Linux Standard Base Specification 1.2


Table of Contents
I. Introduction
1. Introduction
Introduction
Purpose
Related Standards
Relevant Libraries
How to Use this Standard
Definitions
Terminology
II. Object Format
2. Object Files
3. Sections
Sections Types
4. Special Sections
Special Sections
5. Symbol Mapping
Symbol Mapping
6. Symbol Versioning
Symbol Version Table
Version Definitions
Version Requirements
Startup Sequence
Symbol Resolution
7. ABI note tag
III. Dynamic Linking
8. Program Loading and Dynamic Linking
9. Dynamic Entries
Dynamic Entries
10. Program Interpreter
IV. Base Libraries
11. Libraries
Interfaces for libc
Data Definitions for libc
Interfaces Definitions for libc
Interfaces for libm
Data Definitions for libm
Interfaces for libpthread
Data Definitions for libpthread
Interfaces Definitions for libpthread
Interfaces for libdl
Data Definitions for libdl
Interfaces Definitions for libdl
Interfaces for libcrypt
Data Definitions for libcrypt
V. Utility Libraries
12. Libraries
Interfaces for libz
Data Definitions for libz
Interfaces for libncurses
Data Definitions for libncurses
Interfaces for libutil
Data Definitions for libutil
Interfaces Definitions for libutil
VI. Graphic Libraries
13. Libraries
Interfaces for libX11
Data Definitions for libX11
Interfaces for libXext
Data Definitions for libXext
Interfaces for libSM
Data Definitions for libSM
Interfaces for libICE
Data Definitions for libICE
Interfaces for libXt
Data Definitions for libXt
Interfaces Definitions for libXt
Interfaces for libGL
Data Definitions for libGL
VII. Package Format and Installation
14. Software Installation
Package Format
Package Tools
Package Naming
Package Dependencies
Package Architecture Considerations
VIII. Commands and Utilities
15. Command and Utilities
Command and Utilities
Command Behavior
IX. Standard Shell
16. Standard Shell
Introduction
Standard Shell Exceptions
Standard Shell Rationale
X. Users & Groups
17. Users & Groups
User and Group Database
User & Group Names
UID Ranges
Rationale
XI. Execution Environment
18. File System Hierarchy
/dev
19. Additional Recommendations
Minimal granted Directory and File permissions
Recommendations for applications on ownership and permissions
20. Additional Behaviors
21. Localization
XII. System Initialization
22. System Initialization
Cron Jobs
Init Script Actions
Comment conventions for init scripts
Installation and removal of init.d files
Run Levels
Facility names
Script names
Init script Functions
A. Alphabetical Listing of Interfaces
libX11
libXt
libm
libGL
libXext
libICE
libSM
libdl
libcrypt
libz
libncurses
libutil
libc
libpthread
B. GNU Free Documentation License
PREAMBLE
APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS
VERBATIM COPYING
COPYING IN QUANTITY
MODIFICATIONS
COMBINING DOCUMENTS
COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS
TRANSLATION
TERMINATION
FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE
How to use this License for your documents
List of Tables
1-1. Related Standards
1-2. Standard Libraries Names
1-3. Standard Library Names defined in the Architecture Specific Supplement
3-1. ELF Section Types
3-2. Additional Section Types
4-1. ELF Special Sections
4-2. Additional Special Sections
11-1. libc Definition
11-2. libc - RPC Function Interfaces
11-3. libc - System Calls Function Interfaces
11-4. libc - Standard I/O Function Interfaces
11-5. libc - Standard I/O Data Interfaces
11-6. libc - Signal Handling Function Interfaces
11-7. libc - Signal Handling Data Interfaces
11-8. libc - Standard Library Function Interfaces
11-9. libc - Standard Library Data Interfaces
11-10. libc - Localization Functions Function Interfaces
11-11. libc - Localization Functions Data Interfaces
11-12. libc - Socket Interface Function Interfaces
11-13. libc - Wide Characters Function Interfaces
11-14. libc - String Functions Function Interfaces
11-15. libc - IPC Functions Function Interfaces
11-16. libc - Regular Expressions Function Interfaces
11-17. libc - Regular Expressions Data Interfaces
11-18. libc - Character Type Functions Function Interfaces
11-19. libc - Character Type Functions Data Interfaces
11-20. libc - Time Manipulation Function Interfaces
11-21. libc - Time Manipulation Data Interfaces
11-22. libc - Terminal Interface Functions Function Interfaces
11-23. libc - System Database Interface Function Interfaces
11-24. libc - Language Support Function Interfaces
11-25. libc - Large File Support Function Interfaces
11-26. libm Definition
11-27. libm - Math Function Interfaces
11-28. libm - Math Data Interfaces
11-29. libpthread Definition
11-30. libpthread - Posix Threads Function Interfaces
11-31. libdl Definition
11-32. libdl - Dynamic Loader Function Interfaces
11-33. libcrypt Definition
11-34. libcrypt - Encryption Function Interfaces
12-1. libz Definition
12-2. libz - Compression Library Function Interfaces
12-3. libncurses Definition
12-4. libncurses - Curses Function Interfaces
12-5. libncurses - Curses Data Interfaces
12-6. libutil Definition
12-7. libutil - Utility Functions Function Interfaces
13-1. libX11 Definition
13-2. libX11 - X Windows System Interface Function Interfaces
13-3. libXext Definition
13-4. libXext - X Shape Extension Function Interfaces
13-5. libXext - X Display Power Management Signaling Extension Function Interfaces
13-6. libXext - X Shared Memory Extensions Function Interfaces
13-7. libXext - X Synchronization Extension Function Interfaces
13-8. libXext - X Security Extension Function Interfaces
13-9. libXext - X Double Buffer Extension Function Interfaces
13-10. libSM Definition
13-11. libSM - Session Management Functions Function Interfaces
13-12. libICE Definition
13-13. libICE - ICE Functions Function Interfaces
13-14. libXt Definition
13-15. libXt - X Toolkit Function Interfaces
13-16. libXt - X Toolkit Data Interfaces
13-17. libGL Definition
13-18. libGL - GL X interface Function Interfaces
13-19. libGL - OpenGL Function Interfaces
15-1. Commands and Utilities
17-1. Required User & Group Names
17-2. Optional User & Group Names
A-1. libX11 Function Interfaces
A-2. libXt Function Interfaces
A-3. libXt Data Interfaces
A-4. libm Function Interfaces
A-5. libm Data Interfaces
A-6. libGL Function Interfaces
A-7. libXext Function Interfaces
A-8. libICE Function Interfaces
A-9. libSM Function Interfaces
A-10. libdl Function Interfaces
A-11. libcrypt Function Interfaces
A-12. libz Function Interfaces
A-13. libncurses Function Interfaces
A-14. libncurses Data Interfaces
A-15. libutil Function Interfaces
A-16. libc Function Interfaces
A-17. libc Data Interfaces
A-18. libpthread Function Interfaces
List of Figures
6-1. Version Definition Entries
6-2. Version Definition Auxiliary Entries
6-3. Version Needed Entries
6-4. Version Needed Auxiliary Entries

Chapter 1. Introduction


Purpose

The Linux Standard Base (LSB) defines a system interface for compiled applications and a minimal environment for support of installation scripts. Its purpose is to enable a uniform industry standard environment for high-volume applications conforming to the LSB.

The LSB defines a binary interface for application programs that are compiled and packaged for LSB-conforming implementations on many different hardware architectures. Since a binary specification must include information specific to the computer processor architecture for which it is intended, it is not possible for a single document to specify the interface for all possible LSB-conforming implementations. Therefore, the LSB is a family of specifications, rather than a single one.

The LSB is composed of two basic parts: A common specification ("generic LSB" or "gLSB") describing those parts of the interface that remain constant across all implementations of the LSB, and an architecture-specific specification ("archLSB") describing the parts of the interface that vary by processor architecture. Together, the generic LSB and the architecture-specific supplement for a single hardware architecture provide a complete interface specification for compiled application programs on systems that share a common hardware architecture.

This document is the generic LSB. It must be used in conjunction with an architecture-specific supplement. Whenever a section of this specification must be supplemented by architecture-specific information, this document includes a reference to the architecture supplement. Architecture supplements may also contain additional information that is not referenced here.

This document should be used in conjunction with the documents it references. This document enumerates the system components it includes, but descriptions of those components may be included entirely or partly in this document, partly in other documents, or entirely in other reference documents. For example, the section that describes system service routines includes a list of the system routines supported in this interface, formal declarations of the data structures they use that are visible to applications, and a pointer to the underlying referenced specification for information about the syntax and semantics of each call. Only those routines not described in standards referenced by this document, or extensions to those standards, are described in the detail. Information referenced in this way is as much a part of this document as is the information explicitly included here.


Related Standards

The specifications listed below are referenced in whole or in part by the Linux Standard Base. When a specification is referenced in a way that imposes a requirement (for example, "foo must behave as specified in the XyzzySpec"), then the relevant requirements of that specification apply as if they were part of the LSB itself. However, if the LSB refers to a specification without imposing a requirement, then it is merely a reference and does not add additional requirements. The LSB may refer to a portion of a specification (for example, to define a specific function or group of functions); in such cases, only the explicitly referenced portion of the specification applies.

Table 1-1. Related Standards

System V Application Binary Interface - DRAFT - 22 June 2000http://www.caldera.com/developers/gabi/2000-07-17/contents.html
Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS) 2.2http://www.pathname.com/fhs/
IEEE Standard for Binary Floating-Point Arithmetichttp://www.ieee.org/
System V Application Binary Interface, Edition 4.1http://www.caldera.com/developers/devspecs/gabi41.pdf
ISO/IEC 9899: 1990, Programming Languages --C
ISO/IEC 9899: 1999, Programming Languages --C
Linux Assigned Names And Numbers Authorityhttp://www.lanana.org/
Large File Supporthttp://www.UNIX-systems.org/version2/whatsnew/lfs20mar.html
LI18NUX 2000 Globalization Specification, Version 1.0 with Amendment 4http://www.li18nux.org/docs/html/LI18NUX-2000-amd4.htm
Linux Standard Basehttp://www.linuxbase.org/spec/
OpenGL® Application Binary Interface for Linuxhttp://oss.sgi.com/projects/ogl-sample/ABI/
IEEE Std POSIX 1003.2-1992 (ISO/IEC 9945-2:1993)http://www.ieee.org/
System V Application Binary Interface PowerPC Processor Supplementhttp://www.esofta.com/pdfs/SVR4abippc.pdf
POSIX 1003.1chttp://www.ieee.org/
CAE Specification, May 1996, X/Open Curses, Issue 4, Version 2 (ISBN: 1-85912-171-3, C610), plus Corrigendum U018http://www.opengroup.org/
CAE Specification, January 1997, System Interface Definitions (XBD), Issue 5 (ISBN: 1-85912-186-1, C605)http://www.opengroup.org/
CAE Specification, January 1997, Commands and Utilities (XCU), Issue 5 (ISBN: 1-85912-191-8, C604)http://www.opengroup.org/
CAE Specification, February 1997, Networking Services (XNS), Issue 5 (ISBN: 1-85912-165-9, C523)http://www.opengroup.org/
CAE Specification, January 1997, System Interfaces and Headers (XSH), Issue 5 (ISBN: 1-85912-181-0, C606)http://www.opengroup.org/
The Single UNIX® Specification(SUS) Version 1 (UNIX 95) System Interfaces & Headershttp://www.opengroup.org/
System V Interface Definition, Issue 3 (ISBN 0201566524)
System V Interface Definition,Fourth Edition
Double Buffer Extension Libraryhttp://www.x.org/
X Display Power Management Signaling (DPMS) Extension, Library Specificationhttp://www.x.org/
X Record Extension Libraryhttp://www.x.org/
Security Extension Specification, Version 7.1http://www.x.org/
X Nonrectangular Window Shape Extension Library Version 1.0http://www.x.org/
MIT-SHM--The MIT Shared Memory Extensionhttp://www.x.org/
X Synchronization Extension Libraryhttp://www.x.org/
XTEST Extension Libraryhttp://www.x.org/
X11R6.4 X Inter-Client Exchange (ICE) Protocolhttp://www.x.org/
X11R6.4 X11 Input Extension Libraryhttp://www.x.org/
X11R6.4 Xlib - C libraryhttp://www.x.org/
X/Open Portability Guide, Issue 4http://www.opengroup.org/
X11R6.4 X Session Management Libraryhttp://www.x.org/
X11R6.4 X Toolkit Intrinsicshttp://www.x.org/
zlib 1.1.3 Manualhttp://www.gzip.org/zlib/

Definitions

gLSB

The common part of the LSB Specification that describes those parts of the interface that remain constant across all hardware implementations of the LSB.

archLSB

The architectural part of the LSB Specification which describes the specific parts of the interface that are platform specific. The archLSB is complementary to the gLSB.

LSB Implementation Conformance

An implementation satisfying the following requirements:

  1. The implementation shall implement fully the architecture described in the hardware manual for the target processor architecture.

  2. The implementation shall be capable of executing compiled applications having the format and using the system interfaces described in this document.

