BRACE	(1<<10)
#define GLOB_NOMAGIC	(1<<11)
#define GLOB_TILDE	(1<<12)
#define GLOB_ONLYDIR	(1<<13)
#define GLOB_TILDE_CHECK	(1<<14)
#define GLOB_NOSORT	(1<<2)
#define GLOB_DOOFFS	(1<<3)
#define GLOB_NOCHECK	(1<<4)
#define GLOB_APPEND	(1<<5)
#define GLOB_NOESCAPE	(1<<6)
#define GLOB_PERIOD	(1<<7)
#define GLOB_MAGCHAR	(1<<8)
#define GLOB_ALTDIRFUNC	(1<<9)

#define GLOB_NOSPACE	1
#define GLOB_ABORTED	2
#define GLOB_NOMATCH	3
#define GLOB_NOSYS	4

grp.h


struct group
{
  char *gr_name;
  char *gr_passwd;
  __gid_t gr_gid;
  char **gr_mem;
}
 ;

iconv.h


typedef void *iconv_t;

inttypes.h


typedef lldiv_t imaxdiv_t;

typedef long long intmax_t;

typedef unsigned long long uintmax_t;

locale.h


#define LC_CTYPE	0
#define LC_NUMERIC	1
#define LC_TELEPHONE	10
#define LC_MEASUREMENT	11
#define LC_IDENTIFICATION	12
#define LC_TIME	2
#define LC_COLLATE	3
#define LC_MONETARY	4
#define LC_MESSAGES	5
#define LC_ALL	6
#define LC_PAPER	7
#define LC_NAME	8
#define LC_ADDRESS	9

struct lconv
{
  char *decimal_point;
  char *thousands_sep;
  char *grouping;
  char *int_curr_symbol;
  char *currency_symbol;
  char *mon_decimal_point;
  char *mon_thousands_sep;
  char *mon_grouping;
  char *positive_sign;
  char *negative_sign;
  char int_frac_digits;
  char frac_digits;
  char p_cs_precedes;
  char p_sep_by_space;
  char n_cs_precedes;
  char n_sep_by_space;
  char p_sign_posn;
  char n_sign_posn;
}
 ;

math.h


struct exception
{
  int type;
  char *name;
  double arg1;
  double arg2;
  double retval;
}
 ;

#define HUGE_VAL	0x7FF00000UL

#define M_1_PI	0.31830988618379067154
#define M_LOG10E	0.43429448190325182765
#define M_2_PI	0.63661977236758134308
#define M_LN2	0.69314718055994530942
#define M_SQRT1_2	0.70710678118654752440
#define M_PI_4	0.78539816339744830962
#define M_2_SQRTPI	1.12837916709551257390
#define M_SQRT2	1.41421356237309504880
#define M_LOG2E	1.4426950408889634074
#define M_PI_2	1.57079632679489661923
#define M_LN10	2.30258509299404568402
#define M_E	2.7182818284590452354
#define M_PI	3.14159265358979323846

netdb.h


struct servent
{
  char *s_name;
  char **s_aliases;
  int s_port;
  char *s_proto;
}
 ;

struct hostent
{
  char *h_name;
  char **h_aliases;
  int h_addrtype;
  socklen_t h_length;
  char **h_addr_list;
}
 ;

#define h_addr	h_addr_list[0]

netinet/in.h


#define INADDR_ANY	0

struct in_addr
{
  uint32_t s_addr;
}
 ;


struct sockaddr_in
{
  sa_family_t sin_family;
  unsigned short sin_port;
  struct in_addr sin_addr;
  unsigned char __pad[1];
}
 ;

nl_types.h


typedef void *nl_catd;


typedef int nl_item;

pwd.h


struct passwd
{
  char *pw_name;
  char *pw_passwd;
  __uid_t pw_uid;
  __gid_t pw_gid;
  char *pw_gecos;
  char *pw_dir;
  char *pw_shell;
}
 ;

regex.h


typedef unsigned long reg_syntax_t;

#define RE_SYNTAX_GNU_AWK	((RE_SYNTAX_POSIX_EXTENDED|RE_BACKSLASH_ESCAPE_IN_LISTS|RE_DEBUG)&  ~(RE_DOT_NOT_NULL | RE_INTERVALS | RE_CONTEXT_INDEP_OPS))
#define RE_BACKSLASH_ESCAPE_IN_LISTS	((unsigned long int)1)
#define RE_BK_PLUS_QM	(RE_BACKSLASH_ESCAPE_IN_LISTS<<1)
#define RE_SYNTAX_AWK	(RE_BACKSLASH_ESCAPE_IN_LISTS|RE_DOT_NOT_NULL|RE_NO_BK_PARENS| RE_NO_BK_REFS| RE_NO_BK_VBAR| RE_NO_EMPTY_RANGES| RE_DOT_NEWLINE| RE_CONTEXT_INDEP_ANCHORS| RE_UNMATCHED_RIGHT_PAREN_ORD | RE_NO_GNU_OPS)
#define RE_CHAR_CLASSES	(RE_BK_PLUS_QM<<1)
#define RE_SYNTAX_GREP	(RE_BK_PLUS_QM|RE_CHAR_CLASSES|RE_HAT_LISTS_NOT_NEWLINE|RE_INTERVALS|RE_NEWLINE_ALT)
#define RE_CONTEXT_INDEP_ANCHORS	(RE_CHAR_CLASSES<<1)
#define RE_SYNTAX_EGREP	(RE_CHAR_CLASSES|RE_CONTEXT_INDEP_ANCHORS| RE_CONTEXT_INDEP_OPS|RE_HAT_LISTS_NOT_NEWLINE|RE_NEWLINE_ALT|RE_NO_BK_PARENS|RE_NO_BK_VBAR)
#define RE_CONTEXT_INVALID_OPS	(RE_CONTEXT_INDEP_OPS<<1)
#define RE_DOT_NEWLINE	(RE_CONTEXT_INVALID_OPS<<1)
#define RE_DOT_NOT_NULL	(RE_DOT_NEWLINE<<1)
#define RE_HAT_LISTS_NOT_NEWLINE	(RE_DOT_NOT_NULL<<1)
#define RE_LIMITED_OPS	(RE_INTERVALS<<1)
#define RE_NEWLINE_ALT	(RE_LIMITED_OPS<<1)
#define RE_NO_BK_BRACES	(RE_NEWLINE_ALT<<1)
#define RE_NO_BK_PARENS	(RE_NO_BK_BRACES<<1)
#define RE_NO_BK_REFS	(RE_NO_BK_PARENS<<1)
#define RE_NO_BK_VBAR	(RE_NO_BK_REFS<<1)
#define RE_NO_EMPTY_RANGES	(RE_NO_BK_VBAR<<1)
#define RE_UNMATCHED_RIGHT_PAREN_ORD	(RE_NO_EMPTY_RANGES<<1)
#define RE_SYNTAX_POSIX_EGREP	(RE_SYNTAX_EGREP|RE_INTERVALS|RE_NO_BK_BRACES|RE_INVALID_INTERVAL_ORD)
#define RE_SYNTAX_POSIX_AWK	(RE_SYNTAX_POSIX_EXTENDED|RE_BACKSLASH_ESCAPE_IN_LISTS|RE_INTERVALS|RE_NO_GNU_OPS)
#define RE_SYNTAX_POSIX_BASIC	(_RE_SYNTAX_POSIX_COMMON|RE_BK_PLUS_QM)
#define RE_SYNTAX_POSIX_EXTENDED	(_RE_SYNTAX_POSIX_COMMON|RE_CONTEXT_INDEP_ANCHORS|RE_CONTEXT_INDEP_OPS|RE_NO_BK_BRACES|RE_NO_BK_PARENS|RE_NO_BK_VBAR|RE_CONTEXT_INVALID_OPS|RE_UNMATCHED_RIGHT_PAREN_ORD)
#define RE_SYNTAX_POSIX_MINIMAL_EXTENDED	(_RE_SYNTAX_POSIX_COMMON|RE_CONTEXT_INDEP_ANCHORS|RE_CONTEXT_INVALID_OPS|RE_NO_BK_BRACES|RE_NO_BK_PARENS|RE_NO_BK_REFS|RE_NO_BK_VBAR|RE_UNMATCHED_RIGHT_PAREN_ORD)
#define RE_SYNTAX_POSIX_MINIMAL_BASIC	(_RE_SYNTAX_POSIX_COMMON|RE_LIMITED_OPS)
#define RE_SYNTAX_ED	RE_SYNTAX_POSIX_BASIC
#define RE_SYNTAX_SED	RE_SYNTAX_POSIX_BASIC


typedef struct re_pattern_buffer
{
  unsigned char *buffer;
  unsigned long allocated;
  unsigned long used;
  reg_syntax_t syntax;
  char *fastmap;
  char *translate;
  size_t re_nsub;
  unsigned int can_be_null;
  unsigned int regs_allocated;
  unsigned int fastmap_accurate;
  unsigned int no_sub;
  unsigned int not_bol;
  unsigned int not_eol;
  unsigned int newline_anchor;
}
regex_t;

typedef int regoff_t;

typedef struct
{
  regoff_t rm_so;
  regoff_t rm_eo;
}
regmatch_t;


#define REG_NOTEOL	(1<<1)
#define REG_ICASE	(REG_EXTENDED<<1)
#define REG_NEWLINE	(REG_ICASE<<1)
#define REG_NOSUB	(REG_NEWLINE<<1)
#define REG_NOMATCH	-1
#define REG_EXTENDED	1
#define REG_NOTBOL	1

sched.h


struct sched_param
{
  int sched_priority;
}
 ;

search.h


typedef struct entry
{
  char *key;
  void *data;
}
ENTRY;

typedef void (*__action_fn_t) (void *__nodep, VISIT __value, int __level);

typedef enum
{
  FIND,
  ENTER
}
ACTION;

typedef enum
{
  preorder,
  postorder,
  endorder,
  leaf
}
VISIT;

setjmp.h


#define setjmp(env)	_setjmp(env)
#define sigsetjmp(a,b)	__sigsetjmp(a,b)

typedef int __jmp_buf;


typedef struct __jmp_buf_tag
{
  __jmp_buf __jmpbuf;
  int __mask_was_saved;
  sigset_t __saved_mask;
}
jmp_buf;

typedef jmp_buf sigjmp_buf;

signal.h


struct sigstack;

struct sigcontext;

#define SIGRTMAX	(__libc_current_sigrtmax ())
#define SIGRTMIN	(__libc_current_sigrtmin ())

#define SIGHUP	1
#define SIGUSR1	10
#define SIGSEGV	11
#define SIGUSR2	12
#define SIGPIPE	13
#define SIGALRM	14
#define SIGTERM	15
#define SIGSTKFLT	16
#define SIGCHLD	17
#define SIGCONT	18
#define SIGSTOP	19
#define SIGINT	2
#define SIGTSTP	20
#define SIGTTIN	21
#define SIGTTOU	22
#define SIGXCPU	24
#define SIGXFSZ	25
#define SIGVTALRM	26
#define SIGPROF	27
#define SIGWINCH	28
#define SIGIO	29
#define SIGQUIT	3
#define SIGPWR	30
#define SIGUNUSED	31
#define SIGSYS	31
#define SIGILL	4
#define SIGTRAP	5
#define SIGIOT	6
#define SIGABRT	6
#define SIGBUS	7
#define SIGFPE	8
#define SIGKILL	9
#define SIGCLD	SIGCHLD
#define SIGPOLL	SIGIO

typedef void (*__sighandler_t) ();

#define SIG_ERR	((__sighandler_t)-1)
#define SIG_DFL	((__sighandler_t)0)
#define SIG_IGN	((__sighandler_t)1)

typedef union sigval
{
  int sival_int;
  void *sival_ptr;
}
sigval_t;

#define SV_ONSTACK	(1<<0)
#define SV_INTERRUPT	(1<<1)
#define SV_RESETHAND	(1<<2)


typedef struct siginfo
{
  int si_signo;
  int si_errno;
  int si_code;
  union _sifields;
}
siginfo_t;


typedef struct
{
  unsigned long sig[1];
}
sigset_t;


struct sigaction
{
  union _u;
  unsigned long sa_flags;
  void (*sa_restorer) ();
  sigset_t sa_mask;
}
 ;

#define SA_NOCLDSTOP	0x00000001
#define SA_NOCLDWAIT	0x00000002
#define SA_SIGINFO	0x00000004
#define SA_ONSTACK	0x08000000
#define SA_RESTART	0x10000000
#define SA_INTERRUPT	0x20000000
#define SA_NODEFER	0x40000000
#define SA_RESETHAND	0x80000000
#define SA_NOMASK	SA_NODEFER
#define SA_ONESHOT	SA_RESETHAND

typedef struct sigaltstack
{
  void *ss_sp;
  int ss_flags;
  size_t ss_size;
}
stack_t;

stdio.h


typedef struct _IO_FILE *FILE;

typedef __off_t fpos_t;

typedef __off64_t fpos64_t;

#define EOF	(-1)
#define BUFSIZ	8192


#define _IOFBF	0
#define _IOLBF	1
#define _IONBF	2

stdlib.h


typedef int (*__compar_fn_t) ();

#define MB_CUR_MAX	(__ctype_get_mb_cur_max())

typedef struct
{
  int quot;
  int rem;
}
div_t;


typedef struct
{
  long quot;
  long rem;
}
ldiv_t;


typedef struct
{
  long quot;
  long rem;
}
lldiv_t;

sys/ioctl.h


#define FIONREAD	0x541B

sys/mman.h


#define MAP_SHARED	0x01
#define MAP_PRIVATE	0x02
#define PROT_READ	0x1

sys/resource.h


struct rusage;

#define RLIM_INFINITY	(~0UL)
#define RLIMIT_CPU	0
#define RLIMIT_FSIZE	1
#define RLIMIT_DATA	2
#define RLIMIT_STACK	3
#define RLIMIT_CORE	4
#define RLIMIT_NOFILE	7
#define RLIMIT_AS	9

sys/sem.h


struct sembuf
{
  short sem_num;
  short sem_op;
  short sem_flg;
}
 ;

#define IPC_PRIVATE	((key_t)0)
#define IPC_RMID	0
#define IPC_CREAT	00001000
#define IPC_EXCL	00002000
#define IPC_NOWAIT	00004000
#define SEM_UNDO	0x1000
#define IPC_SET	1
#define GETPID	11
#define GETVAL	12
#define GETALL	13
#define GETNCNT	14
#define GETZCNT	15
#define SETVAL	16
#define SETALL	17
#define IPC_STAT	2

sys/shm.h


struct shmid_ds
{
  struct ipc_perm shm_perm;
  int shm_segsz;
  time_t shm_atime;
  time_t shm_dtime;
  time_t shm_ctime;
  pid_t shm_cpid;
  pid_t shm_lpid;
  unsigned short shm_nattch;
  unsigned short shm_unused;
  void *shm_unused2;
  void *shm_unused3;
}
 ;

#define SHMLBA	(__getpagesize())
#define SHM_RND	020000
#define SHM_RDONLY	4096

sys/socket.h


struct linger
{
  int l_onoff;
  int l_linger;
}
 ;

struct iovec
{
  void *iov_base;
  size_t iov_len;
}
 ;


typedef unsigned short sa_family_t;

typedef unsigned int socklen_t;


struct sockaddr
{
  sa_family_t sa_family;
  char sa_data[1];
}
 ;


struct msghdr
{
  void *msg_name;
  int msg_namelen;
  struct iovec *msg_iov;
  size_t msg_iovlen;
  void *msg_control;
  size_t msg_controllen;
  unsigned int msg_flags;
}
 ;


#define AF_UNSPEC	0
#define AF_LOCAL	1
#define AF_UNIX	1
#define AF_INET6	10
#define AF_INET	2
#define AF_AX25	3
#define AF_IPX	4
#define AF_APPLETALK	5
#define AF_NETROM	6
#define AF_BRIDGE	7
#define AF_ATMPVC	8
#define AF_X25	9

#define SOCK_STREAM	1
#define SOCK_PACKET	10
#define SOCK_DGRAM	2
#define SOCK_RAW	3
#define SOCK_RDM	4
#define SOCK_SEQPACKET	5

#define SOL_IP	0
#define SOL_SOCKET	1
#define SO_DEBUG	1
#define SO_OOBINLINE	10
#define SO_NO_CHECK	11
#define SO_PRIORITY	12
#define SO_LINGER	13
#define SOL_UDP	17
#define SO_REUSEADDR	2
#define SOL_RAW	255
#define SO_TYPE	3
#define SO_ERROR	4
#define SO_DONTROUTE	5
#define SOL_TCP	6
#define SO_BROADCAST	6
#define SO_SNDBUF	7
#define SO_RCVBUF	8
#define SO_KEEPALIVE	9

sys/stat.h


struct stat
{
  unsigned short st_dev;
  unsigned short __pad1;
  unsigned long st_ino;
  unsigned short st_mode;
  unsigned short st_nlink;
  unsigned short st_uid;
  unsigned short st_gid;
  unsigned short st_rdev;
  unsigned short __pad2;
  unsigned long st_size;
  unsigned long st_blksize;
  unsigned long st_blocks;
  unsigned long st_atime;
  unsigned long __unused1;
  unsigned long st_mtime;
  unsigned long __unused2;
  unsigned long st_ctime;
  unsigned long __unused3;
  unsigned long __unused4;
  unsigned long __unused5;
}
 ;

struct stat64
{
  unsigned short st_dev;
  unsigned char __pad0[1];
  unsigned long __st_ino;
  unsigned int st_mode;
  unsigned int st_nlink;
  unsigned long st_uid;
  unsigned long st_gid;
  unsigned short st_rdev;
  unsigned char __pad3[1];
  long st_size;
  unsigned long st_blksize;
  unsigned long st_blocks;
  unsigned long __pad4;
  unsigned long st_atime;
  unsigned long __pad5;
  unsigned long st_mtime;
  unsigned long __pad6;
  unsigned long st_ctime;
  unsigned long __pad7;
  unsigned long st_ino;
}
 ;

#define S_ISBLK(m)	(((m)& S_IFMT)==S_IFBLK)
#define S_ISCHR(m)	(((m)& S_IFMT)==S_IFCHR)
#define S_ISDIR(m)	(((m)& S_IFMT)==S_IFDIR)
#define S_ISFIFO(m)	(((m)& S_IFMT)==S_IFIFO)
#define S_ISLNK(m)	(((m)& S_IFMT)==S_IFLNK)
#define S_ISREG(m)	(((m)& S_IFMT)==S_IFREG)
#define S_ISSOCK(m)	(((m)& S_IFMT)==S_IFSOCK)
#define S_IRWXU	(S_IREAD|S_IWRITE|S_IEXEC)
#define S_IROTH	(S_IRGRP>>3)
#define S_IRGRP	(S_IRUSR>>3)
#define S_IRWXO	(S_IRWXG>>3)
#define S_IRWXG	(S_IRWXU>>3)
#define S_IWOTH	(S_IWGRP>>3)
#define S_IWGRP	(S_IWUSR>>3)
#define S_IXOTH	(S_IXGRP>>3)
#define S_IXGRP	(S_IXUSR>>3)
#define S_IXUSR	0x0040
#define S_IWUSR	0x0080
#define S_IRUSR	0x0100
#define S_ISGID	0x0400
#define S_ISUID	0x0800
#define S_IFIFO	0x1000
#define S_IFCHR	0x2000
#define S_IFDIR	0x4000
#define S_IFBLK	0x6000
#define S_IFREG	0x8000
#define S_IFLNK	0xa000
#define S_IFSOCK	0xc000
#define S_IFMT	0xf000
#define S_IREAD	S_IRUSR
#define S_IWRITE	S_IWUSR
#define S_IEXEC	S_IXUSR

sys/time.h


struct timezone
{
  int tz_minuteswest;
  int tz_dsttime;
}
 ;

#define ITIMER_REAL	0
#define ITIMER_VIRTUAL	1
#define ITIMER_PROF	2


enum __itimer_which;

typedef int __itimer_which_t;


struct timespec
{
  time_t tv_sec;
  long tv_nsec;
}
 ;


struct tm
{
  int tm_sec;
  int tm_min;
  int tm_hour;
  int tm_mday;
  int tm_mon;
  int tm_year;
  int tm_wday;
  int tm_yday;
  int tm_isdst;
  long tm_gmtoff;
  char *tm_zone;
}
 ;


struct timeval
{
  time_t tv_sec;
  suseconds_t tv_usec;
}
 ;


struct itimerval
{
  struct timeval it_interval;
  struct timeval it_value;
}
 ;

sys/times.h


struct tms
{
  clock_t tms_utime;
  clock_t tms_stime;
  clock_t tms_cutime;
  clock_t tms_cstime;
}
 ;

sys/utsname.h


struct utsname
{
  char sysname[1];
  char nodename[1];
  char release[1];
  char version[1];
  char machine[1];
  char __domainname[1];
}
 ;

sys/wait.h


typedef enum
{
  P_ALL,
  P_PID,
  P_PGID
}
idtype_t;

#define WIFSIGNALED(status)	(!WIFSTOPPED(status) & & !WIFEXITED(status))
#define WIFSTOPPED(status)	(((status) &  0xff) == 0x7f)
#define WEXITSTATUS(status)	(((status) &  0xff00) >> 8)
#define WTERMSIG(status)	((status) &  0x7f)
#define WCOREDUMP(status)	((status) &  0x80)
#define WIFEXITED(status)	(WTERMSIG(status) == 0)
#define WNOHANG	0x00000001
#define WUNTRACED	0x00000002
#define WCOREFLAG	0x80
#define WSTOPSIG(status)	WEXITSTATUS(status)

termios.h


typedef int speed_t;

#define TCSANOW	0
#define TCOOFF	0
#define TCIFLUSH	0
#define TAB0	0000000
#define VT0	0000000
#define CR0	0000000
#define FF0	0000000
#define NL0	0000000
#define BS0	0000000
#define OPOST	0000001
#define OLCUC	0000002
#define XCASE	0000004
#define ONLCR	0000004
#define OCRNL	0000010
#define ONOCR	0000020
#define ONLRET	0000040
#define OFILL	0000100
#define OFDEL	0000200
#define NLDLY	0000400
#define NL1	0000400
#define IUCLC	0001000
#define CR1	0001000
#define CR2	0002000
#define CRDLY	0003000
#define CR3	0003000
#define TAB1	0004000
#define TAB2	0010000
#define TABDLY	0014000
#define TAB3	0014000
#define BSDLY	0020000
#define BS1	0020000
#define VTDLY	0040000
#define VT1	0040000
#define FFDLY	0100000
#define FF1	0100000
#define TCSADRAIN	1
#define TCOON	1
#define TCOFLUSH	1
#define TCSAFLUSH	2
#define TCIOFF	2
#define TCIOFLUSH	2
#define TCION	3

#define VINTR	0
#define VQUIT	1
#define VSUSP	10
#define VEOL	11
#define VREPRINT	12
#define VDISCARD	13
#define VWERASE	14
#define VLNEXT	15
#define VEOL2	16
#define VERASE	2
#define VKILL	3
#define NCCS	32
#define VEOF	4
#define VMIN	6
#define VSWTC	7
#define VSTART	8
#define VSTOP	9

#define IGNBRK	0000001
#define BRKINT	0000002
#define IGNPAR	0000004
#define PARMRK	0000010
#define INPCK	0000020
#define ISTRIP	0000040
#define INLCR	0000100
#define IGNCR	0000200
#define ICRNL	0000400
#define IXON	0002000
#define IXANY	0004000
#define IXOFF	0010000
#define IMAXBEL	0020000


#define CS5	0000000
#define CS6	0000020
#define CS7	0000040
#define CSIZE	0000060
#define CS8	0000060
#define CSTOPB	0000100
#define PARENB	0000400
#define PARODD	0001000
#define HUPCL	0002000
#define CLOCAL	0004000

#define ISIG	0000001
#define ICANON	0000002
#define ECHO	0000010
#define ECHOE	0000020
#define ECHOK	0000040
#define ECHONL	0000100
#define NOFLSH	0000200
#define TOSTOP	0000400
#define ECHOCTL	0001000
#define ECHOPRT	0002000
#define ECHOKE	0004000
#define FLUSHO	0010000
#define PENDIN	0040000
#define IEXTEN	0100000

#define B0	0000000
#define B50	0000001
#define B75	0000002
#define B110	0000003
#define B134	0000004
#define B150	0000005
#define B200	0000006
#define B300	0000007
#define B600	0000010
#define B1200	0000011
#define B1800	0000012
#define B2400	0000013
#define B4800	0000014
#define B9600	0000015
#define B19200	0000016
#define B38400	0000017

time.h


#define CLOCK_REALTIME	0
#define TIMER_ABSTIME	1
#define CLOCKS_PER_SEC	1000000l

typedef long __clock_t;


typedef __clock_t clock_t;

ulimit.h


#define UL_GETFSIZE	UL_GETFSIZE
#define UL_SETFSIZE	UL_SETFSIZE

unistd.h


typedef int ssize_t;

typedef int pid_t;

typedef int *intptr_t;

#define SEEK_SET	0
#define STDIN_FILENO	0
#define STDOUT_FILENO	1
#define SEEK_CUR	1
#define _SC_CLK_TCK	2
#define SEEK_END	2
#define STDERR_FILENO	2
#define _SC_OPEN_MAX	4

#define F_OK	0
#define X_OK	1
#define W_OK	2
#define R_OK	4

utime.h


struct utimbuf
{
  __time_t actime;
  __time_t modtime;
}
 ;

wchar.h


#define WEOF	(0xffffffffu)
#define WCHAR_MAX	__WCHAR_MAX
#define WCHAR_MIN	__WCHAR_MIN

typedef unsigned int wint_t;

typedef struct
{
  int count;
  wint_t value;
}
mbstate_t;

wctype.h


typedef unsigned long wctype_t;

typedef int wctrans_t;

wordexp.h


enum
{
  WRDE_DOOFFS,
  WRDE_APPEND,
  WRDE_NOCMD,
  WRDE_REUSE,
  WRDE_SHOWERR,
  WRDE_UNDEF,
  __WRDE_FLAGS
}
 ;


typedef struct
{
  int we_wordc;
  char **we_wordv;
  int we_offs;
}
wordexp_t;


enum
{
  WRDE_NOSYS,
  WRDE_NOSPACE,
  WRDE_BADCHAR,
  WRDE_BADVAL,
  WRDE_CMDSUB,
  WRDE_SYNTAX
}
 ;

Interfaces Definitions for libc

Table of Contents
_IO_2_1_stderr_ -- standard I/O stream
_IO_2_1_stdin_ -- standard I/O stream
_IO_2_1_stdout_ -- standard I/O stream
_IO_feof -- alias for feof
_IO_getc -- alias for getc
_IO_putc -- alias for putc
_IO_puts -- alias for puts
__assert_fail -- abort the program after false assertion
__bzero -- mangle of bzero
__ctype_b -- array index for ctype functions
__ctype_get_mb_cur_max -- maximum length of a multibyte character in the current locale
__ctype_tolower -- convert uppercase letter to lowercase letter
__ctype_toupper -- convert lowercase letter to uppercase letter
__cxa_atexit -- register a function to be called by exit or when a shared library is unloaded
__daylight -- global variable containing daylight
__dcgettext -- used by dcgettext in the translation to look up the MSGID in the DOMAINNAME message catalog for the current locale
__environ -- alias for environ - user environment
__errno_location -- address of errno variable
__fpending -- returns in bytes the amount of output pending on a stream
__getpgid -- get the process group id
__libc_current_sigrtmax -- return number of available real-time signal with lowest priority
__libc_current_sigrtmin -- return number of available real-time signal with highest priority
__libc_start_main -- initialization routine
__lxstat -- inline wrapper around call to lxstat
__mbrlen -- mangle of mbrlen
__mempcpy -- copy given number of bytes of source to destination
__rawmemchr -- scan memory
__secure_getenv -- get an environment variable
__sigpause -- atomically release blocked signals and wait for interrupt
__sigsetjmp -- save stack context for non-local goto
__stpcpy -- copy a string returning a pointer to its end
__strdup -- mangle of strdup
__strtod_internal -- alias for strtod
__strtof_internal -- mangle of strtof
__strtok_r -- mangle of strtok_r
__strtol_internal -- alias for strtol
__strtold_internal -- What is this?
__strtoll_internal -- What is this?
__strtoul_internal -- mangle of strtoul
__strtoull_internal -- What is this?
__sysconf -- get configuration information at runtime
__sysv_signal -- signal handling
__timezone -- global variable containing timezone
__tzname -- global variable containing the timezone
__wcstod_internal -- What is this?
__wcstof_internal -- What is this?
__wcstol_internal -- What is this?
__wcstold_internal -- What is this?
__wcstoll_internal -- What is this?
__wcstoul_internal -- What is this?
__wcstoull_internal -- What is this?
__xmknod -- make block or character special file
__xstat -- provide inode information
__xstat64 -- provide inode information
_environ -- alias for environ - user environment
_nl_msg_cat_cntr -- variable defined in loadmsgcat.c which gets incremented every time a new catalog is loaded
_obstack_begin -- initialize an obstack for use
_obstack_newchunk -- allocate a new current chunk of memory for the obstack
_sys_errlist -- array containing the "C" locale strings used by strerror()
_sys_siglist -- array containing the names of the signal names
acct -- switch process accounting on or off
adjtime -- correct the time to allow synchronization of the system clock
adjtimex -- tune kernel clock
alphasort -- scan a directory for matching entries
alphasort64 -- compare two struct dirents alphabetically
bindtextdomain -- specify that the DOMAINNAME message catalog will be found in DIRNAME rather than in the system locale data base
cfmakeraw -- get and set terminal attributes
cfsetspeed -- manipulate the termios structure
daemon -- run in the background
dcgettext -- look up the MSGID in the DOMAINNAME message catalog for the current CATEGORY locale
err -- display formatted error messages
error -- analyze and disperse compiler error messages
errx -- format error messages
flock -- apply or remove an advisory lock on an open file
fstatfs -- get file system statistics
fwprintf -- formatted wide character output conversion
gethostbyname -- get network host entry
getloadavg -- get system load averages
getopt -- parse command line options
getopt_long -- parse command line options
getopt_long_only -- parse command line options
getprotobyname -- get protocol entry
getprotoent -- get protocol entry
getservbyname -- get service entry
getservent -- get service entry
gettext -- look up MSGID in the current default message catalog for the current LC_MESSAGES locale
getutent -- access utmp file entries
glob64 -- find pathnames matching a pattern (Large File Support)
globfree64 -- free memory from glob64() (Large File Support)
initgroups -- initialize the supplementary group access list
isblank -- character classification routine
iswblank -- test for whitespace wide character
iswctype -- wide character classification
kill -- send a signal
mbsnrtowcs -- convert a multibyte string to a wide character string
memmem -- locate a substring
memrchr -- scan memory for a character
obstack_free -- free an object in the obstack
opterr -- external variable used in getopt()
optind -- external variable used in getopt()
optopt -- external variable used in getopt()
psignal -- print signal message
setbuffer -- stream buffering operation
setegid -- set real and / or effective group ID
seteuid -- set real and/or effective user ID
setgroups -- set list of supplementary group IDs
sethostid -- set the unique identifier of the current host
sethostname -- set host name
setmntent -- get file system descriptor file entry
setutent -- access utmp file entries
sigandset -- build a new signal set by combining the two input sets using logical AND
sigblock -- manipulate the signal mask
siggetmask -- manipulate the signal mask
sigisemptyset -- signal function - check for empty SET
sigorset -- build a new signal set by combining the two input sets using logical OR
sigreturn -- return from signal handler and cleanup stack frame
statfs -- get file system statistics
stime -- set time
stpcpy -- copy a string returning a pointer to its end
stpncpy -- copy a fixed-size string, returning a pointer to its end
strcasestr -- locate a substring - ignores the case of both strings
strerror_r -- reentrant version of strerror
strfry -- randomize a string
strndup -- return a malloc'd copy of at most the specified number of bytes of a string
strnlen -- determine the length of a fixed-size string
strsep -- extract token from string
strsignal -- return string describing signal
strtok_r -- extract tokens from strings
strtoq -- convert string value to a long or quad_t integer
strtouq -- convert a string to an uquad_t
strverscmp -- compare strings holding name and indices/version numbers
system -- execute a shell command
textdomain -- set the current default message catalog to DOMAINNAME
vasprintf -- write formatted output to a string dynamically allocated with malloc and store the address of the string
vdprintf -- write formatted output to a file descriptor
verrx -- display formatted error messages
wait4 -- wait for process termination, BSD style
warn -- formatted error messages
warnx -- formatted error messages
wcpcpy -- copy a wide character string, returning a pointer to its end
wcpncpy -- copy a fixed-size string of wide characters, returning a pointer to its end
wcscasecmp -- compare two wide-character strings, ignoring case
wcsdup -- duplicate a wide-character string
wcsncasecmp -- compare two fixed-size wide-character strings, ignoring case
wcsnlen -- determine the length of a fixed-size wide-character string
wcsnrtombs -- convert a wide character string to a multi-byte string
wcstoq -- convert initial portion of wide string NPTR to long int representation
wcstouq -- convert initial portion of wide string NPTR to unsigned long long int representation

_IO_2_1_stderr_

Name

_IO_2_1_stderr_ -- standard I/O stream

Synopsis

#include <libio.h>

extern struct _IO_FILE_plus _IO_2_1_stderr_;

Description

_IO_2_1_stderr is an object whose address becomes stderr.

_IO_2_1_stderr is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

_IO_2_1_stdin_

Name

_IO_2_1_stdin_ -- standard I/O stream

Synopsis

#include <libio.h>

extern struct _IO_FILE_plus _IO_2_1_stdin_;

Description

_IO_2_1_stdin is an object whose address becomes stdin.

_IO_2_1_stdin is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

_IO_2_1_stdout_

Name

_IO_2_1_stdout_ -- standard I/O stream

Synopsis

#include <libio.h>

extern struct _IO_FILE_plus _IO_2_1_stdout_;

Description

_IO_2_1_stdout is an object whose address becomes stdout.

_IO_2_1_stdout is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

_IO_feof

Name

_IO_feof -- alias for feof

Synopsis

int _IO_feof(_IO_FILE *__fp);

Description

The function _IO_feof() tests the end-of-file indicator for the stream pointed to by __fp, returning non-zero if it is set.

_IO_feof is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

_IO_getc

Name

_IO_getc -- alias for getc

Synopsis

int _IO_getc(_IO_FILE *__fp);

Description

_IO_getc() reads the next character from __fp and returns it as an unsigned char cast to an int, or EOF on end of file or error.

_IO_getc is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

_IO_putc

Name

_IO_putc -- alias for putc

Synopsis

int _IO_putc(int __c, _IO_FILE *__fp);

Description

_IO_putc() writes the character __c, cast to an unsigned char, to __fp.

_IO_putc is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

_IO_puts

Name

_IO_puts -- alias for puts

Synopsis

int _IO_puts(const char *__c);

Description

_IO_puts() writes the string __s and a trailing newline to stdout.

_IO_puts is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__assert_fail

Name

__assert_fail -- abort the program after false assertion

Synopsis

void
__assert_fail(const char *assertion,
              const char *file,
              unsigned int line,
              const char *function);

Description

This function, when passed a string containing an asserted expression, a filename, and a line number, prints a message on the standard error stream such as:

a.c:10: foobar: Assertion a == b failed.

It then aborts program execution via a call to abort. The exact form of the message is up to the implementation.

If FUNCTION is NULL, then omit information about the function.

FILE, LINE, and ASSERTION must be non-NULL.

__assert_fail is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__bzero

Name

__bzero -- mangle of bzero

Synopsis

void __bzero(void *s, size_t n);

Description

__bzero(s, n) has the same specification as bzero(s, n).

__bzero is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__ctype_b

Name

__ctype_c -- array index for ctype functions

Synopsis

#include <ctype.h>

extern const unsigned short int *ctype_b;

Description

Array index for ctype functions.

__ctype_b is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__ctype_get_mb_cur_max

Name

__ctype_get_mb_cur_max -- maximum length of a multibyte character in the current locale

Synopsis

size_t __ctype_get_mb_cur_max(void);

Description

__ctype_get_mb_cur_max() returns the maximum length of a multibyte character in the current locale.

__ctype_get_mb_cur_max is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__ctype_tolower

Name

__ctype_tolower -- convert uppercase letter to lowercase letter

Synopsis

#include <ctype.h>

int __ctype_tolower(int c);

Description

The __ctype_tolower() function converts an uppercase letter to the corresponding lowercase letter. If the argument is an uppercase letter, the __ctype_tolower() function returns the corresponding lowercase letter if there is one; otherwise, the argument is returned unchanged.

__ctype_tolower is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__ctype_toupper

Name

__ctype_toupper -- convert lowercase letter to uppercase letter

Synopsis

#include <ctype.h>

int __ctype_toupper(int c);

Description

The __ctype_toupper() function converts a lowercase letter to the corresponding uppercase letter. If the argument is a lowercase letter, the __ctype_toupper() function returns the corresponding uppercase letter if there is one; otherwise, the argument is returned unchanged.

__ctype_toupper is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__cxa_atexit

Name

__cxa_atexit -- register a function to be called by exit or when a shared library is unloaded

Synopsis

int __cxa_atexit(void (*func) (void *), void *arg, void *d);

Description

Register a function to be called by exit or when a shared library is unloaded. This function is only called from code generated by the C++ compiler.

__cxa_atexit() has the same specification as atexit().

__cxa_atexit is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__daylight

Name

 -- global variable containing daylight

Synopsis

int __daylight;

Description

The specification for "__daylight" is as specified in the SUSv2.

ERRORS

__dcgettext

Name

__dcgettext -- used by dcgettext in the translation to look up the MSGID in the DOMAINNAME message catalog for the current locale

Synopsis

#include <libintl.h>

extern char *__dcgettext(const char *domainname,
                         const char *msgid, int category);

Description

Used by dcgettext in the translation to look up the MSGID in the DOMAINNAME message catalog for the current locale. CATEGORY locale.

__dcgettext() has the same specification as dcgettext().

__dcgettext is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__environ

Name

__environ -- alias for environ - user environment

Synopsis

extern char **__environ;

Description

Alias for environ - user environment.

__environ has the same specification as environ.

__environ is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__errno_location

Name

__errno_location -- address of errno variable

Synopsis

int *__errno_location(void);

Description

__errno_location is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__fpending

Name

__fpending -- returns in bytes the amount of output pending on a stream

Synopsis

#include <stdio_ext.h>

size_t __fpending(FILE *stream);

Description

The __fpending function returns the amount of output in bytes pending on a stream.

__fpending is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__getpgid

Name

__getpgid -- get the process group id

Synopsis

pid_t __getpgid(pid_t pid);

Description

__getpgid(pid) has the same specification as getpgid(pid).

__getpgid is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__libc_current_sigrtmax

Name

__libc_current_sigrtmax -- return number of available real-time signal with lowest priority

Synopsis

int __libc_current_sigrtmax(void);

Description

__libc_current_sigrtmax() returns the number of an available real-time signal with the lowest priority.

__libc_current_sigrtmax is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__libc_current_sigrtmin

Name

__libc_current_sigrtmin -- return number of available real-time signal with highest priority

Synopsis

int __libc_current_sigrtmin(void);

Description

__libc_current_sigrtmin() returns the number of an available real-time signal with the highest priority

__libc_current_sigrtmin is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard

__libc_start_main

Name

__libc_start_main -- initialization routine

Synopsis

BP_SYM __libc_start_main (int (*main) (int, char**, char**),
    int argc, char *__unbounded *__unbounded ubp_av,
    void (*init) (void), void (*fini) (void),
    void (*rtld_fini) (void), void (*__unbounded stack_end);

Description

Initialize glibc.

__libc_start_main is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__lxstat

Name

__lxstat -- inline wrapper around call to lxstat

Synopsis

#include <ctype.h>

int __lxstat(int version, char *__path, struct stat *__statbuf);

Description

Inline wrapper around call to lxstat.

__lxstat is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__mbrlen

Name

__mbrlen -- mangle of mbrlen

Synopsis

size_t __mbrlen(const char *__restrict s,
               size_t n,
               mbstate_t *__restrict ps);

Description

__mbrlen(s, n, ps) has the same specification as mbrlen(s, n, ps).

__mbrlen is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__mempcpy

Name

__mempcpy -- copy given number of bytes of source to destination

Synopsis

#include <string.h>

extern ptr_t __mempcpy(ptr_t restrict dest,
                       const ptr_t restrict src, size_t n));

Description

Copy n bytes of source to destination, returning pointer to bytes after the last written byte.

__mempcpy is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__rawmemchr

Name

__rawmemchr -- scan memory

Synopsis

#include <string.h>

extern ptr_t __rawmemchr(const ptr_t s, int c);

Description

__rawmemchr searches in s for c.

This is a weak alias to rawmemchr. It is similar to memchr, but there is no length limit.

__rawmemchr is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__secure_getenv

Name

__secure_getenv -- get an environment variable

Synopsis

char *__secure_getenv(__const char *name);

Description

__secure_getenv(name) has the same specification as getenv(name) with the exception that if the program is running SUID or SGID enabled, the result is always NULL.

__sigpause

Name

__sigpause -- atomically release blocked signals and wait for interrupt

Synopsis

int __sigpause(int sig_or_mask, int is_sig);

Description

__sigpause(sig_or_mask, is_sig) has the same behavior as sigpause(sig_or_mask, is_sig) as specified by X/Open.

__sigpause is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__sigsetjmp

Name

__sigsetjmp -- save stack context for non-local goto

Synopsis

int __sigsetjmp(jmp_buf env, int savemask);

Description

__sigsetjmp(env, savemask) has the same behavior as sigsetjmp(env, savemask) as specified by POSIX.

__sigsetjmp is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__stpcpy

Name

__stpcpy -- copy a string returning a pointer to its end

Synopsis

#include <string.h>

char * __stpcpy(char *dest, const char *src);

Description

The __stpcpy() function copies the string pointed to by src (including the terminating /0 character) to the array pointed to by dest. The strings may not overlap, and the destination string dest must be large enough to receive the copy.

Return Value

__stpcpy() returns a pointer to the end of the string dest (that is, the address of the terminating null character) rather than the beginning.

__stpcpy() has the same specification as stpcpy().

__stpcpy is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__strdup

Name

__strdup -- mangle of strdup

Synopsis

char *__strdup(__const char *string);

Description

__strdup(string) has the same specification as strdup(string).

__strdup is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__strtod_internal

Name

__strtod_internal -- alias for strtod

Synopsis

double __strtod_internal(const char *__nptr,
                         char **__endptr,
                         int __group);

Description

The __GROUP argument must be 0 or the behavior is undefined.

__strtod_internal(__nptr, __endptr, __group) has the same specification as strtod(__nptr, __endptr).

__strtod_internal is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__strtof_internal

Name

__strtof_internal -- mangle of strtof

Synopsis

float __strtof_internal (const char *__nptr,
                         char **__endptr, int __group);

Description

__GROUP must be 0 or the behavior is undefined. Otherwise the same as strtof (__nptr, __endptr). Only in the binary standard, not the source standard.

__strtok_r

Name

__strtok_r -- mangle of strtok_r

Synopsis

char *__strtok_r(char *__restrict s,
                __const char *__restrict delim,
                char **__restrict save_ptr);

Description

__strtok_r(s, delim, save_ptr) has the same specification as strtok_r(s, delim, save_ptr).

__strtok_r is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__strtol_internal

Name

__strtol_internal -- alias for strtol

Synopsis

long int __strtol_internal(const char *__nptr, char **__endptr,
                           int __base, int __group);

Description

__GROUP must be 0 or the behavior is undefined.

__strtol_internal(__nptr, __endptr, __base, __group) has the same specification as strtol(__nptr, __endptr, __base).

__strtol_internal is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__strtold_internal

Name

__strtold_internal -- What is this?

Synopsis

return_type __strtold_internal(parameters) 

Description

__strtoll_internal

Name

__strtoll_internal -- What is this?

Synopsis

return_type __strtoll_internal(parameters) 

Description

__strtoul_internal

Name

__strtoul_internal -- mangle of strtoul

Synopsis

unsigned long int __strtoul_internal (const char *__nptr,
                                      char **__endptr, int __base,
                                      int __group));

Description

__GROUP must be 0 or the behavior is undefined. Otherwise the same as strtoul (__nptr, __endptr, __base). Only in the binary standard, not the source standard.

__strtoull_internal

Name

__strtoull_internal -- What is this?

Synopsis

return_type __strtoull_internal(parameters) 

Description

__sysconf

Name

__sysconf -- get configuration information at runtime

Synopsis

#include <unistd.h>

long __sysconf(int name);

Description

Get configuration information at runtime.

This is weak alias to sysconf.

__sysconf(name) has the same specification as sysconf(name).

__sysconf is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__sysv_signal

Name

__sysv_signal -- signal handling

Synopsis

__sighandler_t __sysv_signal(int sig, __sighandler_t handler);

Description

__sysv_signal(sig, handler) has the same behavior as signal(sig, handler) as specified by X/Open.

__sysv_signal is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__timezone

Name

 -- global variable containing timezone

Synopsis

long int __timezone;

Description

The specification for "__timezone" is as specified in the SUSv2.

ERRORS

__tzname

Name

 -- global variable containing the timezone

Synopsis

char *__tzname[2];

Description

The specification for "__tzname" is similar as specified in the SUSv2, but with an array of size two.

ERRORS

__wcstod_internal

Name

__wcstod_internal -- What is this?

Synopsis

return_type __wcstod_internal(parameters) 

Description

__wcstof_internal

Name

__wcstof_internal -- What is this?

Synopsis

return_type __wcstof_internal(parameters) 

Description

__wcstol_internal

Name

__wcstol_internal -- What is this?

Synopsis

return_type __wcstol_internal(parameters) 

Description

__wcstold_internal

Name

__wcstold_internal -- What is this?

Synopsis

return_type __wcstold_internal(parameters) 

Description

__wcstoll_internal

Name

__wcstoll_internal -- What is this?

Synopsis

return_type __wcstoll_internal(parameters) 

Description

__wcstoul_internal

Name

__wcstoul_internal -- What is this?

Synopsis

return_type __wcstoul_internal(parameters) 

Description

__wcstoull_internal

Name

__wcstoull_internal -- What is this?

Synopsis

return_type __wcstoull_internal(parameters) 

Description

__xmknod

Name

__xmknod -- make block or character special file

Synopsis

int __xmknod(int ver,
            __const char *path,
            __mode_t mode,
            __dev_t *dev);

Description

ver must be 1 or the behavior is undefined.

__xmknod(1, path, mode, dev) has the same specification as mknod(path, mode, dev).

Note that the format of dev_t is not the same as the argument that the kernel syscall uses.

__xmknod is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__xstat

Name

__xstat -- provide inode information

Synopsis

#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <unistd.h>

int __xstat (int __ver,
             const char *__filename,
             struct stat *__stat_buf)

int __lxstat (int __ver,
              const char *__filename,
              struct stat *__stat_buf)

int __fxstat (int __ver,
              int __filedesc,
              struct stat *__stat_buf)

Inputs

__ver

Must be 3 or the behavior is undefined.

__filename

As in POSIX.

__filedesc

As in POSIX.

__stat_buf

As in POSIX.

Description

__xstat() has the same behavior as stat (__filename, __stat_buf) as specified by POSIX.

__lxstat() has the same behavior as lstat (__filename, __stat_buf) as specified by POSIX.

__fxstat() has the same behavior as fstat (__filedesc, __stat_buf) as specified by POSIX.

Note that the struct stat used by these functions is not the one that the kernel uses.

Usage

__xstat, __lxstat, and __fxstat are not in the source standard; stat, lstat, and fstat are not in the binary standard.

__xstat64

Name

__xstat64 -- provide inode information

Synopsis

#define _LARGEFILE_SOURCE 1
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <unistd.h>

int __xstat64 (int __ver,
             const char *__filename,
             struct stat64 *__stat_buf)

int __lxstat64 (int __ver,
              const char *__filename,
              struct stat64 *__stat_buf)

int __fxstat64 (int __ver,
              int __filedesc,
              struct stat64 *__stat_buf)

Inputs

__ver

Must be 3 or the behavior is undefined.

__filename

As in Large File Summit.

__filedesc

As in Large File Summit.

__stat_buf

As in Large File Summit.