  3. The implementation shall provide libraries containing the interfaces specified by this document, and shall provide a dynamic linking mechanism that allows these interfaces to be attached to applications at runtime. All the interfaces shall behave as specified in this document.

  4. The map of virtual memory provided by the implementation shall conform to the requirements of this document.

  5. The implementation's low-level behavior with respect to function call linkage, system traps, signals, and other such activities shall conform to the formats described in this document.

  6. The implementation shall provide all of the mandatory interfaces in their entirety.

  7. The implementation may provide one or more of the optional interfaces. Each optional interface that is provided shall be provided in its entirety. The product documentation shall state which optional interfaces are provided.

  8. The implementation shall provide all files and utilities specified as part of this document in the format defined here and in other referenced documents. All commands and utilities shall behave as required by this document. The implementation shall also provide all mandatory components of an application's runtime environment that are included or referenced in this document.

  9. The implementation, when provided with standard data formats and values at a named interface, shall provide the behavior defined for those values and data formats at that interface. However, a conforming implementation may consist of components which are separately packaged and/or sold. For example, a vendor of a conforming implementation might sell the hardware, operating system, and windowing system as separately packaged items.

  10. The implementation may provide additional interfaces with different names. It may also provide additional behavior corresponding to data values outside the standard ranges, for standard named interfaces.

LSB Application Conformance

An application with the following characteristics:

  1. Its executable files are either shell scripts or object files in the format defined for the Object File Format system interface.

  2. Its object files participate in dynamic linking as defined in the Program Loading and Linking System interface.

  3. It employs only the instructions, traps, and other low-level facilities defined in the Low-Level System interface as being for use by applications.

  4. If it requires any optional interface defined in this document in order to be installed or to execute successfully, the requirement for that optional interface is stated in the application's documentation.

  5. It does not use any interface or data format that is not required to be provided by a conforming implementation, unless:

  6. It must not use any values for a named interface that are reserved for vendor extensions.

A strictly conforming application does not require or use any interface, facility, or implementation-defined extension that is not defined in this document in order to be installed or to execute successfully.

Rationale

An LSB conforming application is expected to have no dependencies on any vendor extensions to this document. The most common such extensions are additional function entry points and additional libraries other than the ones defined in this document. If an application requires such extensions, it is not portable, since other LSB conforming implementations may not provide those extensions.

An LSB conforming application is required to use system services on the implementation on which it is running, rather than importing system routines from some other implementation. Thus, it must link dynamically to any routines in the implementation that perform system traps to kernel services.

It is to be expected that some applications may be companion applications to other applications. For example, a query application may be a companion to a database application; a preprocessor may be an adjunct to one or more compilers; a data reformatter may convert data from one document manager to another. In such cases, the application may or may not be LSB conforming, regardless of whether the other application on which it is dependent is LSB conforming. If such an application merely uses data produced by another application, the application's compliance is independent of the other application's compliance. If such an application actually invokes another application during execution (as, for example, a third-party math library), the invoking application is LSB conforming only if it also constitutes a LSB conforming application in combination with the invoked application.

Shell Script

A file that is read by an interpreter (e.g., awk). The first line of the shell script includes a reference to its interpreter binary.


Terminology

can

Describes a permissible optional feature or behavior available to the user or application. The feature or behavior is mandatory for an implementation that conforms to this document. An application can rely on the existence of the feature or behavior.

implementation-defined

Describes a value or behavior that is not defined by this document but is selected by an implementor. The value or behavior may vary among implementations that conform to this document. An application should not rely on the existence of the value or behavior. An application that relies on such a value or behavior cannot be assured to be portable across conforming implementations. The implementor shall document such a value or behavior so that it can be used correctly by an application.

Same as implementation-dependent.

may

Describes a feature or behavior that is optional for an implementation that conforms to this document. An application should not rely on the existence of the feature or behavior. An application that relies on such a feature or behavior cannot be assured to be portable across conforming implementations.

To avoid ambiguity, the opposite of may is expressed as need not, instead of may not.

must

Describes a feature or behavior that is mandatory for an application or user. An implementation that conforms to this document shall support this feature or behavior.

shall

Describes a feature or behavior that is mandatory for an implementation that conforms to this document. An application can rely on the existence of the feature or behavior.

should

For an implementation that conforms to this document, describes a feature or behavior that is recommended but not mandatory. An application should not rely on the existence of the feature or behavior. An application that relies on such a feature or behavior cannot be assured to be portable across conforming implementations.

For an application, describes a feature or behavior that is recommended programming practice for optimum portability.

undefined

Describes the nature of a value or behavior not defined by this document which results from use of an invalid program construct or invalid data input. The value or behavior may vary among implementations that conform to this document. An application should not rely on the existence or validity of the value or behavior. An application that relies on any particular value or behavior cannot be assured to be portable across conforming implementations.

unspecified

Describes the nature of a value or behavior not specified by this document which results from use of a valid program construct or valid data input. The value or behavior may vary among implementations that conform to this document. An application should not rely on the existence or validity of the value or behavior. An application that relies on any particular value or behavior cannot be assured to be portable across conforming implementations.

will

Same meaning as shall; shall is the preferred term.


Chapter 3. Sections


Sections Types

A section header's sh_type member specifies the sections's semantics.


ELF Section Types

The following section types are defined in the System V Application Binary Interface, Edition 4.1.

Table 3-1. ELF Section Types

NameValueDescription
SHT_DYNAMIC0x6The section holds information for dynamic linking. Currently, an object file may have only one dynamic section, but this restriction may be relaxed in the future. See `Dynamic Section' in Chapter 5 for details.
SHT_DYNSYM0xb 
SHT_FINI_ARRAY0xfThis section contains an array of pointers to termination functions, as described in `Initialization and Termination Functions' in Chapter 5. Each pointer in the array is taken as a parameterless procedure with a void return.
SHT_HASH0x5The section holds a symbol hash table. Currently, an object file may have only one hash table, but this restriction may be relaxed in the future. See `Hash Table' in the Chapter 5 for details.
SHT_HIPROC0x7fffffffValues in this inclusive range are reserved for processor-specific semantics.
SHT_HIUSER0xffffffffThis value specifies the upper bound of the range of indexes reserved for application programs. Section types between SHT_LOUSER and SHT_HIUSER may be used by the application, without conflicting with current or future system-defined section types.
SHT_INIT_ARRAY0xeThis section contains an array of pointers to initialization functions, as described in `Initialization and Termination Functions' in Chapter 5. Each pointer in the array is taken as a parameterless procedure with a void return.
SHT_LOPROC0x70000000Values in this inclusive range are reserved for processor-specific semantics.
SHT_LOUSER0x80000000This value specifies the lower bound of the range of indexes reserved for application programs.
SHT_NOBITS0x8A section of this type occupies no space in the file but otherwise resembles SHT_PROGBITS. Although this section contains no bytes, the sh_offset member contains the conceptual file offset.
SHT_NOTE0x7The section holds information that marks the file in some way. See `Note Section' in Chapter 5 for details.
SHT_NULL0x0This value marks the section header as inactive; it does not have an associated section. Other members of the section header have undefined values.
SHT_PREINIT_ARRAY0x10This section contains an array of pointers to functions that are invoked before all other initialization functions, as described in `Initialization and Termination Functions' in Chapter 5. Each pointer in the array is taken as a parameterless proceure with a void return.
SHT_PROGBITS0x1The section holds information defined by the program, whose format and meaning are determined solely by the program.
SHT_REL0x9The section holds relocation entries without explicit addends, such as type Elf32_Rel for the 32-bit class of object files or type Elf64_Rel for the 64-bit class of object files. An object file may have multiple relocation sections. See "Relocation"
SHT_RELA0x4The section holds relocation entries with explicit addends, such as type Elf32_Rela for the 32-bit class of object files or type Elf64_Rela for the 64-bit class of object files. An object file may have multiple relocation sections. `Relocation' b
SHT_SHLIB0xaThis section type is reserved but has unspecified semantics.
SHT_STRTAB0x3The section holds a string table. An object file may have multiple string table sections. See `String Table' below for details.
SHT_SYMTAB0x2These sections hold a symbol table. Currently, an object file may have only one section of each type, but this restriction may be relaxed in the future. Typically, SHT_SYMTAB provides symbols for link editing, though it may also be used for dynamic linking.


Chapter 4. Special Sections

Special Sections

Various sections hold program and control information. Sections in the lists below are used by the system and have the indicated types and attributes.


ELF Special Sections

The following sections are defined in the System V Application Binary Interface, Edition 4.1.

.bss

This section holds uninitialized data that contribute to the program's memory image. By definition, the system initializes the data with zeros when the program begins to run. The section occupies no file space, as indicated by the section type, SHT_NOBITS

.comment

This section holds version control information.

.data

This section holds initialized data that contribute to the program's memory image.

.data1

This section holds initialized data that contribute to the program's memory image.

.debug

This section holds information for symbolic debugging. The contents are unspecified. All section names with the prefix .debug are reserved for future use in the ABI.

.dynamic

This section holds dynamic linking information. The section's attributes will include the SHF_ALLOC bit. Whether the SHF_WRITE bit is set is processor specific. See Chapter 5 for more information.

.dynstr

This section holds strings needed for dynamic linking, most commonly the strings that represent the names associated with symbol table entries. See Chapter 5 for more information.

.dynsym

This section holds the dynamic linking symbol table, as described in `Symbol Table'. See Chapter 5 for more information.

.fini

This section holds executable instructions that contribute to the process termination code. That is, when a program exits normally, the system arranges to execute the code in this section.

.fini_array

This section holds an array of function pointers that contributes to a single termination array for the executable or shared object containing the section.

.hash

This section holds a symbol hash table. See `Hash Table' in Chapter 5 for more information.

.init

This section holds executable instructions that contribute to the process initialization code. When a program starts to run, the system arranges to execute the code in this section before calling the main program entry point (called main for C programs)

.init_array

This section holds an array of function pointers that contributes to a single initialization array for the executable or shared object containing the section.

.interp

This section holds the path name of a program interpreter. If the file has a loadable segment that includes relocation, the sections' attributes will include the SHF_ALLOC bit; otherwise, that bit will be off. See Chapter 5 for more information.

.line

This section holds line number information for symbolic debugging, which describes the correspondence between the source program and the machine code. The contents are unspecified.

.note

This section holds information in the format that `Note Section' in Chapter 5 describes of the System V Application Binary Interface, Edition 4.1.

.preinit_array

This section holds an array of function pointers that contributes to a single pre-initialization array for the executable or shared object containing the section.

.rodata

This section holds read-only data that typically contribute to a non-writable segment in the process image. See `Program Header' in Chapter 5 for more information.

.rodata1

This section hold sread-only data that typically contribute to a non-writable segment in the process image. See `Program Header' in Chapter 5 for more information.

.shstrtab

This section holds section names.

.strtab

This section holds strings, most commonly the strings that represent the names associated with symbol table entries. If the file has a loadable segment that includes the symbol string table, the section's attributes will include the SHF_ALLOC bit; otherwi

.symtab

This section holds a symbol table, as `Symbol Table'. in this chapter describes. If the file has a loadable segment that includes the symbol table, the section's attributes will include the SHF_ALLOC bit; otherwise, that bit will be off.

.text

This section holds the `text,' or executable instructions, of a program.


Chapter 6. Symbol Versioning

This chapter describes the Symbol Versioning mechanism. All ELF objects may provide or depend on versioned symbols. Symbol Versioning is implemented by 3 section types: SHT_GNU_versym, SHT_GNU_verdef, and SHT_GNU_verneed.

The term "Elfxx" means "Elf32" or "Elf64" depending on the architecture.

Versions are described by strings. The structures that are used for symbol versions also contain a member that holds the ELF hashing values of the strings. This allows for more efficient processing.


Version Requirements

Symbol definitions are contained in the special section .gnu.version_r which has a section type of SHT_GNU_verneed. The number of entries in this section is contained in the DT_VERNEEDNUM entry of the Dynamic Section. The sh_link member of the section header points to the section that contains the strings referenced by this section.


Symbol Resolution

When symbol versioning is used in an object, relocations extend the performance of definition testing beyond the simple match of symbol name strings: the version of the reference must also equal the name of the definition. The same index that is used in the symbol table can be referenced in the SHT_GNU_versym section, and the value of this index is then used to acquire name data. The corresponding requirement string is retrieved from the Elfxx_Verneed array, and likewise, the corresponding definition string from the Elfxx_Verdef table.

Bit number 15 of the version symbol controls whether or not the object is hidden; if this bit is set, the object cannot be used and the static linker will ignore the symbol's presence in the object.

Results differ in the interaction of objects that variously use symbol versioning.


Chapter 9. Dynamic Entries

A dynamic entry's d_tag member control the interpretation of d_un.


Dynamic Entries


Additional Dynamic Entries

The following dynamic entries are defined here.

DT_ADDRRNGHI

Values from DT_ADDRRNGLO through DT_ADDRRNGHI are reserved for definition by an archLSB.

DT_ADDRRNGLO

Values from DT_ADDRRNGLO through DT_ADDRRNGHI are reserved for definition by an archLSB.

DT_AUXILIARY

Shared object to load before self

DT_FILTER

Shared object to get values from

DT_FINI_ARRAY

The address of an array of pointers to termination functions.

DT_FINI_ARRAYSZ

Size in bytes of DT_FINI_ARRAY

DT_HIOS

Values from DT_LOOS through DT_HIOS are reserved for definition by specific operating systems.

DT_INIT_ARRAY

The address of an array of pointers to initialization functions.

DT_INIT_ARRAYSZ

Size in bytes of DT_INIT_ARRAY

DT_LOOS

Values from DT_LOOS through DT_HIOS are reserved for definition by specific operating systems.

DT_NUM

Number of dynamic entry tags defined (excepting reserved ranges).

DT_RELCOUNT

All Elf32_Rel R_*_RELATIVE relocations have been placed into a single block and this entry specifies the number of entries in that block. This permits ld.so.1 to streamline the processing of RELATIVE relocations.

DT_SYMINENT

Entry size of syminfo

DT_SYMINFO

Address of the Syminfo table.

DT_SYMINSZ

Size of syminfo table (in bytes)

DT_VALRNGHI

Entries which fall between DT_VALRNGHI & DT_VALRNGLO use the Dyn.d_un.d_val field of the Elf*_Dyn structure.

DT_VALRNGLO

Entries which fall between DT_VALRNGHI & DT_VALRNGLO use the Dyn.d_un.d_val field of the Elf*_Dyn structure.

DT_VERDEF

Address of version definition table

DT_VERDEFNUM

Number of version definitions

DT_VERNEED

Address of table with needed versions

DT_VERNEEDNUM

Number of needed versions

DT_VERSYM

Address of the table provided by the .gnu.version section.


Chapter 11. Libraries

An LSB-conforming implementation shall support some base libraries which provide interfaces for accessing the operating system, processor and other hardware in the system.


Interfaces for libc

The behavior of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following standards.

ISO/IEC 9899: 1999, Programming Languages --C[2]
Large File Support[3]
LI18NUX 2000 Globalization Specification, Version 1.0 with Amendment 4[4]
Linux Standard Base[5]
IEEE Std POSIX.1-1996 [ISO/IEC 9945-1:1996][6]
CAE Specification, February 1997, Networking Services (XNS), Issue 5 (ISBN: 1-85912-165-9, C523)[7]
CAE Specification, January 1997, System Interfaces and Headers (XSH), Issue 5 (ISBN: 1-85912-181-0, C606)[8]
System V Interface Definition, Issue 3 (ISBN 0201566524)[9]
System V Interface Definition,Fourth Edition[10]


Standard Library


Data Definitions for libc


assert.h


#define assert(expr)	((void)0)

ctype.h






enum
{
  _ISupper, _ISlower, _ISalpha, _ISdigit, _ISxdigit, _ISspace, _ISprint,
    _ISgraph, _ISblank, _IScntrl, _ISpunct, _ISalnum
}
 ;

dirent.h






typedef struct __dirstream DIR;





struct dirent
{
  long d_ino;
  off_t d_off;
  unsigned short d_reclen;
  unsigned char d_type;
  char d_name[256];
}
 ;
struct dirent64
{
  uint64_t d_ino;
  int64_t d_off;
  unsigned short d_reclen;
  unsigned char d_type;
  char d_name[256];
}
 ;

errno.h


#define errno	(*__errno_location())



#define EPERM	1
#define ECHILD	10
#define ENETDOWN	100
#define ENETUNREACH	101
#define ENETRESET	102
#define ECONNABORTED	103
#define ECONNRESET	104
#define ENOBUFS	105
#define EISCONN	106
#define ENOTCONN	107
#define ESHUTDOWN	108
#define ETOOMANYREFS	109
#define EAGAIN	11
#define ETIMEDOUT	110
#define ECONNREFUSED	111
#define EHOSTDOWN	112
#define EHOSTUNREACH	113
#define EALREADY	114
#define EINPROGRESS	115
#define ESTALE	116
#define EUCLEAN	117
#define ENOTNAM	118
#define ENAVAIL	119
#define ENOMEM	12
#define EISNAM	120
#define EREMOTEIO	121
#define EDQUOT	122
#define ENOMEDIUM	123
#define EMEDIUMTYPE	124
#define ECANCELED	125
#define EACCES	13
#define EFAULT	14
#define ENOTBLK	15
#define EBUSY	16
#define EEXIST	17
#define EXDEV	18
#define ENODEV	19
#define ENOENT	2
#define ENOTDIR	20
#define EISDIR	21
#define EINVAL	22
#define ENFILE	23
#define EMFILE	24
#define ENOTTY	25
#define ETXTBSY	26
#define EFBIG	27
#define ENOSPC	28
#define ESPIPE	29
#define ESRCH	3
#define EROFS	30
#define EMLINK	31
#define EPIPE	32
#define EDOM	33
#define ERANGE	34
#define EINTR	4
#define EIO	5
#define ENXIO	6
#define E2BIG	7
#define ENOEXEC	8
#define EBADF	9
#define EWOULDBLOCK	EAGAIN
#define EDEADLOCK	EDEADLK
#define ENOTSUP	EOPNOTSUPP

fcntl.h


#define O_RDONLY	00
#define O_ACCMODE	0003
#define O_WRONLY	01
#define O_CREAT	0100
#define O_TRUNC	01000
#define O_SYNC	010000
#define O_RDWR	02
#define O_EXCL	0200
#define O_APPEND	02000
#define O_ASYNC	020000
#define O_NOCTTY	0400
#define O_NDELAY	04000
#define O_NONBLOCK	04000


struct flock
{
  short l_type;
  short l_whence;
  off_t l_start;
  off_t l_len;
  pid_t l_pid;
}
 ;
struct flock64
{
  short l_type;
  short l_whence;
  loff_t l_start;
  loff_t l_len;
  pid_t l_pid;
}
 ;






#define F_DUPFD	0
#define F_RDLCK	0
#define F_GETFD	1
#define F_WRLCK	1
#define F_SETFD	2
#define F_UNLCK	2
#define F_GETFL	3
#define F_SETFL	4
#define F_GETLK	5
#define F_SETLK	6
#define F_SETLKW	7
#define F_SETOWN	8
#define F_GETOWN	9

fmtmsg.h




#define MM_HARD	1
#define MM_NRECOV	128
#define MM_UTIL	16
#define MM_SOFT	2
#define MM_OPSYS	32
#define MM_FIRM	4
#define MM_RECOVER	64
#define MM_APPL	8



#define MM_NOSEV	0
#define MM_HALT	1
#define MM_ERROR	2



#define MM_NULLLBL	((char *) 0)

fnmatch.h




#define FNM_PATHNAME	(1<<0)
#define FNM_NOESCAPE	(1<<1)
#define FNM_PERIOD	(1<<2)
#define FNM_NOMATCH	1

ftw.h




#define FTW_D	FTW_D
#define FTW_DNR	FTW_DNR
#define FTW_DP	FTW_DP
#define FTW_F	FTW_F
#define FTW_NS	FTW_NS
#define FTW_SL	FTW_SL
#define FTW_SLN	FTW_SLN


enum
{
  FTW_F, FTW_D, FTW_DNR, FTW_NS, FTW_SL, FTW_DP, FTW_SLN
}
 ;


enum
{
  FTW_PHYS, FTW_MOUNT, FTW_CHDIR, FTW_DEPTH
}
 ;


struct FTW
{
  int base;
  int level;
}
 ;


typedef int (*__ftw_func_t) (char *__filename, struct stat * __status,
			     int __flag);
typedef int (*__ftw64_func_t) (char *__filename, struct stat64 * __status,
			       int __flag);
typedef int (*__nftw_func_t) (char *__filename, struct stat * __status,
			      int __flag, struct FTW * __info);
typedef int (*__nftw64_func_t) (char *__filename, struct stat64 * __status,
				int __flag, struct FTW * __info);

getopt.h



struct option
{
  char *name;
  int has_arg;
  int *flag;
  int val;
}
 ;

glob.h






typedef struct
{
  size_t gl_pathc;
  char **gl_pathv;
  size_t gl_offs;
  int gl_flags;
  void (*gl_closedir) (void);
  struct dirent *(*gl_readdir) (void);
  void *(*gl_opendir) (void);
  int (*gl_lstat) (void);
  int (*gl_stat) (void);
}
glob_t;


typedef struct
{
  size_t gl_pathc;
  char **gl_pathv;
  size_t gl_offs;
  int gl_flags;
  void (*gl_closedir) (void);
  struct dirent *(*gl_readdir) (void);
  void *(*gl_opendir) (void);
  int (*gl_lstat) (void);
  int (*gl_stat) (void);
}
glob64_t;
#define GLOB_ERR	(1<<0)
#define GLOB_MARK	(1<<1)
#define GLOB_BRACE	(1<<10)
#define GLOB_NOMAGIC	(1<<11)
#define GLOB_TILDE	(1<<12)
#define GLOB_ONLYDIR	(1<<13)
#define GLOB_TILDE_CHECK	(1<<14)
#define GLOB_NOSORT	(1<<2)
#define GLOB_DOOFFS	(1<<3)
#define GLOB_NOCHECK	(1<<4)
#define GLOB_APPEND	(1<<5)
#define GLOB_NOESCAPE	(1<<6)
#define GLOB_PERIOD	(1<<7)
#define GLOB_MAGCHAR	(1<<8)
#define GLOB_ALTDIRFUNC	(1<<9)



#define GLOB_NOSPACE	1
#define GLOB_ABORTED	2
#define GLOB_NOMATCH	3
#define GLOB_NOSYS	4

grp.h



struct group
{
  char *gr_name;
  char *gr_passwd;
  gid_t gr_gid;
  char **gr_mem;
}
 ;

iconv.h






typedef void *iconv_t;

inttypes.h






typedef lldiv_t imaxdiv_t;
typedef long long intmax_t;
typedef unsigned long long uintmax_t;
typedef unsigned int u_int;
typedef unsigned int uint;
typedef unsigned char uint8_t;
typedef unsigned short uint16_t;
typedef unsigned int uint32_t;
typedef unsigned int *uintptr_t;
typedef long long uint64_t;

langinfo.h







#define ABDAY_1	0x20000
#define ABDAY_2	0x20001
#define ABDAY_3	0x20002
#define ABDAY_4	0x20003
#define ABDAY_5	0x20004
#define ABDAY_6	0x20005
#define ABDAY_7	0x20006



#define DAY_1	0x20007
#define DAY_2	0x20008
#define DAY_3	0x20009
#define DAY_4	0x2000A
#define DAY_5	0x2000B
#define DAY_6	0x2000C
#define DAY_7	0x2000D



#define ABMON_1	0x2000E
#define ABMON_2	0x2000F
#define ABMON_3	0x20010
#define ABMON_4	0x20011
#define ABMON_5	0x20012
#define ABMON_6	0x20013
#define ABMON_7	0x20014
#define ABMON_8	0x20015
#define ABMON_9	0x20016
#define ABMON_10	0x20017
#define ABMON_11	0x20018
#define ABMON_12	0x20019



#define MON_1	0x2001A
#define MON_2	0x2001B
#define MON_3	0x2001C
#define MON_4	0x2001D
#define MON_5	0x2001E
#define MON_6	0x2001F
#define MON_7	0x20020
#define MON_8	0x20021
#define MON_9	0x20022
#define MON_10	0x20023
#define MON_11	0x20024
#define MON_12	0x20025



#define AM_STR	0x20026
#define PM_STR	0x20027



#define D_T_FMT	0x20028
#define D_FMT	0x20029
#define T_FMT	0x2002A
#define T_FMT_AMPM	0x2002B



#define ERA	0x2002C
#define ERA_D_FMT	0x2002E
#define ALT_DIGITS	0x2002F
#define ERA_D_T_FMT	0x20030
#define ERA_T_FMT	0x20031