Description

__xstat64() has the same behavior as stat64 (__filename, __stat_buf) as specified by Large File Summit.

__lxstat64() has the same behavior as lstat64 (__filename, __stat_buf) as specified by Large File Summit.

__fxstat64() has the same behavior as fstat64 (__filedesc, __stat_buf) as specified by Large File Summit.

Usage

__xstat64, __lxstat64, and __fxstat64 are not in the source standard; stat64, lstat64, and fstat64 are not in the binary standard.

_environ

Name

_environ -- alias for environ - user environment

Synopsis

extern char **_environ;

Description

Alias for environ - user environment.

_nl_msg_cat_cntr

Name

_nl_msg_cat_cntr -- variable defined in loadmsgcat.c which gets incremented every time a new catalog is loaded

Synopsis

#include <libintl.h>

extern int _nl_msg_cat_cntr;

Description

Used by Message catalogs for internationalization. A variable defined which gets incremented every time a new catalog is loaded.

_obstack_begin

Name

_obstack_begin -- initialize an obstack for use

Synopsis

#include <obstack.h>

extern int _obstack_begin(struct obstack *, int, int,
                          void *(*) (long), void (*) (void *));

Description

Initialize an obstack for use.

_obstack_newchunk

Name

_obstack_newchunk -- allocate a new current chunk of memory for the obstack

Synopsis

#include <obstack.h>

extern void _obstack_newchunk(struct obstack *, int);

Description

Allocate a new current chunk of memory for the obstack.

_sys_errlist

Name

_sys_errlist -- array containing the "C" locale strings used by strerror()

Synopsis

#include <stdio.h>

extern const char *const _sys_errlist[];

Description

An array containing the "C" locale strings used by strerror(). This normally should not be used directly. The strerror function provides all the needed functionality.

_sys_siglist

Name

_sys_siglist -- array containing the names of the signal names

Synopsis

#include <signal.h>

extern const char *const _sys_siglist[NSIG];

Description

An array containing the names of the signal names.

This exists only for compatibility. Use strsignal instead (see <string.h>).

acct

Name

acct -- switch process accounting on or off

Synopsis

#include <dirent.h>

int acct(const char *filename);

Description

When called with the name of an existing file as argument, accounting is turned on and records for each terminating process are appended to filename as it terminates. An argument of NULL causes accounting to be turned off.

Return Value

On success, zero is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

Errors

ENOSYS

BSD process accounting has not been enabled when the operating system kernel was compiled. The kernel configuration parameter controlling this feature is CONFIG_BSD_PROCESS_ACCT.

ENOMEM

Out of memory.

EPERM

The calling process has no permission to enable process accounting.

EACCES

The argument filename is not a regular file.

EIO

Error writing to the file filename.

EUSERS

There are no more free file structures or we run out of memory.

adjtime

Name

adjtime -- correct the time to allow synchronization of the system clock

Synopsis

#include <time.h>

int adjtime(const struct timeval *delta, struct timeval *olddelta);

Description

Adjtime() makes small adjustments to the system time, as returned by gettimeofday(2), advancing or retarding it by the time specified by the timeval delta. If delta is negative, the clock is slowed down by incrementing it more slowly than normal until the correction is complete. If delta is positive, a larger increment than normal is used. The skew used to perform the correction is generally a fraction of one percent. Thus, the time is always a monotonically increasing function. A time correction from an earlier call to adjtime() may not be finished when adjtime() is called again. If olddelta is non-nil, the structure pointed to will contain, upon return, the number of microseconds still to be corrected from the earlier call.

This call may be used by time servers that synchronize the clocks of computers in a local area network. Such time servers would slow down the clocks of some machines and speed up the clocks of others to bring them to the average network time.

The call adjtime() is restricted to the super-user.

Return Value

On success, zero is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

ERRORS

EFAULT

An argument points outside the process's allocated address space.

EPERM

The process's effective user ID is not that of the super-user.

adjtimex

Name

adjtimex -- tune kernel clock

Synopsis

#include <sys/timex.h>

int adjtimex(struct timex *buf);

Description

Linux uses David L. Mills' clock adjustment algorithm (see RFC 1305). The system call adjtimex reads and optionally sets adjustment parameters for this algorithm. It takes a pointer to a timex structure, updates kernel parameters from field values, and returns the same structure with current kernel values. This structure is declared as follows:

struct timex {

int modes; /* mode selector */

long offset; /* time offset (usec) */

long freq; /* frequency offset (scaled ppm) */

long maxerror; /* maximum error (usec) */

long esterror; /* estimated error (usec) */

int status; /* clock command/status */

long constant; /* pll time constant */

long precision; /* clock precision (usec) (read only) */

long tolerance; /* clock frequency tolerance (ppm) (read only) */

struct timeval time; /* current time (read only) */

long tick; /* usecs between clock ticks */

};

The modes field determines which parameters, if any, to set. It may contain a bitwise-or combination of zero or more of the following bits:

#define ADJ_OFFSET 0x0001 /* time offset */

#define ADJ_FREQUENCY 0x0002 /* frequency offset */

#define ADJ_MAXERROR 0x0004 /* maximum time error */

#define ADJ_ESTERROR 0x0008 /* estimated time error */

#define ADJ_STATUS 0x0010 /* clock status */

#define ADJ_TIMECONST 0x0020 /* pll time constant */

#define ADJ_TICK 0x4000 /* tick value */

#define ADJ_OFFSET_SINGLESHOT 0x8001 /* old-fashioned adjtime */

Ordinary users are restricted to a zero value for mode. Only the superuser may set any parameters.

Return Value

On success, adjtimex returns the clock state:

#define TIME_OK 0 /* clock synchronized */

#define TIME_INS 1 /* insert leap second */

#define TIME_DEL 2 /* delete leap second */

#define TIME_OOP 3 /* leap second in progress */

#define TIME_WAIT 4 /* leap second has occurred */

#define TIME_BAD 5 /* clock not synchronized */

On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

Errors

EFAULT

buf does not point to writable memory.

EPERM

buf.mode is non-zero and the user is not super-user.

EINVAL

An attempt is made to set buf.offset to a value outside the range -131071 to +131071, or to set buf.status to a value other than those listed above, or to set buf.tick to a value outside the range 900000/HZ to 1100000/HZ, where HZ is the system timer interrupt frequency.

alphasort

Name

alphasort -- scan a directory for matching entries

Synopsis

#include <dirent.h>

int alphasort(const struct dirent **a, const struct dirent **b);

Description

The alphasort() function can be used as the comparison function for the scandir() function to sort the directory entries into alphabetical order. Its parameters are the two directory entries, a and b, to compare.

Return Value

The alphasort() function returns an integer less than, equal to, or greater than zero if the first argument is considered to be respectively less than, equal to, or greater than the second.

Errors

ENOMEM

Insufficient memory to complete the operation.

alphasort64

Name

alphasort64 -- compare two struct dirents alphabetically

Synopsis

#include <dirent.h>

int alphasort64(const struct dirent **a, const struct dirent **b);

Description

Function to compare two struct dirents alphabetically. This function is like alphasort but it uses the 64bit dirent structure.

bindtextdomain

Name

bindtextdomain -- specify that the DOMAINNAME message catalog will be found in DIRNAME rather than in the system locale data base

Synopsis

#include <unistd.h>

extern char *bindtextdomain(const char *domainname,
                            const char *dirname);

Description

Specify that the DOMAINNAME message catalog will be found in DIRNAME rather than in the system locale data base.

cfmakeraw

Name

cfmakeraw -- get and set terminal attributes

Synopsis

#include <termios.h>

int cfmakeraw(struct termios *termios_p);

Description

cfmakeraw sets the terminal attributes as follows:

termios_p->c_iflag &= ~(IGNBRK|BRKINT|PARMRK|ISTRIP |INLCR|IGNCR|ICRNL|IXON);

termios_p->c_oflag &= ~OPOST;

termios_p->c_lflag &= ~(ECHO|ECHONL|ICANON|ISIG|IEXTEN);

termios_p->c_cflag &= ~(CSIZE|PARENB);

termios_p->c_cflag |= CS8;

termios_p is a pointer to a termios structure. This structure contains the following members:

tcflag_t c_iflag; /* input modes */

tcflag_t c_oflag; /* output modes */

tcflag_t c_cflag; /* control modes */

tcflag_t c_lflag; /* local modes */

cc_t c_cc[NCCS]; /* control chars */

Return Value

On success, zero is returned. On failure, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

cfsetspeed

Name

cfsetspeed -- manipulate the termios structure

Synopsis

#include <termios.h>

int cfsetspeed(struct termios *t, speedt speed);

Description

The cfsetspeed function is provided for setting the baud rate values in the termios structure. The effects of the function on the terminal as described below do not become effective, nor are all errors detected, until the tcsetattr function is called. Certain values for baud rates set in the termios structure and passed to tcsetattr have special meanings.

Getting and Setting the Baud Rate

The input and output baud rates are found in the termios structure. The unsigned integer speed_t is typdef'd in the include file <termios.h>. The value of the integer corresponds directly to the baud rate being represented, however, the following symbolic values are defined.

#define B0 0

#define B50 50

#define B75 75

#define B110 110

#define B134 134

#define B150 150

#define B200 200

#define B300 300

#define B600 600

#define B1200 1200

#define B1800 1800

#define B2400 2400

#define B4800 4800

#define B9600 9600

#define B19200 19200

#define B38400 38400

#ifndef _POSIX_SOURCE

#define EXTA 19200

#define EXTB 38400

#endif /*_POSIX_SOURCE */

The cfsetspeed function sets both the input and output baud rate in the termios structure referenced by t to speed.

Return Value

On success, zero is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

daemon

Name

daemon -- run in the background

Synopsis

#include <unistd.h>

int daemon(int nochdir, int noclose);

Description

The daemon() function is for programs wishing to detach themselves from the controlling terminal and run in the background as system daemons. Unless the argument nochdir is non-zero, daemon() changes the current working directory to the root (`/'). Unless the argument noclose is non-zero, daemon() will redirect standard input, standard output and standard error to /dev/null.

Errors

On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set to any of the errors specified for the library functions fork(2) and setsid(2).

dcgettext

Name

dcgettext -- look up the MSGID in the DOMAINNAME message catalog for the current CATEGORY locale

Synopsis

#include <libintl.h>

extern char *dcgettext(const char *domainname,
                       const char *msgid, int category);

Description

Used to look up the MSGID in the DOMAINNAME message catalog for the current CATEGORY locale.

err

Name

err -- display formatted error messages

Synopsis

#include <err.h>

void err(int eval, const char *fmt, ...);

Description

The err() function displays a formatted error message on the standard error output. The last component of the program name, a colon character, and a space are output. If the fmt argument is not NULL, the formatted error message, a colon character, and a space are output. The error message string affiliated with the current value of the global variable errno is output. The output is followed by a newline character.

The err() function does not return, but exits with the value of the argument eval.

error

Name

error -- analyze and disperse compiler error messages

Synopsis

error [-n] [-s] [-q] [-v] [-t suffixlist] [-I ignorefile] [name]

Description

Error analyzes and optionally disperses the diagnostic error messages produced by a number of compilers and language processors to the source file and line where the errors occurred. It can replace the painful, traditional methods of scribbling abbreviations of errors on paper, and permits error messages and source code to be viewed simultaneously without machinations of multiple windows in a screen editor.

Options are:

-n

Do not touch any files; all error messages are sent to the standard output

-q

The user is queried whether s/he wants to touch the file. A `y' or `n' to the question is necessary to continue. Absence of the -q option implies that all referenced files (except those referring to discarded error messages) are to be touched.

-v

After all files have been touched, overlay the visual editor vi(1) with it set up to edit all files touched, and positioned in the first touched file at the first error. If vi(1) can't be found, try ex(1) or ed(1) from standard places.

-t

Take the following argument as a suffix list. Files whose suffixes do not appear in the suffix list are not touched. The suffix list is dot separated, and `*' wildcards work. Thus the suffix list:

.c.y.foo*.h

allows error to touch files ending with `.c', `.y', `.foo*' and `.y'.

-s

Print out statistics regarding the error categorization. Not too useful.

Error looks at the error messages, either from the specified file name or from the standard input, and:

  • attempts to determine which language processor produced each error message

  • determines the source file and line number to which the error message refers

  • determines if the error message is to be ignored or not

  • inserts the (possibly slightly modified) error message into the source file as a comment on the line preceding to which the line the error message refers.

Error messages that can't be categorized by language processor or content are not inserted into any file, but are sent to the standard output. Error touches source files only after all input has been read.

Error is intended to be run with its standard input connected via a pipe to the error message source. Some language processors put error messages on their standard error file; others put their messages on the standard output. Hence, both error sources should be piped together into error. For example, when using the csh(1) syntax,

make -s lint | error -q -v

will analyze all the error messages produced by whatever programs make(1) runs when making lint.

Error knows about the error messages produced by: make(1), cc(1), cpp(1), ccom(1), as(1), ld(1), lint(1), pi(1), pc(1), f77(1), and DEC Western Research Modula-2. Error knows a standard format for error messages produced by the language processors, so is sensitive to changes in these formats. For all languages except Pascal, error messages are restricted to be on one line. Some error messages refer to more than one line in more than one files; error will duplicate the error message and insert it at all of the places referenced.

Error will do one of six things with error messages.

synchronize

Some language processors produce short errors describing which file it is processing. Error uses these to determine the file name for languages that don't include the file name in each error message. These synchronization messages are consumed entirely by error.

discard

Error messages from lint(1) that refer to one of the two lint(1) libraries, /usr/libdata/lint/llib-lc and /usr/libdata/lint/llib-port are discarded, to prevent accidently touching these libraries. Again, these error messages are consumed entirely by error.

nullify

Error messages from lint(1) can be nullified if they refer to a specific function, which is known to generate diagnostics which are not interesting. Nullified error messages are not inserted into the source file, but are written to the standard output. The names of functions to ignore are taken from either the file named .errorrc in the users's home directory, or from the file named by the -I option. If the file does not exist, no error messages are nullified. If the file does exist, there must be one function name per line.

not file specific

Error messages that can't be intuited are grouped together, and written to the standard output before any files are touched. They will not be inserted into any source file.

file specific

Error message that refer to a specific file, but to no specific line, are written to the standard output when that file is touched.

true errors

Error messages that can be intuited are candidates for insertion into the file to which they refer.

Only true error messages are candidates for inserting into the file they refer to. Other error messages are consumed entirely by error or are written to the standard output. Error inserts the error messages into the source file on the line preceding the line the language processor found in error. Each error message is turned into a one line comment for the language, and is internally flagged with the string `###' at the beginning of the error, and `%%%' at the end of the error. This makes pattern searching for errors easier with an editor, and allows the messages to be easily removed. In addition, each error message contains the source line number for the line the message refers to. A reasonably formatted source program can be recompiled with the error messages still in it, without having the error messages themselves cause future errors. For poorly formatted source programs in free format languages, such as C or Pascal, it is possible to insert a comment into another comment, which can wreak havoc with a future compilation. To avoid this, programs with comments and source on the same line should be formatted so that language statements appear before comments.

Error catches interrupt and terminate signals, and if in the insertion phase, will orderly terminate what it is doing.

Files

~/.errorrc function names to ignore for lint(1) error messages

/dev/tty user's teletype

Bugs

Opens the teletype directly to do user querying.

Source files with links make a new copy of the file with only one link to it.

Changing a language processor's format of error messages may cause error to not understand the error message.

Error, since it is purely mechanical, will not filter out subsequent errors caused by floodgating initiated by one syntactically trivial error. Humans are still much better at discarding these related errors.

Pascal error messages belong after the lines affected (error puts them before). The alignment of the \ marking the point of error is also disturbed by error.

Error was designed for work on CRT's at reasonably high speed. It is less pleasant on slow speed terminals, and has never been used on hardcopy terminals.

errx

Name

errx -- format error messages

Synopsis

#include <err.h>

void errx(int eval, const char *fmt, ...);

Description

The errx() function displays a formatted error message on the standard error output. The last component of the program name, a colon character, and a space are output. If the fmt argument is not NULL, the formatted error message, a colon character, and a space are output. The output is followed by a newline character.

The errx() function does not return, but exits with the value of the argument eval.

flock

Name

flock -- apply or remove an advisory lock on an open file

Synopsis

int flock(int fd, int operation);

Description

Apply or remove an advisory lock on an open file. The file is specified by fd. Valid operations are given below:

LOCK_SH

Shared lock. More than one process may hold a shared lock for a given file at a given time.

LOCK_EX

Exclusive lock. Only one process may hold an exclusive lock for a given file at a given time.

LOCK_UN

Unlock.

LOCK_NB

Don't block when locking. May be specified (by or'ing) along with one of the other operations.

A single file may not simultaneously have both shared and exclusive locks.

Return Value

On success, zero is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

Errors

EWOULDBLOCK

The file is locked and the LOCK_NB flag was selected.

fstatfs

Name

fstatfs -- get file system statistics

Synopsis

#include <sys/vfs.h>

int fstatfs(int fd, struct statfs *buf);

Description

fstatfs returns information about a mounted file system. fd is the open file descriptor of any file within the mounted filesystem. buf is a pointer to a statfs structure defined as follows:

struct statfs {

long f_type; /* type of filesystem (see below) */

long f_bsize; /* optimal transfer block size */

long f_blocks; /* total data blocks in file system */

long f_bfree; /* free blocks in fs */

long f_bavail; /* free blocks avail to non-superuser */

long f_files; /* total file nodes in file system */

long f_ffree; /* free file nodes in fs */

fsid_t f_fsid; /* file system id */

long f_namelen; /* maximum length of filenames */

long f_spare[6]; /* spare for later */

};

Fields that are undefined for a particular file system are set to 0.

Return Value

On success, zero is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

Errors

EBADF

fd is not a valid open file descriptor.

EFAULT

buf points to an invalid address.

EIO

An I/O error occurred while reading from or writing to the file system.

ENOSYS

The filesystem fd is open on does not support statfs.

fwprintf

Name

fwprintf -- formatted wide character output conversion

Synopsis

int fwprintf(FILE* stream, const wchar_t* format, ...);

Description

The specification for "fwprintf" is as specified in the SUSv2 but with the following differences as listed below.

Wide-character Conversion:

The following wide-character are not specified in GNU:

d, i, o, u, x, X, f, e, E , g, G , c, s, p, n, C, S, %

Errors

The following error types are not specified in GNU:

EILSEQ

EINVAL

ENOMEM

gethostbyname

Name

gethostbyname -- get network host entry

Synopsis

#include <netdb.h>
extern int h_errno;

struct hostent *gethostbyname(const char *name);

Description

The gethostbyname() function returns a structure of type hostent for the given host name. Here name is either a host name, or an IPv4 address in standard dot notation, or an IPv6 address in colon (and possibly dot) notation. (See RFC 1884 for the description of IPv6 addresses.) If name is an IPv4 or IPv6 address, no lookup is performed and gethostbyname() simply copies name into the h_name field and its struct in_addr equivalent into the h_addr_list[0] field of the returned hostent structure. If name doesn't end in a dot and the environment variable HOSTALIASES is set, the alias file pointed to by HOSTALIASES will first be searched for name (see hostname(7) for the file format). The current domain and its parents are searched unless name ends in a dot.

The domain name queries carried out by gethostbyname() use a combination of any or all of the name server named(8), a broken out line from /etc/hosts, and the Network Information Service (NIS or YP), depending upon the contents of the order line in /etc/host.conf. (See resolv+(8)). The default action is to query named(8), followed by /etc/hosts.

The hostent structure is defined in <netdb.h> as follows:

struct hostent {

char *h_name; /* official name of host */

char **h_aliases; /* alias list */

int h_addrtype; /* host address type */

int h_length; /* length of address */

char **h_addr_list; /* list of addresses */

}

#define h_addr h_addr_list[0] /* for backward compatibility */

Return Value

The gethostbyname()) functions return the hostent structure or a NULL pointer if an error occurs. On error, the h_errno variable holds an error number.

Errors

ENOMEM

Insufficient memory to complete the operation.

getloadavg

Name

getloadavg -- get system load averages

Synopsis

#include <stdlib.h>

int getloadavg(double loadavg[], int nelem);

Description

The getloadavg() function returns the number of processes in the system run queue averaged over various periods of time. Up to nelem samples are retrieved and assigned to successive elements of loadavg[]. The system imposes a maximum of 3 samples, representing averages over the last 1, 5, and 15 minutes, respectively.

getopt

Name

getopt -- parse command line options

Synopsis

int getopt(int argc, char * const argv[], const char *optstring);
extern char *optarg;
extern int optind, opterr, optopt;

GNU supports the following extensions of getopt:

int getopt_long(int argc, char * const argv[],
               const char *optstring,
               const struct option *longopts, int *longindex);

int getopt_long_only(int argc, char * const argv[],
                    const char *optstring,
                    const struct option *longopts, int *longindex);

Description

The getopt() function parses command line arguments. GNU and POSIX specifications for this function vary in the following areas.

Option Characteristics

GNU specifies that:

  • an element of argv that starts with "-" (and is not exactly "-" or "--") is an option element.

  • characters of an option element, aside from the initial "-", are option characters.

POSIX specifies that:

  • applications using getopt() must obey the following syntax guidelines:

    • option name is a single alphanumeric character from the portable character set

    • option is preceded by the "-" delimiter character

    • options without option-arguments should be accepted when grouped behind one "-" delimiter

    • each option and option-argument is a separate argument

    • option-arguments are not optional

    • all options should precede operands on the command line

    • the argument "--" is accepted as a delimiter indicating the end of options and the consideration of subsequent arguments, if any, as operands

  • historical implementations of getopt() support other characters as options as an allowed extension, but applications that use extensions are not maximally portable.

  • support for multi-byte option characters is only possible when such characters can be represented as type int.

  • applications that call any utility with a first operand starting with "-" should usually specify "--" to mark the end of the options. Standard utilities that do not support this guideline indicate that fact in the OPTIONS section of the utility description.

Extensions

GNU specifies that:

  • if a character is followed by two colons, the option takes an optional arg; if there is text in the current argv-element, it is returned in optarg, otherwise optarg is set to zero.

  • if optstring contains W followed by a semi-colon, then -W foo is treated as the long option --foo. (Not available with libraries before GNU libc 2.)

  • getopt_long() works like getopt() except that it also accepts "long options", or, options that are preface with two dashes instead of one.

  • long option names may be abbreviated if the abbreviation is unique or an exact match for some defined option.

  • a long option may take a parameter, of the form --arg=param or --arg param.

  • getopt_long_only() works like getopt_long(), except that both "-" and "--" indicate long option. If an option that starts with "-" (not "--") doesn't match a long option, but does match a short option, it is parsed instead as a short option.

POSIX specifies that:

  • the -W option is reserved for implementation extensions.

Return Values

GNU specifies the following getopt() return values:

  • the next option character is returned, if found successfully.

  • colon character (":") is returned if a parameter is missing for one of the options.

  • question mark ("?") is returned if an unknown option character is encountered.

  • "-1" is returned for the end of the option list.

GNU specifies the following getopt_long() and getopt_long_only() return values:

  • when short option is recognized, the option character is returned.

  • when long option is recognized, val is returned if flag is NULL, otherwise, 0 is returned.

  • error and -1 returns are the same as for getopt().

  • question mark ("?") is returned for an ambiguous match or an extraneous parameter.

POSIX specifies the following getopt() return values:

  • the next option character is returned, if found successfully.

  • colon character (":") is returned if a parameter is missing for one of the options and the first character of opstring is ":".

  • question mark ("?") is returned if an unknown option character not in optstring is encountered, or if getopt() detects a missing argument and the first character of optstring is not ":".

  • "-1" is returned for the end of the option list.

Environmental Variables

GNU specifies that:

  • if the variable POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, option processing stops as soon as a non-option argument is encountered.

  • if POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, GNU getopt() conforms to POSIX.2.

  • the variable _[PID]_GNU_nonoption_argv_flags_ was used by bash 2.0 to communicate to GNU libc which arguments resulted from wildcard expansion and so should not be considered as options. This behavior was removed in bash version 2.01, but the support remains in GNU libc.

Environmental Variables

POSIX.2 Interpretation 150 reports a technical error in the function of getopt(). GNU implements the correct behavior of getopt().

getopt_long

Name

getopt_long -- parse command line options

Synopsis

#define _GNU_SOURCE
#include <getopt.h>

int getopt_long(int argc, char * const argv[],
           const char *optstring,
           const struct option *longopts, int *longindex);

Description

The getopt_long() function works like getopt() except that it also accepts long options, started out by two dashes. Long option names may be abbreviated if the abbreviation is unique or is an exact match for some defined option. A long option may take a parameter, of the form --arg=param or --arg param.

longopts is a pointer to the first element of an array of struct option declared in <getopt.h> as

struct option {

const char *name;

int *flag;

int has_arg;

int val;

};

Return Value

The getopt_long() function returns the option character if the option was found successfully, : if there was a missing parameter for one of the options, ? for an unknown option character, or -1 for the end of the option list.

getopt_long() also returns the option character when a short option is recognized. For a long option, they return val if flag is NULL, and 0 otherwise. Error and -1 returns are the same as for getopt(), plus ? for an ambiguous match or an extraneous parameter.

getopt_long_only

Name

getopt_long_only -- parse command line options

Synopsis

#define _GNU_SOURCE
#include <getopt.h>

int getopt_long_only(int argc, char * const argv[],
           const char *optstring,
           const struct option *longopts, int *longindex);

Description

getopt_long_only() is like getopt_long(), but - as well as -- can indicate a long option. If an option that starts with - (not --) doesn't match a long option, but does match a short option, it is parsed as a short option instead.

Return Value

The function getopt_long_only() returns the option character if the option was found successfully, : if there was a missing parameter for one of the options, ? for an unknown option character, or -1 for the end of the option list. getopt_long_only() also returns the option character when a short option is recognized. For a long option, they return val if flag is NULL, and 0 otherwise. Error and -1 returns are the same as for getopt(), plus ? for an ambiguous match or an extraneous parameter.

getprotobyname

Name

getprotobyname -- get protocol entry

Synopsis

struct protoent *getprotobynumber(int proto);

Description

The getprotobyname() function returns a protoent structure for the line from /etc/protocols that matches the protocol name name.

The protoent structure is defined in <netdb.h> as follows:

struct protoent {

char *p_name; /* official protocol name */

char **p_aliases; /* alias list */

int p_proto; /* protocol number */

}

Return Value

The getprotobyname() function returns the protoent structure, or a NULL pointer if an error occurs or the end of the file is reached.

Files

/etc/protocols protocol database file

getprotoent

Name

getprotoent -- get protocol entry

Synopsis

struct protoent *getprotoent(void);

Description

The getprotoent() function reads the next line from the file /etc/protocols and returns a structure protoent containing the broken out fields from the line. The /etc/protocols file is opened if necessary.

The protoent structure is defined in <netdb.h> as follows:

struct protoent {

char *p_name; /* official protocol name */

char **p_aliases; /* alias list */

int p_proto; /* protocol number */

}

Return Value

The getprotoent() function returns the protoent structure, or a NULL pointer if an error occurs or the end of the file is reached.

Files

/etc/protocols protocol database file

getservbyname

Name

getservbyname -- get service entry

Synopsis

#include <netdb.h>

struct servent *getservbyname(const char *name, const char *proto);

Description

The getservbyname() function returns a servent structure for the line from /etc/services that matches the service name using protocol proto.

The servent structure is defined in <netdb.h> as follows:

struct servent {

char *s_name; /* official service name */

char **s_aliases; /* alias list */

int s_port; /* port number */

char *s_proto; /* protocol to use */

}

Return Value

getservbyname() returns the servent structure, or a NULL pointer if an error occurs or the end of the file is reached.

Files

/etc/services services database file

getservent

Name

getservent -- get service entry

Synopsis

#include <netdb.h>

struct servent *getservent(void);

Description

The getservent() function reads the next line from the file /etc/services and returns a structure servent containing the broken out fields from the line. The /etc/services file is opened if necessary.

The servent structure is defined in <netdb.h> as follows:

struct servent {

char *s_name; /* official service name */

char **s_aliases; /* alias list */

int s_port; /* port number */

char *s_proto; /* protocol to use */

}

Return Value

getservent() returns the servent structure, or a NULL pointer if an error occurs or the end of the file is reached.

Files

/etc/services services database file

gettext

Name

gettext -- look up MSGID in the current default message catalog for the current LC_MESSAGES locale

Synopsis

#include <libintl.h>

extern char *gettext((const char *msgid));

Description

Used to look up the MSGID in the DOMAINNAME message catalog for the current CATEGORY locale. If not found, returns MSGID itself (the default text).

getutent

Name

getutent -- access utmp file entries

Synopsis

#include <utmp.h>

struct utmp *getutent(void);

Description

getutent() reads a line from the current file position in the utmp file. It returns a pointer to a structure containing the fields of the line.

Return Value

getutent() returns a pointer to a static struct utmp.

Errors

On error, (struct utmp*)0 will be returned.

Files

/var/run/utmp database of currently logged-in users

/var/log/wtmp database of past user logins

glob64

Name

glob64 -- find pathnames matching a pattern (Large File Support)

Synopsis

#include <glob.h>
int glob64((const char *pattern, int flags,
            int (*errfunc) (const char *, int),
            glob64_t *pglob));

Description

The glob64() function searches for all the pathnames matching pattern according to the rules used by the shell (see glob(7)). No tilde expansion or parameter substitution is done; if you want these, use wordexp(3). The results of a glob64() call are stored in the structure pointed to by pglob, which is a glob64_t which is declared in <glob.h> and includes the following elements defined by POSIX.2 (more may be present as an extension):

The glob64() function is a 64-bit version of glob.

Return Value

On successful completion, glob64() returns zero. Other possible returns are: GLOB_NOSPACE for running out of memory, GLOB_ABORTED for a read error, and GLOB_NOMATCH for no found matches.

globfree64

Name

globfree64 -- free memory from glob64() (Large File Support)

Synopsis

#include <glob.h>

void globfree64(glob64_t *pglob);

Description

The globfree64() function frees the dynamically allocate storage from an earlier call to glob64().

The globfree64 function is a 64-bit version of globfree.

initgroups

Name

initgroups -- initialize the supplementary group access list

Synopsis

#include <grp.h>
#include <sys/types.h>

int initgroups(const char *user, gid_t group);

Description

The initgroups() function initializes the group access list by reading the group database /etc/group and using all groups of which user is a member. The additional group group is also added to the list.

Return Value

On success, zero is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

Errors

EPERM

The calling process does not have sufficient privileges.

ENOMEM

Insufficient memory to allocate group information structure.

Files

/etc/group group database file

isblank

Name

isblank -- character classification routine

Synopsis

#include <ctype.h>

int isblank(int c);

Description

This functions checks whether c, which must have the value of an unsigned char or EOF, falls into a certain character class according to the current locale.

isblank() checks for a blank character; that is, a space or a tab. This function is a GNU extension.

Return Value

The values returned are nonzero if the character c falls into the tested class, and a zero value if not.

Notes

The details of what characters belong into which class depend on the current locale. For example, isupper() will not recognize an A - umlaut as an uppercase letter in the default C locale.

iswblank

Name

iswblank -- test for whitespace wide character

Synopsis

#include <wctype.h>

int iswblank(wint_t wc);

Description

The iswblank function is the wide-character equivalent of the isblank function. It tests whether wc is a wide character belonging to the wide character class "blank".

The wide character class "blank" is a subclass of the wide character class "space".

Being a subclass of the wide character class "space", the wide character class "blank" is disjoint from the wide character class "graph" and therefore also disjoint from its subclasses "alnum", "alpha", "upper", "lower", "digit", "xdigit", "punct".

The wide character class "blank" always contains at least the space character and the control character '\t'.

Return Value

The iswblank function returns non-zero if wc is a wide character belonging to the wide character class "blank". Otherwise it returns zero.

Notes

The behavior of iswblank depends on the LC_CTYPE category of the current locale.

iswctype

Name

iswctype -- wide character classification

Synopsis

#include <wctype.h>

int iswctype(wint_t wc, wctype_t desc);

Description

If wc is a wide character having the character property designated by desc (or in other words: belongs to the character class designated by desc), the iswctype function returns non-zero. Otherwise it returns zero. If wc is WEOF, zero is returned.

desc must be a character property descriptor returned by the wctype function.

Return Value

iswctype returns non-zero if the wc has the designated property. Otherwise it returns 0.

Notes

The behavior of iswctype depends on the LC_CTYPE category of the current locale.

kill

Name

kill -- send a signal

Synopsis

int kill(pid_t pid, int sig);

Description

The specification for "kill" is as specified in the SUSv2 but with the following differences as listed below.

Process ID -1 doesn't affect calling process

If pid is specified as -1, sig shall not be sent to the calling process. Other than this, the rules in the SUSv2 apply.

Rationale: Linux users/programs expect to exclude the calling process, which is the historic Linux behavior. After an experiment with including the calling process in 2.5.1 Linus has decided to go back to the traditional Linux behavior. Affected programs include killall5 and some versions of shutdown. Another example is the shell command "kill -KILL -1" which is expected to not kill the shell from which it is run. See "What does it mean to signal everybody?", Linux Weekly News, 20 December 2001 ( http://lwn.net/2001/1220/kernel.php3 ).

mbsnrtowcs

Name

mbsnrtowcs -- convert a multibyte string to a wide character string

Synopsis

#include <wchar.h>

size_t mbsnrtowcs(wchar_t *dest, const char **src,
                  size_t nms, size_t len, mbstate_t *ps);

Description

The mbsnrtowcs function is like the mbsrtowcs function, except that the number of bytes to be converted, starting at *src, is limited to nms.

If dest is not a NULL pointer, the mbsnrtowcs function converts at most nms bytes from the multibyte string *src to a wide-character string starting at dest. At most len wide characters are written to dest. The state *ps is updated. The conversion is effectively performed by repeatedly calling mbrtowc(dest,*src,n,ps) where n is some positive number, as long as this call succeeds, and then incrementing dest by one and *src by the number of bytes consumed. The conversion can stop for three reasons:

1. An invalid multibyte sequence has been encountered. In this case *src is left pointing to the invalid multibyte sequence, (size_t)(-1) is returned, and errno is set to EILSEQ.

2. The nms limit forces a stop, or len non-L'\0' wide characters have been stored at dest. In this case *src is left pointing to the next multibyte sequence to be converted, and the number of wide characters written to dest is returned.

3. The multibyte string has been completely converted, including the terminating '\0' (which has the side effect of bringing back *ps to the initial state). In this case *src is set to NULL, and the number of wide characters written to dest, excluding the terminating L'\0' character, is returned.

If dest is NULL, len is ignored, and the conversion proceeds as above, except that the converted wide characters are not written out to memory, and that no destination length limit exists.

In both of the above cases, if ps is a NULL pointer, a static anonymous state only known to the mbsnrtowcs function is used instead.

The programmer must ensure that there is room for at least len wide characters at dest.

Return Value

The mbsnrtowcs function returns the number of wide characters that make up the converted part of the wide character string, not including the terminating null wide character. If an invalid multibyte sequence was encountered, (size_t)(-1) is returned, and errno set to EILSEQ.

Notes

The behavior of mbsnrtowcs depends on the LC_CTYPE category of the current locale.

Passing NULL as ps is not multi-thread safe.

memmem

Name

memmem -- locate a substring

Synopsis

#define _GNU_SOURCE
#include <string.h>

void *memmem(const void *haystack, size_t haystacklen,
             const void *needle, size_t needlelen);

Description

The memmem() function finds the start of the first occurrence of the substring needle of length needlelen in the memory area haystack of length haystacklen.

Return Value

The memmem() function returns a pointer to the beginning of the substring, or NULL if the substring is not found.

Notes

This function was broken in Linux libraries up to and including libc 5.0.9; there the needle and haystack arguments were interchanged, and a pointer to the end of the first occurrence of needle was returned. Since libc 5.0.9 is still widely used, this is a dangerous function to use.

Both old and new libc's have the bug that if needle is empty haystack-1 (instead of haystack) is returned. And glibc 2.0 makes it worse, and returns a pointer to the last byte of haystack. This is fixed in glibc 2.1.

memrchr

Name

memrchr -- scan memory for a character

Synopsis

#include <string.h>

void *memrchr(const void *s, int c, size_t n);

Description

memrchr() returns a pointer to the last occurrence of the character represented by c in the first n characters of the string represented by s.

obstack_free

Name

obstack_free -- free an object in the obstack

Synopsis

#include <obstack.h>

void obstack_free(struct obstack *obstack, void *block);

Description

Free an object in the obstack.

opterr

Name

opterr -- external variable used in getopt()

Synopsis

extern int opterr;

Description

opterr is used as a flag to suppress error message generated by getopt(). When opterr is set to 0; it suppresses the error message generated by getopt() when getopt() does not recognize an option character.

optind

Name

optind -- external variable used in getopt()

Synopsis

extern int optind;

Description

optind holds the current index of the array argr[] which contains the command line options being parsed by getopt().

optopt

Name

optopt -- external variable used in getopt()

Synopsis

extern int optopt;

Description

optopt holds the unknown option character when that option character is not recognized by getopt()

psignal

Name

psignal -- print signal message

Synopsis

#include <signal.h>

void psignal(int sig, const char *s);

extern const char *const sys_siglist[]

Description

The psignal() function displays a message on stderr consisting of the string s, a colon, a space, and a string describing the signal number sig. If sig is invalid, the message displayed will indicate an unknown signal.

The array sys_siglist holds the signal description strings indexed by signal number.

Return Value

psignal() returns no value.

setbuffer

Name

setbuffer -- stream buffering operation

Synopsis

#include <stdio.h>

void setbuffer(FILE *stream, char *buf, size_tsize);

Description

setbuffer is an alias for call to setvbuf. It works the same, except that the size of the buffer is up to the caller, rather than being determined by the default BUFSIZ.

setegid

Name

setegid -- set real and / or effective group ID

Synopsis

#include <sys/types.h>
#include <unistd.h>

int setegid(gid_t egid);

Description

setegid sets real and effective group ID's of the current process. Unprivileged users may change the real group ID to the effective group ID and vice-versa.

Prior to Linux 1.1.38, the saved ID paradigm, when used with setegid was broken. Starting at 1.1.38, it is also possible to set the effective group ID from the saved group ID.

Only the super-user may make other changes.

Supplying a value of -1 for either the real or effective group ID forces the system to leave that ID unchanged.

Currently (libc-4.x.x), setegid(egid) is functionally equivalent to setregid(-1, egid).

If the real group ID is changed or the effective group ID is set to a value not equal to the previous real group ID, the saved group ID will be set to the new effective group ID.

Return Value

On success, zero is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

Errors

EPERM

The current process is not the super-user and changes other than (i) swapping the effective group ID with the real group ID or (ii) setting one to the value of the other or (iii) setting the effective group ID to the value of the saved group ID was specified.

seteuid

Name

seteuid -- set real and/or effective user ID

Synopsis

#include <sys/types.h>
#include <unistd.h>

int seteuid(uid_t euid);

Description

seteuid sets real and effective user ID's of the current process. Un-privileged users may change the real user ID to the effective user ID and vice-versa.

Prior to Linux 1.1.37, the saved ID paradigm, when used with seteuid was broken.

Starting at 1.1.37, it is also possible to set the effective user ID from the saved user ID.

Only the super-user may make other changes.

Supplying a value of -1 for either the real or effective user ID forces the system to leave that ID unchanged.

Currently seteuid(euid) is functionally equivalent to setreuid(-1, euid).

If the real user ID is changed or the effective user ID is set to a value not equal to the previous real user ID, the saved user ID will be set to the new effective user ID.

Return Value

On success, zero is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

Errors

EPERM

The current process is not the super-user and changes other than (i) swapping the effective user ID with the real user ID or (ii) setting one to the value of the other or (iii) setting the effective user ID to the value of the saved user ID was specified.

setgroups

Name

setgroups -- set list of supplementary group IDs

Synopsis

#define __USE_BSD
#include <grp.h>

int setgroups(size_t size, const gid_t *list);

Description

Sets the supplementary groups for the process. Only the super-user may use this function.

Return Value

On success, zero is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

Errors

EFAULT

list has an invalid address.

EPERM

The user is not the super-user.

EINVA

Size is greater than NGROUPS (32 for Linux 2.0.32).

Bugs

The __USE_BSD flag probably shouldn't be required for setgroups.

sethostid

Name

sethostid -- set the unique identifier of the current host

Synopsis

#include <unistd.h>

int sethostid(long int hostid);

Description

Set a unique 32-bit identifier for the current machine. The 32-bit identifier is intended to be unique among all UNIX systems in existence. This normally resembles the Internet address for the local machine, as returned by gethostbyname(3), and thus usually never needs to be set.

The sethostid call is restricted to the superuser.

The hostid argument is stored in the file /etc/hostid.

Return Value

gethostid returns the 32-bit identifier for the current host as set by sethostid(2).

Files

/etc/hostid

sethostname

Name

sethostname -- set host name

Synopsis

#include <unistd.h>

int sethostname(const char *name, size_t len);

Description

This function is used to change the host name of the current processor.

Return Value

On success, zero is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

Errors

EINVAL

len is negative or len is larger than the maximum allowed size.

EPERM

the caller was not the superuser.

EFAULT

name is an invalid address.

Notes

SUSv2 guarantees that Host names are limited to 255 bytes.

setmntent

Name

setmntent -- get file system descriptor file entry

Synopsis

#include <stdio.h>
#include <mntent.h>

FILE *setmntent(const char *filename, const char *type);

Description

This routine is used to access the file system description file /etc/fstab and the mounted file system description file /etc/mtab.

The setmntent() function opens the file system description file filep and returns a file pointer which can be used by getmntent(). The argument type is the type of access required and can take the same values as the mode argument of fopen(3).

The mntent structure is defined in <mntent.h> as follows:

struct mntent {

char *mnt_fsname; /* name of mounted file system */

char *mnt_dir; /* file system path prefix */

char *mnt_type; /* mount type (see mntent.h) */

char *mnt_opts; /* mount options (see mntent.h) */

int mnt_freq; /* dump frequency in days */

int mnt_passno; /* pass number on parallel fsck */

};

Files

/etc/fstab file system description file /etc/mtab mounted file system description file

setutent

Name

setutent -- access utmp file entries

Synopsis

#include <utmp.h>

void setutent(void);

Description

setutent() rewinds the file pointer to the beginning of the utmp file. It is generally a Good Idea to call it before any of the other functions.

Errors

On error, (struct utmp*)0 will be returned.

Files

/var/run/utmp database of currently logged-in users /var/log/wtmp database of past user logins

sigandset

Name

sigandset -- build a new signal set by combining the two input sets using logical AND

Synopsis

#include <signal.h>

extern int sigandset(sigset_t *set, const sigset_t *left,
                     const sigset_t *right);

Description

A signal function that builds a new signal set by combining the two input sets using logical AND.

sigblock

Name

sigblock -- manipulate the signal mask

Synopsis

#include <signal.h>

int sigblock(int mask);

Description

This interface is made obsolete by sigprocmask(2).

The sigblock system call adds the signals specified in mask to the set of signals currently being blocked from delivery.

Notes

Prototype for this function is only available if _BSD_SOURCE is defined before the inclusion of any system.

siggetmask

Name

siggetmask -- manipulate the signal mask

Synopsis

#include <signal.h>

int siggetmask(void);

Description

This interface is made obsolete by sigprocmask(2).

siggetmask returns the current set of masked signals.

Notes

Prototype for this function is only available if _BSD_SOURCE is defined before the inclusion of any system header file.

sigisemptyset

Name

sigisemptyset -- signal function - check for empty SET

Synopsis

#include <signal.h>

extern int sigisemptyset(const sigset_t *set);

Description

Signal function - Check for empty SET. Returns non-empty value if SET is not empty.

sigorset

Name

sigorset -- build a new signal set by combining the two input sets using logical OR

Synopsis

#include <:signal.h>

extern int sigorset((sigset_t *set, const sigset_t *left,
                     const sigset_t *right));

Description

A signal function that builds a new signal set by combining the two input sets using logical OR.

sigreturn

Name

sigreturn -- return from signal handler and cleanup stack frame

Synopsis

int sigreturn(unsigned long __unused);

Description

When the Linux kernel creates the stack frame for a signal handler, a call to sigreturn is inserted into the stack frame so that the the signal handler will call sigreturn upon return. This inserted call to sigreturn cleans up the stack so that the process can restart from where it was interrupted by the signal.

Return Value

sigreturn never returns.

Warning

sigreturn call is used by the kernel to implement signal handlers. It should never be called directly. Better yet, the specific use of the __unused argument varies depending on the architecture.

Files

/usr/src/linux/arch/i386/kernel/signal.c

/usr/src/linux/arch/alpha/kernel/entry.s

statfs

Name

statfs -- get file system statistics

Synopsis

#include <sys/vfs.h>

int statfs(const char *path, struct statfs *buf);

Description

statfs returns information about a mounted file system. path is the path name of any file within the mounted filesystem.

buf is a pointer to a statfs structure defined as follow:

struct statfs {

long f_type; /* type of filesystem (see below) */

long f_bsize; /* optimal transfer block size */

long f_blocks; /* total data blocks in file system */

long f_bfree; /* free blocks in fs */

long f_bavail; /* free blocks avail to non-superuser */

long f_files; /* total file nodes in file system */

long f_ffree; /* free file nodes in fs */

long f_ffree; /* free file nodes in fs */

fsid_t f_fsid; /* file system id */

long f_namelen; /* maximum length of filenames */

long f_spare[6]; /* spare for later */

};

Fields that are undefined for a particular file system are set to 0.

Return Value

On success, zero is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

Errors

ENOTDIR

A component of the path prefix of path is not a directory.

ENAMETOOLONG

path is too long.

ENOENT

The file referred to by path does not exist.

EACCES

Search permission is denied for a component of the path prefix of path.

ELOOP

Too many symbolic links were encountered in translating path.

EFAULT

Buf or path points to an invalid address.

EIO

An I/O error occurred while reading from or writing to the file system.

ENOMEM

Insufficient kernel memory was available.

ENOSYS

The filesystem path is on does not support statfs.

stime

Name

stime -- set time

Synopsis

#define _SVID_SOURCE /* glibc2 needs this */
#include <time.h>

int stime(time_t *t);

Description

stime sets the system's idea of the time and date. Time, pointed to by t, is measured in seconds from 00:00:00 GMT January 1, 1970. stime() may only be executed by the super user.

Return Value

On success, zero is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

Errors

EPERM

The caller is not the super-user.

Notes

Under glibc2, <time.h> only provides a prototype when _SVID_SOURCE is defined.

stpcpy

Name

stpcpy -- copy a string returning a pointer to its end

Synopsis

#include <string.h>

char *stpcpy(char *dest, const char *src);

Description

The stpcpy() function copies the string pointed to by src (including the terminating \0 character) to the array pointed to by dest. The strings may not overlap, and the destination string dest must be large enough to receive the copy.

Return Value

stpcpy() returns a pointer to the end of the string dest (that is, the address of the terminating null character) rather than the beginning.

Example

For example, this program uses stpcpy to concatenate foo and bar to produce foobar, which it then prints.

#include <string.h>

int main (void) { char *to = buffer; to = stpcpy (to, "foo"); to = stpcpy (to, "bar"); printf ("%s\n", buffer); }

stpncpy

Name

stpncpy -- copy a fixed-size string, returning a pointer to its end

Synopsis

#include <string.h>

char *stpncpy (char *dest, const char *src, size_t n);

Description

The stpncpy function copies at most n characters from the string pointed to by src, including the terminating '\0' character, to the array pointed to by dest. Exactly n characters are written at dest. If the length strlen(src) is smaller than n, the remaining characters in the array pointed to by dest are filled with '\0' characters. If the length strlen(src) is greater or equal to n, the string pointed to by dest will not be '\0' terminated. The strings may not overlap. The programmer must ensure that there is room for at least n characters at dest.

Return Value

stpncpy returns a pointer to the terminating null in dest, or, if dest is not null-terminated, dest + n.

strcasestr

Name

strcasestr -- locate a substring - ignores the case of both strings

Synopsis

#include <string.h>

char *strcasestr(const char *haystack, const char *needle);

Description

Similar to strstr but this function ignores the case of both strings.

strerror_r

Name

strerror_r -- reentrant version of strerror

Synopsis

#include <string.h>

extern char *strerror_r(int errnum, char *buf, size_t buflen);

Description

Reentrant version of strerror. If a temporary buffer is required, at most BUFLEN bytes of BUF will be used.

strfry

Name

strfry -- randomize a string

Synopsis

#include <string.h>

char *strfry(char *string);

Description

The strfry() function randomizes the contents of string by using rand(3) to randomly swap characters in the string. The result is an anagram of string.

Return Value

The strfry() functions returns a pointer to the randomized string.

strndup

Name

strndup -- return a malloc'd copy of at most the specified number of bytes of a string

Synopsis

#include <string.h>

extern char *strndup(const char *string, size_t n);

Description

Return a malloc'd copy of at most n bytes of string. The resultant string is terminated even if no null terminator appears before STRING[N].

strnlen

Name

strnlen -- determine the length of a fixed-size string

Synopsis

#include <string.h>

size_t strnlen(const char *s, size_t maxlen);

Description

The strnlen function returns the number of characters in the string pointed to by s, not including the terminating '\0' character, but at most maxlen. In doing this, strnlen looks only at the first maxlen characters at s and never beyond s+maxlen.

Return Value

The strnlen function returns strlen(s), if that is less than maxlen, or maxlen if there is no '\0' character among the first maxlen characters pointed to by s.

strsep

Name

strsep -- extract token from string

Synopsis

#include <string.h>

char *strsep(char **stringp, const char *delim);

Description

If *stringp is NULL, the strsep() function returns NULL and does nothing else. Otherwise, this function finds the first token in the string *stringp, where tokens are delimited by symbols in the string delim. This token is terminated with a \0 character (by overwriting the delimiter) and *stringp is updated to point past the token. In case no delimiter was found, the token is taken to be the entire string *stringp, and *stringp is made NULL.

Return Value

The strsep() function returns a pointer to the token, that is, it returns the original value of *stringp.

Notes

The strsep() function was introduced as a replacement for strtok(), since the latter cannot handle empty fields. However, strtok() conforms to ANSI-C and hence is more portable.

Bugs

This function suffers from the same problems as strtok(). In particular, it modifies the original string. Avoid it.

strsignal

Name

strsignal -- return string describing signal

Synopsis

#define _GNU_SOURCE
#include <string.h>

char *strsignal(int sig);

extern const char * const sys_siglist[];

Description

The strsignal() function returns a string describing the signal number passed in the argument sig. The string can only be used until the next call to strsignal().

The array sys_siglist holds the signal description strings indexed by signal number. The strsignal() function should be used if possible instead of this array.

Return Value

The strsignal() function returns the appropriate description string, or an unknown signal message if the signal number is invalid. On some systems (but not on Linux), a NULL pointer may be returned instead for an invalid signal number.

strtok_r

Name

strtok_r -- extract tokens from strings

Synopsis

#include <string.h>

char *strtok_r(char *s, const char *delim, char **ptrptr);

Description

A token is a nonempty string of characters not occurring in the string delim, followed by \0 or by a character occurring in delim.

The strtok_r() function can be used to parse the string s into tokens. The first call to strtok_r() should have s as its first argument. Subsequent calls should have the first argument set to NULL. Each call returns a pointer to the next token, or NULL when no more tokens are found.

If a token ends with a delimiter, this delimiting character is overwritten with a \0 and a pointer to the next character is saved for the next call to strtok_r(). The delimiter string delim may be different for each call.

ptrptr is a user allocated char* pointer. It must be the same while parsing the same string.

Bugs

Never use this function. Note that:

  • It modifies its first argument.

  • The identity of the delimiting character is lost.

  • This function cannot be used on constant strings.

Return Value

The strtok_r() function returns a pointer to the next token, or NULL if there are no more tokens.

strtoq

Name

strtoq -- convert string value to a long or quad_t integer

Synopsis

#include <sys/types.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <limits.h>

quadt strtoq(const char *nptr, char **endptr, int base);

Description

The strtoq() function converts the string in nptr to a quadt value. The conversion is done according to the given base, which must be between 2 and 36 inclusive, or be the special value 0.

The string may begin with an arbitrary amount of white space (as determine by isspace(3)) followed by a single optional + or - sign. If base is zero or 16, the string may then include a 0x prefix, and the number will be read in base 16; otherwise, a zero base is taken as 10 (decimal) unless the next character is 0, in which case it is taken as 8 (octal).

The remainder of the string is converted to a long value in the obvious manner, stopping at the first character which is not a valid digit in the given base. (In bases above 10, the letter A in either upper or lower case represents 10, B represents 11, and so forth, with Z representing 35.)

Return Value

strtoq() function returns the result of the conversion, unless the value would underflow or overflow. If an underflow occurs, strtoq() returns QUAD_MIN. If an overflow occurs, strtoq() returns QUAD_MAX. In both cases, errno is set to ERANGE.

Errors

ERANGE

The given string was out of range; the value converted has been clamped.

strtouq

Name

strtouq -- convert a string to an uquad_t

Synopsis

#include <sys/types.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <limits.h>

uquadt strtouq(const char *nptr, char **endptr, int base);

Description

The strtouq() function converts the string in nptr to a uquadt value. The conversion is done according to the given base, which must be between 2 and 36 inclusive, or be the special value 0.

The string may begin with an arbitrary amount of white space (as determined by isspace(3)) followed by a single optional + or - sign. If base is zero or 16, the string may then include a 0x prefix, and the number will be read in base 16; otherwise, a zero base is taken as 10 (decimal) unless the next character is 0, in which case it is taken as 8 (octal).

The remainder of the string is converted to an unsigned long value in the obvious manner, stopping at the end of the string or at the first character that does not produce a valid digit in the given base. (In bases above 10, the letter A in either upper or lower case represents 10, B represents 11, and so forth, with Z representing 35.)

Return Value

Upon success the strtouq() function returns either the result of the conversion or, if there was a leading minus sign, the negation of the result of the conversion, unless the original (non-negated) value would overflow. In the case of an overflow the function returns UQUAD_MAX and the global variable errno is set to ERANGE.

Errors

ERANGE

The given string was out of range; the value converted has been clamped.

strverscmp

Name

strverscmp -- compare strings holding name and indices/version numbers

Synopsis

#include <string.h>

extern int strverscmp(const char *s1, const char *s2);

Description

Compare s1 and s2 as strings holding name and indices/version numbers.

system

Name

system -- execute a shell command

Synopsis

#include <stdlib.h>

int system (const char * string);

Description

system() executes a command specified in string by calling /bin/sh -c string, and returns after the command has been completed. During execution of the command, SIGCHLD will be blocked, and SIGINT and SIGQUIT will be ignored.

Return Value

The value returned is 127 if the execve() call for /bin/sh fails, -1 if there was another error and the return code of the command otherwise.

If the value of string is NULL, system() returns nonzero if the shell is available, and zero if not.

system() does not affect the wait status of any other children.

Notes

The fact that system() ignores interrupts is often not what a program wants. The Single Unix Spec describes some of the consequences - one additional one is that a program which calls system() from a loop can not reliably be interrupted. Many programs will want to use the exec(3) family of functions instead.

Do not use system() from a program with suid or sgid privileges, because strange values for some environment variables might be used to subvert system integrity. Use the exec(3) family of functions instead, but not execlp(3) or execvp(3). system() will not, in fact, work properly from programs with suid or sgid privileges on systems on which /bin/sh is bash version 2, since bash 2 drops privileges on startup. (Debian uses a modified bash which does not do this when invoked as sh.)

The check for the availability of /bin/sh is not actually performed; it is always assumed to be available. ISO C specifies the check, but POSIX.2 specifies that the return shall always be non-zero, since a system without the shell is not conforming, and it is this that is implemented.

It is possible for the shell command to return 127, so that code is not a sure indication that the execve() call failed; check errno to make sure.

textdomain

Name

textdomain -- set the current default message catalog to DOMAINNAME

Synopsis

#include <libintl.h>

extern char *textdomain(const char *domainname);

Description

Set the current default message catalog to DOMAINNAME.

If DOMAINNAME is null, return the current default.

If DOMAINNAME is "", reset to the default of "messages".

vasprintf

Name

vasprintf -- write formatted output to a string dynamically allocated with malloc and store the address of the string

Synopsis

#include <stdio.h>

extern int vasprintf(char **restrict ptr, const char *restrict f,
                     G_va_list arg);

Description

Write formatted output to a string dynamically allocated with malloc.

Store the address of the string in *ptr.

vdprintf

Name

vdprintf -- write formatted output to a file descriptor

Synopsis

#include <stdio.h>

extern int vdprintf(int fd, const char *restrict fmt,
                    G_va_list arg);

Description

Write formatted output to a file descriptor.

verrx

Name

verrx -- display formatted error messages

Synopsis

#include <err.h>

void verrx(int eval, const char *fmt, valist args);

Description

The verrx() function displays a formatted error message on the standard error output. The last component of the program name, a colon character, and a space are output. If the fmt argument is not NULL, the formatted error message, a colon character, and a space are output. The output is followed by a newline character.

The verrx() function does not return, but exits with the value of the argument eval.

wait4

Name

wait4 -- wait for process termination, BSD style

Synopsis

#define _USE_BSD
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/resource.h>
#include <sys/wait.h>

pid_t wait4(pid_t pid, int *status, int options,
            struct rusage *rusage);

Description

The wait4 function suspends execution of the current process until a child as specified by the pid argument has exited, or until a signal is delivered whose action is to terminate the current process or to call a signal handling function. If a child as requested by pid has already exited by the time of the call (a so-called "zombie" process), the function returns immediately. Any system resources used by the child are freed.

The value of pid can be one of:

< -1

wait for any child process whose process group ID is equal to the absolute value of pid.

-1

wait for any child process; this is equivalent to calling wait3.

0

wait for any child process whose process group ID is equal to that of the calling process.

> 0

wait for the child whose process ID is equal to the value of pid.

The value of options is a bitwise OR of zero or more of the following constants:

WNOHANG

return immediately if no child is there to be waited for.

WUNTRACED

return for children which are stopped, and whose status has not been reported.

If status is not NULL, wait4 stores status information in the location pointed to by status.

This status can be evaluated with the following macros (these macros take the stat buffer (an int) as an argument -- not a pointer to the buffer!):

WIFEXITED(status)

is non-zero if the child exited normally.

WEXITSTATUS(status)

evaluates to the least significant eight bits of the return code of the child which terminated, which may have been set as the argument to a call to exit() or as the argument for a return statement in the main program. This macro can only be evaluated if WIFEXITED returned non-zero.

WIFSIGNALED(status)

returns true if the child process exited because of a signal which was not caught.

WTERMSIG(status)

returns the number of the signal that caused the child process to terminate. This macro can only be evaluated if WIFSIGNALED returned non-zero.

WIFSTOPPED(status)

returns true if the child process which caused the return is currently stopped; this is only possible if the call was done using WUNTRACED.

WSTOPSIG(status)

returns the number of the signal which caused the child to stop. This macro can only be evaluated if WIFSTOPPED returned non-zero.

If rusage is not NULL, the struct rusage as defined in <sys/resource.h> it points to will be filled with accounting information. See getrusage(2) for details.

Return Value

The process ID of the child which exited, -1 on error (in particular, when no unwaited-for child processes of the specified kind exist) or zero if WNOHANG was used and no child was available yet. In the latter two cases errno will be set appropriately.

Errors

ECHILD

No unwaited-for child process as specified does exist.

ERESTARTSYS

If WNOHANG was not set and an unblocked signal or a SIGCHLD was caught. This error is returned by the system call. The library interface is not allowed to return ERESTARTSYS, but will return EINTR.

warn

Name

warn -- formatted error messages

Synopsis

#include <err.h>

void warn(const char *fmt, ...);

Description

The warn() function displays a formatted error message on the standard error output. The last component of the program name, a colon character, and a space are output. If the fmt argument is not NULL, the formatted error message, a colon character, and a space are output. The error message string affiliated with the current value of the global variable errno is output. The output is followed by a newline character.

warnx

Name

warnx -- formatted error messages

Synopsis

#include <err.h>

void warnx(const char *fmt, ...);

Description

The warnx() function displays a formatted error message on the standard error output. The last component of the program name, a colon character, and a space are output. If the fmt argument is not NULL, the formatted error message, a colon character, and a space are output. The output is followed by a newline character.

wcpcpy

Name

wcpcpy -- copy a wide character string, returning a pointer to its end

Synopsis

#include <wchar.h>

wchar_t *wcpcpy(wchar_t *dest, const wchar_t *src);

Description

The wcpcpy function is the wide-character equivalent of the stpcpy function. It copies the wide character string pointed to by src, including the terminating L'\0' character, to the array pointed to by dest.

The strings may not overlap.

The programmer must ensure that there is room for at least wcslen(src)+1 wide characters at dest.

Return Value

wcpcpy returns a pointer to the end of the wide-character string dest, that is, a pointer to the terminating L'\0' character.

wcpncpy

Name

wcpncpy -- copy a fixed-size string of wide characters, returning a pointer to its end

Synopsis

#include <wchar.h>

wchar_t *wcpncpy(wchar_t *dest, const wchar_t *src, size_t n);

Description

The wcpncpy function is the wide-character equivalent of the stpncpy function. It copies at most n wide characters from the wide-character string pointed to by src, including the terminating L'\0' character, to the array pointed to by dest. Exactly n wide characters are written at dest. If the length wcslen(src) is smaller than n, the remaining wide characters in the array pointed to by dest are filled with L'\0' characters. If the length wcslen(src) is greater or equal to n, the string pointed to by dest will not be L'\0' terminated.

The strings may not overlap.

The programmer must ensure that there is room for at least n wide characters at dest.

Return Value

wcpncpy returns a pointer to the last wide character written, i.e. dest + n - 1.

wcscasecmp

Name

wcscasecmp -- compare two wide-character strings, ignoring case

Synopsis

#include <wchar.h>

int wcscasecmp(const wchar_t *s1, const wchar_t *s2);

Description

The wcscasecmp function is the wide-character equivalent of the strcasecmp function. It compares the wide-character string pointed to by s1 and the wide-character string pointed to by s2, ignoring case differences (towupper, towlower).

Return Value

The wcscasecmp function returns zero if the wide-character strings at s1 and s2 are equal except for case distinctions. It returns a positive integer if s1 is greater than s2, ignoring case. It returns a negative integer if s1 is smaller than s2, ignoring case.

Notes

The behavior of wcscasecmp depends on the LC_CTYPE category of the current locale.

wcsdup

Name

wcsdup -- duplicate a wide-character string

Synopsis

#include <wchar.h>

wchar_t *wcsdup(const wchar_t *s);

Description

The wcsdup function is the wide-character equivalent of the strdup function. It allocates and returns a new wide-character string whose initial contents is a duplicate of the wide-character string pointed to by s.

Memory for the new wide-character string is obtained with malloc(3), and can be freed with free(3).

Return Value

The wcsdup function returns a pointer to the new wide-character string, or NULL if sufficient memory was not available.

wcsncasecmp

Name

wcsncasecmp -- compare two fixed-size wide-character strings, ignoring case

Synopsis

#include <wchar.h>

int wcsncasecmp(const wchar_t *s1, const wchar_t *s2, size_t n);

Description

The wcsncasecmp function is the wide-character equivalent of the strncasecmp function. It compares the wide-character string pointed to by s1 and the wide-character string pointed to by s2, but at most n wide characters from each string, ignoring case differences (towupper, towlower).

Return Value

The wcsncasecmp function returns zero if the wide-character strings at s1 and s2, truncated to at most length n, are equal except for case distinctions. It returns a positive integer if truncated s1 is greater than truncated s2, ignoring case. It returns a negative integer if truncated s1 is smaller than truncated s2, ignoring case.

Notes

The behavior of wcsncasecmp depends on the LC_CTYPE category of the current locale.

wcsnlen

Name

wcsnlen -- determine the length of a fixed-size wide-character string

Synopsis

#include <wchar.h>

size_t wcsnlen(const wchar_t *s, size_t maxlen);

Description

The wcsnlen function is the wide-character equivalent of the strnlen function. It returns the number of wide-characters in the string pointed to by s, not including the terminating L'\0' character, but at most maxlen. In doing this, wcsnlen looks only at the first maxlen wide-characters at s and never beyond s+maxlen.

Return Value

The wcsnlen function returns wcslen(s), if that is less than maxlen, or maxlen if there is no L'\0' character among the first maxlen wide characters pointed to by s.

Notes

The behavior of wcsncasecmp depends on the LC_CTYPE category of the current locale.

wcsnrtombs

Name

wcsnrtombs -- convert a wide character string to a multi-byte string

Synopsis

#include <wchar.h>

size_t wcsnrtombs(char *dest, const wchar_t **src, size_t nwc,
                  size_t len, mbstate_t *ps);

Description

The wcsnrtombs function is like the wcsrtombs function, except that the number of wide characters to be converted, starting at *src, is limited to nwc.

If dest is not a NULL pointer, the wcsnrtombs function converts at most nwc wide characters from the wide-character string *src to a multibyte string starting at dest. At most len bytes are written to dest. The state *ps is updated. The conversion is effectively performed by repeatedly calling wcrtomb(dest,*src,ps), as long as this call succeeds, and then incrementing dest by the number of bytes written and *src by one. The conversion can stop for three reasons:

1. A wide character has been encountered that can not be represented as a multibyte sequence (according to the current locale). In this case *src is left pointing to the invalid wide character, (size_t)(-1) is returned, and errno is set to EILSEQ.

2. nwc wide characters have been converted without encountering a L'\0', or the length limit forces a stop. In this case *src is left pointing to the next wide character to be converted, and the number of bytes written to dest is returned.

3. The wide-character string has been completely converted, including the terminating L'\0' (which has the side effect of bringing back *ps to the initial state). In this case *src is set to NULL, and the number of bytes written to dest, excluding the terminating '\0' byte, is returned.

If dest is NULL, len is ignored, and the conversion proceeds as above, except that the converted bytes are not written out to memory, and that no destination length limit exists.

In both of the above cases, if ps is a NULL pointer, a static anonymous state only known to the wcsnrtombs function is used instead.

The programmer must ensure that there is room for at least len bytes at dest.

Return Value

The wcsnrtombs function returns the number of bytes that make up the converted part of multibyte sequence, not including the terminating null byte. If a wide character was encountered which could not be converted, (size_t)(-1) is returned, and errno set to EILSEQ.

Notes

The behavior of wcsnrtombs depends on the LC_CTYPE category of the current locale.

Passing NULL as ps is not multi-thread safe.

wcstoq

Name

wcstoq -- convert initial portion of wide string NPTR to long int representation

Synopsis

#include <wchar.h>

extern long long int wcstoq(const wchar_t *restrict nptr,
                            wchar_t **restrict endptr, int base);

Description

Convert initial portion of wide string NPTR to long int representation.

wcstouq

Name

wcstouq -- convert initial portion of wide string NPTR to unsigned long long int representation

Synopsis

#include <wchar.h>

extern unsigned long long int wcstouq(const wchar_t *restrict nptr,
                           wchar_t **restrict endptr,int base);

Description

Convert initial portion of wide string NPTR to unsigned long long int representation.


Interfaces for libm

The behavior of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following standards.

ISO/IEC 9899: 1999, Programming Languages --C[11]
CAE Specification, January 1997, System Interfaces and Headers (XSH), Issue 5 (ISBN: 1-85912-181-0, C606)[12]


Math

Table 10-28. libm - Math Function Interfaces

acos(GLIBC_2.0)[12]ceilf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]erff(GLIBC_2.0)[11]j1f(GLIBC_2.0)[11]remquo(GLIBC_2.0)[11]
acosf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]ceill(GLIBC_2.0)[11]erfl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]j1l(GLIBC_2.0)[11]remquof(GLIBC_2.0)[11]
acosh(GLIBC_2.0)[12]cexp(GLIBC_2.0)[11]exp(GLIBC_2.0)[12]jn(GLIBC_2.0)[12]remquol(GLIBC_2.0)[11]
acoshf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]cexpf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]expm1(GLIBC_2.0)[12]jnf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]rint(GLIBC_2.0)[12]
acoshl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]cexpl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]fabs(GLIBC_2.0)[12]jnl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]rintf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]
acosl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]cimag(GLIBC_2.0)[11]fabsf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]ldexp(GLIBC_2.0)[12]rintl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]
asin(GLIBC_2.0)[12]cimagf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]fabsl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]ldexpf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]round(GLIBC_2.0)[11]
asinf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]cimagl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]fdim(GLIBC_2.0)[11]ldexpl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]roundf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]
asinh(GLIBC_2.0)[12]clog(GLIBC_2.0)[11]fdimf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]lgamma(GLIBC_2.0)[12]roundl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]
asinhf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]clog10(GLIBC_2.0)[11]fdiml(GLIBC_2.0)[11]lgamma_r(GLIBC_2.0)[11]scalb(GLIBC_2.0)[12]
asinhl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]clog10f(GLIBC_2.0)[11]feclearexcept(GLIBC_2.0)[11]lgammaf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]scalbf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]
asinl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]clog10l(GLIBC_2.0)[11]fegetenv(GLIBC_2.0)[11]lgammaf_r(GLIBC_2.0)[11]scalbl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]
atan(GLIBC_2.0)[12]clogf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]fegetexceptflag(GLIBC_2.0)[11]lgammal(GLIBC_2.0)[11]scalbln(GLIBC_2.0)[11]
atan2(GLIBC_2.0)[12]clogl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]fegetround(GLIBC_2.0)[11]lgammal_r(GLIBC_2.0)[11]scalblnf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]
atan2f(GLIBC_2.0)[11]conj(GLIBC_2.0)[11]feholdexcept(GLIBC_2.0)[11]llrint(GLIBC_2.0)[11]scalblnl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]
atan2l(GLIBC_2.0)[11]conjf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]feraiseexcept(GLIBC_2.0)[11]llrintf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]scalbn(GLIBC_2.0)[11]
atanf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]conjl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]fesetenv(GLIBC_2.0)[11]llrintl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]scalbnf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]
atanh(GLIBC_2.0)[12]copysign(GLIBC_2.0)[11]fesetexceptflag(GLIBC_2.0)[11]llround(GLIBC_2.0)[11]scalbnl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]
atanhf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]copysignf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]fesetround(GLIBC_2.0)[11]llroundf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]significand(GLIBC_2.0)[11]
atanhl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]copysignl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]fetestexcept(GLIBC_2.0)[11]llroundl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]significandf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]
atanl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]cos(GLIBC_2.0)[12]feupdateenv(GLIBC_2.0)[11]log(GLIBC_2.0)[12]significandl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]
cabs(GLIBC_2.1)[12]cosf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]finite(GLIBC_2.1)[12]log10(GLIBC_2.1)[12]sin(GLIBC_2.1)[12]
cabsf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]cosh(GLIBC_2.1)[12]finitef(GLIBC_2.1)[11]log1p(GLIBC_2.1)[12]sincos(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
cabsl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]coshf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]finitel(GLIBC_2.1)[11]logb(GLIBC_2.1)[12]sincosf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
cacos(GLIBC_2.1)[11]coshl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]floor(GLIBC_2.1)[12]lrint(GLIBC_2.1)[11]sincosl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
cacosf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]cosl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]floorf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]lrintf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]sinf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
cacosh(GLIBC_2.1)[11]cpow(GLIBC_2.1)[11]floorl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]lrintl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]sinh(GLIBC_2.1)[12]
cacoshf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]cpowf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]fma(GLIBC_2.1)[11]lround(GLIBC_2.1)[11]sinhf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
cacoshl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]cpowl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]fmaf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]lroundf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]sinhl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
cacosl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]cproj(GLIBC_2.1)[11]fmal(GLIBC_2.1)[11]lroundl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]sinl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
carg(GLIBC_2.1)[11]cprojf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]fmax(GLIBC_2.1)[11]matherr(GLIBC_2.1)[11]sqrt(GLIBC_2.1)[12]
cargf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]cprojl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]fmaxf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]modf(GLIBC_2.1)[12]sqrtf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
cargl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]creal(GLIBC_2.1)[11]fmaxl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]modff(GLIBC_2.1)[11]sqrtl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
casin(GLIBC_2.1)[11]creall(GLIBC_2.1)[11]fmin(GLIBC_2.1)[11]modfl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]tan(GLIBC_2.1)[12]
casinf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]csin(GLIBC_2.1)[11]fminf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]nan(GLIBC_2.1)[11]tanf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
casinh(GLIBC_2.1)[11]csinf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]fminl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]nanf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]tanh(GLIBC_2.1)[12]
casinhf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]csinh(GLIBC_2.1)[11]fmod(GLIBC_2.1)[12]nanl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]tanhf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
casinhl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]csinhf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]fmodf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]nearbyint(GLIBC_2.1)[11]tanhl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
casinl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]csinhl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]fmodl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]nearbyintf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]tanl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
catan(GLIBC_2.1)[11]csinl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]frexp(GLIBC_2.1)[12]nearbyintl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]tgamma(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
catanf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]csqrt(GLIBC_2.1)[11]frexpf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]nextafter(GLIBC_2.1)[12]tgammaf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
catanh(GLIBC_2.1)[11]csqrtf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]frexpl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]nextafterf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]tgammal(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
catanhf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]csqrtl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]gamma(GLIBC_2.1)[12]nextafterl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]trunc(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
catanhl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]ctan(GLIBC_2.1)[11]gammaf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]nexttoward(GLIBC_2.1)[11]truncf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
catanl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]ctanf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]gammal(GLIBC_2.1)[11]nexttowardf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]truncl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
cbrt(GLIBC_2.0)[12]ctanh(GLIBC_2.0)[11]hypot(GLIBC_2.0)[12]nexttowardl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]y0(GLIBC_2.0)[12]
cbrtf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]ctanhf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]hypotf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]pow(GLIBC_2.0)[12]y0f(GLIBC_2.0)[11]
cbrtl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]ctanhl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]hypotl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]pow10(GLIBC_2.0)[11]y0l(GLIBC_2.0)[11]
ccos(GLIBC_2.1)[11]ctanl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]ilogb(GLIBC_2.1)[12]pow10f(GLIBC_2.1)[11]y1(GLIBC_2.1)[12]
ccosf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]dremf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]ilogbf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]pow10l(GLIBC_2.1)[11]y1f(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
ccosh(GLIBC_2.1)[11]dreml(GLIBC_2.1)[11]ilogbl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]powf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]y1l(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
ccoshf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]erf(GLIBC_2.1)[12]j0(GLIBC_2.1)[12]powl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]yn(GLIBC_2.1)[12]
ccoshl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]erfc(GLIBC_2.1)[12]j0f(GLIBC_2.1)[11]remainder(GLIBC_2.1)[12]ynf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
ccosl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]erfcf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]j0l(GLIBC_2.1)[11]remainderf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]ynl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
ceil(GLIBC_2.0)[12]erfcl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]j1(GLIBC_2.0)[12]remainderl(GLIBC_2.0)[11] 

Data Symbols

Table 10-29. libm - Math Data Interfaces

signgam[12]    

Data Definitions for libm


math.h


struct exception
{
  int type;
  char *name;
  double arg1;
  double arg2;
  double retval;
}
 ;

#define HUGE_VAL	0x7FF00000UL

#define M_1_PI	0.31830988618379067154
#define M_LOG10E	0.43429448190325182765
#define M_2_PI	0.63661977236758134308
#define M_LN2	0.69314718055994530942
#define M_SQRT1_2	0.70710678118654752440
#define M_PI_4	0.78539816339744830962
#define M_2_SQRTPI	1.12837916709551257390
#define M_SQRT2	1.41421356237309504880
#define M_LOG2E	1.4426950408889634074
#define M_PI_2	1.57079632679489661923
#define M_LN10	2.30258509299404568402
#define M_E	2.7182818284590452354
#define M_PI	3.14159265358979323846

Interfaces for libpthread

LSB systems support POSIX threads with the following exceptions. This list is intended to match the behavior of historical Linux implementations. Applications should be written to deal with either POSIX threads or the thread behaviors described here.

  • POSIX specifies a concept of per-process rather than per-thread signals. The LSB does not require this behavior; traditional Linux implementations have had per-thread signals only. A related issue is that applications cannot rely on getpid() returning the same value in different threads.

  • Note: one implication of per-thread signals is that a core dump (for example) may not stop all threads in a given process. This may be an issue when designing ways to stop/start applications.

  • Applications which create child processes (using fork() and the like) must then wait for them (using waitpid() family of functions) in the same thread as they created them. Note that coding applications this way will work both with full POSIX threads and legacy Linux thread implementations.

  • POSIX specifies that changing the user or group id instantly affects the behavior of all threads. This behavior is not specified; applications must use their own lock if they need this behavior. Rationale: it seems unnecessary and it is a performance hit (an SMP kernel must lock the user id).

  • Although this standard doesn't have a way to list processes (/proc or "ps" command line isn't in, right?), it is our intention to not specify one way or the other whether multiple threads appear as separate processes or as a single process.

  • Applications cannot rely on resource limits (getrusage and setrusage) being maintained per-process rather than per-thread.

  • Applications must disconnect from the controlling tty before calling pthread_create.

  • times() doesn't account for all threads, just the caller.

  • Applications must not call pthread_cancel if they call any system libraries (most notably X Window System libraries), as system libraries are not guaranteed to be thread safe. Likewise, for such libraries, only one thread per process may call them.

  • Applications cannot rely on fcntl/lockf locks being visible per-process rather than per-thread. Likewise for mandatory file locks.

  • Threaded applications cannot use SIGUSR1 or SIGUSR2.

The behavior of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following standards.

Linux Standard Base[13]
CAE Specification, January 1997, System Interfaces and Headers (XSH), Issue 5 (ISBN: 1-85912-181-0, C606)[14]


Posix Threads

Table 10-30. libpthread - Posix Threads Function Interfaces

pthread_attr_destroy(GLIBC_2.0)[14]pthread_attr_setstackaddr(GLIBC_2.0)[14]pthread_getspecific(GLIBC_2.0)[14]pthread_once(GLIBC_2.0)[14]pthread_setspecific(GLIBC_2.0)[14]
pthread_attr_getdetachstate(GLIBC_2.0)[14]pthread_attr_setstacksize(GLIBC_2.0)[14]pthread_join(GLIBC_2.0)[14]pthread_rwlock_destroy(GLIBC_2.0)[14]pthread_sigmask(GLIBC_2.0)[14]
pthread_attr_getguardsize(GLIBC_2.1)[14]pthread_cancel(GLIBC_2.1)[14]pthread_key_create(GLIBC_2.1)[14]pthread_rwlock_init(GLIBC_2.1)[14]pthread_testcancel(GLIBC_2.1)[14]
pthread_attr_getinheritsched(GLIBC_2.0)[14]pthread_cond_broadcast(GLIBC_2.0)[14]pthread_key_delete(GLIBC_2.0)[14]pthread_rwlock_rdlock(GLIBC_2.0)[14]sem_close(GLIBC_2.0)[14]
pthread_attr_getschedparam(GLIBC_2.0)[14]pthread_cond_destroy(GLIBC_2.0)[14]pthread_kill(GLIBC_2.0)[14]pthread_rwlock_tryrdlock(GLIBC_2.0)[14]sem_destroy(GLIBC_2.0)[14]
pthread_attr_getschedpolicy(GLIBC_2.0)[14]pthread_cond_init(GLIBC_2.0)[14]pthread_mutex_destroy(GLIBC_2.0)[14]pthread_rwlock_trywrlock(GLIBC_2.0)[14]sem_getvalue(GLIBC_2.0)[14]
pthread_attr_getscope(GLIBC_2.0)[14]pthread_cond_signal(GLIBC_2.0)[14]pthread_mutex_init(GLIBC_2.0)[14]pthread_rwlock_unlock(GLIBC_2.0)[14]sem_init(GLIBC_2.0)[14]
pthread_attr_getstackaddr(GLIBC_2.1)[14]pthread_cond_timedwait(GLIBC_2.1)[14]pthread_mutex_lock(GLIBC_2.1)[14]pthread_rwlock_wrlock(GLIBC_2.1)[14]sem_open(GLIBC_2.1)[14]
pthread_attr_getstacksize(GLIBC_2.1)[14]pthread_cond_wait(GLIBC_2.1)[14]pthread_mutex_trylock(GLIBC_2.1)[14]pthread_rwlockattr_destroy(GLIBC_2.1)[14]sem_post(GLIBC_2.1)[14]
pthread_attr_init(GLIBC_2.1)[14]pthread_condattr_destroy(GLIBC_2.1)[14]pthread_mutex_unlock(GLIBC_2.1)[14]pthread_rwlockattr_getpshared(GLIBC_2.1)[14]sem_timedwait(GLIBC_2.1)[13]
pthread_attr_setdetachstate(GLIBC_2.0)[14]pthread_condattr_init(GLIBC_2.0)[14]pthread_mutexattr_destroy(GLIBC_2.0)[14]pthread_rwlockattr_init(GLIBC_2.0)[14]sem_trywait(GLIBC_2.0)[14]
pthread_attr_setguardsize(GLIBC_2.1)[14]pthread_create(GLIBC_2.1)[14]pthread_mutexattr_getpshared(GLIBC_2.1)[14]pthread_rwlockattr_setpshared(GLIBC_2.1)[14]sem_unlink(GLIBC_2.1)[14]
pthread_attr_setinheritsched(GLIBC_2.0)[14]pthread_detach(GLIBC_2.0)[14]pthread_mutexattr_gettype(GLIBC_2.0)[14]pthread_self(GLIBC_2.0)[14]sem_wait(GLIBC_2.0)[14]
pthread_attr_setschedparam(GLIBC_2.0)[14]pthread_equal(GLIBC_2.0)[14]pthread_mutexattr_init(GLIBC_2.0)[14]pthread_setcancelstate(GLIBC_2.0)[14] 
pthread_attr_setschedpolicy(GLIBC_2.0)[14]pthread_exit(GLIBC_2.0)[14]pthread_mutexattr_setpshared(GLIBC_2.0)[14]pthread_setcanceltype(GLIBC_2.0)[14] 
pthread_attr_setscope(GLIBC_2.0)[14]pthread_getschedparam(GLIBC_2.0)[14]pthread_mutexattr_settype(GLIBC_2.0)[14]pthread_setschedparam(GLIBC_2.0)[14] 

Data Definitions for libpthread


pthread.h


typedef unsigned int pthread_key_t;

typedef int pthread_once_t;

struct _pthread_fastlock
{
  int __spinlock;
}
 ;


typedef unsigned long pthread_t;


typedef struct _pthread_descr_struct *_pthread_descr;

struct _pthread_descr_struct;


typedef struct
{
  struct _pthread_fastlock lock;
  _pthread_descr owner;
  int kind;
  unsigned int count;
}
pthread_mutex_t;

typedef struct
{
  int __mutexkind;
}
pthread_mutexattr_t;


typedef struct
{
  int __detachstate;
  int __schedpolicy;
  struct sched_param __schedparam;
  int __inheritsched;
  int __scope;
  void *__stackaddr;
  unsigned long __stacksize;
}
pthread_attr_t;


typedef struct
{
  struct _pthread_fastlock lock;
  _pthread_descr wait_chain;
}
pthread_cond_t;

typedef void *pthread_condattr_t;



#define PTHREAD_ONCE_INIT	0
#define PTHREAD_CREATE_DETACHED	PTHREAD_CREATE_DETACHED
#define PTHREAD_CREATE_JOINABLE	PTHREAD_CREATE_JOINABLE
#define PTHREAD_EXPLICIT_SCHED	PTHREAD_EXPLICIT_SCHED
#define PTHREAD_INHERIT_SCHED	PTHREAD_INHERIT_SCHED
#define PTHREAD_PROCESS_PRIVATE	PTHREAD_PROCESS_PRIVATE
#define PTHREAD_PROCESS_SHARED	PTHREAD_PROCESS_SHARED
#define PTHREAD_SCOPE_PROCESS	PTHREAD_SCOPE_PROCESS
#define PTHREAD_SCOPE_SYSTEM	PTHREAD_SCOPE_SYSTEM

#define PTHREAD_CANCELED	((void*)-1)
#define PTHREAD_CANCEL_ASYNCHRONOUS	PTHREAD_CANCEL_ASYNCHRONOUS
#define PTHREAD_CANCEL_DEFERRED	PTHREAD_CANCEL_DEFERRED
#define PTHREAD_CANCEL_DISABLE	PTHREAD_CANCEL_DISABLE
#define PTHREAD_CANCEL_ENABLE	PTHREAD_CANCEL_ENABLE

semaphore.h


typedef struct
{
  long status;
  int spinlock;
}
sem_t;


#define SEM_FAILED	((sem_t*)0)

#define SEM_VALUE_MAX	((int)((~0u)>>1))

Interfaces Definitions for libpthread

Table of Contents
sem_timedwait -- operation on semaphore

sem_timedwait

Name

sem_timedwait -- operation on semaphore

Synopsis

#include <semaphore.h>
int sem_timedwait(sem_t *__restrict __sem, 
		  __const struct timespec *__restrict __abstime);

Description

sem_timedwait() waits for semaphore object SEM being posted. It is a new function from IEEE Std. 1003.1-200x that is similar to sem_wait but waits only until ABSTIME.


Interfaces for libdl

Table 10-31. libdl Definition

Library:libdl
SONAME:libdl.so.2

The behavior of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following standards.

Linux Standard Base[15]
CAE Specification, January 1997, System Interfaces and Headers (XSH), Issue 5 (ISBN: 1-85912-181-0, C606)[16]


Dynamic Loader

Table 10-32. libdl - Dynamic Loader Function Interfaces

dladdr(GLIBC_2.0)[15]dlclose(GLIBC_2.0)[16]dlerror(GLIBC_2.0)[16]dlopen(GLIBC_2.0)[16]dlsym(GLIBC_2.0)[16]

Data Definitions for libdl


dlfcn.h


typedef struct
{
  char *dli_fname;
  void *dli_fbase;
  char *dli_sname;
  void *dli_saddr;
}
Dl_info;

#define RTLD_LOCAL	0
#define RTLD_LAZY	0x00001
#define RTLD_NOW	0x00002
#define RTLD_GLOBAL	0x00100

Interfaces Definitions for libdl

Table of Contents
dladdr -- library routine for dynamic linking of object files

dladdr

Name

dladdr -- library routine for dynamic linking of object files

Synopsis

cc ... -ldl ...

#include <dlfcn.h>

typedef struct {
             const char      *dli_fname;
             void            *dli_fbase;
             const char      *dli_sname;
             void            *dli_saddr;
} Dl_info;

int dladdr(void *address, Dlinfo *dlip);

Description

This function implements the System V dynamic linking routines.

The dladdr() function is the inverse of the dlsym() function. If the given address is successfully located inside a module, dladdr() returns nonzero, otherwise 0. On a successful return, the fields of dlip are filled in as follows:

dli_fname

the pathname of the module

dli_fbase

the base address of the module

dli_sname

the name of the highest addressed symbol whose address precedes the given address

dli_saddr

the address of that symbol

Shared objects must be linked using the -shared option to the linker ld(1). The linker flag -rpath may be used to add a directory to the default search path for shared objects and shared libraries. The linker flag -E or the C compiler flag -rdynamic should be used to cause the application to export its symbols to the shared objects.

Environment

LD_LIBRARY_PATH

directory search-path for object files


Interfaces for libcrypt

Table 10-33. libcrypt Definition

Library:libcrypt
SONAME:libcrypt.so.1

The behavior of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following standards.

CAE Specification, January 1997, System Interfaces and Headers (XSH), Issue 5 (ISBN: 1-85912-181-0, C606)[17]


Encryption

Table 10-34. libcrypt - Encryption Function Interfaces

crypt(GLIBC_2.0)[17]encrypt(GLIBC_2.0)[17]setkey(GLIBC_2.0)[17]  

Data Definitions for libcrypt


unistd.h


typedef int ssize_t;

typedef int pid_t;

typedef int *intptr_t;

#define SEEK_SET	0
#define STDIN_FILENO	0
#define STDOUT_FILENO	1
#define SEEK_CUR	1
#define _SC_CLK_TCK	2
#define SEEK_END	2
#define STDERR_FILENO	2
#define _SC_OPEN_MAX	4

#define F_OK	0
#define X_OK	1
#define W_OK	2
#define R_OK	4

Interfaces for librt

The behavior of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following standards.

Large File Support[18]
CAE Specification, January 1997, System Interfaces and Headers (XSH), Issue 5 (ISBN: 1-85912-181-0, C606)[19]


Asynchronous I/O

Table 10-35. librt - Asynchronous I/O Function Interfaces

aio_cancel(GLIBC_2.1)[19]aio_read(GLIBC_2.1)[19]aio_write(GLIBC_2.1)[19]clock_settime(GLIBC_2.1)[19]timer_delete(GLIBC_2.1)[19]
aio_cancel64(GLIBC_2.1)[18]aio_read64(GLIBC_2.1)[18]aio_write64(GLIBC_2.1)[18]lio_listio(GLIBC_2.1)[19]timer_getoverrun(GLIBC_2.1)[19]
aio_error(GLIBC_2.1)[19]aio_return(GLIBC_2.1)[19]clock_getcpuclockid(GLIBC_2.1)[19]lio_listio64(GLIBC_2.1)[18]timer_gettime(GLIBC_2.1)[19]
aio_error64(GLIBC_2.1)[18]aio_return64(GLIBC_2.1)[18]clock_getres(GLIBC_2.1)[19]shm_open(GLIBC_2.1)[19]timer_settime(GLIBC_2.1)[19]
aio_fsync(GLIBC_2.1)[19]aio_suspend(GLIBC_2.1)[19]clock_gettime(GLIBC_2.1)[19]shm_unlink(GLIBC_2.1)[19] 
aio_fsync64(GLIBC_2.1)[18]aio_suspend64(GLIBC_2.1)[18]clock_nanosleep(GLIBC_2.1)[19]timer_create(GLIBC_2.1)[19] 

Data Definitions for librt


aio.h


enum
{
  AIO_CANCELED,
  AIO_NOTCANCELED,
  AIO_ALLDONE
}
 ;

#define AIO_ALLDONE	AIO_ALLDONE
#define AIO_CANCELED	AIO_CANCELED
#define AIO_NOTCANCELED	AIO_NOTCANCELED

enum
{
  LIO_READ,
  LIO_WRITE,
  LIO_NOP
}
 ;

#define LIO_NOP	LIO_NOP
#define LIO_READ	LIO_READ
#define LIO_WAIT	LIO_WAIT

enum
{
  LIO_WAIT,
  LIO_NOWAIT
}
 ;

#define LIO_NOWAIT	LIO_NOWAIT
#define LIO_WRITE	LIO_WRITE

struct aiocb
{
  int aio_fildes;
  int aio_lio_opcode;
  int aio_reqprio;
  void *aio_buf;
  size_t aio_nbytes;
  Unknown Type:".." aio_sigevent;
  struct aiocb *__next_prio;
  int __abs_prio;
  int __policy;
  int __error_code;
  __ssize_t __return_value;
  __off_t aio_offset;
  char __pad[1];
  char __unused[1];
}
 ;

struct aiocb64
{
  int aio_fildes;
  int aio_lio_opcode;
  int aio_reqprio;
  void *aio_buf;
  size_t aio_nbytes;
  Unknown Type:".." aio_sigevent;
  struct aiocb *__next_prio;
  int __abs_prio;
  int __policy;
  int __error_code;
  __ssize_t __return_value;
  __off64_t aio_offset;
  char __unused[1];
}
 ;

sys/time.h


struct timezone
{
  int tz_minuteswest;
  int tz_dsttime;
}
 ;

#define ITIMER_REAL	0
#define ITIMER_VIRTUAL	1
#define ITIMER_PROF	2


enum __itimer_which;

typedef int __itimer_which_t;


struct timespec
{
  time_t tv_sec;
  long tv_nsec;
}
 ;


struct tm
{
  int tm_sec;
  int tm_min;
  int tm_hour;
  int tm_mday;
  int tm_mon;
  int tm_year;
  int tm_wday;
  int tm_yday;
  int tm_isdst;
  long tm_gmtoff;
  char *tm_zone;
}
 ;


struct timeval
{
  time_t tv_sec;
  suseconds_t tv_usec;
}
 ;


struct itimerval
{
  struct timeval it_interval;
  struct timeval it_value;
}
 ;

time.h


#define CLOCK_REALTIME	0
#define TIMER_ABSTIME	1
#define CLOCKS_PER_SEC	1000000l

typedef long __clock_t;


typedef __clock_t clock_t;

V. Utility Libraries

Table of Contents
11. Libraries

Chapter 11. Libraries

An LSB-conforming implementation may also support some utility libraries which are built on top of the interfaces provided by the base libraries. These libraries implement common functionality, and hide additional system dependent information such as file formats and device names.


Interfaces for libz

Table 11-1. libz Definition

Library:libz
SONAME:libz.so.1

The behavior of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following standards.

zlib 1.1.3 Manual[20]


Compression Library

Table 11-2. libz - Compression Library Function Interfaces

adler32[20]deflateInit_[20]gzerror[20]gzread[20]inflateInit2_[20]
compress[20]deflateParams[20]gzflush[20]gzrewind[20]inflateInit_[20]
compress2[20]deflateReset[20]gzgetc[20]gzseek[20]inflateReset[20]
crc32[20]deflateSetDictionary[20]gzgets[20]gzsetparams[20]inflateSetDictionary[20]
deflate[20]get_crc_table[20]gzopen[20]gztell[20]inflateSync[20]
deflateCopy[20]gzclose[20]gzprintf[20]gzwrite[20]inflateSyncPoint[20]
deflateEnd[20]gzdopen[20]gzputc[20]inflate[20]uncompress[20]
deflateInit2_[20]gzeof[20]gzputs[20]inflateEnd[20]zError[20]

Data Definitions for libz


zlib.h


typedef z_stream *z_streamp;

typedef voidp gzFile;

Interfaces for libncurses

Table 11-3. libncurses Definition

Library:libncurses
SONAME:libncurses.so.5

The behavior of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following standards.