#define CODESET	14



#define CRNCYSTR	0x4000F



#define RADIXCHAR	0x10000
#define THOUSEP	0x10001
#define YESEXPR	0x50000
#define NOEXPR	0x50001
#define YESSTR	0x50002
#define NOSTR	0x50003

locale.h


#define LC_CTYPE	0
#define LC_NUMERIC	1
#define LC_TELEPHONE	10
#define LC_MEASUREMENT	11
#define LC_IDENTIFICATION	12
#define LC_TIME	2
#define LC_COLLATE	3
#define LC_MONETARY	4
#define LC_MESSAGES	5
#define LC_ALL	6
#define LC_PAPER	7
#define LC_NAME	8
#define LC_ADDRESS	9





struct lconv
{
  char *decimal_point;
  char *thousands_sep;
  char *grouping;
  char *int_curr_symbol;
  char *currency_symbol;
  char *mon_decimal_point;
  char *mon_thousands_sep;
  char *mon_grouping;
  char *positive_sign;
  char *negative_sign;
  char int_frac_digits;
  char frac_digits;
  char p_cs_precedes;
  char p_sep_by_space;
  char n_cs_precedes;
  char n_sep_by_space;
  char p_sign_posn;
  char n_sign_posn;
  char int_p_cs_precedes;
  char int_p_sep_by_space;
  char int_n_cs_precedes;
  char int_n_sep_by_space;
  char int_p_sign_posn;
  char int_n_sign_posn;
}
 ;

math.h


#define HUGE_VAL	0x7FF00000UL
#define DOMAIN	1
#define SING	2


struct exception
{
  int type;
  char *name;
  double arg1;
  double arg2;
  double retval;
}
 ;
#define M_1_PI	0.31830988618379067154
#define M_LOG10E	0.43429448190325182765
#define M_2_PI	0.63661977236758134308
#define M_LN2	0.69314718055994530942
#define M_SQRT1_2	0.70710678118654752440
#define M_PI_4	0.78539816339744830962
#define M_2_SQRTPI	1.12837916709551257390
#define M_SQRT2	1.41421356237309504880
#define M_LOG2E	1.4426950408889634074
#define M_PI_2	1.57079632679489661923
#define M_LN10	2.30258509299404568402
#define M_E	2.7182818284590452354
#define M_PI	3.14159265358979323846

netdb.h


#define h_errno	(*__h_errno_location ())
#define NETDB_INTERNAL	-1
#define NETDB_SUCCESS	0
#define HOST_NOT_FOUND	1
#define TRY_AGAIN	2
#define NO_RECOVERY	3
#define NO_DATA	4
#define h_addr	h_addr_list[0]
#define NO_ADDRESS	NO_DATA


struct servent
{
  char *s_name;
  char **s_aliases;
  int s_port;
  char *s_proto;
}
 ;
struct hostent
{
  char *h_name;
  char **h_aliases;
  int h_addrtype;
  socklen_t h_length;
  char **h_addr_list;
}
 ;

netinet/in.h


#define INADDR_NONE	((unsigned long int) 0xffffffff)
#define INADDR_BROADCAST	(0xffffffff)
#define INADDR_ANY	0
#define IPPROTO_IP	0
#define IPPROTO_ICMP	1
#define IP_TOS	1
#define IPPROTO_UDP	17
#define IPPROTO_IGMP	2
#define IPPROTO_RAW	255
#define IPPROTO_TCP	6





struct in_addr
{
  uint32_t s_addr;
}
 ;


struct sockaddr_in
{
  sa_family_t sin_family;
  unsigned short sin_port;
  struct in_addr sin_addr;
  unsigned char __pad[8];
}
 ;

nl_types.h


#define NL_CAT_LOCALE	1
#define NL_SETD	1





typedef void *nl_catd;


typedef int nl_item;

pwd.h






struct passwd
{
  char *pw_name;
  char *pw_passwd;
  uid_t pw_uid;
  gid_t pw_gid;
  char *pw_gecos;
  char *pw_dir;
  char *pw_shell;
}
 ;

regex.h




#define RE_SYNTAX_GNU_AWK	((RE_SYNTAX_POSIX_EXTENDED|RE_BACKSLASH_ESCAPE_IN_LISTS|RE_DEBUG)&  ~(RE_DOT_NOT_NULL | RE_INTERVALS | RE_CONTEXT_INDEP_OPS))
#define RE_BACKSLASH_ESCAPE_IN_LISTS	((unsigned long int)1)
#define RE_BK_PLUS_QM	(RE_BACKSLASH_ESCAPE_IN_LISTS<<1)
#define RE_SYNTAX_AWK	(RE_BACKSLASH_ESCAPE_IN_LISTS|RE_DOT_NOT_NULL|RE_NO_BK_PARENS| RE_NO_BK_REFS| RE_NO_BK_VBAR| RE_NO_EMPTY_RANGES| RE_DOT_NEWLINE| RE_CONTEXT_INDEP_ANCHORS| RE_UNMATCHED_RIGHT_PAREN_ORD | RE_NO_GNU_OPS)
#define RE_CHAR_CLASSES	(RE_BK_PLUS_QM<<1)
#define RE_SYNTAX_GREP	(RE_BK_PLUS_QM|RE_CHAR_CLASSES|RE_HAT_LISTS_NOT_NEWLINE|RE_INTERVALS|RE_NEWLINE_ALT)
#define RE_CONTEXT_INDEP_ANCHORS	(RE_CHAR_CLASSES<<1)
#define RE_SYNTAX_EGREP	(RE_CHAR_CLASSES|RE_CONTEXT_INDEP_ANCHORS| RE_CONTEXT_INDEP_OPS|RE_HAT_LISTS_NOT_NEWLINE|RE_NEWLINE_ALT|RE_NO_BK_PARENS|RE_NO_BK_VBAR)
#define _RE_SYNTAX_POSIX_COMMON	(RE_CHAR_CLASSES|RE_DOT_NEWLINE|RE_DOT_NOT_NULL|RE_INTERVALS)
#define RE_CONTEXT_INDEP_OPS	(RE_CONTEXT_INDEP_ANCHORS<<1)
#define RE_CONTEXT_INVALID_OPS	(RE_CONTEXT_INDEP_OPS<<1)
#define RE_DOT_NEWLINE	(RE_CONTEXT_INVALID_OPS<<1)
#define RE_INVALID_INTERVAL_ORD	(RE_DEBUG<<1)
#define RE_DOT_NOT_NULL	(RE_DOT_NEWLINE<<1)
#define RE_HAT_LISTS_NOT_NEWLINE	(RE_DOT_NOT_NULL<<1)
#define RE_INTERVALS	(RE_HAT_LISTS_NOT_NEWLINE<<1)
#define RE_LIMITED_OPS	(RE_INTERVALS<<1)
#define RE_NEWLINE_ALT	(RE_LIMITED_OPS<<1)
#define RE_NO_BK_BRACES	(RE_NEWLINE_ALT<<1)
#define RE_NO_BK_PARENS	(RE_NO_BK_BRACES<<1)
#define RE_NO_BK_REFS	(RE_NO_BK_PARENS<<1)
#define RE_NO_BK_VBAR	(RE_NO_BK_REFS<<1)
#define RE_NO_EMPTY_RANGES	(RE_NO_BK_VBAR<<1)
#define RE_UNMATCHED_RIGHT_PAREN_ORD	(RE_NO_EMPTY_RANGES<<1)
#define RE_DEBUG	(RE_NO_GNU_OPS<<1)
#define RE_NO_GNU_OPS	(RE_NO_POSIX_BACKTRACKING<<1)
#define RE_SYNTAX_POSIX_EGREP	(RE_SYNTAX_EGREP|RE_INTERVALS|RE_NO_BK_BRACES|RE_INVALID_INTERVAL_ORD)
#define RE_SYNTAX_POSIX_AWK	(RE_SYNTAX_POSIX_EXTENDED|RE_BACKSLASH_ESCAPE_IN_LISTS|RE_INTERVALS|RE_NO_GNU_OPS)
#define RE_NO_POSIX_BACKTRACKING	(RE_UNMATCHED_RIGHT_PAREN_ORD<<1)
#define RE_SYNTAX_POSIX_BASIC	(_RE_SYNTAX_POSIX_COMMON|RE_BK_PLUS_QM)
#define RE_SYNTAX_POSIX_EXTENDED	(_RE_SYNTAX_POSIX_COMMON|RE_CONTEXT_INDEP_ANCHORS|RE_CONTEXT_INDEP_OPS|RE_NO_BK_BRACES|RE_NO_BK_PARENS|RE_NO_BK_VBAR|RE_CONTEXT_INVALID_OPS|RE_UNMATCHED_RIGHT_PAREN_ORD)
#define RE_SYNTAX_POSIX_MINIMAL_EXTENDED	(_RE_SYNTAX_POSIX_COMMON|RE_CONTEXT_INDEP_ANCHORS|RE_CONTEXT_INVALID_OPS|RE_NO_BK_BRACES|RE_NO_BK_PARENS|RE_NO_BK_REFS|RE_NO_BK_VBAR|RE_UNMATCHED_RIGHT_PAREN_ORD)
#define RE_SYNTAX_POSIX_MINIMAL_BASIC	(_RE_SYNTAX_POSIX_COMMON|RE_LIMITED_OPS)
#define RE_SYNTAX_ED	RE_SYNTAX_POSIX_BASIC
#define RE_SYNTAX_SED	RE_SYNTAX_POSIX_BASIC


typedef unsigned long reg_syntax_t;





typedef struct re_pattern_buffer
{
  unsigned char *buffer;
  unsigned long allocated;
  unsigned long used;
  reg_syntax_t syntax;
  char *fastmap;
  char *translate;
  size_t re_nsub;
  unsigned int can_be_null:1;
  unsigned int regs_allocated:2;
  unsigned int fastmap_accurate:1;
  unsigned int no_sub:1;
  unsigned int not_bol:1;
  unsigned int not_eol:1;
  unsigned int newline_anchor:1;
}
regex_t;
typedef int regoff_t;
typedef struct
{
  regoff_t rm_so;
  regoff_t rm_eo;
}
regmatch_t;
#define REG_NOTEOL	(1<<1)
#define REG_ICASE	(REG_EXTENDED<<1)
#define REG_NEWLINE	(REG_ICASE<<1)
#define REG_NOSUB	(REG_NEWLINE<<1)
#define REG_NOMATCH	-1
#define REG_EXTENDED	1
#define REG_NOTBOL	1

sched.h


#define SCHED_OTHER	0
#define SCHED_FIFO	1
#define SCHED_RR	2


struct sched_param
{
  int sched_priority;
}
 ;

search.h






typedef struct entry
{
  char *key;
  void *data;
}
ENTRY;
typedef enum
{
  FIND, ENTER
}
ACTION;
typedef enum
{
  preorder, postorder, endorder, leaf
}
VISIT;


typedef void (*__action_fn_t) (void *__nodep, VISIT __value, int __level);

setjmp.h


#define setjmp(env)	_setjmp(env)
#define sigsetjmp(a,b)	__sigsetjmp(a,b)





typedef int __jmp_buf[6];


struct __jmp_buf_tag
{
  __jmp_buf __jmpbuf;
  int __mask_was_saved;
  sigset_t __saved_mask;
}
 ;


typedef struct __jmp_buf_tag jmp_buf[1];
typedef jmp_buf sigjmp_buf;

signal.h


#define SIGRTMAX	(__libc_current_sigrtmax ())
#define SIGRTMIN	(__libc_current_sigrtmin ())
#define SIGEV_SIGNAL	0
#define SIG_BLOCK	0
#define SIG_UNBLOCK	1
#define SIGEV_THREAD	2
#define SIG_SETMASK	2
#define NSIG	64


typedef int sig_atomic_t;
struct sigstack
{
  void *ss_sp;
  int ss_onstack;
}
 ;
#define SIG_ERR	((__sighandler_t)-1)
#define SIG_DFL	((__sighandler_t)0)
#define SIG_IGN	((__sighandler_t)1)
#define SIGHUP	1
#define SIGSEGV	11
#define SIGPIPE	13
#define SIGALRM	14
#define SIGTERM	15
#define SIGINT	2
#define SIGPROF	27
#define SIGQUIT	3
#define SIGILL	4
#define SIGTRAP	5
#define SIGABRT	6
#define SIGIOT	6
#define SIGFPE	8
#define SIGKILL	9
#define SIGCLD	SIGCHLD
#define SIGPOLL	SIGIO





typedef void (*__sighandler_t) (void);
#define SV_ONSTACK	(1<<0)
#define SV_INTERRUPT	(1<<1)
#define SV_RESETHAND	(1<<2)


typedef union sigval
{
  int sival_int;
  void *sival_ptr;
}
sigval_t;
#define SIGEV_NONE	1


typedef struct sigevent
{
  sigval_t sigev_value;
  int sigev_signo;
  int sigev_notify;
  union
  {
    int _pad[SI_PAD_SIZE];
    struct
    {
      void (*sigev_thread_func) (void);
      void *_attribute;
    }
    _sigev_thread;
  }
  _sigev_un;
}
sigevent_t;
#define SI_QUEUE	-1
#define SI_TIMER	-2
#define SI_MESGQ	-3
#define SI_ASYNCIO	-4
#define SI_USER	0
#define si_pid	_sifields._kill._pid
#define si_uid	_sifields._kill._uid
#define si_value	_sifields._rt._sigval
#define si_int	_sifields._rt._sigval.sival_int
#define si_ptr	_sifields._rt._sigval.sival_ptr
#define si_status	_sifields._sigchld._status
#define si_stime	_sifields._sigchld._stime
#define si_utime	_sifields._sigchld._utime
#define si_addr	_sifields._sigfault._addr
#define si_band	_sifields._sigpoll._band
#define si_fd	_sifields._sigpoll._fd
#define si_timer1	_sifields._timer._timer1


typedef struct siginfo
{
  int si_signo;
  int si_errno;
  int si_code;
  union
  {
    int _pad[SI_PAD_SIZE];
    struct
    {
      pid_t _pid;
      uid_t _uid;
    }
    _kill;
    struct
    {
      unsigned int _timer1;
      unsigned int _timer2;
    }
    _timer;
    struct
    {
      pid_t _pid;
      uid_t _uid;
      sigval_t _sigval;
    }
    _rt;
    struct
    {
      pid_t _pid;
      uid_t _uid;
      int _status;
      clock_t _utime;
      clock_t _stime;
    }
    _sigchld;
    struct
    {
      void *_addr;
    }
    _sigfault;
    struct
    {
      int _band;
      int _fd;
    }
    _sigpoll;
  }
  _sifields;
}
siginfo_t;


typedef struct
{
  unsigned long sig[_SIGSET_NWORDS];
}
sigset_t;
#define SA_NOCLDSTOP	0x00000001
#define SA_NOCLDWAIT	0x00000002
#define SA_SIGINFO	0x00000004
#define SA_ONSTACK	0x08000000
#define SA_RESTART	0x10000000
#define SA_INTERRUPT	0x20000000
#define SA_NODEFER	0x40000000
#define SA_RESETHAND	0x80000000
#define SA_NOMASK	SA_NODEFER
#define SA_ONESHOT	SA_RESETHAND


struct sigaction
{
  union
  {
    __sighandler_t _sa_handler;
    void (*_sa_sigaction) (void);
  }
  __sigaction_handler;
  unsigned long sa_flags;
  void (*sa_restorer) (void);
  sigset_t sa_mask;
}
 ;


typedef struct sigaltstack
{
  void *ss_sp;
  int ss_flags;
  size_t ss_size;
}
stack_t;

stdio.h


#define EOF	(-1)
#define P_tmpdir	"/tmp"
#define FOPEN_MAX	16
#define L_tmpnam	20
#define FILENAME_MAX	4096
#define BUFSIZ	8192
#define L_ctermid	9
#define L_cuserid	9


typedef struct _IO_FILE *FILE;
typedef struct
{
  off_t __pos;
  mbstate_t __state;
}
fpos_t;
typedef struct
{
  off64_t __pos;
  mbstate_t __state;
}
fpos64_t;