CAE Specification, May 1996, X/Open Curses, Issue 4, Version 2 (ISBN: 1-85912-171-3, C610), plus Corrigendum U018[21]


Curses

Table 11-4. libncurses - Curses Function Interfaces

addch[21]has_ic[21]mvwaddch[21]scr_dump[21]waddchstr[21]
addchnstr[21]has_il[21]mvwaddchnstr[21]scr_init[21]waddnstr[21]
addchstr[21]hline[21]mvwaddchstr[21]scr_restore[21]waddstr[21]
addnstr[21]idcok[21]mvwaddnstr[21]scr_set[21]wattr_get[21]
addstr[21]idlok[21]mvwaddstr[21]scrl[21]wattr_off[21]
attr_get[21]immedok[21]mvwchgat[21]scroll[21]wattr_on[21]
attr_off[21]inch[21]mvwdelch[21]scrollok[21]wattr_set[21]
attr_on[21]inchnstr[21]mvwgetch[21]set_term[21]wattroff[21]
attr_set[21]inchstr[21]mvwgetnstr[21]setscrreg[21]wattron[21]
attroff[21]init_color[21]mvwgetstr[21]slk_attr_set[21]wattrset[21]
attron[21]init_pair[21]mvwhline[21]slk_attroff[21]wbkgd[21]
attrset[21]initscr[21]mvwin[21]slk_attron[21]wbkgdset[21]
baudrate[21]innstr[21]mvwinch[21]slk_attrset[21]wborder[21]
beep[21]insch[21]mvwinchnstr[21]slk_clear[21]wchgat[21]
bkgd[21]insdelln[21]mvwinchstr[21]slk_color[21]wclear[21]
bkgdset[21]insertln[21]mvwinnstr[21]slk_init[21]wclrtobot[21]
border[21]insnstr[21]mvwinsch[21]slk_label[21]wclrtoeol[21]
box[21]insstr[21]mvwinsnstr[21]slk_noutrefresh[21]wcolor_set[21]
can_change_color[21]instr[21]mvwinsstr[21]slk_refresh[21]wcursyncup[21]
cbreak[21]intrflush[21]mvwinstr[21]slk_restore[21]wdelch[21]
chgat[21]is_linetouched[21]mvwprintw[21]slk_set[21]wdeleteln[21]
clear[21]is_wintouched[21]mvwscanw[21]slk_touch[21]wechochar[21]
clearok[21]isendwin[21]mvwvline[21]standend[21]werase[21]
clrtobot[21]keyname[21]napms[21]standout[21]wgetch[21]
clrtoeol[21]keypad[21]newpad[21]start_color[21]wgetnstr[21]
color_content[21]killchar[21]newterm[21]subpad[21]wgetstr[21]
color_set[21]leaveok[21]newwin[21]subwin[21]whline[21]
copywin[21]longname[21]nl[21]syncok[21]winch[21]
curs_set[21]meta[21]nocbreak[21]termattrs[21]winchnstr[21]
def_prog_mode[21]move[21]nodelay[21]termname[21]winchstr[21]
def_shell_mode[21]mvaddch[21]noecho[21]tgetent[21]winnstr[21]
delay_output[21]mvaddchnstr[21]nonl[21]tgetflag[21]winsch[21]
delch[21]mvaddchstr[21]noqiflush[21]tgetnum[21]winsdelln[21]
deleteln[21]mvaddnstr[21]noraw[21]tgetstr[21]winsertln[21]
delscreen[21]mvaddstr[21]notimeout[21]tgoto[21]winsnstr[21]
delwin[21]mvchgat[21]overlay[21]tigetflag[21]winsstr[21]
derwin[21]mvcur[21]overwrite[21]tigetnum[21]winstr[21]
doupdate[21]mvdelch[21]pair_content[21]tigetstr[21]wmove[21]
dupwin[21]mvderwin[21]pechochar[21]timeout[21]wnoutrefresh[21]
echo[21]mvgetch[21]pnoutrefresh[21]tparm[21]wprintw[21]
echochar[21]mvgetnstr[21]prefresh[21]tputs[21]wredrawln[21]
endwin[21]mvgetstr[21]printw[21]typeahead[21]wrefresh[21]
erase[21]mvhline[21]putp[21]ungetch[21]wscanw[21]
erasechar[21]mvinch[21]putwin[21]untouchwin[21]wscrl[21]
filter[21]mvinchnstr[21]qiflush[21]use_env[21]wsetscrreg[21]
flash[21]mvinchstr[21]raw[21]vidattr[21]wstandend[21]
flushinp[21]mvinnstr[21]redrawwin[21]vidputs[21]wstandout[21]
getbkgd[21]mvinsch[21]refresh[21]vline[21]wsyncdown[21]
getch[21]mvinsnstr[21]reset_prog_mode[21]vw_printw[21]wsyncup[21]
getnstr[21]mvinsstr[21]reset_shell_mode[21]vw_scanw[21]wtimeout[21]
getstr[21]mvinstr[21]resetty[21]vwprintw[21]wtouchln[21]
getwin[21]mvprintw[21]ripoffline[21]vwscanw[21]wvline[21]
halfdelay[21]mvscanw[21]savetty[21]waddch[21] 
has_colors[21]mvvline[21]scanw[21]waddchnstr[21] 

Data Symbols

Table 11-5. libncurses - Curses Data Interfaces

COLS[21]LINES[21]curscr[21]stdscr[21] 

Data Definitions for libncurses


curses.h


#define WA_ALTCHARSET	A_ALTCHARSET
#define WA_ATTRIBUTES	A_ATTRIBUTES
#define WA_BLINK	A_BLINK
#define WA_BOLD	A_BOLD
#define WA_DIM	A_DIM
#define WA_HORIZONTAL	A_HORIZONTAL
#define WA_INVIS	A_INVIS
#define WA_LEFT	A_LEFT
#define WA_LOW	A_LOW
#define WA_NORMAL	A_NORMAL
#define WA_PROTECT	A_PROTECT
#define WA_REVERSE	A_REVERSE
#define WA_RIGHT	A_RIGHT
#define WA_STANDOUT	A_STANDOUT
#define WA_TOP	A_TOP
#define WA_UNDERLINE	A_UNDERLINE
#define WA_VERTICAL	A_VERTICAL

#define COLOR_BLACK	0
#define COLOR_RED	1
#define COLOR_GREEN	2
#define COLOR_YELLOW	3
#define COLOR_BLUE	4
#define COLOR_MAGENTA	5
#define COLOR_CYAN	6
#define COLOR_WHITE	7

#define _SUBWIN	0x01
#define _ENDLINE	0x02
#define _FULLWIN	0x04
#define _ISPAD	0x10
#define _HASMOVED	0x20
#define TRACE_MAXIMUM	0xffff

typedef unsigned long chtype;

typedef char bool;

typedef struct screen SCREEN;

typedef struct _win_st
{
  short _cury;
  short _curx;
  short _maxy;
  short _maxx;
  short _begy;
  short _begx;
  short _flags;
  attr_t _attrs;
  chtype _bkgd;
  bool _notimeout;
  bool _clear;
  bool _leaveok;
  bool _scroll;
  bool _idlok;
  bool _idcok;
  bool _immed;
  bool _sync;
  bool _use_keypad;
  int _delay;
  struct ldat *_line;
  short _regtop;
  short _regbottom;
  int _parx;
  int _pary;
  WINDOW *_parent;
  struct pdat _pad;
  short _yoffset;
}
WINDOW;

typedef chtype attr_t;


#define KEY_CODE_YES	0400
#define KEY_BREAK	0401
#define KEY_MIN	0401
#define KEY_DOWN	0402
#define KEY_UP	0403
#define KEY_LEFT	0404
#define KEY_RIGHT	0405
#define KEY_HOME	0406
#define KEY_BACKSPACE	0407
#define KEY_F0	0410
#define KEY_DL	0510
#define KEY_IL	0511
#define KEY_DC	0512
#define KEY_IC	0513
#define KEY_EIC	0514
#define KEY_CLEAR	0515
#define KEY_EOS	0516
#define KEY_EOL	0517
#define KEY_SF	0520
#define KEY_SR	0521
#define KEY_NPAGE	0522
#define KEY_PPAGE	0523
#define KEY_STAB	0524
#define KEY_CTAB	0525
#define KEY_CATAB	0526
#define KEY_ENTER	0527
#define KEY_SRESET	0530
#define KEY_RESET	0531
#define KEY_PRINT	0532
#define KEY_LL	0533
#define KEY_A1	0534
#define KEY_A3	0535
#define KEY_B2	0536
#define KEY_C1	0537
#define KEY_C3	0540
#define KEY_BTAB	0541
#define KEY_BEG	0542
#define KEY_CANCEL	0543
#define KEY_CLOSE	0544
#define KEY_COMMAND	0545
#define KEY_COPY	0546
#define KEY_CREATE	0547
#define KEY_END	0550
#define KEY_EXIT	0551
#define KEY_FIND	0552
#define KEY_HELP	0553
#define KEY_MARK	0554
#define KEY_MESSAGE	0555
#define KEY_MOVE	0556
#define KEY_NEXT	0557
#define KEY_OPEN	0560
#define KEY_OPTIONS	0561
#define KEY_PREVIOUS	0562
#define KEY_REDO	0563
#define KEY_REFERENCE	0564
#define KEY_REFRESH	0565
#define KEY_REPLACE	0566
#define KEY_RESTART	0567
#define KEY_RESUME	0570
#define KEY_SAVE	0571
#define KEY_SBEG	0572
#define KEY_SCANCEL	0573
#define KEY_SCOMMAND	0574
#define KEY_SCOPY	0575
#define KEY_SCREATE	0576
#define KEY_SDC	0577
#define KEY_SDL	0600
#define KEY_SELECT	0601
#define KEY_SEND	0602
#define KEY_SEOL	0603
#define KEY_SEXIT	0604
#define KEY_SFIND	0605
#define KEY_SHELP	0606
#define KEY_SHOME	0607
#define KEY_SIC	0610
#define KEY_SLEFT	0611
#define KEY_SMESSAGE	0612
#define KEY_SMOVE	0613
#define KEY_SNEXT	0614
#define KEY_SOPTIONS	0615
#define KEY_SPREVIOUS	0616
#define KEY_SPRINT	0617
#define KEY_SREDO	0620
#define KEY_SREPLACE	0621
#define KEY_SRIGHT	0622
#define KEY_SRSUME	0623
#define KEY_SSAVE	0624
#define KEY_SSUSPEND	0625
#define KEY_SUNDO	0626
#define KEY_SUSPEND	0627
#define KEY_UNDO	0630
#define KEY_MOUSE	0631
#define KEY_RESIZE	0632
#define KEY_MAX	0777

Interfaces for libutil

The behavior of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following standards.

Linux Standard Base[22]


Utility Functions

Table 11-6. libutil - Utility Functions Function Interfaces

forkpty(GLIBC_2.0)[22]login_tty(GLIBC_2.0)[22]logwtmp(GLIBC_2.0)[22]  
login(GLIBC_2.0)[22]logout(GLIBC_2.0)[22]openpty(GLIBC_2.0)[22]  

Interfaces Definitions for libutil

Table of Contents
forkpty -- find and open an available pseudo-tty
login -- login utility function
login_tty -- find and open an available pseudo-tty
logout -- logout utility function
logwtmp -- append an entry to the wtmp file
openpty -- find and open an available pseudo-tty

forkpty

Name

forkpty -- find and open an available pseudo-tty

Synopsis

int forkpty(int *amaster, 
	char *name,
	struct termios *termp,
	struct winsize *winp);

Description

The forkpty() function joins openpty(), fork(), and login_tty() to create a new process operating on a pseudo-tty. The file descriptor of the master side of the pseudo-tty is returned in amaster, and null or the filename of the slave in name. If non-null, the termp and winp parameters will determine the terminal attributes and window size of the slave side of the pseudo-tty.

Return Value

On success of the child process, zero is returned. When the parent process receives the PID of its child process, pid is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

login

Name

login -- login utility function

Synopsis

void login(struct utmp *ut);

Description

The login() function updates the /var/run/utmp and /var/log/wtmp files with user information contained in ut.

login_tty

Name

login_tty -- find and open an available pseudo-tty

Synopsis

int login_tty(int fdr);

Description

login_tty() sets up for a login on the tty referenced by the file descriptor fdr. This function creates a new session, makes the tty for the current process the controlling terminal, sets the standard input, output, and error streams of the current process, and closes fdr.

Return Value

On success, zero is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

logout

Name

logout -- logout utility function

Synopsis

int logout(const char *line);

Description

Given the device line, the logout() function removes the entry from the corresponding /var/run/utmp system file.

Return Value

Zero is returned if there was no entry to remove. A non-zero return value indicates success.

logwtmp

Name

logwtmp -- append an entry to the wtmp file

Synopsis

#include <utmp.h>

void logwtmp(const char *line, const char *name, const char *host);

Description

logwtmp() constructs an utmp structure using line, name, host, current time and current process id. Then it calls updwtmp() to append the structure to the utmp file.

Availability

Both functions are available under glibc2, but not under libc5. However, logwtmp occurs in the old libbsd.

Files

/var/log/wtmp database of past user logins

openpty

Name

openpty -- find and open an available pseudo-tty

Synopsis

int openpty(int *amaster, 
	int *aslave, 
	char *name,
	struct termios *termp,
	struct winsize *winp);

Description

The openpty() function finds an available pseudo-tty and returns file descriptors for the amaster and aslave. The filename of the slave is returned in name, otherwise a null. The terminal parameters of the slave will be set to the values in termp, otherwise a null. The window size of the slave will be set to the values in winp, otherwise a null.

Return Value

On success, zero is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

Errors

ENOENT

There are no available ttys.

VI. Graphic Libraries

Table of Contents
12. Libraries

Chapter 12. Libraries

The X Libraries should be built thread-safe.


Interfaces for libX11

Table 12-1. libX11 Definition

Library:libX11
SONAME:libX11.so.6

The behavior of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following standards.

X11R6.4 Xlib - C library[23]


X Windows System Interface

Table 12-2. libX11 - X Windows System Interface Function Interfaces

XActivateScreenSaver[23]XFetchName[23]XPeekEvent[23]XTranslateCoordinates[23]XkbFreeClientMap[23]
XAddConnectionWatch[23]XFillArc[23]XPeekIfEvent[23]XUndefineCursor[23]XkbFreeCompatMap[23]
XAddExtension[23]XFillArcs[23]XPending[23]XUngrabButton[23]XkbFreeComponentList[23]
XAddHost[23]XFillPolygon[23]XPlanesOfScreen[23]XUngrabKey[23]XkbFreeControls[23]
XAddHosts[23]XFillRectangle[23]XPointInRegion[23]XUngrabKeyboard[23]XkbFreeGeomColors[23]
XAddPixel[23]XFillRectangles[23]XPolygonRegion[23]XUngrabPointer[23]XkbFreeGeomDoodads[23]
XAddToExtensionList[23]XFilterEvent[23]XProcessInternalConnection[23]XUngrabServer[23]XkbFreeGeomKeyAliases[23]
XAddToSaveSet[23]XFindContext[23]XProtocolRevision[23]XUninstallColormap[23]XkbFreeGeomKeys[23]
XAllPlanes[23]XFindOnExtensionList[23]XProtocolVersion[23]XUnionRectWithRegion[23]XkbFreeGeomOutlines[23]
XAllocClassHint[23]XFlush[23]XPutBackEvent[23]XUnionRegion[23]XkbFreeGeomOverlayKeys[23]
XAllocColor[23]XFlushGC[23]XPutImage[23]XUnloadFont[23]XkbFreeGeomOverlayRows[23]
XAllocColorCells[23]XFontsOfFontSet[23]XPutPixel[23]XUnlockDisplay[23]XkbFreeGeomOverlays[23]
XAllocColorPlanes[23]XForceScreenSaver[23]XQLength[23]XUnmapSubwindows[23]XkbFreeGeomPoints[23]
XAllocIconSize[23]XFree[23]XQueryBestCursor[23]XUnmapWindow[23]XkbFreeGeomProperties[23]
XAllocNamedColor[23]XFreeColormap[23]XQueryBestSize[23]XUnregisterIMInstantiateCallback[23]XkbFreeGeomRows[23]
XAllocSizeHints[23]XFreeColors[23]XQueryBestStipple[23]XUnsetICFocus[23]XkbFreeGeomSections[23]
XAllocStandardColormap[23]XFreeCursor[23]XQueryBestTile[23]XVaCreateNestedList[23]XkbFreeGeomShapes[23]
XAllocWMHints[23]XFreeExtensionList[23]XQueryColor[23]XVendorRelease[23]XkbFreeGeometry[23]
XAllowEvents[23]XFreeFont[23]XQueryColors[23]XVisualIDFromVisual[23]XkbFreeIndicatorMaps[23]
XAutoRepeatOff[23]XFreeFontInfo[23]XQueryExtension[23]XWMGeometry[23]XkbFreeKeyboard[23]
XAutoRepeatOn[23]XFreeFontNames[23]XQueryFont[23]XWarpPointer[23]XkbFreeNames[23]
XBaseFontNameListOfFontSet[23]XFreeFontPath[23]XQueryKeymap[23]XWhitePixel[23]XkbFreeServerMap[23]
XBell[23]XFreeFontSet[23]XQueryPointer[23]XWhitePixelOfScreen[23]XkbGetAutoRepeatRate[23]
XBitmapBitOrder[23]XFreeGC[23]XQueryTextExtents[23]XWidthMMOfScreen[23]XkbGetCompatMap[23]
XBitmapPad[23]XFreeModifiermap[23]XQueryTextExtents16[23]XWidthOfScreen[23]XkbGetControls[23]
XBitmapUnit[23]XFreePixmap[23]XQueryTree[23]XWindowEvent[23]XkbGetGeometry[23]
XBlackPixel[23]XFreeStringList[23]XRaiseWindow[23]XWithdrawWindow[23]XkbGetIndicatorMap[23]
XBlackPixelOfScreen[23]XGContextFromGC[23]XReadBitmapFile[23]XWriteBitmapFile[23]XkbGetIndicatorState[23]
XCellsOfScreen[23]XGeometry[23]XReadBitmapFileData[23]XXorRegion[23]XkbGetKeyActions[23]
XChangeActivePointerGrab[23]XGetAtomName[23]XRebindKeysym[23]XauDisposeAuth[23]XkbGetKeyBehaviors[23]
XChangeGC[23]XGetAtomNames[23]XRecolorCursor[23]XauFileName[23]XkbGetKeyExplicitComponents[23]
XChangeKeyboardControl[23]XGetClassHint[23]XReconfigureWMWindow[23]XauGetBestAuthByAddr[23]XkbGetKeyModifierMap[23]
XChangeKeyboardMapping[23]XGetCommand[23]XRectInRegion[23]XauReadAuth[23]XkbGetKeySyms[23]
XChangePointerControl[23]XGetDefault[23]XRefreshKeyboardMapping[23]XcmsAddColorSpace[23]XkbGetKeyTypes[23]
XChangeProperty[23]XGetErrorDatabaseText[23]XRegisterIMInstantiateCallback[23]XcmsAddFunctionSet[23]XkbGetKeyboard[23]
XChangeSaveSet[23]XGetErrorText[23]XRemoveConnectionWatch[23]XcmsAllocColor[23]XkbGetKeyboardByName[23]
XChangeWindowAttributes[23]XGetFontPath[23]XRemoveFromSaveSet[23]XcmsAllocNamedColor[23]XkbGetMap[23]
XCheckIfEvent[23]XGetFontProperty[23]XRemoveHost[23]XcmsCCCOfColormap[23]XkbGetMapChanges[23]
XCheckMaskEvent[23]XGetGCValues[23]XRemoveHosts[23]XcmsCIELabClipL[23]XkbGetNamedGeometry[23]
XCheckTypedEvent[23]XGetGeometry[23]XReparentWindow[23]XcmsCIELabClipLab[23]XkbGetNamedIndicator[23]
XCheckTypedWindowEvent[23]XGetICValues[23]XResetScreenSaver[23]XcmsCIELabClipab[23]XkbGetNames[23]
XCheckWindowEvent[23]XGetIMValues[23]XResizeWindow[23]XcmsCIELabQueryMaxC[23]XkbGetState[23]
XCirculateSubwindows[23]XGetIconName[23]XResourceManagerString[23]XcmsCIELabQueryMaxL[23]XkbGetUpdatedMap[23]
XCirculateSubwindowsDown[23]XGetIconSizes[23]XRestackWindows[23]XcmsCIELabQueryMaxLC[23]XkbGetVirtualMods[23]
XCirculateSubwindowsUp[23]XGetImage[23]XRootWindow[23]XcmsCIELabQueryMinL[23]XkbGetXlibControls[23]
XClearArea[23]XGetInputFocus[23]XRootWindowOfScreen[23]XcmsCIELabToCIEXYZ[23]XkbIgnoreExtension[23]
XClearWindow[23]XGetKeyboardControl[23]XRotateBuffers[23]XcmsCIELabWhiteShiftColors[23]XkbInitCanonicalKeyTypes[23]
XClipBox[23]XGetKeyboardMapping[23]XRotateWindowProperties[23]XcmsCIELuvClipL[23]XkbKeyTypesForCoreSymbols[23]
XCloseDisplay[23]XGetModifierMapping[23]XSaveContext[23]XcmsCIELuvClipLuv[23]XkbKeycodeToKeysym[23]
XCloseIM[23]XGetMotionEvents[23]XScreenCount[23]XcmsCIELuvClipuv[23]XkbKeysymToModifiers[23]
XCloseOM[23]XGetNormalHints[23]XScreenNumberOfScreen[23]XcmsCIELuvQueryMaxC[23]XkbLatchGroup[23]
XConfigureWindow[23]XGetOCValues[23]XScreenOfDisplay[23]XcmsCIELuvQueryMaxL[23]XkbLatchModifiers[23]
XConnectionNumber[23]XGetOMValues[23]XScreenResourceString[23]XcmsCIELuvQueryMaxLC[23]XkbLibraryVersion[23]
XContextDependentDrawing[23]XGetPixel[23]XSelectInput[23]XcmsCIELuvQueryMinL[23]XkbListComponents[23]
XContextualDrawing[23]XGetPointerControl[23]XSendEvent[23]XcmsCIELuvToCIEuvY[23]XkbLockGroup[23]
XConvertCase[23]XGetPointerMapping[23]XServerVendor[23]XcmsCIELuvWhiteShiftColors[23]XkbLockModifiers[23]
XConvertSelection[23]XGetRGBColormaps[23]XSetAccessControl[23]XcmsCIEXYZToCIELab[23]XkbLookupKeyBinding[23]
XCopyArea[23]XGetScreenSaver[23]XSetAfterFunction[23]XcmsCIEXYZToCIEuvY[23]XkbLookupKeySym[23]
XCopyColormapAndFree[23]XGetSelectionOwner[23]XSetArcMode[23]XcmsCIEXYZToCIExyY[23]XkbNoteControlsChanges[23]
XCopyGC[23]XGetSizeHints[23]XSetAuthorization[23]XcmsCIEXYZToRGBi[23]XkbNoteMapChanges[23]
XCopyPlane[23]XGetStandardColormap[23]XSetBackground[23]XcmsCIEuvYToCIELuv[23]XkbNoteNameChanges[23]
XCreateBitmapFromData[23]XGetSubImage[23]XSetClassHint[23]XcmsCIEuvYToCIEXYZ[23]XkbOpenDisplay[23]
XCreateColormap[23]XGetTextProperty[23]XSetClipMask[23]XcmsCIEuvYToTekHVC[23]XkbQueryExtension[23]
XCreateFontCursor[23]XGetTransientForHint[23]XSetClipOrigin[23]XcmsCIExyYToCIEXYZ[23]XkbRefreshKeyboardMapping[23]
XCreateFontSet[23]XGetVisualInfo[23]XSetClipRectangles[23]XcmsClientWhitePointOfCCC[23]XkbResizeKeyActions[23]
XCreateGC[23]XGetWMClientMachine[23]XSetCloseDownMode[23]XcmsConvertColors[23]XkbResizeKeySyms[23]
XCreateGlyphCursor[23]XGetWMColormapWindows[23]XSetCommand[23]XcmsCreateCCC[23]XkbResizeKeyType[23]
XCreateIC[23]XGetWMHints[23]XSetDashes[23]XcmsDefaultCCC[23]XkbSelectEventDetails[23]
XCreateImage[23]XGetWMIconName[23]XSetErrorHandler[23]XcmsDisplayOfCCC[23]XkbSelectEvents[23]
XCreateOC[23]XGetWMName[23]XSetFillRule[23]XcmsFormatOfPrefix[23]XkbSetAtomFuncs[23]
XCreatePixmap[23]XGetWMNormalHints[23]XSetFillStyle[23]XcmsFreeCCC[23]XkbSetAutoRepeatRate[23]
XCreatePixmapCursor[23]XGetWMProtocols[23]XSetFont[23]XcmsLookupColor[23]XkbSetAutoResetControls[23]
XCreatePixmapFromBitmapData[23]XGetWMSizeHints[23]XSetFontPath[23]XcmsPrefixOfFormat[23]XkbSetCompatMap[23]
XCreateRegion[23]XGetWindowAttributes[23]XSetForeground[23]XcmsQueryBlack[23]XkbSetControls[23]
XCreateSimpleWindow[23]XGetWindowProperty[23]XSetFunction[23]XcmsQueryBlue[23]XkbSetDebuggingFlags[23]
XCreateWindow[23]XGetZoomHints[23]XSetGraphicsExposures[23]XcmsQueryColor[23]XkbSetDetectableAutoRepeat[23]
XDefaultColormap[23]XGrabButton[23]XSetICFocus[23]XcmsQueryColors[23]XkbSetGeometry[23]
XDefaultColormapOfScreen[23]XGrabKey[23]XSetICValues[23]XcmsQueryGreen[23]XkbSetIgnoreLockMods[23]
XDefaultDepth[23]XGrabKeyboard[23]XSetIMValues[23]XcmsQueryRed[23]XkbSetIndicatorMap[23]
XDefaultDepthOfScreen[23]XGrabPointer[23]XSetIOErrorHandler[23]XcmsQueryWhite[23]XkbSetMap[23]
XDefaultGC[23]XGrabServer[23]XSetIconName[23]XcmsRGBToRGBi[23]XkbSetNamedIndicator[23]
XDefaultGCOfScreen[23]XHeightMMOfScreen[23]XSetIconSizes[23]XcmsRGBiToCIEXYZ[23]XkbSetNames[23]
XDefaultRootWindow[23]XHeightOfScreen[23]XSetInputFocus[23]XcmsRGBiToRGB[23]XkbSetServerInternalMods[23]
XDefaultScreen[23]XIMOfIC[23]XSetLineAttributes[23]XcmsScreenNumberOfCCC[23]XkbSetXlibControls[23]
XDefaultScreenOfDisplay[23]XIconifyWindow[23]XSetLocaleModifiers[23]XcmsScreenWhitePointOfCCC[23]XkbToControl[23]
XDefaultString[23]XIfEvent[23]XSetModifierMapping[23]XcmsSetCCCOfColormap[23]XkbTranslateKeyCode[23]
XDefaultVisual[23]XImageByteOrder[23]XSetNormalHints[23]XcmsSetCompressionProc[23]XkbTranslateKeySym[23]
XDefaultVisualOfScreen[23]XInitExtension[23]XSetOCValues[23]XcmsSetWhiteAdjustProc[23]XkbUpdateMapFromCore[23]
XDefineCursor[23]XInitImage[23]XSetOMValues[23]XcmsSetWhitePoint[23]XkbUseExtension[23]
XDeleteContext[23]XInitThreads[23]XSetPlaneMask[23]XcmsStoreColor[23]XkbVirtualModsToReal[23]
XDeleteModifiermapEntry[23]XInsertModifiermapEntry[23]XSetPointerMapping[23]XcmsStoreColors[23]XmbDrawImageString[23]
XDeleteProperty[23]XInstallColormap[23]XSetRGBColormaps[23]XcmsTekHVCClipC[23]XmbDrawString[23]
XDestroyIC[23]XInternAtom[23]XSetRegion[23]XcmsTekHVCClipV[23]XmbDrawText[23]
XDestroyImage[23]XInternAtoms[23]XSetScreenSaver[23]XcmsTekHVCClipVC[23]XmbLookupString[23]
XDestroyOC[23]XInternalConnectionNumbers[23]XSetSelectionOwner[23]XcmsTekHVCQueryMaxC[23]XmbResetIC[23]
XDestroyRegion[23]XIntersectRegion[23]XSetSizeHints[23]XcmsTekHVCQueryMaxV[23]XmbSetWMProperties[23]
XDestroySubwindows[23]XKeycodeToKeysym[23]XSetStandardColormap[23]XcmsTekHVCQueryMaxVC[23]XmbTextEscapement[23]
XDestroyWindow[23]XKeysymToKeycode[23]XSetStandardProperties[23]XcmsTekHVCQueryMaxVSamples[23]XmbTextExtents[23]
XDirectionalDependentDrawing[23]XKeysymToString[23]XSetState[23]XcmsTekHVCQueryMinV[23]XmbTextListToTextProperty[23]
XDisableAccessControl[23]XKillClient[23]XSetStipple[23]XcmsTekHVCToCIEuvY[23]XmbTextPerCharExtents[23]
XDisplayCells[23]XLastKnownRequestProcessed[23]XSetSubwindowMode[23]XcmsTekHVCWhiteShiftColors[23]XmbTextPropertyToTextList[23]
XDisplayHeight[23]XListDepths[23]XSetTSOrigin[23]XcmsVisualOfCCC[23]XrmCombineDatabase[23]
XDisplayHeightMM[23]XListExtensions[23]XSetTextProperty[23]XkbAllocClientMap[23]XrmCombineFileDatabase[23]
XDisplayKeycodes[23]XListFonts[23]XSetTile[23]XkbAllocCompatMap[23]XrmDestroyDatabase[23]
XDisplayMotionBufferSize[23]XListFontsWithInfo[23]XSetTransientForHint[23]XkbAllocControls[23]XrmEnumerateDatabase[23]
XDisplayName[23]XListHosts[23]XSetWMClientMachine[23]XkbAllocGeomColors[23]XrmGetDatabase[23]
XDisplayOfIM[23]XListInstalledColormaps[23]XSetWMColormapWindows[23]XkbAllocGeomDoodads[23]XrmGetFileDatabase[23]
XDisplayOfOM[23]XListPixmapFormats[23]XSetWMHints[23]XkbAllocGeomKeyAliases[23]XrmGetResource[23]
XDisplayOfScreen[23]XListProperties[23]XSetWMIconName[23]XkbAllocGeomKeys[23]XrmGetStringDatabase[23]
XDisplayPlanes[23]XLoadFont[23]XSetWMName[23]XkbAllocGeomOutlines[23]XrmInitialize[23]
XDisplayString[23]XLoadQueryFont[23]XSetWMNormalHints[23]XkbAllocGeomOverlayKeys[23]XrmLocaleOfDatabase[23]
XDisplayWidth[23]XLocaleOfFontSet[23]XSetWMProperties[23]XkbAllocGeomOverlayRows[23]XrmMergeDatabases[23]
XDisplayWidthMM[23]XLocaleOfIM[23]XSetWMProtocols[23]XkbAllocGeomOverlays[23]XrmParseCommand[23]
XDoesBackingStore[23]XLocaleOfOM[23]XSetWMSizeHints[23]XkbAllocGeomPoints[23]XrmPermStringToQuark[23]
XDoesSaveUnders[23]XLockDisplay[23]XSetWindowBackground[23]XkbAllocGeomProps[23]XrmPutFileDatabase[23]
XDrawArc[23]XLookupColor[23]XSetWindowBackgroundPixmap[23]XkbAllocGeomRows[23]XrmPutLineResource[23]
XDrawArcs[23]XLookupKeysym[23]XSetWindowBorder[23]XkbAllocGeomSectionDoodads[23]XrmPutResource[23]
XDrawImageString[23]XLookupString[23]XSetWindowBorderPixmap[23]XkbAllocGeomSections[23]XrmPutStringResource[23]
XDrawImageString16[23]XLowerWindow[23]XSetWindowBorderWidth[23]XkbAllocGeomShapes[23]XrmQGetResource[23]
XDrawLine[23]XMapRaised[23]XSetWindowColormap[23]XkbAllocGeometry[23]XrmQGetSearchList[23]
XDrawLines[23]XMapSubwindows[23]XSetZoomHints[23]XkbAllocIndicatorMaps[23]XrmQGetSearchResource[23]
XDrawPoint[23]XMapWindow[23]XShrinkRegion[23]XkbAllocKeyboard[23]XrmQPutResource[23]
XDrawPoints[23]XMaskEvent[23]XStoreBuffer[23]XkbAllocNames[23]XrmQPutStringResource[23]
XDrawRectangle[23]XMatchVisualInfo[23]XStoreBytes[23]XkbAllocServerMap[23]XrmQuarkToString[23]
XDrawRectangles[23]XMaxCmapsOfScreen[23]XStoreColor[23]XkbApplyCompatMapToKey[23]XrmSetDatabase[23]
XDrawSegments[23]XMaxRequestSize[23]XStoreColors[23]XkbBell[23]XrmStringToBindingQuarkList[23]
XDrawString[23]XMinCmapsOfScreen[23]XStoreName[23]XkbBellEvent[23]XrmStringToQuark[23]
XDrawString16[23]XMoveResizeWindow[23]XStoreNamedColor[23]XkbChangeEnabledControls[23]XrmStringToQuarkList[23]
XDrawText[23]XMoveWindow[23]XStringListToTextProperty[23]XkbChangeMap[23]XrmUniqueQuark[23]
XDrawText16[23]XNewModifiermap[23]XStringToKeysym[23]XkbChangeNames[23]XwcDrawImageString[23]
XEHeadOfExtensionList[23]XNextEvent[23]XSubImage[23]XkbChangeTypesOfKey[23]XwcDrawString[23]
XEmptyRegion[23]XNextRequest[23]XSubtractRegion[23]XkbComputeEffectiveMap[23]XwcDrawText[23]
XEnableAccessControl[23]XNoOp[23]XSupportsLocale[23]XkbComputeRowBounds[23]XwcFreeStringList[23]
XEqualRegion[23]XOMOfOC[23]XSync[23]XkbComputeSectionBounds[23]XwcLookupString[23]
XEventMaskOfScreen[23]XOffsetRegion[23]XSynchronize[23]XkbComputeShapeBounds[23]XwcResetIC[23]
XEventsQueued[23]XOpenDisplay[23]XTextExtents[23]XkbComputeShapeTop[23]XwcTextEscapement[23]
XExtendedMaxRequestSize[23]XOpenIM[23]XTextExtents16[23]XkbCopyKeyType[23]XwcTextExtents[23]
XExtentsOfFontSet[23]XOpenOM[23]XTextPropertyToStringList[23]XkbCopyKeyTypes[23]XwcTextListToTextProperty[23]
XFetchBuffer[23]XParseColor[23]XTextWidth[23]XkbFindOverlayForKey[23]XwcTextPerCharExtents[23]
XFetchBytes[23]XParseGeometry[23]XTextWidth16[23]XkbForceBell[23]XwcTextPropertyToTextList[23]

Data Definitions for libX11


X11/Xauth.h


typedef struct xauth
{
  unsigned short family;
  unsigned short address_length;
  char *address;
  unsigned short number_length;
  char *number;
  unsigned short name_length;
  char *name;
  unsigned short data_length;
  char *data;
}
Xauth;

X11/Xcms.h


typedef struct _XcmsFunctionSet
{
  XcmsColorSpace **DDColorSpaces;
  XcmsScreenInitProc screenInitProc;
  XcmsScreenFreeProc screenFreeProc;
}
XcmsFunctionSet;


typedef unsigned long XcmsColorFormat;

typedef double XcmsFloat;

typedef struct
{
  unsigned short red;
  unsigned short green;
  unsigned short blue;
}
XcmsRGB;

typedef struct
{
  XcmsFloat red;
  XcmsFloat green;
  XcmsFloat blue;
}
XcmsRGBi;

typedef struct
{
  XcmsFloat X;
  XcmsFloat Y;
  XcmsFloat Z;
}
XcmsCIEXYZ;

typedef struct
{
  XcmsFloat u_prime;
  XcmsFloat v_prime;
  XcmsFloat Y;
}
XcmsCIEuvY;

typedef struct
{
  XcmsFloat x;
  XcmsFloat y;
  XcmsFloat Y;
}
XcmsCIExyY;

typedef struct
{
  XcmsFloat L_star;
  XcmsFloat a_star;
  XcmsFloat b_star;
}
XcmsCIELab;

typedef struct
{
  XcmsFloat L_star;
  XcmsFloat u_star;
  XcmsFloat v_star;
}
XcmsCIELuv;

typedef struct
{
  XcmsFloat H;
  XcmsFloat V;
  XcmsFloat C;
}
XcmsTekHVC;

typedef struct
{
  XcmsFloat pad0;
  XcmsFloat pad1;
  XcmsFloat pad2;
  XcmsFloat pad3;
}
XcmsPad;


typedef union
{
  XcmsRGB RGB;
  XcmsRGBi RGBi;
  XcmsCIEXYZ CIEXYZ;
  XcmsCIEuvY CIEuvY;
  XcmsCIExyY CIExyY;
  XcmsCIELab CIELab;
  XcmsCIELuv CIELuv;
  XcmsTekHVC TekHVC;
  XcmsPad Pad;
}
XcmsColor;


typedef struct _XcmsPerScrnInfo
{
  XcmsColor screenWhitePt;
  XPointer functionSet;
  XPointer screenData;
  unsigned char state;
  char pad[1];
}
XcmsPerScrnInfo;


typedef int (*XcmsCompressionProc) ();

typedef int (*XcmsWhiteAdjustProc) ();

typedef int (*XcmsScreenInitProc) ();

typedef void (*XcmsScreenFreeProc) ();

typedef int (*XcmsConversionProc) ();

typedef int (*XcmsParseStringProc) ();


typedef struct _XcmsCCC
{
  Display *dpy;
  int screenNumber;
  Visual *visual;
  XcmsColor clientWhitePt;
  XcmsCompressionProc gamutCompProc;
  XPointer gamutCompClientData;
  XcmsWhiteAdjustProc whitePtAdjProc;
  XPointer whitePtAdjClientData;
  XcmsPerScrnInfo *pPerScrnInfo;
}
 *XcmsCCC;


typedef XcmsConversionProc *XcmsFuncListPtr;


typedef struct _XcmsColorSpace
{
  char *prefix;
  XcmsColorFormat id;
  XcmsParseStringProc parseString;
  XcmsFuncListPtr to_CIEXYZ;
  XcmsFuncListPtr from_CIEXYZ;
  int inverse_flag;
}
XcmsColorSpace;

X11/Xlib.h


struct _XDisplay;

struct _XrmHashBucketRec;

typedef struct XColor;

typedef void *XVaNestedList;

typedef int (*XErrorHandler) ();

typedef int (*XIOErrorHandler) ();

typedef void (*XConnectionWatchProc) ();


typedef char *XPointer;


typedef struct _XExtData
{
  int number;
  struct _XExtData *next;
  int (*free_private) (struct _XExtData * extension);
  XPointer private_data;
}
XExtData;

typedef struct XExtCodes;


typedef struct XPixmapFormatValues;


typedef struct XGCValues;


typedef struct _XGC *GC;


typedef struct Visual;


typedef struct Depth;


typedef struct Screen;


typedef struct ScreenFormat;


typedef struct XSetWindowAttributes;

typedef struct XWindowAttributes;


typedef struct XHostAddress;


struct XImagefuncs;

typedef struct _XImage
{
  int width;
  int height;
  int xoffset;
  int format;
  char *data;
  int byte_order;
  int bitmap_unit;
  int bitmap_bit_order;
  int bitmap_pad;
  int depth;
  int bytes_per_line;
  int bits_per_pixel;
  unsigned long red_mask;
  unsigned long green_mask;
  unsigned long blue_mask;
  XPointer obdata;
  struct funcs f;
}
XImage;


typedef struct XWindowChanges;


typedef struct XSegment;

typedef struct XPoint;

typedef struct XRectangle;

typedef struct XArc;


typedef struct XKeyboardControl;


typedef struct XKeyboardState;


typedef struct XTimeCoord;


typedef struct XModifierKeymap;


typedef struct _XDisplay Display;


typedef struct XKeyEvent;

typedef XKeyEvent XKeyPressedEvent;

typedef XKeyEvent XKeyReleasedEvent;

typedef struct XButtonEvent;

typedef XButtonEvent XButtonPressedEvent;

typedef XButtonEvent XButtonReleasedEvent;

typedef struct XMotionEvent;

typedef XMotionEvent XPointerMovedEvent;

typedef struct XCrossingEvent;

typedef XCrossingEvent XEnterWindowEvent;

typedef XCrossingEvent XLeaveWindowEvent;

typedef struct XFocusChangeEvent;

typedef XFocusChangeEvent XFocusInEvent;

typedef XFocusChangeEvent XFocusOutEvent;

typedef struct XKeymapEvent;

typedef struct XExposeEvent;

typedef struct XGraphicsExposeEvent;

typedef struct XNoExposeEvent;

typedef struct XVisibilityEvent;

typedef struct XCreateWindowEvent;

typedef struct XDestroyWindowEvent;

typedef struct XUnmapEvent;

typedef struct XMapEvent;

typedef struct XMapRequestEvent;

typedef struct XReparentEvent;

typedef struct XConfigureEvent;

typedef struct XGravityEvent;

typedef struct XResizeRequestEvent;

typedef struct XConfigureRequestEvent;

typedef struct XCirculateEvent;

typedef struct XCirculateRequestEvent;

typedef struct XPropertyEvent;

typedef struct XSelectionClearEvent;

typedef struct XSelectionRequestEvent;

typedef struct XSelectionEvent;

typedef struct XColormapEvent;

typedef union XClientMessageEvent;

typedef struct XMappingEvent;

typedef struct XErrorEvent;

typedef struct XAnyEvent;


typedef union _XEvent
{
  int type;
  XAnyEvent xany;
  XKeyEvent xkey;
  XButtonEvent xbutton;
  XMotionEvent xmotion;
  XCrossingEvent xcrossing;
  XFocusChangeEvent xfocus;
  XExposeEvent xexpose;
  XGraphicsExposeEvent xgraphicsexpose;
  XNoExposeEvent xnoexpose;
  XVisibilityEvent xvisibility;
  XCreateWindowEvent xcreatewindow;
  XDestroyWindowEvent xdestroywindow;
  XUnmapEvent xunmap;
  XMapEvent xmap;
  XMapRequestEvent xmaprequest;
  XReparentEvent xreparent;
  XConfigureEvent xconfigure;
  XGravityEvent xgravity;
  XResizeRequestEvent xresizerequest;
  XConfigureRequestEvent xconfigurerequest;
  XCirculateEvent xcirculate;
  XCirculateRequestEvent xcirculaterequest;
  XPropertyEvent xproperty;
  XSelectionClearEvent xselectionclear;
  XSelectionRequestEvent xselectionrequest;
  XSelectionEvent xselection;
  XColormapEvent xcolormap;
  XClientMessageEvent xclient;
  XMappingEvent xmapping;
  XErrorEvent xerror;
  XKeymapEvent xkeymap;
  long pad[1];
}
XEvent;


typedef struct XCharStruct;


typedef struct XFontProp;

typedef struct XFontStruct;

typedef struct XFontSetExtents;


typedef struct XTextItem;

typedef struct XChar2b;

typedef struct XTextItem16;


typedef union XEDataObject;


typedef struct _XOM *XOM;

typedef struct _XOC *XOC;

typedef struct _XOC *XFontSet;


typedef struct XmbTextItem;

typedef struct XwcTextItem;



typedef struct _XIM *XIM;

typedef struct _XIC *XIC;

typedef void (*XIDProc) ();

X11/Xutil.h


typedef struct XSizeHints;

typedef struct XWMHints;

typedef struct XTextProperty;

typedef struct XIconSize;

typedef struct XClassHint;

typedef struct _XComposeStatus
{
  XPointer compose_ptr;
  int chars_matched;
}
XComposeStatus;

typedef struct _XRegion *Region;

typedef struct XVisualInfo;

typedef struct XStandardColormap;

typedef int XContext;

typedef enum XICCEncodingStyle;

Interfaces for libXext

Table 12-3. libXext Definition

Library:libXext
SONAME:libXext.so.6

The behavior of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following standards.

Double Buffer Extension Library[24]
X Display Power Management Signaling (DPMS) Extension, Library Specification[25]
Security Extension Specification, Version 7.1[26]
X Nonrectangular Window Shape Extension Library Version 1.0[27]
MIT-SHM--The MIT Shared Memory Extension[28]
X Synchronization Extension Library[29]


X Shape Extension

Table 12-4. libXext - X Shape Extension Function Interfaces

XShapeCombineMask[27]XShapeCombineShape[27]XShapeOffsetShape[27]XShapeQueryVersion[27] 
XShapeCombineRectangles[27]XShapeGetRectangles[27]XShapeQueryExtension[27]XShapeSelectInput[27] 
XShapeCombineRegion[27]XShapeInputSelected[27]XShapeQueryExtents[27]  

X Display Power Management Signaling Extension

Table 12-5. libXext - X Display Power Management Signaling Extension Function Interfaces

DPMSCapable[25]DPMSEnable[25]DPMSGetTimeouts[25]DPMSInfo[25]DPMSSetTimeouts[25]
DPMSDisable[25]DPMSForceLevel[25]DPMSGetVersion[25]DPMSQueryExtension[25] 

X Shared Memory Extensions

Table 12-6. libXext - X Shared Memory Extensions Function Interfaces

XShmAttach[28]XShmCreatePixmap[28]XShmGetEventBase[28]XShmPixmapFormat[28]XShmQueryExtension[28]
XShmCreateImage[28]XShmDetach[28]XShmGetImage[28]XShmPutImage[28]XShmQueryVersion[28]

X Synchronization Extension

Table 12-7. libXext - X Synchronization Extension Function Interfaces

XSyncAwait[29]XSyncFreeSystemCounterList[29]XSyncMinValue[29]XSyncValueEqual[29]XSyncValueLessOrEqual[29]
XSyncChangeAlarm[29]XSyncGetPriority[29]XSyncQueryAlarm[29]XSyncValueGreaterOrEqual[29]XSyncValueLessThan[29]
XSyncChangeCounter[29]XSyncInitialize[29]XSyncQueryCounter[29]XSyncValueGreaterThan[29]XSyncValueLow32[29]
XSyncCreateAlarm[29]XSyncIntToValue[29]XSyncQueryExtension[29]XSyncValueHigh32[29]XSyncValueSubtract[29]
XSyncCreateCounter[29]XSyncIntsToValue[29]XSyncSetCounter[29]XSyncValueIsNegative[29] 
XSyncDestroyAlarm[29]XSyncListSystemCounters[29]XSyncSetPriority[29]XSyncValueIsPositive[29] 
XSyncDestroyCounter[29]XSyncMaxValue[29]XSyncValueAdd[29]XSyncValueIsZero[29] 

X Security Extension

Table 12-8. libXext - X Security Extension Function Interfaces

XSecurityAllocXauth[26]XSecurityFreeXauth[26]XSecurityGenerateAuthorization[26]XSecurityQueryExtension[26]XSecurityRevokeAuthorization[26]

X Double Buffer Extension

Table 12-9. libXext - X Double Buffer Extension Function Interfaces

XdbeAllocateBackBufferName[24]XdbeDeallocateBackBufferName[24]XdbeFreeVisualInfo[24]XdbeGetVisualInfo[24]XdbeSwapBuffers[24]
XdbeBeginIdiom[24]XdbeEndIdiom[24]XdbeGetBackBufferAttributes[24]XdbeQueryExtension[24] 

Data Definitions for libXext


X11/extensions/security.h


typedef unsigned long XSecurityAuthorization;

typedef struct
{
  unsigned int timeout;
  unsigned int trust_level;
  XID group;
  long event_mask;
}
XSecurityAuthorizationAttributes;

X11/extensions/sync.h


typedef struct _XSyncSystemCounter
{
  char *name;
  XSyncCounter counter;
  XSyncValue resolution;
}
XSyncSystemCounter;

typedef struct
{
  XSyncCounter counter;
  XSyncValueType value_type;
  XSyncValue wait_value;
  XSyncTestType test_type;
}
XSyncTrigger;

typedef struct
{
  XSyncTrigger trigger;
  XSyncValue event_threshold;
}
XSyncWaitCondition;

typedef struct
{
  XSyncTrigger trigger;
  XSyncValue delta;
  int events;
  XSyncAlarmState state;
}
XSyncAlarmAttributes;


typedef XID XSyncCounter;

typedef XID XSyncAlarm;

typedef struct _XSyncValue
{
  int hi;
  unsigned int lo;
}
XSyncValue;

typedef enum
{
  XSyncAbsolute,
  XSyncRelative
}
XSyncValueType;

typedef enum
{
  XSyncPositiveTransition,
  XSyncNegativeTransition,
  XSyncPositiveComparison,
  XSyncNegativeComparison
}
XSyncTestType;

typedef enum
{
  XSyncAlarmActive,
  XSyncAlarmInactive,
  XSyncAlarmDestroyed
}
XSyncAlarmState;

Interfaces for libSM

Table 12-10. libSM Definition

Library:libSM
SONAME:libSM.so.6

The behavior of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following standards.

X11R6.4 X Session Management Library[30]


Session Management Functions

Table 12-11. libSM - Session Management Functions Function Interfaces

SmFreeProperty[30]SmcInteractRequest[30]SmcSaveYourselfDone[30]SmsGenerateClientID[30]SmsSaveComplete[30]
SmFreeReasons[30]SmcModifyCallbacks[30]SmcSetErrorHandler[30]SmsGetIceConnection[30]SmsSaveYourself[30]
SmcClientID[30]SmcOpenConnection[30]SmcSetProperties[30]SmsInitialize[30]SmsSaveYourselfPhase2[30]
SmcCloseConnection[30]SmcProtocolRevision[30]SmcVendor[30]SmsInteract[30]SmsSetErrorHandler[30]
SmcDeleteProperties[30]SmcProtocolVersion[30]SmsCleanUp[30]SmsProtocolRevision[30]SmsShutdownCancelled[30]
SmcGetIceConnection[30]SmcRelease[30]SmsClientHostName[30]SmsProtocolVersion[30] 
SmcGetProperties[30]SmcRequestSaveYourself[30]SmsClientID[30]SmsRegisterClientReply[30] 
SmcInteractDone[30]SmcRequestSaveYourselfPhase2[30]SmsDie[30]SmsReturnProperties[30] 

Data Definitions for libSM


X11/SM/SMlib.h


typedef IcePointer SmPointer;

typedef struct _SmcConn *SmcConn;

typedef struct _SmsConn *SmsConn;


typedef struct
{
  int length;
  SmPointer value;
}
SmPropValue;

typedef struct
{
  char *name;
  char *type;
  int num_vals;
  SmPropValue *vals;
}
SmProp;


typedef enum
{
  SmcClosedNow,
  SmcClosedASAP,
  SmcConnectionInUse
}
SmcCloseStatus;


typedef void (*SmcSaveYourselfPhase2Proc) ();

typedef void (*SmcInteractProc) ();

typedef void (*SmcDieProc) ();

typedef void (*SmcShutdownCancelledProc) ();

typedef void (*SmcSaveCompleteProc) ();

typedef void (*SmcPropReplyProc) ();


typedef struct
{
  SmcShutdownCancelledProc callback;
  SmPointer client_data;
}
SmcCallbacks;


typedef void (*SmsSetPropertiesProc) ();

typedef void (*SmsDeletePropertiesProc) ();

typedef void (*SmsGetPropertiesProc) ();


typedef struct
{
  SmsGetPropertiesProc callback;
  SmPointer manager_data;
}
SmsCallbacks;


typedef int (*SmsNewClientProc) ();


typedef void (*SmcErrorHandler) ();

typedef void (*SmsErrorHandler) ();

Interfaces for libICE

Table 12-12. libICE Definition

Library:libICE
SONAME:libICE.so.6

The behavior of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following standards.

X11R6.4 X Inter-Client Exchange (ICE) Protocol[31]


ICE Functions

Table 12-13. libICE - ICE Functions Function Interfaces

IceAcceptConnection[31]IceConnectionStatus[31]IceGetListenConnectionString[31]IceProcessMessages[31]IceSetErrorHandler[31]
IceAddConnectionWatch[31]IceConnectionString[31]IceGetOutBufSize[31]IceProtocolRevision[31]IceSetHostBasedAuthProc[31]
IceAllocScratch[31]IceFlush[31]IceInitThreads[31]IceProtocolSetup[31]IceSetIOErrorHandler[31]
IceAppLockConn[31]IceFreeAuthFileEntry[31]IceLastReceivedSequenceNumber[31]IceProtocolShutdown[31]IceSetPaAuthData[31]
IceAppUnlockConn[31]IceFreeListenObjs[31]IceLastSentSequenceNumber[31]IceProtocolVersion[31]IceSetShutdownNegotiation[31]
IceAuthFileName[31]IceGenerateMagicCookie[31]IceListenForConnections[31]IceReadAuthFileEntry[31]IceSwapping[31]
IceCheckShutdownNegotiation[31]IceGetAuthFileEntry[31]IceListenForWellKnownConnections[31]IceRegisterForProtocolReply[31]IceUnlockAuthFile[31]
IceCloseConnection[31]IceGetConnectionContext[31]IceLockAuthFile[31]IceRegisterForProtocolSetup[31]IceVendor[31]
IceComposeNetworkIdList[31]IceGetInBufSize[31]IceOpenConnection[31]IceRelease[31]IceWriteAuthFileEntry[31]
IceConnectionNumber[31]IceGetListenConnectionNumber[31]IcePing[31]IceRemoveConnectionWatch[31] 

Data Definitions for libICE


X11/ICE/ICElib.h


typedef void *IcePointer;

typedef enum
{
  IcePoAuthHaveReply,
  IcePoAuthRejected,
  IcePoAuthFailed,
  IcePoAuthDoneCleanup
}
IcePoAuthStatus;

typedef enum
{
  IcePaAuthContinue,
  IcePaAuthAccepted,
  IcePaAuthRejected,
  IcePaAuthFailed
}
IcePaAuthStatus;

typedef enum
{
  IceConnectPending,
  IceConnectAccepted,
  IceConnectRejected,
  IceConnectIOError
}
IceConnectStatus;

typedef enum
{
  IceProtocolSetupSuccess,
  IceProtocolSetupFailure,
  IceProtocolSetupIOError,
  IceProtocolAlreadyActive
}
IceProtocolSetupStatus;

typedef enum
{
  IceAcceptSuccess,
  IceAcceptFailure,
  IceAcceptBadMalloc
}
IceAcceptStatus;

typedef enum
{
  IceClosedNow,
  IceClosedASAP,
  IceConnectionInUse,
  IceStartedShutdownNegotiation
}
IceCloseStatus;

typedef enum
{
  IceProcessMessagesSuccess,
  IceProcessMessagesIOError,
  IceProcessMessagesConnectionClosed
}
IceProcessMessagesStatus;


typedef struct
{
  unsigned long sequence_of_request;
  int major_opcode_of_request;
  int minor_opcode_of_request;
  IcePointer reply;
}
IceReplyWaitInfo;


typedef struct _IceConn *IceConn;

typedef struct _IceListenObj *IceListenObj;


typedef void (*IceWatchProc) ();

typedef void (*IcePoProcessMsgProc) ();

typedef void (*IcePaProcessMsgProc) ();

typedef IcePoAuthStatus (*IcePoAuthProc) ();

typedef IcePaAuthStatus (*IcePaAuthProc) ();

typedef int (*IceHostBasedAuthProc) ();

typedef int (*IceProtocolSetupProc) ();

typedef void (*IceProtocolActivateProc) ();

typedef void (*IceIOErrorProc) ();

typedef void (*IcePingReplyProc) ();

typedef void (*IceErrorHandler) ();

typedef void (*IceIOErrorHandler) ();


typedef struct
{
  int major_version;
  int minor_version;
  IcePoProcessMsgProc process_msg_proc;
}
IcePoVersionRec;

typedef struct
{
  int major_version;
  int minor_version;
  IcePaProcessMsgProc process_msg_proc;
}
IcePaVersionRec;

X11/ICE/ICEutil.h


typedef struct
{
  char *protocol_name;
  unsigned short protocol_data_length;
  char *protocol_data;
  char *network_id;
  char *auth_name;
  unsigned short auth_data_length;
  char *auth_data;
}
IceAuthFileEntry;

typedef struct
{
  char *protocol_name;
  char *network_id;
  char *auth_name;
  unsigned short auth_data_length;
  char *auth_data;
}
IceAuthDataEntry;

Interfaces for libXt

Table 12-14. libXt Definition

Library:libXt
SONAME:libXt.so.6

The behavior of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following standards.

Linux Standard Base[32]
X11R.4 X Toolkit Intrinsics[33]


X Toolkit

Table 12-15. libXt - X Toolkit Function Interfaces

XtAddActions[33]XtCancelSelectionRequest[33]XtError[33]XtMainLoop[33]XtSessionGetToken[33]
XtAddCallback[33]XtChangeManagedSet[33]XtErrorMsg[33]XtMakeGeometryRequest[33]XtSessionReturnToken[33]
XtAddCallbacks[33]XtClass[33]XtFindFile[33]XtMakeResizeRequest[33]XtSetErrorHandler[33]
XtAddConverter[33]XtCloseDisplay[33]XtFree[33]XtMalloc[33]XtSetErrorMsgHandler[33]
XtAddEventHandler[33]XtConfigureWidget[33]XtGetActionKeysym[33]XtManageChild[33]XtSetEventDispatcher[33]
XtAddExposureToRegion[33]XtConvert[33]XtGetActionList[33]XtManageChildren[33]XtSetKeyTranslator[33]
XtAddGrab[33]XtConvertAndStore[33]XtGetApplicationNameAndClass[33]XtMapWidget[33]XtSetKeyboardFocus[33]
XtAddInput[33]XtConvertCase[33]XtGetApplicationResources[33]XtMenuPopupAction[33]XtSetLanguageProc[33]
XtAddRawEventHandler[33]XtCreateApplicationContext[33]XtGetClassExtension[33]XtMergeArgLists[33]XtSetMappedWhenManaged[33]
XtAddSignal[33]XtCreateApplicationShell[33]XtGetConstraintResourceList[33]XtMoveWidget[33]XtSetMultiClickTime[33]
XtAddTimeOut[33]XtCreateManagedWidget[33]XtGetDisplays[33]XtName[33]XtSetSelectionParameters[33]
XtAddWorkProc[33]XtCreatePopupShell[33]XtGetErrorDatabase[33]XtNameToWidget[33]XtSetSelectionTimeout[33]
XtAllocateGC[33]XtCreateSelectionRequest[33]XtGetErrorDatabaseText[33]XtNewString[33]XtSetSensitive[33]
XtAppAddActionHook[33]XtCreateWidget[33]XtGetGC[33]XtNextEvent[33]XtSetSubvalues[33]
XtAppAddActions[33]XtCreateWindow[33]XtGetKeyboardFocusWidget[33]XtNoticeSignal[33]XtSetTypeConverter[33]
XtAppAddBlockHook[33]XtCvtColorToPixel[33]XtGetKeysymTable[33]XtOpenApplication[33]XtSetValues[33]
XtAppAddConverter[33]XtCvtIntToBool[33]XtGetMultiClickTime[33]XtOpenDisplay[33]XtSetWMColormapWindows[33]
XtAppAddInput[33]XtCvtIntToBoolean[33]XtGetResourceList[33]XtOverrideTranslations[33]XtSetWarningHandler[33]
XtAppAddSignal[33]XtCvtIntToColor[33]XtGetSelectionParameters[33]XtOwnSelection[33]XtSetWarningMsgHandler[33]
XtAppAddTimeOut[33]XtCvtIntToFloat[33]XtGetSelectionRequest[33]XtOwnSelectionIncremental[33]XtStringConversionWarning[33]
XtAppAddWorkProc[33]XtCvtIntToFont[33]XtGetSelectionTimeout[33]XtParent[33]XtSuperclass[33]
XtAppCreateShell[33]XtCvtIntToPixel[33]XtGetSelectionValue[33]XtParseAcceleratorTable[33]XtToolkitInitialize[33]
XtAppError[33]XtCvtIntToPixmap[33]XtGetSelectionValueIncremental[33]XtParseTranslationTable[33]XtToolkitThreadInitialize[33]
XtAppErrorMsg[33]XtCvtIntToShort[33]XtGetSelectionValues[33]XtPeekEvent[33]XtTranslateCoords[33]
XtAppGetErrorDatabase[33]XtCvtIntToUnsignedChar[33]XtGetSelectionValuesIncremental[33]XtPending[33]XtTranslateKey[33]
XtAppGetErrorDatabaseText[33]XtCvtStringToAcceleratorTable[33]XtGetSubresources[33]XtPopdown[33]XtTranslateKeycode[33]
XtAppGetExitFlag[33]XtCvtStringToAtom[33]XtGetSubvalues[33]XtPopup[33]XtUngrabButton[33]
XtAppGetSelectionTimeout[33]XtCvtStringToBool[33]XtGetValues[33]XtPopupSpringLoaded[33]XtUngrabKey[33]
XtAppInitialize[33]XtCvtStringToBoolean[33]XtGrabButton[33]XtProcessEvent[33]XtUngrabKeyboard[33]
XtAppLock[33]XtCvtStringToCommandArgArray[33]XtGrabKey[33]XtProcessLock[33]XtUngrabPointer[33]
XtAppMainLoop[33]XtCvtStringToCursor[33]XtGrabKeyboard[33]XtProcessUnlock[33]XtUninstallTranslations[33]
XtAppNextEvent[33]XtCvtStringToDimension[33]XtGrabPointer[33]XtQueryGeometry[33]XtUnmanageChild[33]
XtAppPeekEvent[33]XtCvtStringToDirectoryString[33]XtHasCallbacks[33]XtRealizeWidget[33]XtUnmanageChildren[33]
XtAppPending[33]XtCvtStringToDisplay[33]XtHooksOfDisplay[33]XtRealloc[33]XtUnmapWidget[33]
XtAppProcessEvent[33]XtCvtStringToFile[33]XtInitialize[33]XtRegisterCaseConverter[33]XtUnrealizeWidget[33]
XtAppReleaseCacheRefs[33]XtCvtStringToFloat[33]XtInitializeWidgetClass[33]XtRegisterDrawable[33]XtUnregisterDrawable[33]
XtAppSetErrorHandler[33]XtCvtStringToFont[33]XtInsertEventHandler[33]XtRegisterExtensionSelector[33]XtVaAppCreateShell[33]
XtAppSetErrorMsgHandler[33]XtCvtStringToFontSet[33]XtInsertEventTypeHandler[33]XtRegisterGrabAction[33]XtVaAppInitialize[33]
XtAppSetExitFlag[33]XtCvtStringToFontStruct[33]XtInsertRawEventHandler[33]XtReleaseGC[33]XtVaCreateArgsList[33]
XtAppSetFallbackResources[33]XtCvtStringToGravity[33]XtInstallAccelerators[33]XtReleasePropertyAtom[33]XtVaCreateManagedWidget[33]
XtAppSetSelectionTimeout[33]XtCvtStringToInitialState[33]XtInstallAllAccelerators[33]XtRemoveActionHook[33]XtVaCreatePopupShell[33]
XtAppSetTypeConverter[33]XtCvtStringToInt[33]XtIsApplicationShell[33]XtRemoveAllCallbacks[33]XtVaCreateWidget[33]
XtAppSetWarningHandler[33]XtCvtStringToPixel[33]XtIsComposite[33]XtRemoveBlockHook[33]XtVaGetApplicationResources[33]
XtAppSetWarningMsgHandler[33]XtCvtStringToRestartStyle[33]XtIsConstraint[33]XtRemoveCallback[33]XtVaGetSubresources[33]
XtAppUnlock[33]XtCvtStringToShort[33]XtIsManaged[33]XtRemoveCallbacks[33]XtVaGetSubvalues[33]
XtAppWarning[33]XtCvtStringToTranslationTable[33]XtIsObject[33]XtRemoveEventHandler[33]XtVaGetValues[33]
XtAppWarningMsg[33]XtCvtStringToUnsignedChar[33]XtIsOverrideShell[33]XtRemoveEventTypeHandler[33]XtVaOpenApplication[33]
XtAugmentTranslations[33]XtCvtStringToVisual[33]XtIsRealized[33]XtRemoveGrab[33]XtVaSetSubvalues[33]
XtBuildEventMask[33]XtDatabase[33]XtIsRectObj[33]XtRemoveInput[33]XtVaSetValues[33]
XtCallAcceptFocus[33]XtDestroyApplicationContext[33]XtIsSensitive[33]XtRemoveRawEventHandler[33]XtWarning[33]
XtCallActionProc[33]XtDestroyGC[33]XtIsSessionShell[33]XtRemoveSignal[33]XtWarningMsg[33]
XtCallCallbackList[33]XtDestroyWidget[33]XtIsShell[33]XtRemoveTimeOut[33]XtWidgetToApplicationContext[33]
XtCallCallbacks[33]XtDirectConvert[33]XtIsSubclass[33]XtRemoveWorkProc[33]XtWindow[33]
XtCallConverter[33]XtDisownSelection[33]XtIsTopLevelShell[33]XtReservePropertyAtom[33]XtWindowOfObject[33]
XtCallbackExclusive[33]XtDispatchEvent[33]XtIsTransientShell[33]XtResizeWidget[33]XtWindowToWidget[33]
XtCallbackNone[33]XtDispatchEventToWidget[33]XtIsVendorShell[33]XtResizeWindow[33]_XtCopyFromArg[32]
XtCallbackNonexclusive[33]XtDisplay[33]XtIsWMShell[33]XtResolvePathname[33]_XtInherit[32]
XtCallbackPopdown[33]XtDisplayInitialize[33]XtIsWidget[33]XtScreen[33]_XtIsSubclassOf[32]
XtCallbackReleaseCacheRef[33]XtDisplayOfObject[33]XtKeysymToKeycodeList[33]XtScreenDatabase[33] 
XtCallbackReleaseCacheRefList[33]XtDisplayStringConversionWarning[33]XtLastEventProcessed[33]XtScreenOfObject[33] 
XtCalloc[33]XtDisplayToApplicationContext[33]XtLastTimestampProcessed[33]XtSendSelectionRequest[33] 

Data Symbols

Table 12-16. libXt - X Toolkit Data Interfaces

XtCXtToolkitError[33]compositeWidgetClass[33]overrideShellClassRec[33]shellClassRec[33]widgetClass[33]
XtShellStrings[33]constraintClassRec[33]overrideShellWidgetClass[33]shellWidgetClass[33]widgetClassRec[33]
XtStrings[33]constraintWidgetClass[33]rectObjClass[33]topLevelShellClassRec[33]wmShellClassRec[33]
_XtInheritTranslations[32]coreWidgetClass[33]rectObjClassRec[33]topLevelShellWidgetClass[33]wmShellWidgetClass[33]
applicationShellWidgetClass[33]objectClass[33]sessionShellClassRec[33]transientShellClassRec[33] 
compositeClassRec[33]objectClassRec[33]sessionShellWidgetClass[33]transientShellWidgetClass[33] 

Interfaces Definitions for libXt

Table of Contents
_XtCopyFromArg -- Copy "size" bytes from src to dst.
_XtInherit -- inheritance operation.
_XtInheritTranslations -- an inheritance constant
_XtIsSubclassOf -- determine if Widget is a subclass of WidgetClass.

_XtCopyFromArg

Name

_XtCopyFromArg -- Copy "size" bytes from src to dst.

Synopsis

void _XtCopyFromArg(XtArgVal src,char* dst,unsigned int size);

Description

The _XtCopyFromArg() function copies "size" bytes from src to dst. This is an internal X function call.

_XtInherit

Name

_XtInherit -- inheritance operation.

Synopsis

#include <IntrinsicP.h>

extern void _XtInherit(
#if NeedFunctionPrototypes
    void
#endif
);

Description

_XtInherit() is a procedure that issues an error message if it is actually called.

_XtInheritTranslations

Name

_XtInheritTranslations -- an inheritance constant

Synopsis

#include <CoreP.h>

externalref int _XtInheritTranslations;

Description

_XtInheritTranslations is an inheritance constant.

_XtIsSubclassOf

Name

_XtIsSubclassOf -- determine if Widget is a subclass of WidgetClass.

Synopsis

#include <Intrinsic.h>

extern Boolean _XtIsSubclassOf(
    Widget              /* object*  /,
    WidgetClass         /* widget_class */,
    WidgetClass         /* flag_class */,
    _XtXtEnum           /* type_flag */,
);

Description

Determine if Widget(object) is a subclass of WidgetClass(widget_class).


Interfaces for libGL

Table 12-17. libGL Definition

Library:libGL
SONAME:libGL.so.1

The behavior of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following standards.

OpenGL® Application Binary Interface for Linux[34]


GL X interface

Table 12-18. libGL - GL X interface Function Interfaces

glXChooseVisual[34]glXDestroyContext[34]glXGetContextIDEXT[34]glXImportContextEXT[34]glXQueryExtensionsString[34]
glXCopyContext[34]glXDestroyGLXPixmap[34]glXGetCurrentContext[34]glXIsDirect[34]glXQueryServerString[34]
glXCreateContext[34]glXDestroyPbuffer[34]glXGetCurrentDisplay[34]glXMakeContextCurrent[34]glXQueryVersion[34]
glXCreateGLXPixmap[34]glXDestroyPixmap[34]glXGetCurrentDrawable[34]glXMakeCurrent[34]glXSelectEvent[34]
glXCreateNewContext[34]glXDestroyWindow[34]glXGetCurrentReadDrawable[34]glXQueryContext[34]glXSwapBuffers[34]
glXCreatePbuffer[34]glXFreeContextEXT[34]glXGetFBConfigAttrib[34]glXQueryContextInfoEXT[34]glXUseXFont[34]
glXCreatePixmap[34]glXGetClientString[34]glXGetSelectedEvent[34]glXQueryDrawable[34]glXWaitGL[34]
glXCreateWindow[34]glXGetConfig[34]glXGetVisualFromFBConfig[34]glXQueryExtension[34]glXWaitX[34]

OpenGL

Table 12-19. libGL - OpenGL Function Interfaces

glAccum[34]glDepthRange[34]glIndexPointer[34]glNormal3d[34]glTexCoord1fv[34]
glActiveTextureARB[34]glDisable[34]glIndexd[34]glNormal3dv[34]glTexCoord1i[34]
glAlphaFunc[34]glDisableClientState[34]glIndexdv[34]glNormal3f[34]glTexCoord1iv[34]
glAreTexturesResident[34]glDrawArrays[34]glIndexf[34]glNormal3fv[34]glTexCoord1s[34]
glArrayElement[34]glDrawBuffer[34]glIndexfv[34]glNormal3i[34]glTexCoord1sv[34]
glBegin[34]glDrawElements[34]glIndexi[34]glNormal3iv[34]glTexCoord2d[34]
glBindTexture[34]glDrawPixels[34]glIndexiv[34]glNormal3s[34]glTexCoord2dv[34]
glBitmap[34]glDrawRangeElements[34]glIndexs[34]glNormal3sv[34]glTexCoord2f[34]
glBlendColor[34]glEdgeFlag[34]glIndexsv[34]glNormalPointer[34]glTexCoord2fv[34]
glBlendColorEXT[34]glEdgeFlagPointer[34]glIndexub[34]glOrtho[34]glTexCoord2i[34]
glBlendEquation[34]glEdgeFlagv[34]glIndexubv[34]glPassThrough[34]glTexCoord2iv[34]
glBlendEquationEXT[34]glEnable[34]glInitNames[34]glPixelMapfv[34]glTexCoord2s[34]
glBlendFunc[34]glEnableClientState[34]glInterleavedArrays[34]glPixelMapuiv[34]glTexCoord2sv[34]
glCallList[34]glEnd[34]glIsEnabled[34]glPixelMapusv[34]glTexCoord3d[34]
glCallLists[34]glEndList[34]glIsList[34]glPixelStoref[34]glTexCoord3dv[34]
glClear[34]glEvalCoord1d[34]glIsTexture[34]glPixelStorei[34]glTexCoord3f[34]
glClearAccum[34]glEvalCoord1dv[34]glLightModelf[34]glPixelTransferf[34]glTexCoord3fv[34]
glClearColor[34]glEvalCoord1f[34]glLightModelfv[34]glPixelTransferi[34]glTexCoord3i[34]
glClearDepth[34]glEvalCoord1fv[34]glLightModeli[34]glPixelZoom[34]glTexCoord3iv[34]
glClearIndex[34]glEvalCoord2d[34]glLightModeliv[34]glPointSize[34]glTexCoord3s[34]
glClearStencil[34]glEvalCoord2dv[34]glLightf[34]glPolygonMode[34]glTexCoord3sv[34]
glClientActiveTextureARB[34]glEvalCoord2f[34]glLightfv[34]glPolygonOffset[34]glTexCoord4d[34]
glClipPlane[34]glEvalCoord2fv[34]glLighti[34]glPolygonStipple[34]glTexCoord4dv[34]
glColor3b[34]glEvalMesh1[34]glLightiv[34]glPopAttrib[34]glTexCoord4f[34]
glColor3bv[34]glEvalMesh2[34]glLineStipple[34]glPopClientAttrib[34]glTexCoord4fv[34]
glColor3d[34]glEvalPoint1[34]glLineWidth[34]glPopMatrix[34]glTexCoord4i[34]
glColor3dv[34]glEvalPoint2[34]glListBase[34]glPopName[34]glTexCoord4iv[34]
glColor3f[34]glFeedbackBuffer[34]glLoadIdentity[34]glPrioritizeTextures[34]glTexCoord4s[34]
glColor3fv[34]glFinish[34]glLoadMatrixd[34]glPushAttrib[34]glTexCoord4sv[34]
glColor3i[34]glFlush[34]glLoadMatrixf[34]glPushClientAttrib[34]glTexCoordPointer[34]
glColor3iv[34]glFogf[34]glLoadName[34]glPushMatrix[34]glTexEnvf[34]
glColor3s[34]glFogfv[34]glLogicOp[34]glPushName[34]glTexEnvfv[34]
glColor3sv[34]glFogi[34]glMap1d[34]glRasterPos2d[34]glTexEnvi[34]
glColor3ub[34]glFogiv[34]glMap1f[34]glRasterPos2dv[34]glTexEnviv[34]
glColor3ubv[34]glFrontFace[34]glMap2d[34]glRasterPos2f[34]glTexGend[34]
glColor3ui[34]glFrustum[34]glMap2f[34]glRasterPos2fv[34]glTexGendv[34]
glColor3uiv[34]glGenLists[34]glMapGrid1d[34]glRasterPos2i[34]glTexGenf[34]
glColor3us[34]glGenTextures[34]glMapGrid1f[34]glRasterPos2iv[34]glTexGenfv[34]
glColor3usv[34]glGetBooleanv[34]glMapGrid2d[34]glRasterPos2s[34]glTexGeni[34]
glColor4b[34]glGetClipPlane[34]glMapGrid2f[34]glRasterPos2sv[34]glTexGeniv[34]
glColor4bv[34]glGetColorTable[34]glMaterialf[34]glRasterPos3d[34]glTexImage1D[34]
glColor4d[34]glGetColorTableParameterfv[34]glMaterialfv[34]glRasterPos3dv[34]glTexImage2D[34]
glColor4dv[34]glGetColorTableParameteriv[34]glMateriali[34]glRasterPos3f[34]glTexImage3D[34]
glColor4f[34]glGetConvolutionFilter[34]glMaterialiv[34]glRasterPos3fv[34]glTexParameterf[34]
glColor4fv[34]glGetConvolutionParameterfv[34]glMatrixMode[34]glRasterPos3i[34]glTexParameterfv[34]
glColor4i[34]glGetConvolutionParameteriv[34]glMinmax[34]glRasterPos3iv[34]glTexParameteri[34]
glColor4iv[34]glGetDoublev[34]glMultMatrixd[34]glRasterPos3s[34]glTexParameteriv[34]
glColor4s[34]glGetError[34]glMultMatrixf[34]glRasterPos3sv[34]glTexSubImage1D[34]
glColor4sv[34]glGetFloatv[34]glMultiTexCoord1dARB[34]glRasterPos4d[34]glTexSubImage2D[34]
glColor4ub[34]glGetHistogram[34]glMultiTexCoord1dvARB[34]glRasterPos4dv[34]glTexSubImage3D[34]
glColor4ubv[34]glGetHistogramParameterfv[34]glMultiTexCoord1fARB[34]glRasterPos4f[34]glTranslated[34]
glColor4ui[34]glGetHistogramParameteriv[34]glMultiTexCoord1fvARB[34]glRasterPos4fv[34]glTranslatef[34]
glColor4uiv[34]glGetIntegerv[34]glMultiTexCoord1iARB[34]glRasterPos4i[34]glVertex2d[34]
glColor4us[34]glGetLightfv[34]glMultiTexCoord1ivARB[34]glRasterPos4iv[34]glVertex2dv[34]
glColor4usv[34]glGetLightiv[34]glMultiTexCoord1sARB[34]glRasterPos4s[34]glVertex2f[34]
glColorMask[34]glGetMapdv[34]glMultiTexCoord1svARB[34]glRasterPos4sv[34]glVertex2fv[34]
glColorMaterial[34]glGetMapfv[34]glMultiTexCoord2dARB[34]glReadBuffer[34]glVertex2i[34]
glColorPointer[34]glGetMapiv[34]glMultiTexCoord2dvARB[34]glReadPixels[34]glVertex2iv[34]
glColorSubTable[34]glGetMaterialfv[34]glMultiTexCoord2fARB[34]glRectd[34]glVertex2s[34]
glColorTable[34]glGetMaterialiv[34]glMultiTexCoord2fvARB[34]glRectdv[34]glVertex2sv[34]
glColorTableParameterfv[34]glGetMinmax[34]glMultiTexCoord2iARB[34]glRectf[34]glVertex3d[34]
glColorTableParameteriv[34]glGetMinmaxParameterfv[34]glMultiTexCoord2ivARB[34]glRectfv[34]glVertex3dv[34]
glConvolutionFilter1D[34]glGetMinmaxParameteriv[34]glMultiTexCoord2sARB[34]glRecti[34]glVertex3f[34]
glConvolutionFilter2D[34]glGetPixelMapfv[34]glMultiTexCoord2svARB[34]glRectiv[34]glVertex3fv[34]
glConvolutionParameterf[34]glGetPixelMapuiv[34]glMultiTexCoord3dARB[34]glRects[34]glVertex3i[34]
glConvolutionParameterfv[34]glGetPixelMapusv[34]glMultiTexCoord3dvARB[34]glRectsv[34]glVertex3iv[34]
glConvolutionParameteri[34]glGetPointerv[34]glMultiTexCoord3fARB[34]glRenderMode[34]glVertex3s[34]
glConvolutionParameteriv[34]glGetPolygonStipple[34]glMultiTexCoord3fvARB[34]glResetHistogram[34]glVertex3sv[34]
glCopyColorSubTable[34]glGetSeparableFilter[34]glMultiTexCoord3iARB[34]glResetMinmax[34]glVertex4d[34]
glCopyColorTable[34]glGetString[34]glMultiTexCoord3ivARB[34]glRotated[34]glVertex4dv[34]
glCopyConvolutionFilter1D[34]glGetTexEnvfv[34]glMultiTexCoord3sARB[34]glRotatef[34]glVertex4f[34]
glCopyConvolutionFilter2D[34]glGetTexEnviv[34]glMultiTexCoord3svARB[34]glScaled[34]glVertex4fv[34]
glCopyPixels[34]glGetTexGendv[34]glMultiTexCoord4dARB[34]glScalef[34]glVertex4i[34]
glCopyTexImage1D[34]glGetTexGenfv[34]glMultiTexCoord4dvARB[34]glScissor[34]glVertex4iv[34]
glCopyTexImage2D[34]glGetTexGeniv[34]glMultiTexCoord4fARB[34]glSelectBuffer[34]glVertex4s[34]
glCopyTexSubImage1D[34]glGetTexImage[34]glMultiTexCoord4fvARB[34]glSeparableFilter2D[34]glVertex4sv[34]
glCopyTexSubImage2D[34]glGetTexLevelParameterfv[34]glMultiTexCoord4iARB[34]glShadeModel[34]glVertexPointer[34]
glCopyTexSubImage3D[34]glGetTexLevelParameteriv[34]glMultiTexCoord4ivARB[34]glStencilFunc[34]glViewport[34]
glCullFace[34]glGetTexParameterfv[34]glMultiTexCoord4sARB[34]glStencilMask[34]glXChooseFBConfig[34]
glDeleteLists[34]glGetTexParameteriv[34]glMultiTexCoord4svARB[34]glStencilOp[34] 
glDeleteTextures[34]glHint[34]glNewList[34]glTexCoord1d[34] 
glDepthFunc[34]glHistogram[34]glNormal3b[34]glTexCoord1dv[34] 
glDepthMask[34]glIndexMask[34]glNormal3bv[34]glTexCoord1f[34] 

Data Definitions for libGL


GL/gl.h


typedef unsigned int GLenum;

typedef unsigned char GLboolean;

typedef unsigned int GLbitfield;

typedef void GLvoid;

typedef char GLbyte;

typedef short GLshort;

typedef int GLint;

typedef unsigned char GLubyte;

typedef unsigned short GLushort;

typedef unsigned int GLuint;

typedef int GLsizei;

typedef float GLfloat;

typedef float GLclampf;

typedef double GLdouble;

typedef double GLclampd;



#define GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE	0x1401
#define GL_SHORT	0x1402
#define GL_UNSIGNED_SHORT	0x1403
#define GL_INT	0x1404
#define GL_UNSIGNED_INT	0x1405
#define GL_FLOAT	0x1406
#define GL_2_BYTES	0x1407
#define GL_3_BYTES	0x1408
#define GL_4_BYTES	0x1409
#define GL_DOUBLE	0x140A

#define GL_POINTS	0x0000
#define GL_LINES	0x0001
#define GL_LINE_LOOP	0x0002
#define GL_LINE_STRIP	0x0003
#define GL_TRIANGLES	0x0004
#define GL_TRIANGLE_STRIP	0x0005
#define GL_TRIANGLE_FAN	0x0006
#define GL_QUADS	0x0007
#define GL_QUAD_STRIP	0x0008
#define GL_POLYGON	0x0009

#define GL_V2F	0x2A20
#define GL_V3F	0x2A21
#define GL_C4UB_V2F	0x2A22
#define GL_C4UB_V3F	0x2A23
#define GL_C3F_V3F	0x2A24
#define GL_N3F_V3F	0x2A25
#define GL_C4F_N3F_V3F	0x2A26
#define GL_T2F_V3F	0x2A27
#define GL_T4F_V4F	0x2A28
#define GL_T2F_C4UB_V3F	0x2A29
#define GL_T2F_C3F_V3F	0x2A2A
#define GL_T2F_N3F_V3F	0x2A2B
#define GL_T2F_C4F_N3F_V3F	0x2A2C
#define GL_T4F_C4F_N3F_V4F	0x2A2D
#define GL_VERTEX_ARRAY	0x8074
#define GL_NORMAL_ARRAY	0x8075
#define GL_COLOR_ARRAY	0x8076
#define GL_INDEX_ARRAY	0x8077
#define GL_TEXTURE_COORD_ARRAY	0x8078
#define GL_EDGE_FLAG_ARRAY	0x8079
#define GL_VERTEX_ARRAY_SIZE	0x807A
#define GL_VERTEX_ARRAY_TYPE	0x807B
#define GL_VERTEX_ARRAY_STRIDE	0x807C
#define GL_NORMAL_ARRAY_TYPE	0x807E
#define GL_NORMAL_ARRAY_STRIDE	0x807F
#define GL_COLOR_ARRAY_SIZE	0x8081
#define GL_COLOR_ARRAY_TYPE	0x8082
#define GL_COLOR_ARRAY_STRIDE	0x8083
#define GL_INDEX_ARRAY_TYPE	0x8085
#define GL_INDEX_ARRAY_STRIDE	0x8086
#define GL_TEXTURE_COORD_ARRAY_SIZE	0x8088
#define GL_TEXTURE_COORD_ARRAY_TYPE	0x8089
#define GL_TEXTURE_COORD_ARRAY_STRIDE	0x808A
#define GL_EDGE_FLAG_ARRAY_STRIDE	0x808C
#define GL_VERTEX_ARRAY_POINTER	0x808E
#define GL_NORMAL_ARRAY_POINTER	0x808F
#define GL_COLOR_ARRAY_POINTER	0x8090
#define GL_INDEX_ARRAY_POINTER	0x8091
#define GL_TEXTURE_COORD_ARRAY_POINTER	0x8092

#define GL_MATRIX_MODE	0x0BA0
#define GL_MODELVIEW	0x1700
#define GL_PROJECTION	0x1701
#define GL_TEXTURE	0x1702

GL/glx.h


typedef struct __GLXcontextRec *GLXContext;

typedef struct __GLXFBConfigRec *GLXFBConfig;

typedef XID GLXContextID;

typedef XID GLXPixmap;

typedef XID GLXDrawable;

typedef XID GLXPbuffer;

typedef XID GLXWindow;

VII. Package Format and Installation

Table of Contents
13. Software Installation

Chapter 13. Software Installation


Package Format

Applications should be provided in the RPM packaging format as defined in the appendix of Maximum RPM, with some restrictions listed below. [35]

Distributions must provide a mechanism for installing applications in this packaging format with some restrictions listed below. [36]


Package Script Restrictions

Scripts used as part of the package install and uninstall may only use commands and interfaces that are specified by the LSB. All other commands are not guaranteed to be present, or to behave in expected ways.

Packages may not use RPM triggers.

Packages may not depend on the order in which scripts are executed (pre-install, pre-uninstall, &c), when doing an upgrade.


Package Tools

The LSB does not specify the interface to the tools used to manipulate LSB-conformant packages. Each conforming distribution will provide documentation for installing LSB packages.


Package Naming

Because there is no consistent packaging naming among the various Linux distributions, it is necessary for LSB-conformant packages to adhere the following naming rules to avoid conflicts with packages provided by the distributions.

  • All LSB package names must begin with the prefix "lsb-" to avoid conflicting with existing packages used by Linux distributions.

  • If the package name contains only one hyphen (including the one in the "lsb-" prefix) then the package name must be assigned by the Linux Assigned Names and Numbers Authority (LANANA), which shall maintain a registry of LSB names.

  • If the package name contains more than one hyphen (i.e., "lsb-www.redhat.com-redhat-database", "lsb-gnome-gnumeric"), then the portion of the package name between first and second hyphens must either be an LSB provider name assigned by the LANANA, or it may be one of the owners' fully-qualified domain name in lower case (e.g., "debian.org", "staroffice.sun.com"). The LSB provider name assigned by LANANA must only consist of the ASCII characters [a-z0-9].


Package Dependencies

Packages must depend on a dependency "lsb". They may not depend on other system-provided dependencies. If a package includes "Provides" it must only provide a virtual package name which is registered to that application.

VIII. Commands and Utilities

Table of Contents
14. Command and Utilities

Chapter 14. Command and Utilities

Command and Utilities

The following table lists the Commands and Utilities. Unless otherwise specified the command or utility is described in the Single UNIX Specification (SUS). When an interface is not defined in the SUS, then the next prevailing standard is referenced (ie., POSIX, SVID).

The behavior of the interfaces described in this section are specified by the following standards.

Linux Standard Base [37]
CAE Specification, January 1997, Commands and Utilities (XCU), Issue 5 (ISBN: 1-85912-191-8, C604) [38]

Table 14-1. Commands and Utilities

ar [37]at [37]awk [37]basename [38]batch [37]
bc [37]cat [37]chfn [37]chgrp [37]chmod [37]
chown [38]chsh [37]cksum [38]cmp [38]col [37]
comm [38]cp [37]cpio [37]crontab [37]csplit [37]
cut [37]date [37]dd [37]df [37]diff [37]
dirname [38]du [37]echo [37]egrep [37]env [37]
expand [37]expr [37]false [38]fgrep [37]file [37]
find [37]fold [38]fuser [37]gencat [37]getconf [38]
grep [37]groupadd [37]groupdel [37]groupmod [37]groups [37]
gunzip [37]gzip [37]head [37]hostname [37]iconv [37]
id [38]install [37]ipcrm [37]ipcs [37]join [38]
kill [38]killall [37]ln [37]locale [38]localedef [38]
logname [38]lpr [37]ls [37]lsb_release [37]m4 [37]
make [37]man [37]md5sum [37]mkdir [37]mkfifo [38]
mknod [37]mktemp [37]more [37]mount [37]mv [37]
newgrp [37]nice [37]nl [37]nohup [37]od [37]
passwd [37]paste [37]patch [37]pathchk [37]pidof [37]
pr [37]printf [37]ps [38]pwd [37]renice [37]
rm [37]rmdir [37]rsync [37]sed [37]sendmail [37]
sh [38]sleep [37]sort [37]split [37]strip [37]
stty [38]su [37]sum [37]sync [37]tail [37]
tar [37]tee [37]test [37]time [37]touch [37]
tr [37]true [38]tsort [38]tty [37]umount [37]
uname [37]unexpand [37]uniq [37]useradd [37]userdel [37]
usermod [37]wc [37]xargs [37]  

Command Behavior

Table of Contents
ar -- create and maintain library archives
at -- examine or delete jobs for later execution
awk -- pattern scanning and processing language
batch -- execute commands when the system load permits
bc -- An arbitrary precision calculator language
cat -- concatenate and print files
chfn -- change user name and information
chgrp -- change group ownership
chmod -- change file access permissions
chown -- change file owner and group
chsh -- change login shell
col -- filter reverse line feeds from input
cp -- copy files and directories
cpio -- copy file archives in and out
csplit -- split a file into sections determined by context lines
crontab -- maintain crontab files for individual users
cut -- split a file into sections determined by context lines
date -- print or set the system date and time
dd -- convert and copy a file
df -- report filesystem disk space usage
diff -- find differences between two files
dmesg -- print or control the kernel ring buffer
du -- estimate file space usage
echo -- display a line of text
egrep -- search a file with an ERE pattern
env -- run a program in a modified environment
expand -- convert tabs to spaces
expr -- evaluate expressions
fgrep -- search a file with an ERE pattern
file -- determine file type
find -- search for files in a directory hierarchy
fuser -- identify processes using files or sockets
gencat -- generate a formatted message catalogue
grep -- print lines matching a pattern
groupadd -- create a new group
groupdel -- delete a group
groupmod -- modify a group
groups -- display a group
gzip -- compress or expand files
gunzip -- uncompress files
head -- output the first part of files
hostname -- show the system's host name
iconv -- convert file character encoding
install -- copy files and set attributes
ipcrm -- provide information on ipc facilities
ipcs -- provide information on ipc facilities
killall -- kill processes by name
ln -- make links between files
localedef -- compile locale definition files
login -- begin session on the system (LSB DEPRICATED)
lpr -- off line print
ls -- list directory contents
lsb_release -- print distribution specific information
m4 -- macro processor
make -- maintain, update and regenerate groups of programs
man -- display system documentation
md5sum -- generates or checks MD5 message digests
mkdir -- make directories
mknod -- make block or character special files
mktemp -- make temporary file name (unique)
more -- file perusal filter for crt viewing
mount -- mount a file system
mv -- move (rename) files
newgrp -- change group ID
nice -- run a program with modified scheduling priority
nl -- number lines of files
nohup -- runs a command immune to hangups, with output to a non-tty
od -- dump files in octal and other formats
passwd -- change user password
paste -- merge lines of files
patch -- apply a diff file to an original
pathchk -- check whether file names are valid or portable
pidof -- find the process ID of a running program
pr -- split a file into sections determined by context lines
printf -- format and print data
pwd -- print name of current/working directory
renice -- alter priority of running processes
rm -- remove files or directories
rmdir -- remove empty directories
rsync -- faster, flexible replacement for rcp
sed -- stream editor
sendmail -- an electronic mail transport agent
shutdown -- bring the system down
sleep -- delay for a specified amount of time
sort -- sort, merge or sequence check text files
split -- split a file into pieces
strip -- remove unnecessary information from executable files
su -- change user ID or become super-user
sum -- print checksum and block count of a file
sync -- flush filesystem buffers
tail -- output the last part of files
tar -- file archiver
tee -- read from standard input and write to standard output and files
test -- check file types and compare values
time -- run programs and summarize system resource usage
touch -- change file access and modification times
tr -- translate or delete characters
tty -- print the file name of the terminal connected to standard input
umount -- unmount file systems
uname -- return system name
unexpand -- convert spaces to tabs
uniq -- remove duplicate lines from a sorted file
useradd -- create a new user or update default new user information
userdel -- delete a user account and related files
usermod -- modify a user account
wc -- print the number of bytes, words, and lines in files
xargs -- build and execute command lines from standard input

This section contains descriptions for commands and utilities whose specified behavior in the LSB contradicts or extends the standards referenced. It also contains commands and utilities only required by the LSB and not specified by other standards.

ar

Name

ar -- create and maintain library archives

Description

ar is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

-T, -C

need not be accepted.

-l

has implementation-dependent behavior.

-q

has implementation-dependent behavior; using -r is suggested.

at

Name

at -- examine or delete jobs for later execution

Description

at is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

-c

cats the jobs listed on the command line to standard output.

-d

is functionally equivalent to the -r option specified in the SUS.

-r

is not supported, but the '-d' option is equivalent.

-t time

is not supported.

-V

prints the version number to standard error.

-v

shows the time the job will be executed.

Files

The files at.allow and at.deny reside in /etc rather than /usr/lib/cron.

awk

Name

awk -- pattern scanning and processing language

Description

awk is as specified in the SUS with no differences. gawk and mawk are SUS-compliant implementations of the awk language.

batch

Name

batch -- execute commands when the system load permits

Synopsis

batch [-V] [-q queue] [-f file] [-mv] [TIME]

Description

batch reads commands from standard input or a specified file which are to be executed at a later time, using /bin/sh.

Differences

-f file

reads the job from file rather than standard input.

-m

sends mail to the user when the job has completed even if there was no output.

-q queue

uses the specified queue. A queue designation consists of a single letter; valid queue designations range from a to z. and A to Z. The a queue is the default for at and the b queue for batch. Queues with higher letters run with increased niceness. The special queue "=" is reserved for jobs which are currently running.

-V

prints the version number to standard error.

-v

shows the time the job will be executed.

Files

The files at.allow and at.deny reside in /etc rather than /usr/lib/cron.

bc

Name

bc -- An arbitrary precision calculator language

Description

bc is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

-q, --quiet

does not print the normal welcome message.

-s, --standard

processes exactly the POSIX bc language.

-v, --version

prints the version number and copyright and quits.

-w, --warn

gives warnings for extensions to POSIX bc.

cat

Name

cat -- concatenate and print files

Description

cat is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

-A, --show-all

is equivalent to -vET.

-b, --number-nonblank

numbers nonblank output lines.

-e

is equivalent to -vE.

-E, --show-ends

displays $ at end of each line.

-n, --number

numbers all output lines.

-s, --squeeze-blank

displays never more than one single blank line.

-t

is equivalent to -vT.

-T, --showtabs

displays TAB characters as ^I.

-u

has implementation-dependent behavior.

-v, --show-nonprinting

uses ^ and M- notation, except for LFD and TAB.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

chfn

Name

chfn -- change user name and information

Synopsis

chfn [-f full_name] [-r room_no]
     [-w work_ph] [-h home_ph] [-o other] [user]

Description

chfn changes user fullname, office number, office extension, and home phone number information for a user's account. This information is typically printed by finger and similar programs. A normal user may only change the fields for their own account, the super user may change the fields for any account. Also, only the super user may use the -o option to change the undefined portions of the GCOS field.

The only restrictions placed on the contents of the fields is that no control characters may be present, nor any of comma, colon, or equal sign. The other field does not have this restriction, and is used to store accounting information used by other applications.

If none of the options are selected, chfn operates in an interactive fashion. The prompts and expected input in interactive mode are implementation-dependent and should not be relied upon.

As it is possible for the system to be configured to restrict which fields a non-privileged user is permitted to change, applications should be written to gracefully handle these situations.

Standard Options

-f full_name

sets the user's full name.

-r room_no

sets the user's room number.

-w work_ph

sets the user's work phone number.

-h home_ph

sets the user's home phone number.

-o other

sets the contents of the other field.

chgrp

Name

chgrp -- change group ownership

Synopsis

chgrp [OPTION]... GROUP FILE...
chgrp [OPTION]... --reference=RFILE FILE...

Description

chgrp is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

-c, --changes

is like verbose, but reports only when a change is made.

--dereference

affects the referent of each symbolic link, rather than the symbolic link itself.

-h, --no-dereference

affects symbolic links instead of any referenced file. (Available only on systems that can change the ownership of a symlink.)

-f, --silent, --quiet

suppresses most error messages.

--reference=RFILE

uses RFILE's group rather than the specified GROUP value.

-v, --verbose

outputs a diagnostic for every file processed.

--version

outputs version information and exit.

chmod

Name

chmod -- change file access permissions

Synopsis

chmod [OPTION]... MODE[,MODE]... FILE...
chmod [OPTION]... OCTAL-MODE FILE...
chmod [OPTION]... --reference=RFILE FILE...

Description

chmod is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

-c, --changes

is like verbose, but reports only when a change is made.

-f, --silent, --quiet

suppresses most error messages.

--reference=RFILE

uses RFILE's mode instead of MODE values.

-v, --verbose

outputs a diagnostic for every file processed.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

chown

Name

chown -- change file owner and group

Synopsis

chown [OPTION]... OWNER[:[GROUP]] FILE...
chown [OPTION]... :GROUP FILE...
chown [OPTION]... --reference=RFILE FILE...

Description

chown is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

-c, --changes

is like verbose, but reports only when a change is made.

--dereference

affects the referent of each symbolic link, rather than the symbolic link itself.

-h, --no-dereference

affects symbolic links instead of any referenced file. (Available only on systems that can change the ownership of a symlink.)

--from=CURRENT_OWNER:CURRENT_GROUP

changes the owner and/or group of each file only if its current owner and/or group match those specified here. Either may be omitted, in which case a match is not required for the omitted attribute.

-f, --silent, --quiet

suppresses most error messages.

--reference=RFILE

uses RFILE's owner and group rather than the specified OWNER:GROUP values.

-v, --verbose

outputs a diagnostic for every file processed.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

Note

The use of the '.' character as a separator between the specification of the user name and group name is supported (in addition to the use of the ':' character as specified in the SUS).

chsh

Name

chsh -- change login shell

Synopsis

chsh [-s login_shell] [user]

Description

chsh changes the user login shell. This determines the name of the user's initial login command. A normal user may only change the login shell for their own account, the super user may change the login shell for any account.

The only restrictions placed on the login shell is that the command name must be listed in /etc/shells, unless the invoker is the super-user, and then any value may be added. An account with a restricted login shell may not change their login shell.