#define _IOFBF	0
#define _IOLBF	1
#define _IONBF	2

stdlib.h


#define MB_CUR_MAX	(__ctype_get_mb_cur_max())
#define EXIT_SUCCESS	0
#define EXIT_FAILURE	1
#define RAND_MAX	2147483647


typedef int (*__compar_fn_t) (void);


typedef struct
{
  int quot;
  int rem;
}
div_t;


typedef struct
{
  long quot;
  long rem;
}
ldiv_t;


typedef struct
{
  long long quot;
  long long rem;
}
lldiv_t;

sys/file.h


#define LOCK_SH	1
#define LOCK_EX	2
#define LOCK_NB	4
#define LOCK_UN	8

sys/ioctl.h


#define FIONREAD	0x541B

sys/ipc.h


#define IPC_PRIVATE	((key_t)0)
#define IPC_RMID	0
#define IPC_CREAT	00001000
#define IPC_EXCL	00002000
#define IPC_NOWAIT	00004000
#define IPC_SET	1
#define IPC_STAT	2


struct ipc_perm
{
  key_t __key;
  uid_t uid;
  gid_t gid;
  uid_t cuid;
  gid_t cgid;
  unsigned short mode;
  unsigned short __pad1;
  unsigned short __seq;
  unsigned short __pad2;
  unsigned long __unused1;
  unsigned long __unused2;
}
 ;

sys/mman.h


#define MAP_FAILED	((void*)-1)
#define PROT_NONE	0x0
#define MAP_SHARED	0x01
#define MAP_PRIVATE	0x02
#define PROT_READ	0x1
#define MAP_FIXED	0x10
#define PROT_WRITE	0x2
#define MAP_ANONYMOUS	0x20
#define PROT_EXEC	0x4
#define MCL_CURRENT	1
#define MS_ASYNC	1
#define MCL_FUTURE	2
#define MS_INVALIDATE	2
#define MS_SYNC	4
#define MAP_ANON	MAP_ANONYMOUS

sys/msg.h


#define MSG_NOERROR	010000








struct msqid_ds
{
  struct ipc_perm msg_perm;
  time_t msg_stime;
  unsigned long __unused1;
  time_t msg_rtime;
  unsigned long __unused2;
  time_t msg_ctime;
  unsigned long __unused3;
  unsigned long __msg_cbytes;
  msgqnum_t msg_qnum;
  msglen_t msg_qbytes;
  pid_t msg_lspid;
  pid_t msg_lrpid;
  unsigned long __unused4;
  unsigned long __unused5;
}
 ;

sys/resource.h


#define RLIM_INFINITY	(~0UL)
#define RLIM_SAVED_CUR	-1
#define RLIM_SAVED_MAX	-1
#define RLIMIT_CPU	0
#define RUSAGE_SELF	0
#define RLIMIT_FSIZE	1
#define RLIMIT_DATA	2
#define RLIMIT_STACK	3
#define RLIMIT_CORE	4
#define RLIMIT_NOFILE	7
#define RLIMIT_AS	9





typedef unsigned long rlim_t;
typedef unsigned long long rlim64_t;


struct rlimit
{
  rlim_t rlim_cur;
  rlim_t rlim_max;
}
 ;
struct rlimit64
{
  rlim64_t rlim_cur;
  rlim64_t rlim_max;
}
 ;


struct rusage
{
  struct timeval ru_utime;
  struct timeval ru_stime;
  long ru_maxrss;
  long ru_ixrss;
  long ru_idrss;
  long ru_isrss;
  long ru_minflt;
  long ru_majflt;
  long ru_nswap;
  long ru_inblock;
  long ru_oublock;
  long ru_msgsnd;
  long ru_msgrcv;
  long ru_nsignals;
  long ru_nvcsw;
  long ru_nivcsw;
}
 ;

sys/sem.h


#define SEM_UNDO	0x1000
#define GETPID	11
#define GETVAL	12
#define GETALL	13
#define GETNCNT	14
#define GETZCNT	15
#define SETVAL	16
#define SETALL	17


struct sembuf
{
  short sem_num;
  short sem_op;
  short sem_flg;
}
 ;
struct semid_ds
{
  struct ipc_perm sem_perm;
  time_t sem_otime;
  unsigned long __unused1;
  time_t sem_ctime;
  unsigned long __unused2;
  unsigned long sem_nsems;
  unsigned long __unused3;
  unsigned long __unused4;
}
 ;

sys/shm.h


#define SHMLBA	(__getpagesize())
#define SHM_RND	020000
#define SHM_RDONLY	4096








struct shmid_ds
{
  struct ipc_perm shm_perm;
  int shm_segsz;
  time_t shm_atime;
  unsigned long __unused1;
  time_t shm_dtime;
  unsigned long __unused2;
  time_t shm_ctime;
  unsigned long __unused3;
  pid_t shm_cpid;
  pid_t shm_lpid;
  shmatt_t shm_nattch;
  unsigned long __unused4;
  unsigned long __unused5;
}
 ;

sys/socket.h


#define SHUT_RD	0
#define MSG_WAITALL	0x100
#define MSG_TRUNC	0x20
#define MSG_EOR	0x80
#define SIOCGIFCONF	0x8912
#define MSG_OOB	1
#define SHUT_WR	1
#define MSG_PEEK	2
#define SHUT_RDWR	2
#define MSG_DONTROUTE	4
#define MSG_CTRUNC	8
#define PF_INET	AF_INET
#define PF_INET6	AF_INET6


struct linger
{
  int l_onoff;
  int l_linger;
}
 ;
struct cmsghdr
{
  size_t cmsg_len;
  int cmsg_level;
  int cmsg_type;
}
 ;
struct iovec
{
  void *iov_base;
  size_t iov_len;
}
 ;


typedef unsigned short sa_family_t;
typedef unsigned int socklen_t;


struct sockaddr
{
  sa_family_t sa_family;
  char sa_data[14];
}
 ;


struct msghdr
{
  void *msg_name;
  int msg_namelen;
  struct iovec *msg_iov;
  size_t msg_iovlen;
  void *msg_control;
  size_t msg_controllen;
  unsigned int msg_flags;
}
 ;
#define AF_UNSPEC	0
#define AF_LOCAL	1
#define AF_UNIX	1
#define AF_INET6	10
#define AF_INET	2
#define AF_AX25	3
#define AF_IPX	4
#define AF_APPLETALK	5
#define AF_NETROM	6
#define AF_BRIDGE	7
#define AF_ATMPVC	8
#define AF_X25	9



#define SOCK_STREAM	1
#define SOCK_PACKET	10
#define SOCK_DGRAM	2
#define SOCK_RAW	3
#define SOCK_RDM	4
#define SOCK_SEQPACKET	5



#define SOL_IP	0
#define SOL_SOCKET	1
#define SO_DEBUG	1
#define SO_OOBINLINE	10
#define SO_NO_CHECK	11
#define SO_PRIORITY	12
#define SO_LINGER	13
#define SOL_UDP	17
#define SO_REUSEADDR	2
#define SOL_RAW	255
#define SO_TYPE	3
#define SO_ERROR	4
#define SO_DONTROUTE	5
#define SOL_TCP	6
#define SO_BROADCAST	6
#define SO_SNDBUF	7
#define SO_RCVBUF	8
#define SO_KEEPALIVE	9

sys/stat.h


#define S_ISBLK(m)	(((m)& S_IFMT)==S_IFBLK)
#define S_ISCHR(m)	(((m)& S_IFMT)==S_IFCHR)
#define S_ISDIR(m)	(((m)& S_IFMT)==S_IFDIR)
#define S_ISFIFO(m)	(((m)& S_IFMT)==S_IFIFO)
#define S_ISLNK(m)	(((m)& S_IFMT)==S_IFLNK)
#define S_ISREG(m)	(((m)& S_IFMT)==S_IFREG)
#define S_ISSOCK(m)	(((m)& S_IFMT)==S_IFSOCK)
#define S_TYPEISMQ(buf)	((buf)->st_mode - (buf)->st_mode)
#define S_TYPEISSEM(buf)	((buf)->st_mode - (buf)->st_mode)
#define S_TYPEISSHM(buf)	((buf)->st_mode - (buf)->st_mode)
#define S_IRWXU	(S_IREAD|S_IWRITE|S_IEXEC)
#define S_IROTH	(S_IRGRP>>3)
#define S_IRGRP	(S_IRUSR>>3)
#define S_IRWXO	(S_IRWXG>>3)
#define S_IRWXG	(S_IRWXU>>3)
#define S_IWOTH	(S_IWGRP>>3)
#define S_IWGRP	(S_IWUSR>>3)
#define S_IXOTH	(S_IXGRP>>3)
#define S_IXGRP	(S_IXUSR>>3)
#define S_ISVTX	01000
#define S_IXUSR	0x0040
#define S_IWUSR	0x0080
#define S_IRUSR	0x0100
#define S_ISGID	0x0400
#define S_ISUID	0x0800
#define S_IFIFO	0x1000
#define S_IFCHR	0x2000
#define S_IFDIR	0x4000
#define S_IFBLK	0x6000
#define S_IFREG	0x8000
#define S_IFLNK	0xa000
#define S_IFSOCK	0xc000
#define S_IFMT	0xf000
#define _STAT_VER	3
#define S_IREAD	S_IRUSR
#define S_IWRITE	S_IWUSR
#define S_IEXEC	S_IXUSR


struct stat
{
  dev_t st_dev;
  unsigned short __pad1;
  unsigned long st_ino;
  mode_t st_mode;
  nlink_t st_nlink;
  pid_t st_uid;
  gid_t st_gid;
  dev_t st_rdev;
  unsigned short __pad2;
  off_t st_size;
  blksize_t st_blksize;
  blkcnt_t st_blocks;
  time_t st_atime;
  unsigned long __unused1;
  time_t st_mtime;
  unsigned long __unused2;
  time_t st_ctime;
  unsigned long __unused3;
  unsigned long __unused4;
  unsigned long __unused5;
}
 ;
struct stat64
{
  dev_t st_dev;
  unsigned int __pad0;
  ino_t __st_ino;
  mode_t st_mode;
  nlink_t st_nlink;
  uid_t st_uid;
  gid_t st_gid;
  dev_t st_rdev;
  unsigned int __pad2;
  off64_t st_size;
  blksize_t st_blksize;
  blkcnt64_t st_blocks;
  time_t st_atime;
  unsigned long __unused1;
  time_t st_mtime;
  unsigned long __unused2;
  time_t st_ctime;
  unsigned long __unused3;
  ino64_t st_ino;
}
 ;

sys/time.h


#define ITIMER_REAL	0
#define ITIMER_VIRTUAL	1
#define ITIMER_PROF	2


struct timezone
{
  int tz_minuteswest;
  int tz_dsttime;
}
 ;








struct timespec
{
  time_t tv_sec;
  long tv_nsec;
}
 ;





struct timeval
{
  time_t tv_sec;
  suseconds_t tv_usec;
}
 ;


struct itimerval
{
  struct timeval it_interval;
  struct timeval it_value;
}
 ;

sys/timeb.h



struct timeb
{
  time_t time;
  unsigned short millitm;
  short timezone;
  short dstflag;
}
 ;

sys/times.h



struct tms
{
  clock_t tms_utime;
  clock_t tms_stime;
  clock_t tms_cutime;
  clock_t tms_cstime;
}
 ;

sys/utsname.h



struct utsname
{
  char sysname[65];
  char nodename[65];
  char release[65];
  char version[65];
  char machine[65];
  char domainname[65];
}
 ;

sys/wait.h


#define WIFSIGNALED(status)	(!WIFSTOPPED(status) & & !WIFEXITED(status))
#define WIFSTOPPED(status)	(((status) &  0xff) == 0x7f)
#define WEXITSTATUS(status)	(((status) &  0xff00) >> 8)
#define WTERMSIG(status)	((status) &  0x7f)
#define WCOREDUMP(status)	((status) &  0x80)
#define WIFEXITED(status)	(WTERMSIG(status) == 0)
#define WNOHANG	0x00000001
#define WUNTRACED	0x00000002
#define WCOREFLAG	0x80
#define WSTOPSIG(status)	WEXITSTATUS(status)


typedef enum
{
  P_ALL, P_PID, P_PGID
}
idtype_t;

syslog.h




#define LOG_EMERG	0
#define LOG_ALERT	1
#define LOG_CRIT	2
#define LOG_ERR	3
#define LOG_WARNING	4
#define LOG_NOTICE	5
#define LOG_INFO	6
#define LOG_DEBUG	7



#define LOG_KERN	(0<<3)
#define LOG_AUTHPRIV	(10<<3)
#define LOG_FTP	(11<<3)
#define LOG_USER	(1<<3)
#define LOG_MAIL	(2<<3)
#define LOG_DAEMON	(3<<3)
#define LOG_AUTH	(4<<3)
#define LOG_SYSLOG	(5<<3)
#define LOG_LPR	(6<<3)
#define LOG_NEWS	(7<<3)
#define LOG_UUCP	(8<<3)
#define LOG_CRON	(9<<3)



#define LOG_LOCAL0	(16<<3)
#define LOG_LOCAL1	(17<<3)
#define LOG_LOCAL2	(18<<3)
#define LOG_LOCAL3	(19<<3)
#define LOG_LOCAL4	(20<<3)
#define LOG_LOCAL5	(21<<3)
#define LOG_LOCAL6	(22<<3)
#define LOG_LOCAL7	(23<<3)



#define LOG_UPTO(pri)	((1 << ((pri)+1)) - 1)
#define LOG_MASK(pri)	(1 << (pri))



#define LOG_PID	0x01
#define LOG_CONS	0x02
#define LOG_ODELAY	0x04
#define LOG_NDELAY	0x08
#define LOG_NOWAIT	0x10
#define LOG_PERROR	0x20

termios.h


#define TCIFLUSH	0
#define TCOOFF	0
#define TCSANOW	0
#define BS0	0000000
#define CR0	0000000
#define FF0	0000000
#define NL0	0000000
#define TAB0	0000000
#define VT0	0000000
#define OPOST	0000001
#define OLCUC	0000002
#define ONLCR	0000004
#define XCASE	0000004
#define OCRNL	0000010
#define ONOCR	0000020
#define ONLRET	0000040
#define OFILL	0000100
#define OFDEL	0000200
#define NL1	0000400
#define NLDLY	0000400
#define CR1	0001000
#define IUCLC	0001000
#define CR2	0002000
#define CR3	0003000
#define CRDLY	0003000
#define TAB1	0004000
#define TAB2	0010000
#define TAB3	0014000
#define TABDLY	0014000
#define BS1	0020000
#define BSDLY	0020000
#define VT1	0040000
#define VTDLY	0040000
#define FF1	0100000
#define FFDLY	0100000
#define TCOFLUSH	1
#define TCOON	1
#define TCSADRAIN	1
#define TCIOFF	2
#define TCIOFLUSH	2
#define TCSAFLUSH	2
#define TCION	3


struct winsize
{
  unsigned short ws_row;
  unsigned short ws_col;
  unsigned short ws_xpixel;
  unsigned short ws_ypixel;
}
 ;


typedef int speed_t;
typedef unsigned char cc_t;
typedef unsigned int tcflag_t;
#define NCCS	32


struct termios
{
  tcflag_t c_iflag;
  tcflag_t c_oflag;
  tcflag_t c_cflag;
  tcflag_t c_lflag;
  cc_t c_line;
  cc_t c_cc[NCCS];
  speed_t c_ispeed;
  speed_t c_ospeed;
}
 ;
#define VINTR	0
#define VQUIT	1
#define VSUSP	10
#define VEOL	11
#define VREPRINT	12
#define VDISCARD	13
#define VWERASE	14
#define VLNEXT	15
#define VEOL2	16
#define VERASE	2
#define VKILL	3
#define VEOF	4
#define VMIN	6
#define VSWTC	7
#define VSTART	8
#define VSTOP	9



#define IGNBRK	0000001
#define BRKINT	0000002
#define IGNPAR	0000004
#define PARMRK	0000010
#define INPCK	0000020
#define ISTRIP	0000040
#define INLCR	0000100
#define IGNCR	0000200
#define ICRNL	0000400
#define IXON	0002000
#define IXANY	0004000
#define IXOFF	0010000
#define IMAXBEL	0020000






#define CS5	0000000
#define CS6	0000020
#define CS7	0000040
#define CS8	0000060
#define CSIZE	0000060
#define CSTOPB	0000100
#define CREAD	0000200
#define PARENB	0000400
#define PARODD	0001000
#define HUPCL	0002000
#define CLOCAL	0004000
#define VTIME	5



#define ISIG	0000001
#define ICANON	0000002
#define ECHO	0000010
#define ECHOE	0000020
#define ECHOK	0000040
#define ECHONL	0000100
#define NOFLSH	0000200
#define TOSTOP	0000400
#define ECHOCTL	0001000
#define ECHOPRT	0002000
#define ECHOKE	0004000
#define FLUSHO	0010000
#define PENDIN	0040000
#define IEXTEN	0100000



#define B0	0000000
#define B50	0000001
#define B75	0000002
#define B110	0000003
#define B134	0000004
#define B150	0000005
#define B200	0000006
#define B300	0000007
#define B600	0000010
#define B1200	0000011
#define B1800	0000012
#define B2400	0000013
#define B4800	0000014
#define B9600	0000015
#define B19200	0000016
#define B38400	0000017

time.h


#define CLOCK_REALTIME	0
#define TIMER_ABSTIME	1
#define CLOCKS_PER_SEC	1000000l


struct tm
{
  int tm_sec;
  int tm_min;
  int tm_hour;
  int tm_mday;
  int tm_mon;
  int tm_year;
  int tm_wday;
  int tm_yday;
  int tm_isdst;
  long tm_gmtoff;
  char *tm_zone;
}
 ;
struct itimerspec
{
  struct timespec it_interval;
  struct timespec it_value;
}
 ;

ucontext.h



























typedef struct
{
  gregset_t gregs;
  fpregset_t fpregs;
  unsigned long oldmask;
  unsigned long cr2;
}
mcontext_t;


typedef struct ucontext
{
  unsigned long uc_flags;
  struct ucontext *uc_link;
  stack_t uc_stack;
  mcontext_t uc_mcontext;
  sigset_t uc_sigmask;
  struct _libc_fpstate __fpregs_mem;
}
ucontext_t;

ulimit.h


#define UL_GETFSIZE	1
#define UL_SETFSIZE	2

unistd.h


#define SEEK_SET	0
#define STDIN_FILENO	0
#define SEEK_CUR	1
#define STDOUT_FILENO	1
#define SEEK_END	2
#define STDERR_FILENO	2


typedef long long off64_t;
typedef int *intptr_t;
#define F_OK	0
#define X_OK	1
#define W_OK	2
#define R_OK	4



#define _POSIX_ASYNCHRONOUS_IO	1
#define _POSIX_FSYNC	1
#define _POSIX_MAPPED_FILES	1
#define _POSIX_MEMLOCK	1
#define _POSIX_MEMLOCK_RANGE	1
#define _POSIX_MEMORY_PROTECTION	1
#define _POSIX_MESSAGE_PASSING	1
#define _POSIX_PRIORITY_SCHEDULING	1
#define _POSIX_REALTIME_SIGNALS	1
#define _POSIX_SEMAPHORES	1
#define _POSIX_SHARED_MEMORY_OBJECTS	1
#define _POSIX_SYNCHRONIZED_IO	1
#define _POSIX_TIMERS	1
#define _POSIX2_C_VERSION	199209L
#define _POSIX2_VERSION	199209L
#define _POSIX_VERSION	199506L



#define _PC_LINK_MAX	0
#define _PC_MAX_CANON	1
#define _PC_ASYNC_IO	10
#define _PC_PRIO_IO	11
#define _PC_FILESIZEBITS	13
#define _PC_MAX_INPUT	2
#define _PC_NAME_MAX	3
#define _PC_PATH_MAX	4
#define _PC_PIPE_BUF	5
#define _PC_CHOWN_RESTRICTED	6
#define _PC_NO_TRUNC	7
#define _PC_VDISABLE	8
#define _PC_SYNC_IO	9



#define _SC_ARG_MAX	0
#define _SC_CHILD_MAX	1
#define _SC_PRIORITY_SCHEDULING	10
#define _SC_TIMERS	11
#define _SC_ASYNCHRONOUS_IO	12
#define _SC_XBS5_ILP32_OFF32	125
#define _SC_XBS5_ILP32_OFFBIG	126
#define _SC_XBS5_LP64_OFF64	127
#define _SC_XBS5_LPBIG_OFFBIG	128
#define _SC_XOPEN_LEGACY	129
#define _SC_PRIORITIZED_IO	13
#define _SC_XOPEN_REALTIME	130
#define _SC_SYNCHRONIZED_IO	14
#define _SC_MAPPED_FILES	16
#define _SC_MEMLOCK	17
#define _SC_MEMLOCK_RANGE	18
#define _SC_MEMORY_PROTECTION	19
#define _SC_CLK_TCK	2
#define _SC_MESSAGE_PASSING	20
#define _SC_SEMAPHORES	21
#define _SC_SHARED_MEMORY_OBJECTS	22
#define _SC_AIO_LISTIO_MAX	23
#define _SC_AIO_MAX	24
#define _SC_AIO_PRIO_DELTA_MAX	25
#define _SC_DELAYTIMER_MAX	26
#define _SC_MQ_OPEN_MAX	27
#define _SC_MQ_PRIO_MAX	28
#define _SC_VERSION	29
#define _SC_NGROUPS_MAX	3
#define _SC_PAGESIZE	30
#define _SC_RTSIG_MAX	31
#define _SC_SEM_NSEMS_MAX	32
#define _SC_SEM_VALUE_MAX	33
#define _SC_SIGQUEUE_MAX	34
#define _SC_TIMER_MAX	35
#define _SC_BC_BASE_MAX	36
#define _SC_BC_DIM_MAX	37
#define _SC_BC_SCALE_MAX	38
#define _SC_BC_STRING_MAX	39
#define _SC_OPEN_MAX	4
#define _SC_COLL_WEIGHTS_MAX	40
#define _SC_EXPR_NEST_MAX	42
#define _SC_LINE_MAX	43
#define _SC_RE_DUP_MAX	44
#define _SC_2_VERSION	46
#define _SC_2_C_BIND	47
#define _SC_2_C_DEV	48
#define _SC_2_FORT_DEV	49
#define _SC_STREAM_MAX	5
#define _SC_2_FORT_RUN	50
#define _SC_2_SW_DEV	51
#define _SC_2_LOCALEDEF	52
#define _SC_TZNAME_MAX	6
#define _SC_THREADS	67
#define _SC_THREAD_SAFE_FUNCTIONS	68
#define _SC_JOB_CONTROL	7
#define _SC_THREAD_DESTRUCTOR_ITERATIONS	73
#define _SC_THREAD_KEYS_MAX	74
#define _SC_THREAD_STACK_MIN	75
#define _SC_THREAD_THREADS_MAX	76
#define _SC_THREAD_ATTR_STACKADDR	77
#define _SC_THREAD_ATTR_STACKSIZE	78
#define _SC_THREAD_PRIORITY_SCHEDULING	79
#define _SC_SAVED_IDS	8
#define _SC_THREAD_PRIO_INHERIT	80
#define _SC_THREAD_PRIO_PROTECT	81
#define _SC_THREAD_PROCESS_SHARED	82
#define _SC_PASS_MAX	88
#define _SC_XOPEN_VERSION	89
#define _SC_REALTIME_SIGNALS	9
#define _SC_XOPEN_CRYPT	92
#define _SC_XOPEN_ENH_I18N	93
#define _SC_XOPEN_SHM	94
#define _SC_2_C_VERSION	96
#define _SC_2_UPE	97



#define _CS_PATH	0
#define _CS_XBS5_ILP32_OFF32_CFLAGS	1100
#define _CS_XBS5_ILP32_OFF32_LDFLAGS	1101
#define _CS_XBS5_ILP32_OFF32_LIBS	1102
#define _CS_XBS5_ILP32_OFF32_LINTFLAGS	1103
#define _CS_XBS5_ILP32_OFFBIG_CFLAGS	1104
#define _CS_XBS5_ILP32_OFFBIG_LDFLAGS	1105
#define _CS_XBS5_ILP32_OFFBIG_LIBS	1106
#define _CS_XBS5_ILP32_OFFBIG_LINTFLAGS	1107
#define _CS_XBS5_LP64_OFF64_CFLAGS	1108
#define _CS_XBS5_LP64_OFF64_LDFLAGS	1109
#define _CS_XBS5_LP64_OFF64_LIBS	1110
#define _CS_XBS5_LP64_OFF64_LINTFLAGS	1111
#define _CS_XBS5_LPBIG_OFFBIG_CFLAGS	1112
#define _CS_XBS5_LPBIG_OFFBIG_LDFLAGS	1113
#define _CS_XBS5_LPBIG_OFFBIG_LIBS	1114
#define _CS_XBS5_LPBIG_OFFBIG_LINTFLAGS	1115