If the -s option is not selected, chsh operates in an interactive mode. The prompts and expected input in this mode are implementation-defined.

Standard Options

-s login_shell

sets the login shell.

col

Name

col -- filter reverse line feeds from input

Note

col -p option has implementation-dependent behavior.

cp

Name

cp -- copy files and directories

Synopsis

Description

cp is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

-a archive

is the same as -dpR.

--backup[=CONTROL]

makes a backup of each existing destination file.

-b

is like --backup but does not accept an argument.

-d, --no-dereference

never follows symbolic links.

-H

follows command-line symbolic links.

-l, --link

links files instead of copying.

-L, --dereference

always follows symbolic links.

--parents

appends source path to DIRECTORY.

--remove-destination

removes each existing destination file before attempting to open it. (Contrast with --force.)

--sparse=WHEN

controls creation of sparse files.

By default, sparse SOURCE files are detected by a crude heuristic and the corresponding DEST file is made sparse as well. That is the behavior selected by --sparse=auto. Specify --sparse=always to create a sparse DEST file whenever the SOURCE file contains a long enough sequence of zero bytes. Use --sparse=never to inhibit creation of sparse files.

--strip-trailing-slashes

removes any trailing slashes from each SOURCE argument.

-s, --symbolic-link

makes symbolic links instead of copying.

-S, --suffix=SUFFIX

overrides the usual backup suffix.

--target-directory=DIRECTORY

moves all SOURCE arguments into DIRECTORY.

-u, --update

copies only when the SOURCE file is newer than the destination file or when the destination file is missing.

-v, --verbose

explains what is being done.

-x, --one-file-system

stays on this file system.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

cpio

Name

cpio -- copy file archives in and out

Description

cpio is as specified in the SUS. While additional features may be found in Linux versions of this command, the SUS-specified interface is correctly and completely implemented.

csplit

Name

csplit -- split a file into sections determined by context lines

Description

csplit is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

-b, --sufix-format=FORMAT

uses sprintf FORMAT instead of %d.

--quiet, --silent

are equivalent to the -s option as specified in the SUS.

-z, --elide-empty-files

removes empty output files.

--version

outputs version information and exit.

crontab

Name

crontab -- maintain crontab files for individual users

Synopsis

crontab [ -u user ] file
crontab [ -u user ] { -l | -r | -e }

Description

crontab is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

-u user

specifies the name of the user whose crontab is to be used, rather than the user who is running crontab.

Files

The files cron.allow and cron.deny reside in /etc rather than /usr/lib/cron.

cut

Name

cut -- split a file into sections determined by context lines

Description

cut is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

-n

has implementation-dependent behavior.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

date

Name

date -- print or set the system date and time

Description

date is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

-d, --date=STRING

displays time described by STRING, not now.

-f, --file=DATAFILE

is like --date once for each line of DATEFILE.

-r, --reference=FILE

displays the last modification time of FILE.

-R, --rfc-822

outputs RFC2822-compliant date string.

-s, --set=STRING

sets time described by STRING.

--utc, --universal

is equivalent to the -u option as specified in the SUS.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

dd

Name

dd -- convert and copy a file

Description

dd is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

SWAB

is a keyword to the CONV= option causing alternate bytes to be swapped. The treatment of the odd character is implementation-dependent.

df

Name

df -- report filesystem disk space usage

Description

df is as specified in the SUS but with the variations listed in the Differences section below, and as follows.

Disk space is shown in 1K blocks by default, unless the environment variable POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, in which case 512-byte blocks are used.

If an argument is the absolute file name of a disk device node containing a mounted filesystem, df shows the space available on that filesystem rather than on the filesystem containing the device node (which is always the root filesystem).

Differences

-a, --all

includes filesystems having 0 blocks.

--block-size=SIZE

uses SIZE-byte blocks.

-h, --human-readable

prints sizes in human-readable format (e.g., 1K, 234M, 2G).

-H, --si

prints sizes in human-readable format, but uses powers of 1000 (not 1024).

-i, --inodes

lists inode information instead of block usage.

-l, --local

limits listing to local filesystems.

-m, --megabytes

is like --block-size=1048576

--no-sync

does not invoke sync before getting usage info. (default)

-P, --portability

uses the POSIX output format.

--sync

invokes sync before getting usage info.

-t, --type=TYPE

has implementation-dependent behavior.

--portability

is same as -P as specified in the SUS.

--sync

invokes sync before getting usage info.

-t, --type=TYPE

limits listing to filesystems of type TYPE. (Different from behavior as specified in the SUS.)

-T, --print-type

prints filesystem type.

-x, --exclude-type=TYPE

limits listing to filesystems not of type TYPE.

diff

Name

diff -- find differences between two files

Description

diff is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

-a

treats all files as text and compares them line-by-line, even if they do not seem to be text.

-B

ignores changes that just insert or delete blank lines.

--brief

reports only whether the files differ, not the details of the differences.

--context[=lines]

is equivalent to -C as specified in the SUS.

-d

changes the algorithm to perhaps find a smaller set of changes; this makes diff slower (sometimes much slower).

-D name

makes merged if-then-else format output conditional on the preprocessor macro name.

--ed

is equivalent to -e as specified in the SUS.

--exclude=pattern

when comparing directories, ignores files and subdirectories whose basenames match pattern.

--exclude-from=file

when comparing directories, ignores files and subdirectories whose basenames match any pattern contained in file.

--expand-tabs

expands tabs to spaces in the output to preserve the alignment of tabs in the input files.

-F regexp

in context and unified format, shows some of the last preceding line that matches regexp for each hunk of differences.

--forward-ed

makes output that looks vaguely like an ed script, but has changes in the order they appear in the file.

-H

uses heuristics to speed handling of large files that have numerous scattered small changes.

--horizon-lines=lines

does not discard the last lines lines of the common prefix and the first lines lines of the common suffix.

-i

ignores changes in case; considers upper and lower case letters equivalent.

-I regexp

ignores changes that just insert or delete lines that match regexp.

--ifdef=name

makes merged if-then-else format output conditional on the preprocessor macro name.

--ignore-all-space

ignores white space when comparing lines.

--ignore-case

ignores changes in case; considers upper and lower case to be the same.

--ignore-matching-lines=regexp

ignores changes that just insert or delete lines that match regexp.

--ignore-space-change

ignores changes in amount of white space.

--initial-tab

outputs a tab rather than a space before the text of a line in normal or context format. This causes the alignment of tabs in the line to look normal.

-l

passes the output through pr to paginate it.

--ignore-case

ignores changes in case; considers upper and lower case to be the same.

dmesg

Name

dmesg -- print or control the kernel ring buffer

Synopsis

dmesg [ -c ] [ -n level ] [ -s bufsize ]

Description

dmesg examines or controls the kernel ring buffer.

Standard Options

-c

clears the ring buffer contents after printing.

-n level

sets the level at which logging of messages is done to the console.

-s bufsize

uses a buffer of bufsize to query the kernel ring buffer. This is 8196 by default (this matches the default kernel syslog buffer size in 2.0.33 and 2.1.103). If you have set the kernel buffer to larger than the default then this option can be used to view the entire buffer.

du

Name

du -- estimate file space usage

Description

du is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

--block-size=SIZE

uses SIZE-byte blocks.

-b, --bytes

prints size in bytes.

-c, --total

produces a grand total.

-D, --dereference-args

dereferences PATHs when symbolic link.

-h, --human-readable

prints sizes in human-readable format (e.g., 1K, 234M, 2G).

--kilobytes

is equivalent to --block-size=1024.

--l, --count-links

counts sizes many times if hard-linked.

-L, --dereference

dereferences all symbolic links.

-m, --megabytes

is equivalent to --block-size=1048576.

-r

has implementation-dependent behavior.

-S, --separate-dirs

does not include size of subdirectories.

-X FILE, --exclude-from=FILE

excludes files that match any pattern in FILE.

--exclude=PAT

excludes files that match PAT.

--max-depth=N

prints the total for a directory (or file, with --all) only if it is N or fewer levels below the command line argument; --max-depth=0 is the same as --summarize.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

echo

Name

echo -- display a line of text

Synopsis

echo [OPTION]... [STRING]... 

Description

Unlike the behavior specified in the SUS, echo does support options. Behavioral differences are listed below.

Differences

-n

does not output the trailing newline.

-e

enables interpretation of specific backslash-escaped characters.

-E

disables interpretation of those sequences in STRINGs.

--version

outputs version information and exits; should be alone.

egrep

Name

egrep -- search a file with an ERE pattern

Description

egrep is equivalent to grep -E. For further details, see the specification for grep.

env

Name

env -- run a program in a modified environment

Description

env is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

--ignore-environment

is equivalent to -i.

-u, --unset=NAME

removes variable from the environment.

expand

Name

expand -- convert tabs to spaces

Description

expand is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

-i, --initial

does not convert TABs after non-whitespace.

-t, --tabs=NUMBER

supplements behavior as specified in the SUS by allowing argument to specify the number of characters-apart tabs are (instead of 8).

expr

Name

expr -- evaluate expressions

Description

expr is as specified in the SUS but supports extra operands as listed below.

Extra Operands

match STRING REGEXP

is same as STRING : REGEXP.

substr STRING POS LENGTH

is substring of STRING, POS counted from 1.

index STRING CHARS

is index in STRING where any CHARS is found, or 0.

length STRING

is length of STRING.

quote STRING

interprets TOKEN as a string, even if it is a keyword like match or an operator like /.

fgrep

Name

fgrep -- search a file with an ERE pattern

Description

fgrep is equivalent to grep -F. For further details, see the specification for grep.

file

Name

file -- determine file type

Description

file is as specified in the SUS but with additional options as specified below.

Additional Options

-b, --brief

does not prepend filenames to output lines.

-c, --checking-printout

causes a checking printout of the parsed form of the magic file. This is usually used in conjunction with -m to debug a new magic file before installing it.

-f, --files-from namefile

reads the names of the files to be examined from namefile (one per line) before the argument list. Either namefile or at least one filename argument must be present; to test the standard input, use `-' as a filename argument.

-i, --mime

causes the file command to output mime type strings rather than the more traditional human-readable ones. Thus, it may say `text/plain; charset=us-ascii' rather than `ASCII text'. In order for this option to work, file changes the way it handles files recognized by the command itself (such as many of the text file types, directories, etc.), and makes use of an alternative `magic' file.

-k, --keep-going

does not stop at the first match, keeps going.

-m, --magic-file list

specifies an alternate list of files containing magic numbers. This can be a single file, or a colon-separated list of files.

-n, --no-buffer

forces stdout to be flushed after checking each file. This is only useful if checking a list of files. It is intended to be used by programs that want filetype output from a pipe.

-z, --uncompress

tries to look inside compressed files.

-L, --dereference

causes symlinks to be followed.

-s, --special-files

causes block or character special files (that are potentially problematic when processed by file) to be read in addition to the argument files ordinarily identified by stat(2). This is useful for determining the filesystem types of the data in raw disk partitions, which are block special files. This option also causes file to disregard the file size as reported by stat(2) since on some systems it reports a zero size for raw disk partitions.

find

Name

find -- search for files in a directory hierarchy

Description

find is as specified in the SUS but with additional options as specified below.

Additional Options

-daystart

measures times (for -amin, -atime, -cmin, -ctime, -mmin, and -mtime) from the beginning of today rather than from 24 hours ago.

-follow

dereferences symbolic links. Implies -noleaf.

-maxdepth levels

descends at most levels (a non-negative integer) levels of directories below the command line arguments. -maxdepth 0 means only apply the tests and actions to the command line arguments.

-mindepth levels

applies no tests or actions at levels less than levels (a non-negative integer). -mindepth 1 means process all files except the command line arguments.

-mount

is equivalent to -xdev as specified in the SUS.

-noleaf

does not optimize by assuming that directories contain 2 fewer subdirectories than their hard link count.

-version

prints the find version number and exits.

-amin n

displays files last accessed n minutes ago.

-anewer file

displays files last accessed more recently than file was modified. -anewer is affected by -follow only if -follow comes before -anewer on the command line.

-cmin n

displays files with status last changed n minutes ago.

-cnewer file

displays files with status last changed more recently than file was modified. -cnewer is affected by -follow only if -follow comes before -cnewer on the command line.

-empty

displays files that are empty and are either regular or directory files.

-false

is always false.

-fstype type

displays files on a filesystem of type type.

-gid n

displays files with numeric group ID of n.

-ilname pattern

is like -lname, but the match is case-insensitive.

-iname pattern

is like -name, but the match is case-insensitive.

-inum n

displays files with inode number of n.

-ipath path

is like -path, but the match is case-insensitive.

-iregex pattern

is like -regex, but the match is case-insensitive.

-lname

displays files that are symbolic links whose contents match shell pattern pattern. The metacharacters do not treat / or . specially.

-mmin n

displays files with data last modified n minutes ago.

-nouser

displays files with numeric user ID corresponding to no user.

-nogroup

displays files with numeric group ID corresponding to no group.

-path pattern

displays files with name matching shell pattern pattern.

-perm +mode

displays files with any of the permission bits mode set.

-regex

displays files with names matching regular expression pattern. This is a match on the whole path, not a search.

-true

is always true.

-type c

supplements types as specified in the SUS with the letters l and s (symbolic links and sockets, respectively).

-uid n

displays files with numeric user ID of n.

-used

displays files last accessed n days after status was last changed.

-xtype c

is equivalent to -type unless the file is a symbolic link. For symbolic links: if -follow has not been given, true if the file is a link to a file of type c; if -follow has been given, true if c is l. In other words, for symbolic links, -xtype checks the type of the file that -type does not check.

-fls file

is true. Is like -ls but write to file like -fprint.

-fprint file

is true. Prints the full file name into file file. If file does not exist when find is run, it is created; if it does exist, it is truncated. The file names `/dev/stdout' and `/dev/stderr' are handled specially; they refer to the standard output and standard error output, respectively.

-fprint0 file

is true. Is like -print0 but write to file like -fprint.

-fprintf file format

is true. Like -printf but write to file like -fprint.

-print0

is true. Prints the full file name on the standard output, followed by a null character. This allows file names that contain newlines to be correctly interpreted by programs that process the find output.

-printf format

is true. Prints format on the standard output, interpreting \ escapes and % directives. Field widths and precisions can be specified as with the printf C function. Unlike -print, -printf does not add a newline at the end of the string. The escapes and directives are:

\a

alarm bell.

\b

backspace.

\c

stops printing from this format immediately and flushes the output.

\f

form feed.

\n

newline.

\r

carriage return.

\t

horizontal tab.

\v

vertical tab.

\\

literal backslash (\).

%%

literal percent sign.

%a

last file access time in the format returned by the C ctime function.

%Ak

last file access time in the format specified by k, which is either @ or a directive for the C strftime function. The possible values for k are listed below; some of them might not be available on all systems, due to differences in strftime between systems.

@

seconds since Jan. 1, 1970, 00:00 GMT.

H

hour (00..23).

I

hour (01..12).

k

hour ( 0..23).

l

hour ( 1..12).

M

minute (00..59).

p

locale's AM or PM.

r

time, 12-hour (hh:mm:ss [AP]M).

S

second (00..61).

T

time, 24-hour (hh:mm:ss).

X

locale's time representation (H:M:S).

Z

time zone (e.g., EDT), or nothing if no time zone is determinable.

a

locale's abbreviated weekday name (Sun..Sat).

A

locale's full weekday name, variable length (Sunday..Saturday).

b

locale's abbreviated month name (Jan..Dec).

B

locale's full month name, variable.

c

locale's date and time (Sat Nov 04 12:02:33 EST 1989).

d

day of month (01..31).

D

date (mm/dd/yy).

h

same as b.

j

day of year (001.366).

m

month (01..12).

U

week number of year with Sunday as first day of week (00..53).

w

day of week (0..6).

W

week number of year with Monday as first day of week (00..53).

x

locale's date representation (mm/dd/yy).

y

last two digits of year (00..99).

Y

year (1970...).

%b

file's size in 512-byte blocks (rounded up).

%c

last file status change time in the format returned by the C ctime function.

%Ck

last file status change time in the format specified by k, which is the same as for %A.

%d

file's depth in the directory tree; 0 means the file is a command line argument.

%f

file's name with any leading directories removed (only the last element).

%F

type of the filesystem the file is on; this value can be used for -fstype.

%g

file's group name, or numeric group ID if the group has no name.

%G

file's numeric group ID.

%h

leading directories of file's name (all but the last element).

%H

mommand line argument under which file was found.

%i

file's inode number (in decimal).

%k

file's size in 1K blocks (rounded up).

%l

object of symbolic link (empty string if file is not a symbolic link).

%m

file's permission bits (in octal).

%n

number of hard links to file.

%p

file's name.

%P

file's name with the name of the command line argument under which it was found removed.

%s

file's size in bytes.

%t

file's last modification time in the format returned by the C ctime function.

%Tk

file's last modification time in the format specified by k, which is the same as for %A.

%u

file's user name, or numeric user ID if the user has no name.

%U

file's numeric user ID.

-ls

is true. Lists current file in ls -dils format on standard output. The block counts are of 1K blocks, unless the environment variable POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, in which case 512-byte blocks are used.

Extra Operators

The following operators are supported in order of decreasing precedence and override what is specified in the SUS.

( expr )

force precedence.

! expr

true if expr is false

-not expr

same as ! expr.

expr1 expr2

and (implied); expr2 is not evaluated if expr1 is false.

expr1 -a expr2

same as expr1 expr2.

expr1 -and expr2

same as expr1 expr2.

expr1 -o expr2

or; expr2 is not evaluated if expr1 is true.

expr1 -or expr2

same as expr1 -o expr2.

expr1, expr2

list; both expr1 and expr2 are always evaluated. The value of expr1 is discarded; the value of the list is the value of expr2.

fuser

Name

fuser -- identify processes using files or sockets

Description

fuser is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

-a

shows all files specified on the command line. By default, only files that are accessed by at least one process are shown.

-c

has implementation-dependent behavior.

-f

has implementation-dependent behavior.

-k

kills processes accessing the file. Unless changed with -signal, SIGKILL is sent. An fuser process never kills itself, but may kill other fuser processes. The effective user ID of the process executing fuser is set to its real user ID before attempting to kill.

-i

asks the user for confirmation before killing a process. This option is silently ignored if -k is not present too.

-l

lists all known signal names.

-m

name specifies a file on a mounted file system or a block device that is mounted. All processes accessing files on that file system are listed. If a directory file is specified, it is automatically changed to name/. to use any file system that might be mounted on that directory.

-n space

selects a different name space. The name spaces file (file names, the default), udp (local UDP ports), and tcp (local TCP ports) are supported. For ports, either the port number or the symbolic name can be specified. If there is no ambiguity, the shortcut notation name/space (e.g. name/proto) can be used.

-s

operates silently. -u and -v are ignored in this mode. -a must not be used with -s.

-signal

uses the specified signal instead of SIGKILL when killing processes. Signals can be specified either by name (e.g. -HUP) or by number (e.g. -1).

-v

verbose mode.

-V

displays version information.

-

resets all options and set the signal back to SIGKILL.

gencat

Name

gencat -- generate a formatted message catalogue

Description

gencat is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

-H, --header=NAME

creates C header file NAME containing symbol definitions.

--new

does not use existing catalog, forces new output file.

-o, --output=NAME

writes output to file NAME.

grep

Name

grep -- print lines matching a pattern

Description

grep is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

-A NUM, --after-context=NUM

prints NUM lines of trailing context after matching lines.

-a, --text

processes a binary file as if it were text; this is equivalent to the --binary-files=text option.

-B NUM, --before-context=NUM

prints NUM lines of leading context before matching lines.

-C [NUM], -NUM, --context[=NUM]

prints NUM lines (default 2) of output context.

-b, --byte-offset

prints the byte offset within the input file before each line of output.

--binary-files=TYPE

assumes that the file is of type TYPE if its first few bytes indicate it contains binary data. By default, TYPE is binary, and grep normally outputs either a one-line message saying that a binary file matches, or no message if there is no match. If TYPE is without-match, grep assumes that a binary file does not match; this is equivalent to the -I option. If TYPE is text, grep processes a binary file as if it were text; this is equivalent to the -a option. Warning: grep --binary-files=text might output binary garbage, which can have nasty side effects if the output is a terminal and if the terminal driver interprets some of it as commands.

-c, --count

suppresses normal output; instead, prints a count of matching lines for each input file. With the -v, --invert-match option (see below), counts non-matching lines.

-d ACTION, --directories=ACTION

processes the input file as a directory with ACTION. By default, ACTION is read, which means that directories are read just as if they were ordinary files. If ACTION is skip, directories are silently skipped. If ACTION is recurse, grep reads all files under each directory, recursively; this is equivalent to the -r option.

-G, --basic-regexp

interprets PATTERN as a basic regular expression. (default)

-H, --with-filename

prints the filename for each match.

-h, --no-filename

suppresses the prefixing of filenames on output when multiple files are searched.

-I

processes a binary file as if it did not contain matching data; this is equivalent to the --binary-files=without-match option.

--ignore-case

equivalent to -i.

-L, --files-without-match

suppresses normal output; instead, prints the name of each input file from which no output would normally have been printed. The scanning will stop on the first match.

--files-with-matches

equivalent to -l.

--map

uses the mmap(2) system call to read input, if possible, instead of the default read(2) system call. In some situations, --mmap yields better performance. However, --mmap can cause undefined behavior (including core dumps) if an input file shrinks while grep is operating, or if an I/O error occurs.

--line-number

equivalent to -n.

--quiet

equivalent to -q.

-r, --recursive

reads all files under each directory, recursively; this is equivalent to the -d recurse option.

--no-messages

equivalent to -s.

-V, --version

prints the version number of grep to standard error.

--invert-match

equivalent to -v.

-w, --word-regexp

selects only those lines containing matches that form whole words. The test is that the matching substring must either be at the beginning of the line, or preceded by a non-word constituent character. Similarly, it must be either at the end of the line or followed by a non-word constituent character. Word-constituent characters are letters, digits, and the underscore.

--line-regexp

equivalent to -x.

-Z, --null

outputs a zero byte (the ASCII NUL character) instead of the character that normally follows a file name.

groupadd

Name

groupadd -- create a new group

Synopsis

groupadd [-g gid [-o]] group

Options

-g gid [-o]

specifies the numerical value of the group's ID. This value must be unique, unless the -o option is used. The value must be non-negative.

groupdel

Name

groupdel -- delete a group

Synopsis

groupdel group

Description

groupdel modifies the system account files, deleting all entries that refer to group. The named group must exist.

groupmod

Name

groupmod -- modify a group

Synopsis

groupmod [-g gid [-o]] [-n group_name ] group

Options

-g gid [-o]

specifies the numerical value of the group's ID. This value must be unique, unless the -o option is used. The value must be non-negative. Any files which the old group ID is the file group ID must have the file group ID changed manually.

-n groupname

changes the name of the group from group to group_name.

groups

Name

groups -- display a group

Synopsis

groups [user]

Description

groups displays the current group ID names or values. If the value does not have a corresponding entry in /etc/group, the value will be displayed as the numerical group value. The optional user parameter will display the groups for the named user.

gzip

Name

gzip -- compress or expand files

Synopsis

gzip [ -acdfhlLnNrtvV19 ] [-S suffix] [ name ...  ]

Description

gzip reduces the size of the named files using Lempel-Ziv coding (LZ77). Whenever possible, each file is replaced by one with the extension .gz, while keeping the same ownership modes, access and modification times. If no files are specified, or if a file name is "-", the standard input is compressed to the standard output. gzip will only attempt to compress regular files. In particular, it will ignore symbolic links.

Options

-a, --ascii

does nothing on Linux systems.

-c, --stdout, --to-stdout

writes output on standard output; keeps original files unchanged. If there are several input files, the output consists of a sequence of independently compressed members. To obtain better compression, concatenate all input files before compressing them.

-d, --decompress, --uncompress

decompresses.

-f, --force

forces compression or decompression even if the file has multiple links or the corresponding file already exists, or if the compressed data is read from or written to a terminal. If the input data is not in a format recognized by gzip, and if the option --stdout is also given, copy the input data without change to the standard ouput: let zcat behave as cat. If -f is not given, and when not running in the background, gzip prompts to verify whether an existing file should be overwritten.

-l, --list

lists the compressed size, uncompressed size, ration and uncompressed name for each compressed file. Gives the uncompressed size as -1 for files not in gzip format. Additionally displays method, crc and timestamp for the uncompress file when used in combination with --verbose.

The compression methods currently supported are deflate, compress, lzh (SCO compress -H) and pack. The crc is given as ffffffff for a file not in gzip format.

With --name, the uncompressed name, date and time are those stored within the compress file, if present.

With --verbose, the size totals and compression ratio for all files is also displayed, unless some sizes are unknown. With --quiet, the title and totals lines are not displayed.

-L, --license

displays the gzip license and quit.

-n, --no-name

does not save the original file name and time stamp by default when compressing. (The original name is always saved if the name had to be truncated.) When decompressing, do not restore the original file name if present (remove only the gzip suffix from the compressed file name) and do not restore the original time stamp if present (copy it from the compressed file). This option is the default when decompressing.

-N, --name

always saves the original file name and time stamp when compressing; this is the default. When decompressing, restore the original file name and time stamp if present. This option is useful on systems which have a limit on file name length or when the time stamp has been lost after a file transfer.

-q, --quiet

suppresses all warnings.

-r, --recursive

travels the directory structure recursively. If any of the file names specified on the command line are directories, gzip will descend into the directory and compress all the files it finds there (or decompress them in the case of gunzip).

-S .suf, --sufix .suf

uses suffix .suf instead of .gz.

-t, --test

checks the compressed file integrity.

-v, --verbose

displays the name and percentage reduction for each file compressed or decompressed.

-V, --version

displays the version number and compilation options, then quits.

-#, --fast, --best

regulates the speed of compression using the specified digit #, where -1 or --fast indicates the fastest compression method (less compression) and -9 or --best indicates the slowest compression method (best compression). The default compression level is -6 (that is, biased towards high compression at expense of speed).

gunzip

Name

gunzip -- uncompress files

Description

gunzip is equivalent to gzip -d. See the specification for gzip for further details.

head

Name

head -- output the first part of files

Description

head is as specified in the SUS but with additional options as specified below.

Additional Options

-c, --bytes=SIZE

prints first SIZE bytes. SIZE may have a multiplier suffix: b for 512, k for 1K, m for 1 Meg.

--lines=NUMBER

is equivalent to -n.

-q, --quiet, --silent

does not print headers giving file names.

-v

prints headers giving file names.

hostname

Name

hostname -- show the system's host name

Synopsis

hostname [-v] [-a] [--alias] [-d] [--domain] [-f] [--fqdn]
[-i] [--ip-address] [--long] [-s]  [--short]  [-y]  [--yp]
[--nis]

hostname [-v] [-F filename] [--file filename] [hostname]

hostname [-v] [-h] [--help] [-V] [--version]

Description

hostname is used to either set or display the current host or domain name of the system. This name is used by many of the networking programs to identify the machine. The domain name is also used by NIS/YP.

When called without any arguments, the program displays the name of the system as returned by the gethostname(2) function.

When called with one argument or with the --file option, the commands set the host name or the NIS/YP domain name. Note, that only the super-user can change the names.

Options

-a, --alias

displays the alias name of the host (if used).

-d, --domain

displays the name of the DNS domain.

-F, --file filename

reads the host name from the specified file. Comments (lines starting with a #) are ignored.

-f, --fqdn, --long

displays the FQDN (Fully Qualified Domain Name).

-i, --ip-address

displays the IP address(es) of the host.

-s, --short

displays the short host name. This is the host name cut at the first dot.

-V, --version

prints version information on standard output and exits successfully.

-v, --verbose

tells what's going on.

-y, --yp, --nis

displays the NIS domain name. If a parameter is given (or --file name) then root can also set a new NIS domain.

iconv

Name

iconv -- convert file character encoding

Synopsis

iconv -f encoding -t encoding [--list] [-o file] [--output file] [--verbose] inputfile

Description

iconv converts the encoding of characters in inputfile from one coded character set to another. The result is written to standard output unless otherwise specified by the --output option.

Options

-f, --from-code encoding

converts characters from encoding.

-t, --to-code encoding

converts characters to encoding.

--list

lists known coded character sets.

-o, --output file

specifies output file (instead of stdin).

--verbose

prints progress information.

install

Name

install -- copy files and set attributes

Synopsis

install [OPTION]... SOURCE DEST           (1st format)
install [OPTION]... SOURCE... DIRECTORY   (2nd format)
install -d [OPTION]... DIRECTORY...       (3rd format)

Description

In the first two formats, copy SOURCE to DEST or multiple SOURCE(s) to the existing DIRECTORY, while setting permission modes and owner/group. In the third format, create all components of the given DIRECTORY(ies).

Standard Options

--backup[=CONTROL]

makes a backup of each existing destination file.

-b

is like --backup, but does not accept an argument.

-d, --directory

treats all arguments as directory names; creates all components of the specified directories.

-D

creates all leading components of DEST except the last, then copies SOURCE to DEST; useful in the 1st format.

-g, --group=GROUP

sets group ownership, instead of process' current group.

-m, --mode=MODE

sets permission mode (as in chmod), instead of rwxr-xr-x.

-o, --owner=OWNER

sets ownership (super-user only).

-p, --preserve-timestamps

applies access/modification times of SOURCE files to corresponding destination files.

-s, --strip

strips symbol tables, only for 1st and 2nd formats.

-S, --suffix=SUFFIX

overrides the usual backup suffix.

--verbose

prints the name of each directory as it is created.

ipcrm

Name

ipcrm -- provide information on ipc facilities

Synopsis

ipcrm [ shm | msg | sem ] id...

Description

ipcrm removes the resource(s) specified by id.

ipcs

Name

ipcs -- provide information on ipc facilities

Synopsis

ipcs [ -asmq ] [ -tclup ]
ipcs [ -smq ] -i id

Description

ipcs provides information on the ipc facilities for which the calling process has read access.

The -i option allows a specific resource id to be specified. Only information on this id will be printed.

Resource display options

-m

shared memory segments.

-q

message queues.

-s

semaphore arrays.

-a

all. (default)

Output format options

-t

time.

-p

pid.

-c

creator.

-l

limits.

-u

summary.

killall

Name

killall -- kill processes by name

Synopsis

killall [-egiqvw] [-signal] name ...
killall -l
killall -V

Description

killall sends a signal to all processes running any of the specified commands. If no signal name is specified, SIGTERM is sent.

Signals can be specified either by name (e.g. -HUP) or by number (e.g. -1). Signal 0 (check if a process exists) can only be specified by number.

If the command name contains a slash (/), processes executing that particular file will be selected for killing, independent of their name.

killall returns a non-zero return code if no process has been killed for any of the listed commands. If at least one process has been killed for each command, killall returns zero.

A killall process never kills itself (but may kill other killall processes).

Standard Options

-e

requires an exact match for very long names. If a command name is longer than 15 characters, the full name may be unavailable (i.e. it is swapped out). In this case, killall will kill everything that matches within the first 15 characters. With -e, such entries are skipped. killall prints a message for each skipped entry if -v is specified in addition to -e.

-g

kills the process group to which the process belongs. The kill signal is only sent once per group, even if multiple processes belonging to the same process group were found.

-i

asks interactively for confirmation before killing.

-l

lists all known signal names.

-q

does not complain if no processes were killed.

-v

reports if the signal was successfully sent.

-V

displays version information.

ln

Name

ln -- make links between files

Description

ln is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

-b, --backup[=CONTROL]

makes a backup of each existing destination file.

-n, --no-dereference

treats destination that is a symlink to a directory as if it were a normal file.

-i, --interactive

prompts whether to remove destinations.

-s, --symbolic

makes symbolic links instead of hard links.

-S, --suffix=SUFFIX

overrides the usual backup suffix.

--target-directory=DIR

moves all SOURCE arguments into directory DIR.

-v, --verbose

prints name of each file before linking.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

Notes

The backup suffix is ~, unless set with --suffix or SIMPLE_BACKUP_SUFFIX. The version control method may be selected via the --backup option or through the VERSION_CONTROL environment variable. Here are the values:

none, off

never makes backups (even if --backup is given).

numbered, t

makes numbered backups.

existing, nil

numbered if numbered backups exist, simple otherwise

simple, never

always makes simple backups.

localedef

Name

localedef -- compile locale definition files

Description

localedef is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

--charmap=charmapfile

is equivalent to -f.

--inputfile=intputfile

is equivalent to -i.

--force

is equivalent to -c.

-v, --verbose

generates extra warnings about errors that are normally ignored.

--quiet

suppresses all notifications and warnings, and reports only fatal errors.

login

Name

login -- begin session on the system (LSB DEPRICATED)

Synopsis

login [-p] [username] [ENV=VAR ...]
login [-p] [-h host] [-f username]
login [-p] -r host

Description

login is used to establish a new session with the system. It is normally invoked automatically by responding to the login: prompt on the user's terminal. login may be special to the shell and may not be invoked as a sub-process. Typically, login is treated by the shell as exec login which causes the user to exit from the current shell. Attempting to execute login from any shell but the login shell will produce an error message.

When invoked from the login: prompt, the user may enter environmental variables after the username. These variables are entered in the form NAME=VALUE. Not all variables may be set in the fashion, notably PATH, HOME and SHELL. Additionally, IFS may be inhibited if the user's login shell is /bin/sh.

Standard Options

-p

preserves environment.

-f

does not perform authentication, user is preauthenticated.

-h

specifies the name of the remote host for this login.

-r

performs autologin protocol for rlogin.

lpr

Name

lpr -- off line print

Synopsis

lpr [-l] [-p] [-Pprinter] [-h] [-s] [-#copies] [-J name]
    [-T title] [name ...]

Description

lpr uses a spooling daemon to print the named files when facilities become available. If no names appear, the standard input is assumed.

Standard Options

-l

identifies binary data that is not to be filtered but sent as raw input to printer.

-p

formats with "pr" before sending to printer.

-Pprinter

sends output to the printer named printer instead of the default printer.

-h

suppresses header page.

-s

uses symbolic links.

-#copies

specifies copies as the number of copies to print.

-J name

specifies name as the job name for the header page.

-T title

specifies title as the title used for "pr".

ls

Name

ls -- list directory contents

Description

ls is as specified in the SUS, but with differences listed below.

Differences

-p

displays the *, @, and | characters for executables, links, and FIFOs, respectively (in addition to the slash declared by the SUS).

lsb_release

Name

lsb_release -- print distribution specific information

Synopsis

lsb_release [OPTION]...

Description

The lsb_release command prints certain LSB (Linux Standard Base) and Distribution information.

With no option, same as -v.

Options

-v, --version

displays version of LSB against which distribution is compliant.

-i, --id

displays string id of distributor.

-d, --description

displays single line text description of distribution.

-r, --release

displays release number of distribution.

-c, --codename

displays codename according to distribution release.

-a, --all

displays all of the above information.

-s, --short

displays all of the above information in short output format.

-h, --help

displays a human-readable help message.

m4

Name

m4 -- macro processor

Description

m4 is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

--version

outputs version information and exits.

-e, --interactive

unbuffers output, ignores interrupts.

-E, --fatal-warnings

stops execution after first warning.

-Q, --quiet, --silent

suppresses some warnings for builtins.

-P, --prefix-builtins

forces a m4_ prefix to all builtins.

-I, --include=DIRECTORY

searches this directory second for includes.

--define=NAME[=VALUE]

is equivalent to -D.

--undefine=NAME

deletes builtin NAME.

--synclines

is equivalent to -s.

-G, --traditional

suppresses all GNU extensions.

-H, --hashsize=PRIME

sets symbol lookup hash table size.

-L, --nesting-limit=NUMBER

changes artificial nesting limit.

-F, --freeze-state=FILE

produces a frozen state on FILE at end.

-R, --reload-state=FILE

reloads a frozen state from FILE at start.

-d, --debug=[FLAGS]

sets debug level (no FLAGS implies 'aeq'). FLAGS is any of:

t

traces for all macro calls, not only 'ed.

a

shows actual arguments.

e

shows expansion.

q

quotes values as necessary, with a or e flag.

c

shows before collect, after collect and after call.

x

adds a unique macro call id, useful with c flag.

f

says current input file name.

l

says current input line number.

p

shows results of path searches.

i

shows changes in input files.

V

is shorthand for all of the above flags.

-t, --trace=NAME

traces NAME when it will be defined.

-l, --arglength=NUM

restricts macro tracing size.

-o, --error-output=FILE

redirects debug and traces output.

make

Name

make -- maintain, update and regenerate groups of programs

Description

make is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below. The GNU make command contains syntax extensions beyond those specified in the SUS.

Differences

-C dir

changes to directory dir before reading the makefiles or doing anything else. If multiple -C options are specified, each is interpreted relative to the previous one: -C / -C etc is equivalent to -C /etc. This is typically used with recursive invocations of make.

-d

prints debugging information in addition to normal processing. The debugging information says which files are being considered for remaking, which filetimes are being compared and with what results, which files actually need to be remade, which implicit rules are considered and which are applied---everything interesting about how make decides what to do.

-I dir

specifies a directory dir to search for included makefiles. If several -I options are used to specify several directories, the directories are searched in the order specified. Unlike the arguments to other flags of make, directories given with -I flags may come directly after the flag: -Idir is allowed, as well as -I dir. This syntax is allowed for compatibility with the C preprocessor's -I flag.

-j jobs

specifies the number of jobs (commands) to run simultaneously. If there is more than one -j option, the last one is effective. If the -j option is given without an argument, make will not limit the number of jobs that can run simultaneously.

-l [load]

specifies that no new jobs (commands) should be started if there are others jobs running and the load average is at least load (a floating-point number). With no argument, removes a previous load limit.

-o file

does not remake the file file even if it is older than its dependencies, and do not remake anything on account of changes in file. Essentially the file is treated as very old and its rules are ignored.

-v

prints the version of the make program plus a copyright, a list of authors and a notice that there is no warranty.

-w

prints a message containing the working directory before and after other processing. This may be use­ ful for tracking down errors from complicated nests of recursive make commands.

-W file

pretends that the target file has just been modified. When used with the -n flag, this shows you what would happen if you were to modify that file. Without -n, it is almost the same as running a touch command on the given file before running make, except that the modification time is changed only in the imagination of make.

man

Name

man -- display system documentation

Description

man is as specified in the SUS. While additional features my be found in Linux versions of this command, the SUS specified interface is correctly and completely implemented.

md5sum

Name

md5sum -- generates or checks MD5 message digests

Synopsis

md5sum [-b] [-c [file]] | [file...]

Options

-b

uses binary mode.

-c [file]

checks md5sum of all files listed in file against the checksum listed in the same file. The actual format of that file is the same as output of md5sum. That is, each line in the file describes a file.

mkdir

Name

mkdir -- make directories

Description

mkdir is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

--verbose

prints a message for each created directory.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

mknod

Name

mknod -- make block or character special files

Synopsis

mknod [OPTION]... NAME TYPE [MAJOR MINOR]

Description

Create the special file NAME of the given TYPE.

MAJOR MINOR are forbidden for TYPE p, mandatory otherwise. TYPE may be:

b

creates a block (buffered) special file.

c, u

creates a character (unbuffered) special file.

p

creates a FIFO.

Standard Options

-m, --mode=MODE

sets permission mode (as in chmod), not a=rw - umask.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

mktemp

Name

mktemp -- make temporary file name (unique)

Synopsis

mktemp [-q] [-u] template

Description

mktemp takes the given file name template and overwrites a portion of it to create a file name. This file name is unique and suitable for use by the application.

Options

-q

fails silently if an error occurs. This is useful if a script does not want error output to go to standard error.

-u

operates in `unsafe' mode. The temp file will be unlinked before mktemp exits. This is slightly better than mktemp(3) but still introduces a race condition. Use of this option is not encouraged.

more

Name

more -- file perusal filter for crt viewing

Description

more is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

-num

specifies an integer which is the screen size (in lines).

-d

prompts user with the message "[Press space to continue, 'q' to quit.]" and will display "[Press 'h' for instructions.]" instead of ringing the bell when an illegal key is pressed.

-e

has implementation-dependent behavior.

-l

prevents the typical behavior where more treats ^L (form feed) as a special character and pauses after any line that contains a form feed.

-i

has implementation-dependent behavior.

-f

counts logical, rather than screen lines (i.e., long lines are not folded).

-n

has implementation-dependent behavior.

-p

does not scroll. Instead, clear the whole screen and then display the text.

+/

specifies a string that will be searched for before each file is displayed.

+num

starts at line number num.

mount

Name

mount -- mount a file system

Synopsis

mount [-hV]
mount -a [-fFnrsvw] [-t vfstype]
mount [-fnrsvw] [-o options [,...]] device | dir
mount [-fnrsvw] [-t vfstype] [-o options] device dir

Description

All files accessible in a Unix system are arranged in one big tree, the file hierarchy, rooted at /. These files can be spread out over several devices. mount serves to attach the file system found on some device to the big file tree. Conversely, umount(8) will detach it again.

Standard Options

-V

outputs version.

-v

invokes verbose mode.

-a

mounts all filesystems (of the given types) mentioned in fstab.

-F

combines with -a. to fork off a new incarnation of mount for each device. This will do the mounts on different devices or different NFS servers in parallel.

-f

causes everything to be done except for the actual system call; if it's not obvious, this `fakes' mounting the file system.

-n

mounts without writing in /etc/mtab. This is necessary for example when /etc is on a read-only file system.

-s

tolerates sloppy mount options rather than failing. This will ignore mount options not supported by a filesystem type. Not all filesystems support this option.

-r

mounts the file system read-only. A synonym is -o ro.

-w

mounts the file system read/write. (default) A synonym is -o rw.

-L label

mounts the partition that has the specified label.

-U uuid

mounts the partition that has the specified uuid. These two options require the file /proc/partitions to exist.

-t vfstype

indicates a file system type of vfstype.

More than one type may be specified in a comma separated list. The list of file system types can be prefixed with no to specify the file system types on which no action should be taken.

-o

options are specified with a -o flag followed by a comma-separated string of options. Some of these options are only useful when they appear in the /etc/fstab file. The following options apply to any file system that is being mounted:

async

does all I/O to the file system asynchronously.

atime

updates inode access time for each access. (default)

auto

is mountable with -a.

defaults

uses default options: rw, suid, dev, exec, auto, nouser, and async.

dev

interprets character or block special devices on the file system.

exec

permits execution of binaries.

noatime

does not update inode access times on this file system.

noauto

is only explicitly mountable.

nodev

does not interpret character or block special devices on the file system.

noexec

does not allow execution of any binaries on the mounted file system.

nosuid

does not allow set-user-identifier or set-group-identifier bits to take effect.

nouser

forbids an ordinary (i.e., non-root) user to mount the file system. (default)

remount

attempts to remount an already-mounted file system. This is commonly used to change the mount flags for a file system, especially to make a read-only file system writable.

ro

mounts the file system read-only.

rw

mounts the file system read-write.

suid

allows set-user-identifier or set-group-identifier bits to take effect.

sync

does all I/O to the file system synchronously.

user

allows an ordinary user to mount the file system. This option implies the options noexec, nosuid, and nodev (unless overridden by subsequent options, as in the option line user,exec,dev,suid).

mv

Name

mv -- move (rename) files

Description

mv is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

-b, --backup[=CONTROL]

makes backup before removal.

-S, --suffix=SUFFIX

overrides the usual backup suffix.

--strip-trailing-slashes

removes any trailing slashes from each SOURCE argument.

-S, --suffix=SUFFIX

overrides the usual backup suffix.

--target-directory=DIRECTORY

moves all SOURCE arguments into DIRECTORY.

-u, --update

moves only older or brand new non-directories.

-v, --verbose

explains what is being done.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

Notes

The backup suffix is ~, unless set with --suffix or SIMPLE_BACKUP_SUFFIX. The version control method may be selected via the --backup option or through the VERSION_CONTROL environment variable. Here are the values:

none, off

makes no backups (even if --backup is given).

numbered, t

makes numbered backups.

existing, nil

is numbered if numbered backups exist, simple otherwise.

simple, never

makes simple backups.

newgrp

Name

newgrp -- change group ID

Synopsis

newgrp [-] [group]

Description

newgrp changes the current group ID during a login session. If the optional - flag is given, the user's environment will be reinitialized as though the user had logged in, otherwise the current environment, including current working directory, remains unchanged.

nice

Name

nice -- run a program with modified scheduling priority

Description

nice is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

-ADJUST

increments priority by ADJUST first.

--help

displays this help and exits.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

nl

Name

nl -- number lines of files

Description

nl is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

--help

displays this help and exits.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

nohup

Name

nohup -- runs a command immune to hangups, with output to a non-tty

Description

nohup is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

--help

displays this help and exits.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

od

Name

od -- dump files in octal and other formats

Description

od is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

-w, --width[=BYTES]

outputs BYTES bytes per output line.

--traditional

accepts arguments in pre-POSIX form.

--help

displays this help and exits.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

Pre-POSIX Specifications

The LSB supports option intermixtures with the following pre-POSIX specifications:

-a

is equivalent to -t a, selects named characters.

-f

is equivalent to -t fF, selects floats.

-h

is equivalent to -t x2, selects hexadecimal shorts.

-i

is equivalent to -t d2, selects decimal shorts.

-l

is equivalent to -t d4, selects decimal longs.

passwd

Name

passwd -- change user password

Synopsis

passwd [-g] [-r|R] group
passwd [-x max] [-n min] [-w warn] [-i inact] name
passwd {-l|-u} name

Description

passwd changes passwords for user and group accounts. A normal user may only change the password for their own account, the super user may change the password for any account. The administrator of a group may change the password for the group. passwd also changes password expiry dates and intervals.

Options

-g

changes the password for the named group.

-r

combines with -g to remove the current password from the named group.

-R

combines with -g to restrict the named group for all users.

-x max

sets the maximum number of days a password remains valid.

-n min

sets the minimum number of days before a password may be changed.

-w warn

sets the number of days warning the user will receive before their password will expire.

-i inactive

disables an account after the password has been expired for the given number of days.

-l

disables an account by changing the password to a value which matches no possible encrypted value.

-u

re-enables an account by changing the password back to its previous value.

paste

Name

paste -- merge lines of files

Description

paste is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

--help

displays this help and exits.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

patch

Name

patch -- apply a diff file to an original

Description

patch is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

--backup-if-mismatch

backs up a file if the patch does not match the file exactly and if backups are not otherwise requested.

--no-backup-if-mismatch

does not back up a file if the patch does not match the file exactly and if backups are not otherwise requested.

-B pref, --prefix=pref

prefixes pref to a file name when generating its simple backup file name.

--binary

reads and write all files in binary mode, except for standard output and /dev/tty. This option has no effect on POSIX-compliant systems.

--dry-run

prints the results of applying the patches without actually changing any files.

-E, --remove-empty-files

removes output files that are empty after the patches have been applied. When patch removes a file, it also attempts to remove any empty ancestor directories.

-f, --force

skips patches whose headers do not say which file is to be patched; patches files even though they have the wrong version for the Prereq: line in the patch; assumes that patches are not reversed even if they look like they are.

-F num, --fuzz=num

sets the maximum fuzz factor. This option only applies to diffs that have context, and ignores up to that many lines in looking for places to install a hunk.

-g num, --get=num

controls patch behavior when a file is under RCS or SCCS control and does not exist or is read-only and matches the default version. If num is positive, patch gets (or checks out) the file from the revision control system; if zero, patch ignores RCS and SCCS and does not get the file; and if negative, patch asks the user where to get the file.

-s, --silent, --quiet

works silently, unless an error occurs.

-t, --batch

suppresses questions like -f, but makes some different assumptions: skips patches whose headers do not contain file names; skips patches for which the file has the wrong version for the Prereq: line in the patch; and assumes that patches are reversed if they look like they are.

-T, --set-time

sets the modification and access times of patched files from time stamps given in context diff headers, assuming that the context diff headers use local time.

-u, --unified

interprets the patch file as a unified context diff.

-v, --version

prints out patch's revision header and patch level, and exits.

-V method, --version-control=method

uses method to determine backup file names. The method can also be given by the PATCH_VERSION_CONTROL environment variable, which is overridden by this option.

--verbose

outputs extra information about the work being done.

-Y pref, --basename-prefix=pref

prefixes pref to the basename of a file name when generating its simple backup file name.