#define _XOPEN_REALTIME	1
#define _XOPEN_XPG4	1
#define _XOPEN_XCU_VERSION	4
#define _XOPEN_VERSION	500

utime.h



struct utimbuf
{
  time_t actime;
  time_t modtime;
}
 ;

utmp.h


#define UT_HOSTSIZE	256
#define UT_LINESIZE	32
#define UT_NAMESIZE	32


struct exit_status
{
  short e_termination;
  short e_exit;
}
 ;
struct lastlog
{
  timer_t ll_time;
  char ll_line[UT_LINESIZE];
  char ll_host[UT_HOSTSIZE];
}
 ;


struct utmp
{
  short ut_type;
  pid_t ut_pid;
  char ut_line[UT_LINESIZE];
  char ut_id[4];
  char ut_user[UT_NAMESIZE];
  char ut_host[UT_HOSTSIZE];
  struct exit_status ut_exit;
  long ut_session;
  struct timeval ut_tv;
  int32_t ut_addr_v6[4];
  char __unused[20];
}
 ;
#define EMPTY	0
#define RUN_LVL	1
#define BOOT_TIME	2
#define NEW_TIME	3
#define OLD_TIME	4
#define INIT_PROCESS	5
#define LOGIN_PROCESS	6
#define USER_PROCESS	7
#define DEAD_PROCESS	8
#define ACCOUNTING	9

wchar.h


#define WEOF	(0xffffffffu)
#define WCHAR_MAX	0x7FFFFFFF
#define WCHAR_MIN	0x80000000

wctype.h



typedef unsigned long wctype_t;
typedef unsigned int wint_t;
typedef int wctrans_t;
typedef struct
{
  int count;
  wint_t value;
}
mbstate_t;

wordexp.h






enum
{
  WRDE_DOOFFS, WRDE_APPEND, WRDE_NOCMD, WRDE_REUSE, WRDE_SHOWERR, WRDE_UNDEF,
    __WRDE_FLAGS
}
 ;


typedef struct
{
  int we_wordc;
  char **we_wordv;
  int we_offs;
}
wordexp_t;


enum
{
  WRDE_NOSYS, WRDE_NOSPACE, WRDE_BADCHAR, WRDE_BADVAL, WRDE_CMDSUB,
    WRDE_SYNTAX
}
 ;

Interfaces Definitions for libc

Table of Contents
_IO_feof -- alias for feof
_IO_getc -- alias for getc
_IO_putc -- alias for putc
_IO_puts -- alias for puts
__assert_fail -- abort the program after false assertion
__ctype_b -- array index for ctype functions
__ctype_get_mb_cur_max -- maximum length of a multibyte character in the current locale
__ctype_tolower -- convert uppercase letter to lowercase letter
__ctype_toupper -- convert lowercase letter to uppercase letter
__cxa_atexit -- register a function to be called by exit or when a shared library is unloaded
__daylight -- global variable containing daylight
__dcgettext -- used by dcgettext in the translation to look up the MSGID in the DOMAINNAME message catalog for the current locale
__environ -- alias for environ - user environment
__errno_location -- address of errno variable
__fpending -- returns in bytes the amount of output pending on a stream
__getpagesize -- alias for getpagesize - get current page size
__getpgid -- get the process group id
__h_errno_location -- address of h_errno variable
__libc_current_sigrtmax -- return number of available real-time signal with lowest priority
__libc_current_sigrtmin -- return number of available real-time signal with highest priority
__libc_start_main -- initialization routine
__lxstat -- inline wrapper around call to lxstat
__mempcpy -- copy given number of bytes of source to destination
__rawmemchr -- scan memory
__sigsetjmp -- save stack context for non-local goto
__stpcpy -- copy a string returning a pointer to its end
__strdup -- alias for strdup
__strtod_internal -- underlying function for strtod
__strtof_internal -- underlying function for strtof
__strtok_r -- alias for strtok_r
__strtol_internal -- alias for strtol
__strtold_internal -- underlying function for strtold
__strtoll_internal -- underlying function for strtoll
__strtoul_internal -- underlying function for strtoul
__strtoull_internal -- underlying function for strtoull
__sysconf -- get configuration information at runtime
__sysv_signal -- signal handling
__timezone -- global variable containing timezone
__tzname -- global variable containing the timezone
__wcstod_internal -- underlying function for wcstod
__wcstof_internal -- underlying function for wcstof
__wcstol_internal -- underlying function for wcstol
__wcstold_internal -- underlying function for wcstold
__wcstoul_internal -- underlying function for wcstoul
__xmknod -- make block or character special file
__xstat -- provide inode information
__xstat64 -- provide inode information
_environ -- alias for environ - user environment
_nl_msg_cat_cntr -- variable defined in loadmsgcat.c which gets incremented every time a new catalog is loaded
_obstack_begin -- initialize an obstack for use
_obstack_newchunk -- allocate a new current chunk of memory for the obstack
_sys_errlist -- array containing the "C" locale strings used by strerror()
_sys_siglist -- array containing the names of the signal names
acct -- switch process accounting on or off
adjtime -- correct the time to allow synchronization of the system clock
adjtimex -- tune kernel clock
alphasort -- compare two directory entries alphabetically (LSB deprecated)
alphasort64 -- compare two directory entries alphabetically (LSB deprecated)
bindresvport -- bind socket to privileged IP port
cfmakeraw -- get and set terminal attributes
cfsetspeed -- manipulate the termios structure
daemon -- run in the background
err -- display formatted error messages
error -- print error message
errx -- format error messages
flock -- apply or remove an advisory lock on an open file
fstatfs -- get file system statistics
fwprintf -- formatted wide character output conversion
getdomainname -- get NIS domain name.
gethostbyname -- get network host entry
gethostbyname_r -- find network host database entry matching host name
getloadavg -- get system load averages
getopt -- parse command line options
getopt_long -- parse command line options
getopt_long_only -- parse command line options
getprotobyname -- get protocol entry
getprotoent -- get protocol entry
getpwnam_r -- reentrant version of getpwnam
getservbyname -- get service entry
getservent -- get service entry
gettext -- look up MSGID in the current default message catalog for the current LC_MESSAGES locale
getutent -- access utmp file entries
getutent_r -- access utmp file entries
glob64 -- find pathnames matching a pattern (Large File Support)
globfree64 -- free memory from glob64() (Large File Support)
initgroups -- initialize the supplementary group access list
isblank -- character classification routine
iswblank -- test for whitespace wide character
iswctype -- wide character classification
kill -- send a signal
mbsnrtowcs -- convert a multibyte string to a wide character string
memmem -- locate a substring
memrchr -- scan memory for a character
obstack_free -- free an object in the obstack
opterr -- external variable used in getopt()
optind -- external variable used in getopt()
optopt -- external variable used in getopt()
psignal -- print signal message
random_r -- generate random number
setbuffer -- stream buffering operation
setdomainname -- set NIS domain name.
setegid -- set effective group ID
setenv -- change or add an environment variable
seteuid -- set effective user ID
setgroups -- set list of supplementary group IDs
sethostid -- set the unique identifier of the current host
sethostname -- set host name
setmntent -- get file system descriptor file entry
setutent -- access utmp file entries
sigandset -- build a new signal set by combining the two input sets using logical AND
sigblock -- manipulate the signal mask
siggetmask -- manipulate the signal mask
sigisemptyset -- signal function - check for empty SET
sigorset -- build a new signal set by combining the two input sets using logical OR
sigreturn -- return from signal handler and cleanup stack frame
statfs -- get file system statistics
stime -- set time
stpcpy -- copy a string returning a pointer to its end
stpncpy -- copy a fixed-size string, returning a pointer to its end
strcasestr -- locate a substring - ignores the case of both strings
strerror_r -- reentrant version of strerror
strfry -- randomize a string
strndup -- return a malloc'd copy of at most the specified number of bytes of a string
strnlen -- determine the length of a fixed-size string
strptime -- parse a time string
strsep -- extract token from string
strsignal -- return string describing signal
strtok_r -- extract tokens from strings
strtoq -- convert string value to a long or quad_t integer
strtouq -- convert a string to an uquad_t
strverscmp -- compare strings holding name and indices/version numbers
system -- execute a shell command
unlink -- remove a directory entry
unsetenv -- delete an environment variable
vasprintf -- write formatted output to a string dynamically allocated with malloc and store the address of the string
vdprintf -- write formatted output to a file descriptor
verrx -- display formatted error messages
vsyslog -- log to system log
wait4 -- wait for process termination, BSD style
warn -- formatted error messages
warnx -- formatted error messages
wcpcpy -- copy a wide character string, returning a pointer to its end
wcpncpy -- copy a fixed-size string of wide characters, returning a pointer to its end
wcscasecmp -- compare two wide-character strings, ignoring case
wcsdup -- duplicate a wide-character string
wcsncasecmp -- compare two fixed-size wide-character strings, ignoring case
wcsnlen -- determine the length of a fixed-size wide-character string
wcsnrtombs -- convert a wide character string to a multi-byte string
wcstoq -- convert initial portion of wide string NPTR to long int representation
wcstouq -- convert initial portion of wide string NPTR to unsigned long long int representation

_IO_feof

Name

_IO_feof -- alias for feof

Description

The function _IO_feof() tests the end-of-file indicator for the stream pointed to by __fp, returning non-zero if it is set.

_IO_feof is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

_IO_getc

Name

_IO_getc -- alias for getc

Description

_IO_getc() reads the next character from __fp and returns it as an unsigned char cast to an int, or EOF on end of file or error.

_IO_getc is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

_IO_putc

Name

_IO_putc -- alias for putc

Description

_IO_putc() writes the character __c, cast to an unsigned char, to __fp.

_IO_putc is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

_IO_puts

Name

_IO_puts -- alias for puts

Description

_IO_puts() writes the string __s and a trailing newline to stdout.

_IO_puts is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__assert_fail

Name

__assert_fail -- abort the program after false assertion

__ctype_b

Name

__ctype_c -- array index for ctype functions

Description

Array index for ctype functions.

__ctype_b is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__ctype_get_mb_cur_max

Name

__ctype_get_mb_cur_max -- maximum length of a multibyte character in the current locale

Description

__ctype_get_mb_cur_max() returns the maximum length of a multibyte character in the current locale.

__ctype_get_mb_cur_max is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__ctype_tolower

Name

__ctype_tolower -- convert uppercase letter to lowercase letter

Description

The __ctype_tolower() function converts an uppercase letter to the corresponding lowercase letter. If the argument is an uppercase letter, the __ctype_tolower() function returns the corresponding lowercase letter if there is one; otherwise, the argument is returned unchanged.

__ctype_tolower is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__ctype_toupper

Name

__ctype_toupper -- convert lowercase letter to uppercase letter

Description

The __ctype_toupper() function converts a lowercase letter to the corresponding uppercase letter. If the argument is a lowercase letter, the __ctype_toupper() function returns the corresponding uppercase letter if there is one; otherwise, the argument is returned unchanged.

__ctype_toupper is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__cxa_atexit

Name

__cxa_atexit -- register a function to be called by exit or when a shared library is unloaded

Description

Register a function to be called by exit or when a shared library is unloaded. This function is only called from code generated by the C++ compiler.

__cxa_atexit() has the same specification as atexit().

__cxa_atexit is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__daylight

Name

 -- global variable containing daylight

Description

The specification for "__daylight" is as specified in the SUSv2.

ERRORS

__dcgettext

Name

__dcgettext -- used by dcgettext in the translation to look up the MSGID in the DOMAINNAME message catalog for the current locale

Description

Used by dcgettext in the translation to look up the MSGID in the DOMAINNAME message catalog for the current locale. CATEGORY locale.

__dcgettext() has the same specification as dcgettext().

__dcgettext is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__environ

Name

__environ -- alias for environ - user environment

Description

Alias for environ - user environment.

__environ has the same specification as environ.

__environ is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__errno_location

Name

__errno_location -- address of errno variable

Description

__errno_location is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__fpending

Name

__fpending -- returns in bytes the amount of output pending on a stream

Description

The __fpending function returns the amount of output in bytes pending on a stream.

__fpending is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__getpagesize

Name

__getpagesize -- alias for getpagesize - get current page size

Description

Alias for getpagesize - get current page size.

__getpagesize has the same specification as getpagesize.

__getpagesize is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__getpgid

Name

__getpgid -- get the process group id

Description

__getpgid(pid) has the same specification as getpgid(pid).

__getpgid is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__h_errno_location

Name

__h_errno_location -- address of h_errno variable

Description

Return the address of the h_errno variable, where h_errno is as specified in the Single Unix Specification. Only in the binary standard, not the source standard. Note that h_errno itself is only in the source standard, not the binary standard.