-z suffix, --suffix=suffix

uses suffix as the simple backup suffix.

-Z, --set-utc

sets the modification and access times of patched files from time stamps given in context diff headers.

--help

displays this help and exits.

pathchk

Name

pathchk -- check whether file names are valid or portable

Description

pathchk is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

--help

displays this help and exits.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

pidof

Name

pidof -- find the process ID of a running program

Synopsis

pidof [-s] [-x] [-o omitpid..] program [program..]

Options

-s

instructs the program to only return one pid.

-x

causes the program to also return process id's of shells running the named scripts.

-o

omits processes with specified process id.

pr

Name

pr -- split a file into sections determined by context lines

Description

pr is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

-P

has implementation-dependent behavior.

-c, --show-control-chars

uses hat notation (^G) and octal backslash notation.

-J, --join-lines

merges full lines, turns off -W line truncation, no column alignment.

-N NUMBER, --first-line-number=NUMBER

starts counting with NUMBER at 1st line of first page printed.

-S[STRING], --sep-string=[=STRING]

separates columns by an optional STRING, doesn't use -S "STRING", -S only: No separator used without -S.

-T, --omit-pagination

omits page headers and trailers, eliminates any pagination by form feeds set in input files.

-v, --show-nonprinting

uses octal backslash notation.

-W PAGE_WIDTH, --page-width=PAGE_WIDTH

sets page width to PAGE_WIDTH (72) characters always, truncates lines, except -J option is set, no interference with -S or -s.

--help

displays this help and exits.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

printf

Name

printf -- format and print data

Description

printf is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

--help

displays this help and exits.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

pwd

Name

pwd -- print name of current/working directory

Description

pwd is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

--help

displays this help and exits.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

renice

Name

renice -- alter priority of running processes

Description

renice is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

-n increment

has implementation-dependent behavior.

rm

Name

rm -- remove files or directories

Description

rm is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

-v, --verbose

explains what is being done.

--help

displays this help and exits.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

rmdir

Name

rmdir -- remove empty directories

Description

rmdir is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

--ignore-fail-on-non-empty

ignores each failure that is solely because a directory is non-empty.

--verbose

outputs a diagnostic for every directory processed.

--help

displays this help and exits.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

rsync

Name

rsync -- faster, flexible replacement for rcp

Synopsis

rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... [USER@]HOST:DEST
rsync [OPTION]... [USER@]HOST:SRC DEST
rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... DEST
rsync [OPTION]... [USER@]HOST::SRC [DEST]
rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... [USER@]HOST::DEST
rsync [OPTION]... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC [DEST]

Description

rsync behaves in much the same way that rcp does, but has many more options and uses its remote-update protocol to greatly speedup file transfers when the destination file already exists.

The remote-update protocol allows rsync to transfer just the differences between two sets of files across the network link, using an efficient checksum-search algorithm described in the technical report that accompanies this package.

Standard Options

--version

prints the rsync version number and exits.

-v, --verbose

increases the amount of information given during the transfer. By default, rsync works silently. A single -v gives information about what files are being transferred and a brief summary at the end. Two -v flags give information on what files are being skipped and slightly more information at the end.

-q, --quiet

decreases the amount of information given during the transfer, notably suppressing information messages from the remote server. This flag is useful when invoking rsync from cron.

-I, --ignore-times

turns off the skipping of files that are already the same length and have the same time-stamp.

-c, --checksum

forces the sender to checksum all files using a 128-bit MD4 checksum before transfer. The checksum is then explicitly checked on the receiver and any files of the same name which already exist and have the same checksum and size on the receiver are skipped. This option can be quite slow.

-a, --archive

is a shortcut for specifying recursion and to preserve all attributes.

-r, --recursive

copies directories recursively. If not specified, rsync will not copy directories at all.

-R, --relative

uses relative paths. This means that the full path names specified on the command line are sent to the server rather than just the last parts of the filenames.

-b, --backup

renames preexisting destination files with a ~ extension as each file is transferred. You can control the backup suffix using the --suffix option.

--backup-dir=DIR

combines with --backup to store all backups in the specified directory. This is very useful for incremental backups.

--suffix=SUFFIX

overrides the default backup suffix used with the -b option. The default is a ~.

-u, --update

skips any files for which the destination file already exists and has a date later than the source file.

-l, --links

recreates symbolic links on the remote system to be the same as the local system. Without this option, all symbolic links are skipped.

-L, --copy-links

transfers the file referenced by a symbolic link, rather than recreating the link.

--copy-unsafe-links

treats symbolic links that point outside the source tree like ordinary files. Absolute symlinks are also treated like ordinary files, and so are any symlinks in the source path itself when --relative is used.

--safe-links

ignores any symbolic links that point outside the destination tree. All absolute symlinks are also ignored.

-H, --hard-links

recreates hard links on the remote system to be the same as the local system. Without this option hard links are treated like regular files.

-W, --whole-file

does not use the incremental rsync algorithm and sends the whole file as-is instead. This may be useful when using rsync with a local machine.

-p, --perms

updates the remote permissions to be the same as the local permissions.

-o, --owner

updates the remote owner of the file to be the same as the local owner. This is only available to the super-user. Note that if the source system is a daemon using chroot, --numeric-ids is implied because the source system cannot get access to the usernames.

-g, --group

updates the remote group of the file to be the same as the local group. If the receiving system is not running as the super-user, only groups that the receiver is a member of will be preserved (by group name, not group id number).

-D, --devices

transfers character and block device information to the remote system to recreate these devices. This option is only available to the super-user.

-t, --times

transfers modification times along with the files and updates them on the remote system.

-n, --dry-run

does not perform any file transfers, but simply reports the actions it would have taken.

-x, --one-file-system

does not cross filesystem boundaries when recursing.

--existing

does not create any new files - only updates files that already exist on the destination.

--max-delete=NUM

does not delete more than NUM files or directories.

--delete

deletes any files on the receiving side that are not on the sending side. Files that are excluded from transfer are excluded from being deleted unless --delete-excluded is specified.

has no effect if directory recursion is not selected.

--delete-excluded

deletes any files on the receiving side that are excluded, in addition to deleting the files on the receiving side that are not on the sending side. (See --exclude.)

--delete-after

processes file deletions after transferring files, as opposed to the default behavior of deleting before the transfer to ensure that there is sufficient space on the receiving filesystem.

-B, --block-size=BLOCKSIZE

controls the block size used in the rsync algorithm. See the technical report for details.

-e, --rsh=COMMAND

specifies the remote shell program to use for communication between the local and remote copies of rsync.

You can also choose the remote shell program using the RSYNC_RSH environment variable.

--rsync-path=PATH

specifies the path to the copy of rsync on the remote machine. Note that this is the full path to the binary, not just the directory that the binary is in.

--exclude=PATTERN

selectively excludes certain files from the list of files to be transferred.

You may use as many --exclude options on the command line as you like to build up the list of files to exclude.

--exclude-from=FILE

is like the --exclude option, but instead adds all exclude patterns listed in the file FILE to the exclude list. Blank lines in FILE and lines starting with ´;´ or ´#´ are ignored.

--include=PATTERN

does not exclude the specified pattern of filenames. This is useful as it allows you to build up quite complex exclude/include rules.

--include-from=FILE

specifies a list of include patterns from a file.

-T, --temp-dir=DIR

instructs rsync to use DIR as a scratch directory when creating temporary copies of the files transferred on the receiving side. The default behavior is to create the temporary files in the receiving directory.

-z, --compress

compresses any data from the source file(s) that it sends to the destination machine.

--numeric-ids

transfers numeric group and user ids rather than using user and group names and mapping them at both ends.

By default rsync will use the user name and group name to determine what ownership to give files. The special uid 0 and the special group 0 are never mapped via user/group names even if --numeric-ids is not specified.

--timeout=TIMEOUT

sets a maximum IO timeout in seconds. If no data is transferred for the specified time, rsync will exit. The default is 0, which means no timeout.

--port=PORT

specifies an alternate TCP port number to use rather than the default port 873. This only has effect when using rsync to connect to a remote rsync daemon.

--blocking-io

specifies whether rsync will use blocking IO when launching a remote shell transport. You may find this is needed for some remote shells that can´t handle the default non-blocking IO.

--partial

keeps any partially-transferred file in the event of an incomplete transfer (causing a subsequent transfer of the file remainder to process more rapidly) as opposed to the default behavior of rsync where an incomplete file is deleted.

--progress

prints information showing the progress of the transfer.

-P

is equivalent to --partial --progress.

--password-file

allows you to provide a password in a file for accessing a remote rsync server. Note that this option is only useful when accessing a rsync server using the built in transport, not when using a remote shell as the transport. The file must not be world readable. It should contain just the password as a single line.

--bwlimit=KBPS

specifies a maximum transfer rate in kilobytes per second. A value of zero specifies no limit.

sed

Name

sed -- stream editor

Description

sed is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

-V, --version

prints out the version of sed that is being run and a copyright notice, then exits.

--quiet, --silent

is equivalent to -n.

--expression

is equivalent to -e.

--file=script-file

is equivalent to -f.

sendmail

Name

sendmail -- an electronic mail transport agent

Synopsis

sendmail [flags] [address ...]

Description

To deliver electronic mail (email), applications shall support the interface provided by /usr/sbin/sendmail (described here). This interface shall be the default delivery method for applications.

This program sends an email message to one or more recipients, routing the message as necessary. This program is not intended as a user interface routine.

With no flags, sendmail reads its standard input up to an end-of-file or a line consisting only of a single dot and sends a copy of the message found there to all of the addresses listed. It determines the network(s) to use based on the syntax and contents of the addresses.

It is recommended that applications use as few flags as necessary, none if possible.

Some agents allow aliasing on the local system to be prevented by preceding the address with a backslash.

The format of messages must be as defined in RFC 2822.

Options

-bm

reads mail from standard input and delivers to the recipient addresses. This is the default mode of operation.

-bp

lists information about messages currently in the input mail queue.

-bs

uses the SMTP protocol as described in RFC 2821; reads SMTP commands on standard input and writes SMTP responses on standard output.

Note that RFC 2821 specifies \r\n (CR-LF) be used at the end of each line, but Unix pipes almost always use \n (LF) instead. To deal with this, agents will accept both \r\n and \n at the end of each line. When accepting \r\n, the \r before the \n is silently discarded.

-F fullname

explicitly sets the full name of the sender for incoming mail unless the message already contains a From: message header.

If the user running sendmail is not sufficiently trusted, then the actual sender may be indicated in the message, depending on the behavior of the agent.

-f name

explicitly sets the envelope sender address for incoming mail. If there is no From: header, the address specified in the From: header will also be set.

If the user running sendmail is not sufficiently trusted, then the actual sender will be indicated in the message.

-i

ignores dots alone on lines by themselves in incoming messages. This option is ignored when -bs is used.

-odb

delivers any mail in background, if supported; otherwise ignored.

-odf

delivers any mail in foreground, if supported; otherwise ignored.

-oem or -em

mails errors back to the sender. (default)

-oep or -ep

writes errors to the standard error output.

-oeq or -eq

does not send notification of errors to the sender. This only works for mail delivered locally.

-oew or -ew

writes errors to the sender's terminal using the write(1) command, if he is logged in. Otherwise, mails errors back to the sender. If not supported, reports errors in the same manner as -oem.

-oi

is equivalent to -i.

-om

indicates that the sender of a message should receive a copy of the message if the sender appears in an alias expansion. Ignored if aliases are not supported.

-t

reads the message to obtain recipients from the To:, Cc:, and Bcc: headers in the message instead of from the command arguments. If a Bcc: header is present, it is removed from the message unless there is no To: or Cc: header, in which case a Bcc: header with no data is created, in accordance with RFC 2822.

If there are any arguments, they specify addresses to which the message is not to be delivered. That is, the argument addresses are removed from the recipients list obtained from the headers. Note: some agents implement this behavior in reverse, adding addresses instead of removing them. Others may disallow addresses in argument list. Therefore, applications should not put addresses in the argument list if -t is used.

This option is sometimes ignored when not in -bm mode (the default).

-v

is more verbose. Additional -v options may make the software increasingly verbose.

Exit status

0

successful completion on all addresses. This does not indicate successful delivery.

>0

there was an error.

Notes/Rationale

This page is believed to reflect functionality provided by smail, exim and other implementations, just not the sendmail implementation.

There has been a suggestion to remove -oew, -ew, -om, -t, and -v. Also to disallow -i when -bs is specified. Most of this strikes me as a good idea, but it might want further discussion. Seems to me that the text "Some agents allow aliasing on the local system to be prevented by preceding the address with a backslash" needs to remain, if the behavior of different implementations really does vary.

shutdown

Name

shutdown -- bring the system down

Synopsis

/sbin/shutdown [-t sec] [-arkhcfF] time [warning-message]

Description

shutdown brings the system down in a secure way. All logged-in users are notified that the system is going down, and login(1) is blocked. It is possible to shut the system down immediately or after a specified delay. All processes are first notified that the system is going down by the signal SIGTERM.

Standard Options

-a

uses /etc/shutdown.allow.

-t sec

tells init(8) to wait sec seconds between sending processes the warning and the kill signal, before changing to another runlevel.

-k

doesn't really shutdown; only sends the warning messages to everybody.

-r

reboots after shutdown.

-h

halts after shutdown.

-f

skips fsck on reboot.

-F

forces fsck on reboot.

-c

cancels an already running shutdown. With this option, it is of course not possible to give the time argument, but you can enter a explanatory message on the command line that will be sent to all users.

time

specifies when to shut down.

The time argument can have different formats. First, it can be an absolute time in the format hh:mm, in which hh is the hour (1 or 2 digits) and mm is the minute of the hour (in two digits). Second, it can be in the format +m, in which m is the number of minutes to wait. The word now is an alias for +0.

If shutdown is called with a delay, it creates the advisory file /etc/nologin which causes programs such as login(1) to not allow new user logins. shutdown only removes this file if it is stopped before it can signal init (i.e. it is cancelled or something goes wrong). Otherwise it is the responsibility of the system shutdown or startup scripts to remove this file so that users can login.

warning-message

specifies message to send all users.

sleep

Name

sleep -- delay for a specified amount of time

Synopsis

sleep [OPTION]... NUMBER[SUFFIX]

Description

Pause for NUMBER seconds. SUFFIX may be s to keep seconds, m for minutes, h for hours or d for days.

Standard Options

--help

displays help and exits.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

sort

Name

sort -- sort, merge or sequence check text files

Description

sort is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

-g

compares according to general numerical value, implies -b.

-M

compares (unknown) < JAN < ... < DEC, imply -b.

-s

stabilizes sort by disabling last resort comparison.

-T DIRECTORY

uses DIRECTORY for temporary files, not $TMPDIR or /tmp.

-z

has implementation-dependent behavior.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

split

Name

split -- split a file into pieces

Description

split is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

-a suffix_length

has implementation-dependent behavior.

--bytes=SIZE

is equivalent to -b.

-C, --line-bytes

puts at most SIZE bytes of lines per output file.

--lines

is equivalent to -l.

--verbose

prints a diagnostic to standard error.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

strip

Name

strip -- remove unnecessary information from executable files

Description

strip is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

-F bdfname, --target=bfdname

treats the original objfile as a file with the object code format bfdname, and rewrites it in the same format.

-I bfdname, --input-target=bfdname

treats the original objfile as a file with the object code format bfdname.

-O bdfname, --output-target=bfdname

replaces objfile with a file in the output format bfdname.

-R sectionname, --remove-section=sectionname

removes the named section from the file. This option may be given more than once. Note that using this option inappropriately may make the object file unusable.

-s, --strip-all

removes all symbols.

-S, -g, --strip-debug

removes debugging symbols only.

--strip-unneeded

strips all symbols that are not needed for relocation processing.

-N symbolname, --strip-symbol=symbolname

removes symbol symbolname from the source file. This option may be given more than once, and may be combined with other strip options.

-o file

puts the stripped output in file, rather than replacing the existing file. When this argument is used, only one objfile argument may be specified.

-p, --preserve-dates

preserves the access and modification dates of the file.

-x, --discard-all

removes non-global symbols.

-X, --discard-locals

removes compiler-generated local symbols. (These usually start with `L' or `.'.)

-K symbolname, --keep-symbol=symbolname

copies only symbol symbolname from the source file. This option may be given more than once.

-N symbolname, --strip-symbol=symbolname

does not copy symbol symbolname from the source file. This option may be given more than once, and may be combined with strip options other than -K.

-v, --verbose

lists all object files modified. In the case of archives, lists all members of the archive.

--version

shows the version number for strip and exits.

su

Name

su -- change user ID or become super-user

Synopsis

su [OPTS] [-] [username [ARGS]]

Description

su is used to become another user during a login session. Invoked without a username, su defaults to becoming the super user. The optional argument - may be used to provide an environment similar to what the user would expect had the user logged in directly.

The user will be prompted for a password, if appropriate. Invalid passwords will produce an error message. All attempts, both valid and invalid, are logged to detect abuses of the system.

An optional command can be executed. This is done by the shell specified in /etc/passwd for the target user unless the -s or -m options are used. Any arguments supplied after the username will be passed to the invoked shell (shell must support the -c command line option in order for a command to be passed to it).

The current environment is passed to the new shell. The value of $PATH is reset to /bin:/usr/bin for normal users, or /sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin for the super user. This may be changed with the ENV_PATH and ENV_SUPATH definitions in /etc/login.defs. When using the -m or -p options, the user's environment is not changed.

A subsystem login is indicated by the presense of a "*" as the first character of the login shell. The given home directory will be used as the root of a new filesystem which the user is actually logged into.

Standard Options

-

makes this a login shell.

-c, --comand=command

passes command to the invoked shell. It is passed directly to the invoked shell (using the shell's -c option), so its syntax is whatever that shell will accept.

-m, -p, --preserve-environment

does not reset environment variables, and keeps the same shell if it is present in /etc/shells.

-s, --shell=shell

uses shell instead of the default in /etc/passwd. The shell specified must be present in /etc/shells.

sum

Name

sum -- print checksum and block count of a file

Description

sum is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

-s, --sysv

uses System V sum algorithm, uses 512 bytes blocks.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

sync

Name

sync -- flush filesystem buffers

Synopsis

sync [OPTION]

Description

Force changed blocks to disk, update the super block.

Standard Options

--help

displays help and exits.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

tail

Name

tail -- output the last part of files

Description

tail is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

--retry

tries to open a file even if it is inaccessible when tail starts or if it becomes inaccessible later; useful only with -f.

--bytes=N

outputs the last N bytes.

--follow

is equivalent to -f.

--lines=N

is equivalent to -n.

--max-unchanged-stats=N

performs open/fstat of a file specified by name (if there have been N consecutive iterations for which the size has remained the same) to determine if that file name is still associated with the same device/inode-number pair as before.

--max-consecutive-size-changes=N

if a file has been specified by name, controls how long tail follows the descriptor of a file that continues growing at a rapid pace even after it is deleted or renamed. After detecting N consecutive size changes for a file, open/fstat the file to determine if that file name is still associated with the same device/inode-number pair as before.

--pid=PID

terminates after process ID PID dies (only may be specified if -f is).

-q, --quiet, --silent

does not outputs headers giving file names.

-s, --sleep-interval=S

sleeps S seconds between iterations (only may be specified if -f is).

-v, --verbose

outputs headers giving file names.

+NUMBER, -NUMBER

supports b, k and m as suffixes (referring to multipliers 512, 1024 and 1048576, respectively), as opposed to the c or l suffixes as stated in the SUS.

tar

Name

tar -- file archiver

Description

tar is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

-A, --catenate, --concatenate

appends tar files to an archive.

--create

is equivalent to -c.

-d, --diff, --compare

finds differences between archive and file system.

--delete

deletes from the archive. (Not for use on mag tapes!)

--apend

is equivalent to -r.

--list

is equivalent to -t.

--update

is equivalent to -u.

--extract, --get

extracts files from an archive.

--atime-preserve

does not change access times on dumped files.

--block-size N

is equivalent to -b.

-B, --read-full-blocks

reblocks as we read; for reading 4.2BSD pipes.

-C, --directory DIR

changes to directory DIR.

--checkpoint

prints directory names while reading the archive.

-f, --file [HOSTNAME:]F

uses archive file or device F. The default is "-", meaning stdin/stdout.

--force-local

specifies that archive file is local even if has a colon.

-F, --info-script F, --new-volume-script F

runs script at end of each tape; implies -M.

-G, --incremental

creates/lists/extracts old GNU-format incremental backup.

-g, --listed-incremental F

creates/lists/extracts new GNU-format incremental backup.

-h, --dereference

doesn't dump symlinks; dumps the files they point to.

-i, --ignore-zeros

ignores blocks of zeros in archive that normally mean EOF.

--bzip2

filters archive through bzip2; used to decompress .bz2 files.

--ignore-failed-read

doesn't exit with non-zero status on unreadable files.

-k, --keep-old-files

keeps existing files; doesn't overwrite them from archive.

-K, --starting-file F

begins at file F in the archive.

-l, --one-file-system

stays in local file system when creating an archive.

-L, --tape-length N

changes tapes after writing N*1024 bytes.

--modification-time

is equivalent to -m.

-M, --multi-volume

creates/lists/extracts multi-volume archive.

-N, --after-date DATE, --newer DATE

stores only files newer than DATE.

-o, --old-archive, --portability

writes a V7 format archive, rather than ANSI format. Note that for -o the behavior is different than what is specified in the SUSv2.

-O, --to-stdout

extracts files to standard output.

-p, --same-permissions, --preserve-permissions

extracts all protection information.

-P, --absolute-paths

does not strip leading /s from file names.

--preserve

is equivalent to -p -s.

-R, --record-number

shows record number within archive with each message.

--remove-files

removes files after adding them to the archive.

-s, --same-order, --preserve-order

sorts list of names to extract to match archive.

--same-owner

creates extracted files with the same ownership.

-S, --sparse

handles sparse files efficiently.

-T, --files-from F

gets names to extract or create from file F.

--null

causes -T to read null-terminated names; disables -C.

--totals

prints total bytes written with --create.

--verbose

is equivalent to -v.

-V, --label NAME

creates archive with volume name NAME.

--version

prints tar program version number.

-w, --interactive, --confirmation

asks for confirmation for every action.

-W, --verify

attempts to verify the archive after writing it.

--exclude FILE

excludes file FILE.

-X, --exclude-from FILE

excludes files listed in FILE.

-Z, --compress, --uncompress

filters the archive through compress.

-z, --gzip, --ungzip

filters the archive through gzip.

--use-compress-program PROG

filters the archive through PROG (which must accept -d)

--block-compress

blocks the output of compression program for tapes.

-[0-7][lmh]

specifies drive and density.

tee

Name

tee -- read from standard input and write to standard output and files

Description

tee is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

--append

is equivalent to -a.

--ignore-interrupts

is equivalent to -i.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

test

Name

test -- check file types and compare values

Description

test is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

-G FILE

FILE exists and is owned by the effective group ID.

-k FILE

FILE exists and has its sticky bit set.

-L FILE

FILE exists and is a symbolic link.

-O FILE

FILE exists and is owned by the effective user ID.

-S

FILE exists and is a socket.

time

Name

time -- run programs and summarize system resource usage

Description

time is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

-o FILE, --output=FILE

writes the resource use statistics to FILE instead of to the standard error stream. By default, this overwrites the file, destroying the file's previous contents.

-a, --append

appends the resource use information to the output file instead of overwriting it.

-f FORMAT, --format=FORMAT

uses FORMAT as the format string that controls the output of time. See "Formatting the Output" below more information.

--portability

is equivalent to -p.

-v, --verbose

displays each available piece of information on the program's resource use on its own line, with an English description of its meaning.

-V, --version

prints the version number of time and exits.

Formatting the Output

The format string FORMAT controls the contents of the time output. The format string can be set using the -f or --format, -v or --verbose, or -p or --portability options. If they are not given, but the TIME environment variable is set, its value is used as the format string. Otherwise, a built-in default format is used.

The default format is:

%Uuser %Ssystem %Eelapsed %PCPU (%Xtext+%Ddata %Mmax)k
%Iinputs+%Ooutputs (%Fmajor+%Rminor)pagefaults %Wswaps

The format string usually consists of resource specifiers interspersed with plain text. A percent sign (%) in the format string causes the following character to be interpreted as a resource specifier, which is similar to the formatting characters in the printf(3) function.

A backslash (\) introduces a backslash escape, which is translated into a single printing character upon output. \t outputs a tab character, \n outputs a newline, and \\ outputs a backslash. A backslash followed by any other character outputs a question mark (?) followed by a backslash, to indicate that an invalid backslash escape was given.

Other text in the format string is copied verbatim to the output. time always prints a newline after printing the resource use information, so normally format strings do not end with a newline character (or 0).

There are many resource specifications. Not all resources are measured by all versions of Unix, so some of the values might be reported as zero. Any character following a percent sign that is not listed in the table below causes a question mark (`?') to be output, followed by that character, to indicate that an invalid resource listed in the table below causes a question mark (`?') to be output, followed by that character, to indicate that an invalid resource specifier was given.

The resource specifiers, which are a superset of those recognized by the tcsh(1) builtin `time' command, are:

%

literal `%'.

C

name and command line arguments of the command being timed.

D

average size of the processs unshared data area, in units of 1024 bytes.

E

elapsed real (wall clock) time used by the process, in [hours:]minutes:seconds.

F

number of major, or I/O-requiring, page faults that occurred while the process was running. These are faults where the page has actually migrated out of primary memory.

I

number of file system inputs by the process.

K

average total (data+stack+text) memory use of the process, in units of 1024 bytes.

M

maximum resident set size of the process during its lifetime, in units of 1024 bytes.

O

number of file system outputs by the process.

P

percentage of the CPU that this job got. This is just user + system times divided by the total running time.

R

number of minor, or recoverable, page faults. These are pages that are not valid (so they fault) but which have not yet been claimed by other virtual pages. Thus the data in the page is still valid but the system tables must be updated.

S

total number of CPU-seconds used by the system on behalf of the process (in kernel mode), in seconds.

U

total number of CPU-seconds that the process used directly (in user mode), in seconds.

W

number of times the process was swapped out of main memory.

X

average amount of shared text in the process, in units of 1024 bytes.

Z

system's page size, in bytes. This is a per-system constant, but varies between systems.

c

number of times the process was context-switched involuntarily (because the time slice expired).

e

elapsed real (wall clock) time used by the process, in seconds.

k

number of signals delivered to the process.

p

average unshared stack size of the process, in units of 1024 bytes.

r

number of socket messages received by the process.

s

number of socket messages sent by the process.

t

average resident set size of the process, in units of 1024 bytes.

w

number of times that the program was context-switched voluntarily, for instance while waiting for an I/O operation to complete.

x

exit status of the command.

touch

Name

touch -- change file access and modification times

Description

touch is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

--no-create

is equivalent to -c.

-d, --date=STRING

parses STRING and uses it instead of current time.

--reference=FILE

is equivalent to -r.

--time=WORD

sets time given by WORD: access atime use (same as -a) modify mtime (same as -m).

--version

outputs version information and exits.

tr

Name

tr -- translate or delete characters

Description

tr is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

--complement

is equivalent to -c.

--delete

is equivalent to -d.

--squeeze-repeats

is equivalent to -s.

-t, --truncate-set1

first truncates SET1 to length of SET2.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

tty

Name

tty -- print the file name of the terminal connected to standard input

Description

tty is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

--silent, --quiet

is equivalent to -s.

--delete

is equivalent to -d.

--squeeze-repeats

is equivalent to -s.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

umount

Name

umount -- unmount file systems

Synopsis

umount [-hV]
umount -a [-nrv] [-t vfstype]
umount [-nrv] device | dir [...]

Description

umount detaches the file system(s) mentioned from the file hierarchy. A file system is specified by giving the directory where it has been mounted.

Standard Options

-V

print version and exits.

-v

invokes verbose mode.

-n

unmounts without writing in /etc/mtab.

-r

tries to remount read-only if unmounting fails.

-a

unmounts all of the file systems described in /etc/mtab except for the proc filesystem.

-t vfstype

indicates that the actions should only be taken on file systems of the specified type. More than one type may be specified in a comma separated list. The list of file system types can be prefixed with no to specify the file system types on which no action should be taken.

-f

forces unmount (in case of an unreachable NFS system).

uname

Name

uname -- return system name

Description

uname is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

-a, --all

prints all information (not just the options specified in the SUS).

--machine

is equivalent to -m.

--nodename

is equivalent to -n.

--release

is equivalent to -r.

-p, --processor

prints the host processor type.

--sysname

is equivalent to -s.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

unexpand

Name

unexpand -- convert spaces to tabs

Description

unexpand is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

--tabs=NUMBER, -NUMBER

is equivalent to -t NUMBER.

--tabs=LIST, -LIST

is equivalent to -t LIST.

uniq

Name

uniq -- remove duplicate lines from a sorted file

Description

uniq is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

--count

is equivalent to -c.

--repeated

is equivalent to -d.

-D, --all-repeated

prints all duplicate lines.

--skip-fields=N

is equivalent to -f fields.

-i, --ignore-case

ignores differences in case when comparing.

--skip-chars=N

is equivalent to -s.

--unique

is equivalent to -u.

-w, --check-chars=N

compares no more than N characters in lines.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

useradd

Name

useradd -- create a new user or update default new user information

Synopsis

useradd [-c comment] [-d home_dir]
        [-e expire_date] [-f inactive_time]
        [-g initial_group] [-G group[,...]]
        [-m [-k skeleton_dir]] [-p passwd] [-r]
        [-s shell] [-u uid [ -o]] login

useradd -D [-g default_group] [-b default_home]
           [-f default_inactive] [-e default_expire_date]
           [-s default_shell]

Description

When invoked without the -D option, useradd creates a new user account using the values specified on the command line and the default values from the system. The new user account will be entered into the system files as needed, the home directory will be created, and initial files copied, depending on the command line options.

When invoked with the -D option, useradd will either display the current default values, or update the default values from the command line. If no options are specified, useradd displays the current default values.

Standard Options

-c comment

specifies the new user's password file comment field value.

-d home_dir

creates the new user using home_dir as the value for the user's login directory. The default is to append the login name to default_home and use that as the login directory name.

-e expire_date

specifies the date on which the user account will be disabled. The date is specified in the format YYYY-MM-DD.

-f inactive_days

specifies the number of days after a password expires until the account is permanently disabled. A value of 0 disables the account as soon as the password has expired, and a value of -1 disables the feature. The default value is -1.

-g initial_group

specifies the group name or number of the user's initial login group. The group name must exist. A group number must refer to an already existing group. If -g is not specified, the implementation will follow the normal user default for that system. This may create a new group or choose a default group that normal users are placed in. Applications which require control of the groups into which a user is placed should specify -g.

-G group,[...]

specifies a list of supplementary groups which the user is also a member of. Each group is separated from the next by a comma, with no intervening whitespace. The groups are subject to the same restrictions as the group given with the -g option. The default is for the user to belong only to the initial group.

-m [-k skeleton_dir]

specifies the user's home directory will be created if it does not exist. The files contained in skeleton_dir will be copied to the home directory if the -k option is used, otherwise the files contained in /etc/skel will be used instead. Any directories contained in skeleton_dir or /etc/skel will be created in the user's home directory as well. The -k option is only valid in conjunction with the -m option. The default is to not create the directory and to not copy any files.

-p passwd

is the encrypted password, as returned by crypt(3). The default is to disable the account.

-r

creates a system account, that is, a user with a UID in the range reserved for system account users. If there is not a UID free in the reserved range the command will fail.

-s shell

specifies the name of the user's login shell. The default is to leave this field blank, which causes the system to select the default login shell.

-u uid [-o]

specifies the numerical value of the user's ID. This value must be unique, unless the -o option is used. The value must be non-negative. The default is the smallest ID value greater than 499 which is not yet used.

Change Default Options

-b default_home

specifies the initial path prefix for a new user's home directory. The user's name will be affixed to the end of default_home to create the new directory name if the -d option is not used when creating a new account.

-e default_expire_date

specifies the date on which the user account is disabled.

-f default_inactive

specifies the number of days after a password has expired before the account will be disabled.

-g default_group

specifies the group name or ID for a new user's initial group. The named group must exist, and a numerical group ID must have an existing entry.

-s default_shell

specifies the name of the new user's login shell. The named program will be used for all future new user accounts.

-c comment

specifies the new user's password file comment field value.

userdel

Name

userdel -- delete a user account and related files

Synopsis

userdel [-r] login

Description

Delete the user account named login. If there is also a group named login, this command may delete the group as well, or may leave it alone.

Options

-r

removes files in the user's home directory along with the home directory itself. Files located in other file system will have to be searched for and deleted manually.

usermod

Name

usermod -- modify a user account

Synopsis

usermod [-c comment] [-d home_dir [ -m]]
        [-e expire_date] [-f inactive_time]
        [-g initial_group] [-G group[,...]]
        [-l login_name] [-p passwd]
        [-s shell] [-u uid [ -o]] login

Options

-c comment

specifies the new value of the user's password file comment field.

-d home_dir

specifies the user's new login directory. If the -m option is given the contents of the current home directory will be moved to the new home directory, which is created if it does not already exist.

-e expire_date

specifies the date on which the user account will be disabled. The date is specified in the format YYYY-MM-DD.

-f inactive_days

specifieshe number of days after a password expires until the account is permanently disabled. A value of 0 disables the account as soon as the password has expired, and a value of -1 disables the feature. The default value is -1.

-g initial_group

specifies the group name or number of the user's new initial login group. The group name must exist. A group number must refer to an already existing group.

-G group,[...]

specifies a list of supplementary groups which the user is also a member of. Each group is separated from the next by a comma, with no intervening whitespace. The groups are subject to the same restrictions as the group given with the -g option. If the user is currently a member of a group which is not listed, the user will be removed from the group.

-l login_name

changes the name of the user from login to login_name. Nothing else is changed. In particular, the user's home directory name should probably be changed to reflect the new login name.

-p passwd

is the encrypted password, as returned by crypt(3).

-s shell

specifies the name of the user's new login shell. Setting this field to blank causes the system to select the default login shell.

-u uid [-o]

specifies the numerical value of the user's ID. This value must be unique, unless the -o option is used. The value must be non-negative. Any files which the user owns and which are located in the directory tree rooted at the user's home directory will have the file user ID changed automatically. Files outside of the user's home directory must be altered manually.

wc

Name

wc -- print the number of bytes, words, and lines in files

Description

wc is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

--bytes, --chars

is equivalent to -c.

--lines

is equivalent to -l.

-L, --max-line-length

prints the length of the longest line.

-m

has implementation-dependent behavior.

--words

is equivalent to -w.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

xargs

Name

xargs -- build and execute command lines from standard input

Description

xargs is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

--null, -0

terminates input filenames by a null character instead of by whitespace, and the quotes and backslash are not special (every character is taken literally). Disables the end of file string, which is treated like any other argument. Useful when arguments might contain white space, quote marks, or backslashes. The GNU find -print0 option produces input suitable for this mode.

--eof[=eof-str]

is equivalent to -e.

-E

has implementation-dependent behavior.

--replace[=replace-str]

uses FORMAT as the format string that controls the output of time.

-I

has implementation-dependent behavior.

--max-lines[=max-lines]

is equivalent to -l.

-L

has implementation-dependent behavior.

--max-args=max-args

is equivalent to -n.

--interactive

is equivalent to -p.

--no-run-if-empty, -r

does not run this command if the standard input does not contain any nonblanks. Normally, the command is run once even if there is no input.

--max-chars

is equivalent to -s.

--verbose

is equivalent to -t.

--version

Prints the version number of xargs and exits.

--exit

is equivalent to -x.

--max-procs=max-procs, -P max-procs

runs up to max-procs processes at a time; the default is 1. If max-procs is 0, xargs will run as many processes as possible at a time. Use the -n option with -P; otherwise chances are that only one exec will be done.

IX. Standard Shell

Table of Contents
15. Standard Shell

Chapter 15. Standard Shell

Introduction

The shell is POSIX-1003.2 with the following exceptions.


Standard Shell Exceptions


Pathname of $0

POSIX Standard, section 3.9.1.1, line 779-784.

  • When the search for command name using the PATH environment variable succeeds, the command is executed with actions equivalent to calling 'execve()' with the path argument set to the pathname resulting from the search, 'argv[0]' set to the command name and the remaining arguments set to the operands.

    if [ $0 = (basename $0) ]; then
    	echo "command name: " $0
    fi

GNU Exception:

  • When the search for command name using the PATH environment variable succeeds, the command is executed with actions equivalent to calling 'execve()' with the path argument set to the pathname resulting from the search, 'argv[0]' set to the full-path command name and the remaining arguments set to the operands.

    if [ $0 = (realpath $0) ]; then
    	echo "full pathname: " $0
    fi


Sourcing non-executable files

  • When PATH is used to locate a file for the dot utility, and a matching file is on the PATH but is not readable, the behavior is undefined (unlike POSIX which apparently requires the shell to continue searching through the rest of the PATH, POSIX Standard, section 3.14.4, line 1493-1498).


Standard Shell Rationale

Among the many shells existing at the time of evaluation, the two most compliant were Bash and Pdksh.

At the time of evaluation, Bash was found mostly compliant with the POSIX-1003.2 standard, and its maintainer demonstrated interest in bringing the shell to full compliance. Bash already enjoys wide use among shell users, and is even included in many distributions as the default shell. Further, the abundance of documentation found both on the Internet and in the bookstore makes Bash an easy shell to use.

Of course, shell scripts must avoid using bash extensions if they want to run on any LSB system.

The two exceptions to POSIX (concerning . and non-readable files, and argv[0]) in this section are to accommodate bash. The need for exceptions should be reviewed if bash changes or POSIX changes to remove the conflict. Future versions of this standard may also consider exceptions for pdksh or other almost-compliant shells, if they seem to be warranted.

X. Users & Groups

Table of Contents
16. Users & Groups

Chapter 16. Users & Groups

A "user name" is a string that is used to identify a user. A "login name" is a user name that is associated with a system login. A "user id" is a non negative integer, which can be contained in an object of type uid_t, that is used to identify a system user.

When the identity of a user is associated with a process, a user ID value is referred to as a real user ID, or an effective user ID. [POSIX 1003.1-1996]

A "group name" is a string that is used to identify a set of users. A "group id" is a non negative integer, which can be contained in a object of type gid_t, that is used to identify a group of system users. Each system user is a member of at least one group. When the identity of a group is associated with a process, a group ID value is referred to as a real group ID, or an effective group ID. [POSIX 1003.1-1996]


User and Group Database

The format of the User and Group databases is not specified. Programs may only read these databases using the provided API. Changes to these databases should be made using the provided commands.


User & Group Names

Below is a table of required mnemonic user and group names. This specification makes no attempt to numerically assign uid or gid numbers. The exceptions are the uid and gid for "root" which is equal to 0, and the uid and gid for "bin" which is equal to 1.

Table 16-1. Required User & Group Names

UserGroupComments
rootrootAdministrative user with no restrictions
binbinAdministrative user with some restrictions
daemondaemonSubprocess special privileges

Below is a table of optional mnemonic user and group names. This specification makes no attempt to numerically assign uid or gid numbers. If the username exists on a system, then they should be in the suggested corresponding group.

Table 16-2. Optional User & Group Names

UserGroupComments
admadmAdministrative special privileges
lplpPrinter special privileges
syncsyncLogin to sync the system
shutdownshutdownLogin to shutdown the system
halthaltLogin to halt the system
mailmailMail special privileges
newsnewsNews special privileges
uucpuucpUUCP special privileges
operatorrootOperator special privileges
manmanMan special privileges
nobodynobodyUsed by NFS

The differences in numeric values of the uids and gids between systems on a network can be reconciled via NIS, rdist(1), rsync(1), or ugidd(8). Only a minimum working set of "user names" and their corresponding "user groups" are required. Applications cannot assume non system user or group names will be defined.

Applications cannot assume any policy for the default umask or the default directory permissions a user may have. Applications should enforce user only file permissions on private files such as mailboxes. The location of the users home directory is also not defined by policy other than the recommendations of the FHS and must be obtained by the *pwnam(3) calls.


UID Ranges

The system UIDs from 0 to 99 should be statically allocated by the system. These static assignments should be defined by a common registry.

The system UIDs from 100 to 499 should be reserved for dynamically allocation by system administrators and post install scripts using useradd(1).

XI. Execution Environment


Chapter 17. File System Hierarchy

An LSB conforming system must adhere to the FHS 2.2.

The FHS allows many components or subsystems to be optional. An application must check for the existence of an optional component before using it, and should behave in a reasonable manner if the optional component is not present.


/dev

The following device nodes must exist under /dev. Other devices may also exist in /dev.

/dev/null

All data written to this device is discarded. A read from this device will return an EOF condition.

/dev/zero

This device is a source of zeroed out data. All data written to this device is discarded. A read from this device will return as many bytes containing the value zero as was requested.

/dev/tty

This device is a synonym for the controlling terminal of a process. Once this device is opened, all reads and writes will behave as if the actual controlling terminal device had been opened.


Chapter 18. Additional Recommendations

Minimal granted Directory and File permissions

In this Chapter "System" means an "LSB-compliant system" and "application" means an "LSB-compliant (third party vendor) application".

The system must grant to the application read and execute permissions needed to use all system interfaces (ABIs) mentioned in the LSB document and included standards.


Recommendations for applications on ownership and permissions

Directory Write Permissions

The application should not depend on having directory write permission outside /tmp, /var/tmp, its home directory and /var/opt/package, (where package is the name of the application package).

The application should not depend on owning these directories.

For these directories the application should be able to work with directory write permissions restricted by the "sticky bit". (Which prevents the application from removing files owned by another user. This is classically done with /tmp, to prevent accidental deletion of "foreign" files.)


File Write Permissions

The application should not depend on file write permission on files not owned by the user it runs under with the exception of its personal inbox /var/mail/username


File Read and execute Permissions

The application should not depend on having read permission to every file and directory.


Suid and Sgid Permissions

The application should not depend on the suid/sgid permissions of a file not packaged with the application. Instead, the distribution is responsible for assuming that all system commands have the required permissions and work correctly.

Rationale: Let us make security officers happy. Let's give them the freedom to take sgid/suid perms away, as long as they do not break the system's functionality.


Privileged users

"Normal" applications should not depend on running as a privileged user.

Special applications that have a reason to run under a privileged user, should outline these reasons clearly in their documentation, if they are not obvious as in the case of a backup/restore program. Users of the application should be informed, that "this application demands security privileges, which could interfere with system security".

The application should not contain binary-only software that requires being run as root, as this makes security auditing harder or even impossible.


Changing permissions

The application should not change permissions of files and directories that do not belong to its own package. To do so without a warning notice in the documentation is regarded as unfriendly act.


Removable Media (Cdrom, Floppy, etc.)

The application should be prepared to address removable media being mounted with options such as "noauto", "nouser", "nosuid" or "nodev". Also, the mount options "uid=X", "gid=X" should be awaited with a non-zero uid/gid value X.

Rationale: System vendors and local system administrators want to run applications from removable media, but want the possibility to control what the application can do.

Run-from-removable media applications should not depend on logging in as a privileged user.


Installable applications

If the installation of an application requires the execution of programs with superuser privileges, such programs should also be supplied in a human-readable form.

Without this, the local system administrator would have to blindly trust a piece of software, particularly its security.

XII. System Initialization

Table of Contents
19. System Initialization

Chapter 19. System Initialization

Cron Jobs

Packages may not touch the configuration file /etc/crontab, nor may they modify the files in /var/spool/cron/crontabs.

If a package wants to install a job that has to be executed via cron, it shall place a file with the name of the package in one of the following directories:

/etc/cron.daily
/etc/cron.weekly
/etc/cron.monthly

As these directory names say, the files within them are executed on a daily, weekly, or monthly basis, respectively.

If a certain job has to be executed more frequently than daily, the package shall install a file /etc/cron.d/<package-name> tagged as configuration file. This file uses the same syntax as /etc/crontab and is processed by cron automatically.

It is recommended that files installed in any of these directories be scripts (shell scripts, Perl scripts, etc.) so that they may be modified by the local system administrator. In addition, they must be registered as configuration file.

The scripts in these directories have to check, if all necessary programs are installed before they try to execute them. Otherwise, problems will arise when a package was removed (but not purged), since the configuration files are kept on the system in this situation.

To avoid namespace conflicts in the /etc/cron.* directories, the filenames used by LSB-compliant packages in /etc/cron.daily, /etc/cron.weekly, /etc/cron.monthly, or /etc/cron.d must come from a managed namespace. These filenames may be assigned using one of the following methods:

  • Assigned namespace. This namespace consists of names which only use the character set [a-z0-9]. In order to avoid conflicts these cron script names must be reserved through the Linux Assigned Names and Numbers Authority (LANANA). Information about the LANANA may be found at www.lanana.org.

    Commonly used names shall be reserved in advance; developers for projects should be encouraged reserve names from LANA, so that each distribution can use the same name, and to avoid conflicts with other projects.

  • Hierarchical namespace. This namespace consists of scripts names which look like this: [hier1]-[hier2]-...-[name], where name is again taken the character set [a-z0-9], and where there may be one or more [hier-n] components. [hier1] may either be an LSB provider name assigned by the LANANA, or it may be owners' DNS name in lower case, with at least one '.'. I.e., "debian.org", "staroffice.sun.com", etc. The LSB provider name assigned by LANANA must only consist of the ASCII characters [a-z0-9].

  • Reserved namespace. This namespace consists of script names which begin with the character '_', and is reserved for distribution use only. This namespace should be used for core packages only, and in general use of this namespace is highly discouraged.


Run Levels

0halt
1single user mode
2multiuser with no network services exported
3normal/full multiuser
4reserved for local use, default is normal/full multiuser
5multiuser with xdm or equivalent
6reboot


Init Script Actions

Init files shall accept one argument, saying what to do:

startstart the service
stopstop the service
restartstop and restart the service if the service is already running, otherwise start the service
reloadcause the configuration of the service to be reloaded without actually stopping and restarting the service
force-reloadcause the configuration to be reloaded if the service supports this, otherwise restart the service
statusprint the current status of the service

The start, stop, restart, force-reload, and status commands must be supported by all init files; the reload option is optional. Other init script actions may be defined by the init script.

Init files must ensure that they will behave sensibly if invoked with start when the service is already running, or with stop when it isn't, and that they don't kill unfortunately-named user processes. The best way to achieve this is to use the init-script functions provided by /lib/lsb/init-functions.

If a service reloads its configuration automatically (as in the case of cron, for example), the reload option of the init file must behave as if the configuration has been reloaded successfully.

These executable files must not fail obscurely when the configuration files remain but the package has been removed, as the default in [the packaging system] is to leave configuration files on the system after the package has been removed. Only when it is executed with the [purge] option will [the packaging system] remove configuration files. Therefore, you should include a test statement at the top of the file, like this:
test -f program-executed-later-in-file || exit 5
or take the equivalent action if the init file is not a shell script.

If the status command is given, the init script will return the following exit status codes.

0program is running or service is OK
1program is dead and /var/run pid file exists
2program is dead and /var/lock lock file exists
3program is stopped
4program or service status is unknown
5-99reserved for future LSB use
100-149reserved for distribution use
150-199reserved for application use
200-254reserved

In the case of init script commands other than "status" (i.e., "start", "stop", "restart", "reload", and "force-reload"), the init script must return an exit status of zero if the action described by the argument has been successful. Otherwise, the exit status shall be non-zero, as defined below. In addition to straightforward success, the following situations are also to be considered successful:

  • restarting a service (instead of reloading it) with the "force-reload" argument

  • running "start" on a service already running

  • running "stop" on a service already stopped or not running

  • running "restart" on a service already stopped or not running

In case of an error, while processing any init script action except for "status", the init script must print an error message and return one of the following non-zero exit status codes.

1generic or unspecified error (current practice)
2invalid or excess argument(s)
3unimplemented feature (for example, "reload")
4user had insufficient privilege
5program is not installed
6program is not configured
7program is not running
8-99reserved for future LSB use
100-149reserved for distribution use
150-199reserved for application use
200-254reserved

All error messages must be printed on standard error. All status messages must be printed on standard output.

Since init files may be run manually by a system administrator with non-standard environment variable values for PATH, USER, LOGNAME, etc. init files must not depend on the values of these environment variables. They should set them to some known/default values if they are needed.


Comment conventions for init scripts

LSB applications which need to execute script(s) at bootup and/or shutdown may provide one or more init.d files. These files are installed by the install_initd program described below, which copies it into a standard directory and makes whatever other adjustments (creation of symlinks, creation of entries in a database, etc.) are necessary so that the script can be run at boot-time. [39]

In the init.d file, information about the shell script shall be delimited by the lines "### BEGIN INIT INFO" and "### END INIT INFO". These delimiter lines may containg trailing whitespace, which shall be ignored. Inside this block there shall be lines of the form "# {keyword}: [arg1] [arg2] ...". (All lines inside this block start with a hash ('#') character in the first column, so that shell treats them as comments.) The following keywords, with their arguments are defined in this specification:

	# Provides: boot_facility_1 [ boot_facility_2 ...]
	# Required-Start: boot_facility_1 [ boot_facility_2 ...]
	# Required-Stop: boot_facility_1 [ boot_facility_2 ...]
	# Default-Start: run_level_1 [ run_level_2 ...]
	# Default-Stop: run_level_1 [ run_level_2 ...]
	# Short-Description: short_description
	# Description: multiline_description

Additional keywords may be defined in future LSB specifications. Distributions may define local extensions by using the prefix "X-[distribution name]" --- for example, "X-RedHat-foobardecl", or "X-Debian-xyzzydecl".

An init.d shell script may declare using the "Required-Start: " header that it must not be run until certain boot facilities are provided. This information is used by the installation tool or the boot-time boot-script execution facility to assure that init scripts are run in the correct order. When an init script is run with a "start" argument, the boot facility or facilities specified in the "Provides" header shall be considered present, and hence init scripts which require those boot facilities would then be eligble to be run. When an init script is run with a "stop" argument, the boot facilities specified in the "Provides" header are considered no longer present. Details about how the naming conventions used by boot facilities, and system facilties defined by this specification can be found in a following section.

Similarly, the "Required-Stop:" header defines which facilities must still be available during the shutdown of that service. Hence, the init script system should avoid stopping shell scripts which provide those facilities until this shell script is stopped.

The "Default-Start" and "Default-Stop" headers define which run levels should by default run the script with a start or stop argument, respectively, to start or stop the services controlled by the init script.

The "Short-Description" and "Description" header fields are used to provide text which describes the actions of the init script. The "short_description" shall be a relatively short, pithy description of the init script, where as the "multiline_description" can be a much longer piece of text that may span mulitple lines. In a multiline description, each continuation line must begin with a '#' followed by tab character or a '#' followed by at least two space characters. The multiline description is terminated by the first line that does not match this criteria.


Installation and removal of init.d files

An init.d file is installed by copying it into /etc/init.d (which may be a symlink to another location). This can be done by the package installer. During the package's postinstall script, the program "/usr/lib/lsb/install_initd" configures the distribution's boot script system to call the package's init.d file at the appropriate time.

The install_initd program takes a single argument, the pathanme to the /etc/init.d file. For example:

	/usr/lib/lsb/install_initd /etc/init.d/inet

When a software package is removed, the package's preuninstall script shall call /usr/lib/lsb/remove_initd and pass the pathname to the /etc/init.d file. The package manager is still responsible for removing the /etc/init.d file; the remove_initd program is provided in case the distribution needs to clean up any other modifications in the distribution's boot script system that might have been made by the install_initd program. For example:

	/usr/lib/lsb/remove_initd /etc/init.d/inet

There should be a tool available to the user (e.g., RedHat's chkconfig) which can be used by the system administrator to easily manipulate at which init levels a particular init.d script is started or stopped. This specification currently does not specify such an interface, however.


Facility names

Boot facilities are used to indicate dependencies in init scripts, as defined in a previous section. Facility names that begin with a dollar sign ('$') are system facility names, defined by the LSB, and MUST be provided by distributions. LSB applications must not provide system facilities. This document defines the following system facility names:

$local_fsall local filesystems are mounted
$networklow level networking (ethernet card; may imply PCMCIA running)
$namednamed is operational
$remote_fsall remote filesystems are mounted (note in some cases /usr may be remote. Most applications that care will probably require both $local_fs and $remote_fs)
$syslogsystem logger is operational
$netdaemonsall network daemons are running

Other (non-system) facilities may be defined by other LSB applications. These facilities shall be named using the same conventions defined for naming init.d script names. Commonly, the facility provided by an LSB application init.d script will have the same name as the name assigned to the init.d script.


Script names

Since the init.d scripts must live in a single directory, they must come from a single namespace. Three means of assigning names from this namespace are available:

  • Assigned namespace. This namespace consists of names which only use the character set [a-z0-9]. This space is desirable for scripts which system administrators may often wish to run manually: e.g., "/etc/init.d/named restart" In order to avoid conflicts these init.d names must be reserved through the Linux Assigned Names and Numbers Authority (LANANA). Information about the LANANA may be found at www.lanana.org.

    Commonly used names shall be reserved in advance; developers for projects should be encouraged to reserve names from LANANA, so that each distribution can use the same name, and to avoid conflicts with other projects.

  • Hierarchical namespace. This namespace consists of scripts names which look like this: [hier1]-[hier2]-...-[name], where name is again taken the character set [a-z0-9], and where there may be one or more [hier-n] components. [hier1] may either be an LSB provider name assigned by the LANANA, or it may be owners' DNS name in lower case, with at least one '.' (e.g., "debian.org", "staroffice.sun.com"). The LSB provider name assigned by LANANA must only consist of the ASCII characters [a-z0-9].

  • Reserved namespace. This namespace consists of script names which begin with the character '_', and is reserved for distribution use only. This namespace should be used for core packages only, and in general use of this namespace is highly discouraged.

In general, if a package or some system function is likely to be used on multiple systems, the package developers or the distribution SHOULD get a registered name through LANANA, and distributions should strive to use the same name whenever possible. For applications which may not be "core" or may not be commonly installed, the hierarchical namespace may be more appropriate. An advantage to the hierarchical namespace is that there is no need to consult with the LANANA before obtaining an assigned name.

Short names are highly desirable, since many system administrators like to use them to manually start and stop services. Given this, they should be standardized on a per-package basis. This is the rationale behind having a LANANA organization to assign these names. The LANANA may be called upon to handle other namespace issues, such as package/prerequisites naming (which is essential to making prerequisites to work correctly).

This specification shall pre-define the following script names as being reserved to the LANA. They reflect names which are commonly in use today by distributions to start up various system programs/daemons. The behavior of these scripts are not specified here, and not all distributions may use all of these script names.

  • autofs

  • apmd

  • atd

  • crond

  • dhclient

  • dhcpcd

  • gpm

  • exim

  • halt

  • identd

  • inet

  • httpd

  • kudzu

  • klogd

  • lpd

  • mcserv

  • named

  • nfs

  • nfslock

  • pcmcia

  • portmap

  • postfix

  • random

  • routed

  • rstatd

  • rusersd

  • rwhod

  • sendmail

  • samba

  • smb

  • snmpd

  • sshd

  • syslog

  • xfs

  • xntpd

  • ypbind


Init script Functions

Each LSB-compliant init.d script must source the file /lib/lsb/init-functions. This file must cause the following shell script commands to be defined. This can be done either by adding a directory to the PATH variable which defines these commands, or by defining sh aliases. While the distribution-provided aliases may choose to use bash extensions (at the distribution's option), the LSB init.d files themselves should only depend in /bin/sh features as defined by POSIX.2.

start_daemon [-f] [-n nicelevel] pathname [args]This runs the specified program as a daemon. start_daemon will check to see if there is a program named "daemon" already running. If so, it will not start another copy of the daemon unless the -f option is given. The -n option specifies a nice level. See nice(1).
killproc basename [signal]This stops the specified program. The program is found using the algorithm given by pidofproc. If a signal is specified, the program is sent that signal. Otherwise, a SIGTERM followed by a SIGKILL after some number of seconds is sent.
pidofproc basenameThis function returns one or more pid(s) for a particular daemon. If an entry is found in /var/run/basename.pid, then that value is returned. Compliant implementations of the LSB may attempt other mechanisms for determining the pid(s), although this is not required (and not recommended, since a user can trick startup scripts by creating processes that appear to be system programs in the process list thus creating a potential security exposure). Hence, LSB-complaint applications who wish to use the pidofproc function in their init scripts must store the pid in /var/run/basename.pid.
log_success_msg "message"This requests the distribution to print a success message. The message should be relatively short; no More than 60 characters is highly desirable.
log_failure_msg "message"This requests the distribution to print a failure message. The message should be relatively short; no more than 60 characters is highly desirable.
log_warning_msg "message"This requests the distribution to print a warning message. The message should be relatively short; no more than 60 characters is highly desirable.


Appendix A. Alphabetical Listing of Interfaces


libX11

The behaviour of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following Standards.

X11R6.4 Xlib - C library

Table A-1. libX11 Function Interfaces

XActivateScreenSaver[23]XInternalConnectionNumbers[23]XcmsCIELuvClipLuv[23]
XAddConnectionWatch[23]XIntersectRegion[23]XcmsCIELuvClipuv[23]
XAddExtension[23]XKeycodeToKeysym[23]XcmsCIELuvQueryMaxC[23]
XAddHost[23]XKeysymToKeycode[23]XcmsCIELuvQueryMaxL[23]
XAddHosts[23]XKeysymToString[23]XcmsCIELuvQueryMaxLC[23]
XAddPixel[23]XKillClient[23]XcmsCIELuvQueryMinL[23]
XAddToExtensionList[23]XLastKnownRequestProcessed[23]XcmsCIELuvToCIEuvY[23]
XAddToSaveSet[23]XListDepths[23]XcmsCIELuvWhiteShiftColors[23]
XAllPlanes[23]XListExtensions[23]XcmsCIEXYZToCIELab[23]
XAllocClassHint[23]XListFonts[23]XcmsCIEXYZToCIEuvY[23]
XAllocColor[23]XListFontsWithInfo[23]XcmsCIEXYZToCIExyY[23]
XAllocColorCells[23]XListHosts[23]XcmsCIEXYZToRGBi[23]
XAllocColorPlanes[23]XListInstalledColormaps[23]XcmsCIEuvYToCIELuv[23]
XAllocIconSize[23]XListPixmapFormats[23]XcmsCIEuvYToCIEXYZ[23]
XAllocNamedColor[23]XListProperties[23]XcmsCIEuvYToTekHVC[23]
XAllocSizeHints[23]XLoadFont[23]XcmsCIExyYToCIEXYZ[23]
XAllocStandardColormap[23]XLoadQueryFont[23]XcmsClientWhitePointOfCCC[23]
XAllocWMHints[23]XLocaleOfFontSet[23]XcmsConvertColors[23]
XAllowEvents[23]XLocaleOfIM[23]XcmsCreateCCC[23]
XAutoRepeatOff[23]XLocaleOfOM[23]XcmsDefaultCCC[23]
XAutoRepeatOn[23]XLockDisplay[23]XcmsDisplayOfCCC[23]
XBaseFontNameListOfFontSet[23]XLookupColor[23]XcmsFormatOfPrefix[23]
XBell[23]XLookupKeysym[23]XcmsFreeCCC[23]
XBitmapBitOrder[23]XLookupString[23]XcmsLookupColor[23]
XBitmapPad[23]XLowerWindow[23]XcmsPrefixOfFormat[23]
XBitmapUnit[23]XMapRaised[23]XcmsQueryBlack[23]
XBlackPixel[23]XMapSubwindows[23]XcmsQueryBlue[23]
XBlackPixelOfScreen[23]XMapWindow[23]XcmsQueryColor[23]
XCellsOfScreen[23]XMaskEvent[23]XcmsQueryColors[23]
XChangeActivePointerGrab[23]XMatchVisualInfo[23]XcmsQueryGreen[23]
XChangeGC[23]XMaxCmapsOfScreen[23]XcmsQueryRed[23]
XChangeKeyboardControl[23]XMaxRequestSize[23]XcmsQueryWhite[23]
XChangeKeyboardMapping[23]XMinCmapsOfScreen[23]XcmsRGBToRGBi[23]
XChangePointerControl[23]XMoveResizeWindow[23]XcmsRGBiToCIEXYZ[23]
XChangeProperty[23]XMoveWindow[23]XcmsRGBiToRGB[23]
XChangeSaveSet[23]XNewModifiermap[23]XcmsScreenNumberOfCCC[23]
XChangeWindowAttributes[23]XNextEvent[23]XcmsScreenWhitePointOfCCC[23]
XCheckIfEvent[23]XNextRequest[23]XcmsSetCCCOfColormap[23]
XCheckMaskEvent[23]XNoOp[23]XcmsSetCompressionProc[23]
XCheckTypedEvent[23]XOMOfOC[23]XcmsSetWhiteAdjustProc[23]
XCheckTypedWindowEvent[23]XOffsetRegion[23]XcmsSetWhitePoint[23]
XCheckWindowEvent[23]XOpenDisplay[23]XcmsStoreColor[23]
XCirculateSubwindows[23]XOpenIM[23]XcmsStoreColors[23]
XCirculateSubwindowsDown[23]XOpenOM[23]XcmsTekHVCClipC[23]
XCirculateSubwindowsUp[23]XParseColor[23]XcmsTekHVCClipV[23]
XClearArea[23]XParseGeometry[23]XcmsTekHVCClipVC[23]
XClearWindow[23]XPeekEvent[23]XcmsTekHVCQueryMaxC[23]
XClipBox[23]XPeekIfEvent[23]XcmsTekHVCQueryMaxV[23]
XCloseDisplay[23]XPending[23]XcmsTekHVCQueryMaxVC[23]
XCloseIM[23]XPlanesOfScreen[23]XcmsTekHVCQueryMaxVSamples[23]
XCloseOM[23]XPointInRegion[23]XcmsTekHVCQueryMinV[23]
XConfigureWindow[23]XPolygonRegion[23]XcmsTekHVCToCIEuvY[23]
XConnectionNumber[23]XProcessInternalConnection[23]XcmsTekHVCWhiteShiftColors[23]
XContextDependentDrawing[23]XProtocolRevision[23]XcmsVisualOfCCC[23]
XContextualDrawing[23]XProtocolVersion[23]XkbAllocClientMap[23]
XConvertCase[23]XPutBackEvent[23]XkbAllocCompatMap[23]
XConvertSelection[23]XPutImage[23]XkbAllocControls[23]
XCopyArea[23]XPutPixel[23]XkbAllocGeomColors[23]
XCopyColormapAndFree[23]XQLength[23]XkbAllocGeomDoodads[23]
XCopyGC[23]XQueryBestCursor[23]XkbAllocGeomKeyAliases[23]
XCopyPlane[23]XQueryBestSize[23]XkbAllocGeomKeys[23]
XCreateBitmapFromData[23]XQueryBestStipple[23]XkbAllocGeomOutlines[23]
XCreateColormap[23]XQueryBestTile[23]XkbAllocGeomOverlayKeys[23]
XCreateFontCursor[23]XQueryColor[23]XkbAllocGeomOverlayRows[23]
XCreateFontSet[23]XQueryColors[23]XkbAllocGeomOverlays[23]
XCreateGC[23]XQueryExtension[23]XkbAllocGeomPoints[23]
XCreateGlyphCursor[23]XQueryFont[23]XkbAllocGeomProps[23]
XCreateIC[23]XQueryKeymap[23]XkbAllocGeomRows[23]
XCreateImage[23]XQueryPointer[23]XkbAllocGeomSectionDoodads[23]
XCreateOC[23]XQueryTextExtents[23]XkbAllocGeomSections[23]
XCreatePixmap[23]XQueryTextExtents16[23]XkbAllocGeomShapes[23]
XCreatePixmapCursor[23]XQueryTree[23]XkbAllocGeometry[23]
XCreatePixmapFromBitmapData[23]XRaiseWindow[23]XkbAllocIndicatorMaps[23]
XCreateRegion[23]XReadBitmapFile[23]XkbAllocKeyboard[23]
XCreateSimpleWindow[23]XReadBitmapFileData[23]XkbAllocNames[23]
XCreateWindow[23]XRebindKeysym[23]XkbAllocServerMap[23]
XDefaultColormap[23]XRecolorCursor[23]XkbApplyCompatMapToKey[23]
XDefaultColormapOfScreen[23]XReconfigureWMWindow[23]XkbBell[23]
XDefaultDepth[23]XRectInRegion[23]XkbBellEvent[23]
XDefaultDepthOfScreen[23]XRefreshKeyboardMapping[23]XkbChangeEnabledControls[23]
XDefaultGC[23]XRegisterIMInstantiateCallback[23]XkbChangeMap[23]
XDefaultGCOfScreen[23]XRemoveConnectionWatch[23]XkbChangeNames[23]
XDefaultRootWindow[23]XRemoveFromSaveSet[23]XkbChangeTypesOfKey[23]
XDefaultScreen[23]XRemoveHost[23]XkbComputeEffectiveMap[23]
XDefaultScreenOfDisplay[23]XRemoveHosts[23]XkbComputeRowBounds[23]
XDefaultString[23]XReparentWindow[23]XkbComputeSectionBounds[23]
XDefaultVisual[23]XResetScreenSaver[23]XkbComputeShapeBounds[23]
XDefaultVisualOfScreen[23]XResizeWindow[23]XkbComputeShapeTop[23]
XDefineCursor[23]XResourceManagerString[23]XkbCopyKeyType[23]
XDeleteContext[23]XRestackWindows[23]XkbCopyKeyTypes[23]
XDeleteModifiermapEntry[23]XRootWindow[23]XkbFindOverlayForKey[23]
XDeleteProperty[23]XRootWindowOfScreen[23]XkbForceBell[23]
XDestroyIC[23]XRotateBuffers[23]XkbFreeClientMap[23]
XDestroyImage[23]XRotateWindowProperties[23]XkbFreeCompatMap[23]
XDestroyOC[23]XSaveContext[23]XkbFreeComponentList[23]
XDestroyRegion[23]XScreenCount[23]XkbFreeControls[23]
XDestroySubwindows[23]XScreenNumberOfScreen[23]XkbFreeGeomColors[23]
XDestroyWindow[23]XScreenOfDisplay[23]XkbFreeGeomDoodads[23]
XDirectionalDependentDrawing[23]XScreenResourceString[23]XkbFreeGeomKeyAliases[23]
XDisableAccessControl[23]XSelectInput[23]XkbFreeGeomKeys[23]
XDisplayCells[23]XSendEvent[23]XkbFreeGeomOutlines[23]
XDisplayHeight[23]XServerVendor[23]XkbFreeGeomOverlayKeys[23]
XDisplayHeightMM[23]XSetAccessControl[23]XkbFreeGeomOverlayRows[23]
XDisplayKeycodes[23]XSetAfterFunction[23]XkbFreeGeomOverlays[23]
XDisplayMotionBufferSize[23]XSetArcMode[23]XkbFreeGeomPoints[23]
XDisplayName[23]XSetAuthorization[23]XkbFreeGeomProperties[23]
XDisplayOfIM[23]XSetBackground[23]XkbFreeGeomRows[23]
XDisplayOfOM[23]XSetClassHint[23]XkbFreeGeomSections[23]
XDisplayOfScreen[23]XSetClipMask[23]XkbFreeGeomShapes[23]
XDisplayPlanes[23]XSetClipOrigin[23]XkbFreeGeometry[23]
XDisplayString[23]XSetClipRectangles[23]XkbFreeIndicatorMaps[23]
XDisplayWidth[23]XSetCloseDownMode[23]XkbFreeKeyboard[23]
XDisplayWidthMM[23]XSetCommand[23]XkbFreeNames[23]
XDoesBackingStore[23]XSetDashes[23]XkbFreeServerMap[23]
XDoesSaveUnders[23]XSetErrorHandler[23]XkbGetAutoRepeatRate[23]
XDrawArc[23]XSetFillRule[23]XkbGetCompatMap[23]
XDrawArcs[23]XSetFillStyle[23]XkbGetControls[23]
XDrawImageString[23]XSetFont[23]XkbGetGeometry[23]
XDrawImageString16[23]XSetFontPath[23]XkbGetIndicatorMap[23]
XDrawLine[23]XSetForeground[23]XkbGetIndicatorState[23]
XDrawLines[23]XSetFunction[23]XkbGetKeyActions[23]
XDrawPoint[23]XSetGraphicsExposures[23]XkbGetKeyBehaviors[23]
XDrawPoints[23]XSetICFocus[23]XkbGetKeyExplicitComponents[23]
XDrawRectangle[23]XSetICValues[23]XkbGetKeyModifierMap[23]
XDrawRectangles[23]XSetIMValues[23]XkbGetKeySyms[23]
XDrawSegments[23]XSetIOErrorHandler[23]XkbGetKeyTypes[23]
XDrawString[23]XSetIconName[23]XkbGetKeyboard[23]
XDrawString16[23]XSetIconSizes[23]XkbGetKeyboardByName[23]
XDrawText[23]XSetInputFocus[23]XkbGetMap[23]
XDrawText16[23]XSetLineAttributes[23]XkbGetMapChanges[23]
XEHeadOfExtensionList[23]XSetLocaleModifiers[23]XkbGetNamedGeometry[23]
XEmptyRegion[23]XSetModifierMapping[23]XkbGetNamedIndicator[23]
XEnableAccessControl[23]XSetNormalHints[23]XkbGetNames[23]
XEqualRegion[23]XSetOCValues[23]XkbGetState[23]
XEventMaskOfScreen[23]XSetOMValues[23]XkbGetUpdatedMap[23]
XEventsQueued[23]XSetPlaneMask[23]XkbGetVirtualMods[23]
XExtendedMaxRequestSize[23]XSetPointerMapping[23]XkbGetXlibControls[23]
XExtentsOfFontSet[23]XSetRGBColormaps[23]XkbIgnoreExtension[23]
XFetchBuffer[23]XSetRegion[23]XkbInitCanonicalKeyTypes[23]
XFetchBytes[23]XSetScreenSaver[23]XkbKeyTypesForCoreSymbols[23]
XFetchName[23]XSetSelectionOwner[23]XkbKeycodeToKeysym[23]
XFillArc[23]XSetSizeHints[23]XkbKeysymToModifiers[23]
XFillArcs[23]XSetStandardColormap[23]XkbLatchGroup[23]
XFillPolygon[23]XSetStandardProperties[23]XkbLatchModifiers[23]
XFillRectangle[23]XSetState[23]XkbLibraryVersion[23]
XFillRectangles[23]XSetStipple[23]XkbListComponents[23]
XFilterEvent[23]XSetSubwindowMode[23]XkbLockGroup[23]
XFindContext[23]XSetTSOrigin[23]XkbLockModifiers[23]
XFindOnExtensionList[23]XSetTextProperty[23]XkbLookupKeyBinding[23]
XFlush[23]XSetTile[23]XkbLookupKeySym[23]
XFlushGC[23]XSetTransientForHint[23]XkbNoteControlsChanges[23]
XFontsOfFontSet[23]XSetWMClientMachine[23]XkbNoteMapChanges[23]
XForceScreenSaver[23]XSetWMColormapWindows[23]XkbNoteNameChanges[23]
XFree[23]XSetWMHints[23]XkbOpenDisplay[23]
XFreeColormap[23]XSetWMIconName[23]XkbQueryExtension[23]
XFreeColors[23]XSetWMName[23]XkbRefreshKeyboardMapping[23]
XFreeCursor[23]XSetWMNormalHints[23]XkbResizeKeyActions[23]
XFreeExtensionList[23]XSetWMProperties[23]XkbResizeKeySyms[23]
XFreeFont[23]XSetWMProtocols[23]XkbResizeKeyType[23]
XFreeFontInfo[23]XSetWMSizeHints[23]XkbSelectEventDetails[23]
XFreeFontNames[23]XSetWindowBackground[23]XkbSelectEvents[23]
XFreeFontPath[23]XSetWindowBackgroundPixmap[23]XkbSetAtomFuncs[23]
XFreeFontSet[23]XSetWindowBorder[23]XkbSetAutoRepeatRate[23]
XFreeGC[23]XSetWindowBorderPixmap[23]XkbSetAutoResetControls[23]
XFreeModifiermap[23]XSetWindowBorderWidth[23]XkbSetCompatMap[23]
XFreePixmap[23]XSetWindowColormap[23]XkbSetControls[23]
XFreeStringList[23]XSetZoomHints[23]XkbSetDebuggingFlags[23]
XGContextFromGC[23]XShrinkRegion[23]XkbSetDetectableAutoRepeat[23]
XGeometry[23]XStoreBuffer[23]XkbSetGeometry[23]
XGetAtomName[23]XStoreBytes[23]XkbSetIgnoreLockMods[23]
XGetAtomNames[23]XStoreColor[23]XkbSetIndicatorMap[23]
XGetClassHint[23]XStoreColors[23]XkbSetMap[23]
XGetCommand[23]XStoreName[23]XkbSetNamedIndicator[23]
XGetDefault[23]XStoreNamedColor[23]XkbSetNames[23]
XGetErrorDatabaseText[23]XStringListToTextProperty[23]XkbSetServerInternalMods[23]
XGetErrorText[23]XStringToKeysym[23]XkbSetXlibControls[23]
XGetFontPath[23]XSubImage[23]XkbToControl[23]
XGetFontProperty[23]XSubtractRegion[23]XkbTranslateKeyCode[23]
XGetGCValues[23]XSupportsLocale[23]XkbTranslateKeySym[23]
XGetGeometry[23]XSync[23]XkbUpdateMapFromCore[23]
XGetICValues[23]XSynchronize[23]XkbUseExtension[23]
XGetIMValues[23]XTextExtents[23]XkbVirtualModsToReal[23]
XGetIconName[23]XTextExtents16[23]XmbDrawImageString[23]
XGetIconSizes[23]XTextPropertyToStringList[23]XmbDrawString[23]
XGetImage[23]XTextWidth[23]XmbDrawText[23]
XGetInputFocus[23]XTextWidth16[23]XmbLookupString[23]
XGetKeyboardControl[23]XTranslateCoordinates[23]XmbResetIC[23]
XGetKeyboardMapping[23]XUndefineCursor[23]XmbSetWMProperties[23]
XGetModifierMapping[23]XUngrabButton[23]XmbTextEscapement[23]
XGetMotionEvents[23]XUngrabKey[23]XmbTextExtents[23]
XGetNormalHints[23]XUngrabKeyboard[23]XmbTextListToTextProperty[23]
XGetOCValues[23]XUngrabPointer[23]XmbTextPerCharExtents[23]
XGetOMValues[23]XUngrabServer[23]XmbTextPropertyToTextList[23]
XGetPixel[23]XUninstallColormap[23]XrmCombineDatabase[23]
XGetPointerControl[23]XUnionRectWithRegion[23]XrmCombineFileDatabase[23]
XGetPointerMapping[23]XUnionRegion[23]XrmDestroyDatabase[23]
XGetRGBColormaps[23]XUnloadFont[23]XrmEnumerateDatabase[23]
XGetScreenSaver[23]XUnlockDisplay[23]XrmGetDatabase[23]
XGetSelectionOwner[23]XUnmapSubwindows[23]XrmGetFileDatabase[23]
XGetSizeHints[23]XUnmapWindow[23]XrmGetResource[23]
XGetStandardColormap[23]XUnregisterIMInstantiateCallback[23]XrmGetStringDatabase[23]
XGetSubImage[23]XUnsetICFocus[23]XrmInitialize[23]
XGetTextProperty[23]XVaCreateNestedList[23]XrmLocaleOfDatabase[23]
XGetTransientForHint[23]XVendorRelease[23]XrmMergeDatabases[23]
XGetVisualInfo[23]XVisualIDFromVisual[23]XrmParseCommand[23]
XGetWMClientMachine[23]XWMGeometry[23]XrmPermStringToQuark[23]
XGetWMColormapWindows[23]XWarpPointer[23]XrmPutFileDatabase[23]
XGetWMHints[23]XWhitePixel[23]XrmPutLineResource[23]
XGetWMIconName[23]XWhitePixelOfScreen[23]XrmPutResource[23]
XGetWMName[23]XWidthMMOfScreen[23]XrmPutStringResource[23]
XGetWMNormalHints[23]XWidthOfScreen[23]XrmQGetResource[23]
XGetWMProtocols[23]XWindowEvent[23]XrmQGetSearchList[23]
XGetWMSizeHints[23]XWithdrawWindow[23]XrmQGetSearchResource[23]
XGetWindowAttributes[23]XWriteBitmapFile[23]XrmQPutResource[23]
XGetWindowProperty[23]XXorRegion[23]XrmQPutStringResource[23]
XGetZoomHints[23]XauDisposeAuth[23]XrmQuarkToString[23]
XGrabButton[23]XauFileName[23]XrmSetDatabase[23]
XGrabKey[23]XauGetBestAuthByAddr[23]XrmStringToBindingQuarkList[23]
XGrabKeyboard[23]XauReadAuth[23]XrmStringToQuark[23]
XGrabPointer[23]XcmsAddColorSpace[23]XrmStringToQuarkList[23]
XGrabServer[23]XcmsAddFunctionSet[23]XrmUniqueQuark[23]
XHeightMMOfScreen[23]XcmsAllocColor[23]XwcDrawImageString[23]
XHeightOfScreen[23]XcmsAllocNamedColor[23]XwcDrawString[23]
XIMOfIC[23]XcmsCCCOfColormap[23]XwcDrawText[23]
XIconifyWindow[23]XcmsCIELabClipL[23]XwcFreeStringList[23]
XIfEvent[23]XcmsCIELabClipLab[23]XwcLookupString[23]
XImageByteOrder[23]XcmsCIELabClipab[23]XwcResetIC[23]
XInitExtension[23]XcmsCIELabQueryMaxC[23]XwcTextEscapement[23]
XInitImage[23]XcmsCIELabQueryMaxL[23]XwcTextExtents[23]
XInitThreads[23]XcmsCIELabQueryMaxLC[23]XwcTextListToTextProperty[23]
XInsertModifiermapEntry[23]XcmsCIELabQueryMinL[23]XwcTextPerCharExtents[23]
XInstallColormap[23]XcmsCIELabToCIEXYZ[23]XwcTextPropertyToTextList[23]
XInternAtom[23]XcmsCIELabWhiteShiftColors[23] 
XInternAtoms[23]XcmsCIELuvClipL[23] 

libXt

The behaviour of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following Standards.

Linux Standard Base
X11R.4 X Toolkit Intrinsics

Table A-2. libXt Function Interfaces

XtAddActions[33]XtCvtStringToInitialState[33]XtOwnSelectionIncremental[33]
XtAddCallback[33]XtCvtStringToInt[33]XtParent[33]
XtAddCallbacks[33]XtCvtStringToPixel[33]XtParseAcceleratorTable[33]
XtAddConverter[33]XtCvtStringToRestartStyle[33]XtParseTranslationTable[33]
XtAddEventHandler[33]XtCvtStringToShort[33]XtPeekEvent[33]
XtAddExposureToRegion[33]XtCvtStringToTranslationTable[33]XtPending[33]
XtAddGrab[33]XtCvtStringToUnsignedChar[33]XtPopdown[33]
XtAddInput[33]XtCvtStringToVisual[33]XtPopup[33]
XtAddRawEventHandler[33]XtDatabase[33]XtPopupSpringLoaded[33]
XtAddSignal[33]XtDestroyApplicationContext[33]XtProcessEvent[33]
XtAddTimeOut[33]XtDestroyGC[33]XtProcessLock[33]
XtAddWorkProc[33]XtDestroyWidget[33]XtProcessUnlock[33]
XtAllocateGC[33]XtDirectConvert[33]XtQueryGeometry[33]
XtAppAddActionHook[33]XtDisownSelection[33]XtRealizeWidget[33]
XtAppAddActions[33]XtDispatchEvent[33]XtRealloc[33]
XtAppAddBlockHook[33]XtDispatchEventToWidget[33]XtRegisterCaseConverter[33]
XtAppAddConverter[33]XtDisplay[33]XtRegisterDrawable[33]
XtAppAddInput[33]XtDisplayInitialize[33]XtRegisterExtensionSelector[33]
XtAppAddSignal[33]XtDisplayOfObject[33]XtRegisterGrabAction[33]
XtAppAddTimeOut[33]XtDisplayStringConversionWarning[33]XtReleaseGC[33]
XtAppAddWorkProc[33]XtDisplayToApplicationContext[33]XtReleasePropertyAtom[33]
XtAppCreateShell[33]XtError[33]XtRemoveActionHook[33]
XtAppError[33]XtErrorMsg[33]XtRemoveAllCallbacks[33]
XtAppErrorMsg[33]XtFindFile[33]XtRemoveBlockHook[33]
XtAppGetErrorDatabase[33]XtFree[33]XtRemoveCallback[33]
XtAppGetErrorDatabaseText[33]XtGetActionKeysym[33]XtRemoveCallbacks[33]
XtAppGetExitFlag[33]XtGetActionList[33]XtRemoveEventHandler[33]
XtAppGetSelectionTimeout[33]XtGetApplicationNameAndClass[33]XtRemoveEventTypeHandler[33]
XtAppInitialize[33]XtGetApplicationResources[33]XtRemoveGrab[33]
XtAppLock[33]XtGetClassExtension[33]XtRemoveInput[33]
XtAppMainLoop[33]XtGetConstraintResourceList[33]XtRemoveRawEventHandler[33]
XtAppNextEvent[33]XtGetDisplays[33]XtRemoveSignal[33]
XtAppPeekEvent[33]XtGetErrorDatabase[33]XtRemoveTimeOut[33]
XtAppPending[33]XtGetErrorDatabaseText[33]XtRemoveWorkProc[33]
XtAppProcessEvent[33]XtGetGC[33]XtReservePropertyAtom[33]
XtAppReleaseCacheRefs[33]XtGetKeyboardFocusWidget[33]XtResizeWidget[33]
XtAppSetErrorHandler[33]XtGetKeysymTable[33]XtResizeWindow[33]
XtAppSetErrorMsgHandler[33]XtGetMultiClickTime[33]XtResolvePathname[33]
XtAppSetExitFlag[33]XtGetResourceList[33]XtScreen[33]
XtAppSetFallbackResources[33]XtGetSelectionParameters[33]XtScreenDatabase[33]
XtAppSetSelectionTimeout[33]XtGetSelectionRequest[33]XtScreenOfObject[33]
XtAppSetTypeConverter[33]XtGetSelectionTimeout[33]XtSendSelectionRequest[33]
XtAppSetWarningHandler[33]XtGetSelectionValue[33]XtSessionGetToken[33]
XtAppSetWarningMsgHandler[33]XtGetSelectionValueIncremental[33]XtSessionReturnToken[33]
XtAppUnlock[33]XtGetSelectionValues[33]XtSetErrorHandler[33]
XtAppWarning[33]XtGetSelectionValuesIncremental[33]XtSetErrorMsgHandler[33]
XtAppWarningMsg[33]XtGetSubresources[33]XtSetEventDispatcher[33]
XtAugmentTranslations[33]XtGetSubvalues[33]XtSetKeyTranslator[33]
XtBuildEventMask[33]XtGetValues[33]XtSetKeyboardFocus[33]
XtCallAcceptFocus[33]XtGrabButton[33]XtSetLanguageProc[33]
XtCallActionProc[33]XtGrabKey[33]XtSetMappedWhenManaged[33]
XtCallCallbackList[33]XtGrabKeyboard[33]XtSetMultiClickTime[33]
XtCallCallbacks[33]XtGrabPointer[33]XtSetSelectionParameters[33]
XtCallConverter[33]XtHasCallbacks[33]XtSetSelectionTimeout[33]
XtCallbackExclusive[33]XtHooksOfDisplay[33]XtSetSensitive[33]
XtCallbackNone[33]XtInitialize[33]XtSetSubvalues[33]
XtCallbackNonexclusive[33]XtInitializeWidgetClass[33]XtSetTypeConverter[33]
XtCallbackPopdown[33]XtInsertEventHandler[33]XtSetValues[33]
XtCallbackReleaseCacheRef[33]XtInsertEventTypeHandler[33]XtSetWMColormapWindows[33]
XtCallbackReleaseCacheRefList[33]XtInsertRawEventHandler[33]XtSetWarningHandler[33]
XtCalloc[33]XtInstallAccelerators[33]XtSetWarningMsgHandler[33]
XtCancelSelectionRequest[33]XtInstallAllAccelerators[33]XtStringConversionWarning[33]
XtChangeManagedSet[33]XtIsApplicationShell[33]XtSuperclass[33]
XtClass[33]XtIsComposite[33]XtToolkitInitialize[33]
XtCloseDisplay[33]XtIsConstraint[33]XtToolkitThreadInitialize[33]
XtConfigureWidget[33]XtIsManaged[33]XtTranslateCoords[33]
XtConvert[33]XtIsObject[33]XtTranslateKey[33]
XtConvertAndStore[33]XtIsOverrideShell[33]XtTranslateKeycode[33]
XtConvertCase[33]XtIsRealized[33]XtUngrabButton[33]
XtCreateApplicationContext[33]XtIsRectObj[33]XtUngrabKey[33]
XtCreateApplicationShell[33]XtIsSensitive[33]XtUngrabKeyboard[33]
XtCreateManagedWidget[33]XtIsSessionShell[33]XtUngrabPointer[33]
XtCreatePopupShell[33]XtIsShell[33]XtUninstallTranslations[33]
XtCreateSelectionRequest[33]XtIsSubclass[33]XtUnmanageChild[33]
XtCreateWidget[33]XtIsTopLevelShell[33]XtUnmanageChildren[33]
XtCreateWindow[33]XtIsTransientShell[33]XtUnmapWidget[33]
XtCvtColorToPixel[33]XtIsVendorShell[33]XtUnrealizeWidget[33]
XtCvtIntToBool[33]XtIsWMShell[33]XtUnregisterDrawable[33]
XtCvtIntToBoolean[33]XtIsWidget[33]XtVaAppCreateShell[33]
XtCvtIntToColor[33]XtKeysymToKeycodeList[33]XtVaAppInitialize[33]
XtCvtIntToFloat[33]XtLastEventProcessed[33]XtVaCreateArgsList[33]
XtCvtIntToFont[33]XtLastTimestampProcessed[33]XtVaCreateManagedWidget[33]
XtCvtIntToPixel[33]XtMainLoop[33]XtVaCreatePopupShell[33]
XtCvtIntToPixmap[33]XtMakeGeometryRequest[33]XtVaCreateWidget[33]
XtCvtIntToShort[33]XtMakeResizeRequest[33]XtVaGetApplicationResources[33]
XtCvtIntToUnsignedChar[33]XtMalloc[33]XtVaGetSubresources[33]
XtCvtStringToAcceleratorTable[33]XtManageChild[33]XtVaGetSubvalues[33]
XtCvtStringToAtom[33]XtManageChildren[33]XtVaGetValues[33]
XtCvtStringToBool[33]XtMapWidget[33]XtVaOpenApplication[33]
XtCvtStringToBoolean[33]XtMenuPopupAction[33]XtVaSetSubvalues[33]
XtCvtStringToCommandArgArray[33]XtMergeArgLists[33]XtVaSetValues[33]
XtCvtStringToCursor[33]XtMoveWidget[33]XtWarning[33]
XtCvtStringToDimension[33]XtName[33]XtWarningMsg[33]
XtCvtStringToDirectoryString[33]XtNameToWidget[33]XtWidgetToApplicationContext[33]
XtCvtStringToDisplay[33]XtNewString[33]XtWindow[33]
XtCvtStringToFile[33]XtNextEvent[33]XtWindowOfObject[33]
XtCvtStringToFloat[33]XtNoticeSignal[33]XtWindowToWidget[33]
XtCvtStringToFont[33]XtOpenApplication[33]_XtCopyFromArg[32]
XtCvtStringToFontSet[33]XtOpenDisplay[33]_XtInherit[32]
XtCvtStringToFontStruct[33]XtOverrideTranslations[33]_XtIsSubclassOf[32]
XtCvtStringToGravity[33]XtOwnSelection[33] 

Table A-3. libXt Data Interfaces

XtCXtToolkitError[33]objectClass[33]topLevelShellClassRec[33]
XtShellStrings[33]objectClassRec[33]topLevelShellWidgetClass[33]
XtStrings[33]overrideShellClassRec[33]transientShellClassRec[33]
_XtInheritTranslations[32]overrideShellWidgetClass[33]transientShellWidgetClass[33]
applicationShellWidgetClass[33]rectObjClass[33]widgetClass[33]
compositeClassRec[33]rectObjClassRec[33]widgetClassRec[33]
compositeWidgetClass[33]sessionShellClassRec[33]wmShellClassRec[33]
constraintClassRec[33]sessionShellWidgetClass[33]wmShellWidgetClass[33]
constraintWidgetClass[33]shellClassRec[33] 
coreWidgetClass[33]shellWidgetClass[33] 

libm

The behaviour of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following Standards.

ISO/IEC 9899: 1999, Programming Languages --C
CAE Specification, January 1997, System Interfaces and Headers (XSH), Issue 5 (ISBN: 1-85912-181-0, C606)

Table A-4. libm Function Interfaces

acos(GLIBC_2.0)[12]csinhf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]llroundl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]
acosf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]csinhl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]log(GLIBC_2.0)[12]
acosh(GLIBC_2.0)[12]csinl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]log10(GLIBC_2.0)[12]
acoshf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]csqrt(GLIBC_2.0)[11]log1p(GLIBC_2.0)[12]
acoshl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]csqrtf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]logb(GLIBC_2.0)[12]
acosl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]csqrtl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]lrint(GLIBC_2.0)[11]
asin(GLIBC_2.0)[12]ctan(GLIBC_2.0)[11]lrintf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]
asinf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]ctanf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]lrintl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]
asinh(GLIBC_2.0)[12]ctanh(GLIBC_2.0)[11]lround(GLIBC_2.0)[11]
asinhf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]ctanhf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]lroundf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]
asinhl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]ctanhl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]lroundl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]
asinl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]ctanl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]matherr(GLIBC_2.0)[11]
atan(GLIBC_2.0)[12]dremf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]modf(GLIBC_2.0)[12]
atan2(GLIBC_2.0)[12]dreml(GLIBC_2.0)[11]modff(GLIBC_2.0)[11]
atan2f(GLIBC_2.0)[11]erf(GLIBC_2.0)[12]modfl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]
atan2l(GLIBC_2.0)[11]erfc(GLIBC_2.0)[12]nan(GLIBC_2.0)[11]
atanf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]erfcf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]nanf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]
atanh(GLIBC_2.0)[12]erfcl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]nanl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]
atanhf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]erff(GLIBC_2.0)[11]nearbyint(GLIBC_2.0)[11]
atanhl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]erfl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]nearbyintf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]
atanl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]exp(GLIBC_2.0)[12]nearbyintl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]
cabs(GLIBC_2.1)[12]expm1(GLIBC_2.1)[12]nextafter(GLIBC_2.1)[12]
cabsf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]fabs(GLIBC_2.1)[12]nextafterf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
cabsl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]fabsf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]nextafterl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
cacos(GLIBC_2.1)[11]fabsl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]nexttoward(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
cacosf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]fdim(GLIBC_2.1)[11]nexttowardf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
cacosh(GLIBC_2.1)[11]fdimf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]nexttowardl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
cacoshf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]fdiml(GLIBC_2.1)[11]pow(GLIBC_2.1)[12]
cacoshl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]feclearexcept(GLIBC_2.1)[11]pow10(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
cacosl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]fegetenv(GLIBC_2.1)[11]pow10f(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
carg(GLIBC_2.1)[11]fegetexceptflag(GLIBC_2.1)[11]pow10l(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
cargf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]fegetround(GLIBC_2.1)[11]powf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
cargl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]feholdexcept(GLIBC_2.1)[11]powl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
casin(GLIBC_2.1)[11]feraiseexcept(GLIBC_2.1)[11]remainder(GLIBC_2.1)[12]
casinf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]fesetenv(GLIBC_2.1)[11]remainderf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
casinh(GLIBC_2.1)[11]fesetexceptflag(GLIBC_2.1)[11]remainderl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
casinhf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]fesetround(GLIBC_2.1)[11]remquo(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
casinhl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]fetestexcept(GLIBC_2.1)[11]remquof(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
casinl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]feupdateenv(GLIBC_2.1)[11]remquol(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
catan(GLIBC_2.1)[11]finite(GLIBC_2.1)[12]rint(GLIBC_2.1)[12]
catanf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]finitef(GLIBC_2.1)[11]rintf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
catanh(GLIBC_2.1)[11]finitel(GLIBC_2.1)[11]rintl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
catanhf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]floor(GLIBC_2.1)[12]round(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
catanhl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]floorf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]roundf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
catanl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]floorl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]roundl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
cbrt(GLIBC_2.0)[12]fma(GLIBC_2.0)[11]scalb(GLIBC_2.0)[12]
cbrtf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]fmaf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]scalbf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]
cbrtl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]fmal(GLIBC_2.0)[11]scalbl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]
ccos(GLIBC_2.1)[11]fmax(GLIBC_2.1)[11]scalbln(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
ccosf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]fmaxf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]scalblnf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
ccosh(GLIBC_2.1)[11]fmaxl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]scalblnl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
ccoshf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]fmin(GLIBC_2.1)[11]scalbn(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
ccoshl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]fminf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]scalbnf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
ccosl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]fminl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]scalbnl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
ceil(GLIBC_2.0)[12]fmod(GLIBC_2.0)[12]significand(GLIBC_2.0)[11]
ceilf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]fmodf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]significandf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]
ceill(GLIBC_2.0)[11]fmodl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]significandl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]
cexp(GLIBC_2.1)[11]frexp(GLIBC_2.1)[12]sin(GLIBC_2.1)[12]
cexpf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]frexpf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]sincos(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
cexpl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]frexpl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]sincosf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
cimag(GLIBC_2.1)[11]gamma(GLIBC_2.1)[12]sincosl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
cimagf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]gammaf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]sinf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
cimagl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]gammal(GLIBC_2.1)[11]sinh(GLIBC_2.1)[12]
clog(GLIBC_2.1)[11]hypot(GLIBC_2.1)[12]sinhf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
clog10(GLIBC_2.1)[11]hypotf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]sinhl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
clog10f(GLIBC_2.1)[11]hypotl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]sinl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
clog10l(GLIBC_2.1)[11]ilogb(GLIBC_2.1)[12]sqrt(GLIBC_2.1)[12]
clogf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]ilogbf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]sqrtf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
clogl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]ilogbl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]sqrtl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
conj(GLIBC_2.1)[11]j0(GLIBC_2.1)[12]tan(GLIBC_2.1)[12]
conjf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]j0f(GLIBC_2.1)[11]tanf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
conjl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]j0l(GLIBC_2.1)[11]tanh(GLIBC_2.1)[12]
copysign(GLIBC_2.0)[11]j1(GLIBC_2.0)[12]tanhf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]
copysignf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]j1f(GLIBC_2.0)[11]tanhl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]
copysignl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]j1l(GLIBC_2.0)[11]tanl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]
cos(GLIBC_2.0)[12]jn(GLIBC_2.0)[12]tgamma(GLIBC_2.0)[11]
cosf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]jnf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]tgammaf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]
cosh(GLIBC_2.0)[12]jnl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]tgammal(GLIBC_2.0)[11]
coshf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]ldexp(GLIBC_2.0)[12]trunc(GLIBC_2.0)[11]
coshl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]ldexpf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]truncf(GLIBC_2.0)[11]
cosl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]ldexpl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]truncl(GLIBC_2.0)[11]
cpow(GLIBC_2.1)[11]lgamma(GLIBC_2.1)[12]y0(GLIBC_2.1)[12]
cpowf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]lgamma_r(GLIBC_2.1)[11]y0f(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
cpowl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]lgammaf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]y0l(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
cproj(GLIBC_2.1)[11]lgammaf_r(GLIBC_2.1)[11]y1(GLIBC_2.1)[12]
cprojf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]lgammal(GLIBC_2.1)[11]y1f(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
cprojl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]lgammal_r(GLIBC_2.1)[11]y1l(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
creal(GLIBC_2.1)[11]llrint(GLIBC_2.1)[11]yn(GLIBC_2.1)[12]
creall(GLIBC_2.1)[11]llrintf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]ynf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
csin(GLIBC_2.1)[11]llrintl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]ynl(GLIBC_2.1)[11]
csinf(GLIBC_2.1)[11]llround(GLIBC_2.1)[11] 
csinh(GLIBC_2.1)[11]llroundf(GLIBC_2.1)[11] 

Table A-5. libm Da