__libc_current_sigrtmax

Name

__libc_current_sigrtmax -- return number of available real-time signal with lowest priority

Description

__libc_current_sigrtmax() returns the number of an available real-time signal with the lowest priority.

__libc_current_sigrtmax is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__libc_current_sigrtmin

Name

__libc_current_sigrtmin -- return number of available real-time signal with highest priority

Description

__libc_current_sigrtmin() returns the number of an available real-time signal with the highest priority

__libc_current_sigrtmin is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard

__libc_start_main

Name

__libc_start_main -- initialization routine

Description

Initialize glibc.

__libc_start_main is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__lxstat

Name

__lxstat -- inline wrapper around call to lxstat

Description

Inline wrapper around call to lxstat.

__lxstat is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__mempcpy

Name

__mempcpy -- copy given number of bytes of source to destination

Description

Copy n bytes of source to destination, returning pointer to bytes after the last written byte.

__mempcpy is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__rawmemchr

Name

__rawmemchr -- scan memory

Description

__rawmemchr searches in s for c.

This is a weak alias to rawmemchr. It is similar to memchr, but there is no length limit.

__rawmemchr is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__sigsetjmp

Name

__sigsetjmp -- save stack context for non-local goto

Description

__sigsetjmp(env, savemask) has the same behavior as sigsetjmp(env, savemask) as specified by POSIX.

__sigsetjmp is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__stpcpy

Name

__stpcpy -- copy a string returning a pointer to its end

Description

The __stpcpy() function copies the string pointed to by src (including the terminating /0 character) to the array pointed to by dest. The strings may not overlap, and the destination string dest must be large enough to receive the copy.

Return Value

__stpcpy() returns a pointer to the end of the string dest (that is, the address of the terminating null character) rather than the beginning.

__stpcpy() has the same specification as stpcpy().

__stpcpy is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__strdup

Name

__strdup -- alias for strdup

Description

__strdup(string) has the same specification as strdup(string).

__strdup is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__strtod_internal

Name

__strtod_internal -- underlying function for strtod

Description

The __group argument must be 0 or the behavior is undefined.

__strtod_internal(__nptr, __endptr, __group) has the same specification as strtod(__nptr, __endptr).

__strtod_internal is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__strtof_internal

Name

__strtof_internal -- underlying function for strtof

Description

The __group argument must be 0 or the behavior is undefined. Otherwise the same as strtof (__nptr, __endptr). Only in the binary standard, not the source standard.

__strtok_r

Name

__strtok_r -- alias for strtok_r

Description

__strtok_r(s, delim, save_ptr) has the same specification as strtok_r(s, delim, save_ptr).

__strtok_r is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__strtol_internal

Name

__strtol_internal -- alias for strtol

Description

__GROUP must be 0 or the behavior is undefined.

__strtol_internal(__nptr, __endptr, __base, __group) has the same specification as strtol(__nptr, __endptr, __base).

__strtol_internal is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__strtold_internal

Name

__strtold_internal -- underlying function for strtold

Description

The __group argument must be 0 or the behavior is undefined. Otherwise the same as strtold (__nptr, __endptr). Only in the binary standard, not the source standard.

__strtoll_internal

Name

__strtoll_internal -- underlying function for strtoll

Description

The __group argument must be 0 or the behavior is undefined. Otherwise the same as strtoll (__nptr, __endptr, __base). Only in the binary standard, not the source standard.

__strtoul_internal

Name

__strtoul_internal -- underlying function for strtoul

Description

The __group argument must be 0 or the behavior is undefined. Otherwise the same as strtoul (__nptr, __endptr, __base). Only in the binary standard, not the source standard.

__strtoull_internal

Name

__strtoull_internal -- underlying function for strtoull

Description

The __group argument must be 0 or the behavior is undefined. Otherwise the same as strtoull (__nptr, __endptr, __base). Only in the binary standard, not the source standard.

__sysconf

Name

__sysconf -- get configuration information at runtime

Description

Get configuration information at runtime.

This is weak alias to sysconf.

__sysconf(name) has the same specification as sysconf(name).

__sysconf is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__sysv_signal

Name

__sysv_signal -- signal handling

Description

__sysv_signal(sig, handler) has the same behavior as signal(sig, handler) as specified by X/Open.

__sysv_signal is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__timezone

Name

 -- global variable containing timezone

Description

The specification for "__timezone" is the same as "timezone" as specified in the SUS.

ERRORS

__tzname

Name

 -- global variable containing the timezone

Description

The specification for "__tzname" is the same as "tzname" as specified in the SUS (note that the array size is two; this is explicit in the SUSv3 but not the SUSv2).

ERRORS

__wcstod_internal

Name

__wcstod_internal -- underlying function for wcstod

Description

The group argument must be 0 or the behavior is undefined. Otherwise the same as wcstod(nptr, endptr). Only in the binary standard, not the source standard.

__wcstof_internal

Name

__wcstof_internal -- underlying function for wcstof

Description

The group argument must be 0 or the behavior is undefined. Otherwise the same as wcstof(nptr, endptr). Only in the binary standard, not the source standard.

__wcstol_internal

Name

__wcstol_internal -- underlying function for wcstol

Description

The group argument must be 0 or the behavior is undefined. Otherwise the same as wcstol(nptr, endptr, base). Only in the binary standard, not the source standard.

__wcstold_internal

Name

__wcstold_internal -- underlying function for wcstold

Description

The group argument must be 0 or the behavior is undefined. Otherwise the same as wcstold(nptr, endptr). Only in the binary standard, not the source standard.

__wcstoul_internal

Name

__wcstoul_internal -- underlying function for wcstoul

Description

The group argument must be 0 or the behavior is undefined. Otherwise the same as wcstoul(nptr, endptr, base). Only in the binary standard, not the source standard.

__xmknod

Name

__xmknod -- make block or character special file

Description

ver must be 1 or the behavior is undefined.

__xmknod(1, path, mode, dev) has the same specification as mknod(path, mode, dev).

Note that the format of dev_t is not the same as the argument that the kernel syscall uses.

__xmknod is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__xstat

Name

__xstat -- provide inode information

Description

__xstat() has the same behavior as stat (__filename, __stat_buf) as specified by POSIX.

__lxstat() has the same behavior as lstat (__filename, __stat_buf) as specified by POSIX.

__fxstat() has the same behavior as fstat (__filedesc, __stat_buf) as specified by POSIX.

Note that the struct stat used by these functions is not the one that the kernel uses.

Usage

__xstat, __lxstat, and __fxstat are not in the source standard; stat, lstat, and fstat are not in the binary standard.

__xstat64

Name

__xstat64 -- provide inode information

Description

__xstat64() has the same behavior as stat64 (__filename, __stat_buf) as specified by Large File Summit.

__lxstat64() has the same behavior as lstat64 (__filename, __stat_buf) as specified by Large File Summit.

__fxstat64() has the same behavior as fstat64 (__filedesc, __stat_buf) as specified by Large File Summit.

Usage

__xstat64, __lxstat64, and __fxstat64 are not in the source standard; stat64, lstat64, and fstat64 are not in the binary standard.

_environ

Name

_environ -- alias for environ - user environment

Description

Alias for environ - user environment.

_nl_msg_cat_cntr

Name

_nl_msg_cat_cntr -- variable defined in loadmsgcat.c which gets incremented every time a new catalog is loaded

Description

Used by Message catalogs for internationalization. A variable defined which gets incremented every time a new catalog is loaded.

_obstack_begin

Name

_obstack_begin -- initialize an obstack for use

Description

Initialize an obstack for use.

_obstack_newchunk

Name

_obstack_newchunk -- allocate a new current chunk of memory for the obstack

Description

Allocate a new current chunk of memory for the obstack.

_sys_errlist

Name

_sys_errlist -- array containing the "C" locale strings used by strerror()

Description

An array containing the "C" locale strings used by strerror(). This normally should not be used directly. The strerror function provides all the needed functionality.

_sys_siglist

Name

_sys_siglist -- array containing the names of the signal names

Description

An array containing the names of the signal names.

This exists only for compatibility. Use strsignal instead (see <string.h>).

acct

Name

acct -- switch process accounting on or off

Description

When called with the name of an existing file as argument, accounting is turned on and records for each terminating process are appended to filename as it terminates. An argument of NULL causes accounting to be turned off.

Return Value

On success, zero is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

Errors

ENOSYS

BSD process accounting has not been enabled when the operating system kernel was compiled. The kernel configuration parameter controlling this feature is CONFIG_BSD_PROCESS_ACCT.

ENOMEM

Out of memory.

EPERM

The calling process has no permission to enable process accounting.

EACCES

The argument filename is not a regular file.

EIO

Error writing to the file filename.

EUSERS

There are no more free file structures or we run out of memory.

adjtime

Name

adjtime -- correct the time to allow synchronization of the system clock

Description

The adjtime function makes small adjustments to the system time, as returned by gettimeofday(2), advancing or retarding it by the time specified by the timeval delta. If delta is negative, the clock is slowed down by incrementing it more slowly than normal until the correction is complete. If delta is positive, a larger increment than normal is used. The skew used to perform the correction is generally a fraction of one percent. Thus, the time is always a monotonically increasing function. A time correction from an earlier call to adjtime() may not be finished when adjtime() is called again. If olddelta is non-nil, the structure pointed to will contain, upon return, the number of microseconds still to be corrected from the earlier call.

This call may be used by time servers that synchronize the clocks of computers in a local area network. Such time servers would slow down the clocks of some machines and speed up the clocks of others to bring them to the average network time.

The call adjtime() is restricted to the super-user.

Return Value

On success, zero is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

ERRORS

EFAULT

An argument points outside the process's allocated address space.

EPERM

The process's effective user ID is not that of the super-user.

adjtimex

Name

adjtimex -- tune kernel clock

Description

Linux uses David L. Mills' clock adjustment algorithm (see RFC 1305). The system call adjtimex reads and optionally sets adjustment parameters for this algorithm. It takes a pointer to a timex structure, updates kernel parameters from field values, and returns the same structure with current kernel values. This structure is declared as follows:

struct timex {

int modes; /* mode selector */

long offset; /* time offset (usec) */

long freq; /* frequency offset (scaled ppm) */

long maxerror; /* maximum error (usec) */

long esterror; /* estimated error (usec) */

int status; /* clock command/status */

long constant; /* pll time constant */

long precision; /* clock precision (usec) (read only) */

long tolerance; /* clock frequency tolerance (ppm) (read only) */

struct timeval time; /* current time (read only) */

long tick; /* usecs between clock ticks */

};

The modes field determines which parameters, if any, to set. It may contain a bitwise-or combination of zero or more of the following bits:

#define ADJ_OFFSET 0x0001 /* time offset */

#define ADJ_FREQUENCY 0x0002 /* frequency offset */

#define ADJ_MAXERROR 0x0004 /* maximum time error */

#define ADJ_ESTERROR 0x0008 /* estimated time error */

#define ADJ_STATUS 0x0010 /* clock status */

#define ADJ_TIMECONST 0x0020 /* pll time constant */

#define ADJ_TICK 0x4000 /* tick value */

#define ADJ_OFFSET_SINGLESHOT 0x8001 /* old-fashioned adjtime */

Ordinary users are restricted to a zero value for mode. Only the superuser may set any parameters.

Return Value

On success, adjtimex returns the clock state:

#define TIME_OK 0 /* clock synchronized */

#define TIME_INS 1 /* insert leap second */

#define TIME_DEL 2 /* delete leap second */

#define TIME_OOP 3 /* leap second in progress */

#define TIME_WAIT 4 /* leap second has occurred */

#define TIME_BAD 5 /* clock not synchronized */

On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

Errors

EFAULT

buf does not point to writable memory.

EPERM

buf.mode is non-zero and the user is not super-user.

EINVAL

An attempt is made to set buf.offset to a value outside the range -131071 to +131071, or to set buf.status to a value other than those listed above, or to set buf.tick to a value outside the range 900000/HZ to 1100000/HZ, where HZ is the system timer interrupt frequency.

alphasort

Name

alphasort -- compare two directory entries alphabetically (LSB deprecated)

Description

The alphasort interface is expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should provide their own routine to sort filenames.[11]

The alphasort() function can be used as the comparison function for the scandir() function to sort the directory entries into alphabetical order. Its parameters are the two directory entries, a and b, to compare.

Return Value

The alphasort() function returns an integer less than, equal to, or greater than zero if the first argument is considered to be respectively less than, equal to, or greater than the second.

Errors

ENOMEM

Insufficient memory to complete the operation.

alphasort64

Name

alphasort64 -- compare two directory entries alphabetically (LSB deprecated)

Description

The alphasort64 interface is expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should provide their own routine to sort filenames.[12]

Function to compare two struct dirent64s alphabetically. This function is like alphasort but it uses the 64bit dirent structure.

bindresvport

Name

bindresvport -- bind socket to privileged IP port

Description

The bindresvport() function is used to bind a socket to a privileged IP port. This function can be used only by root.

Return Value

On success, zero is returned. On failure, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

Errors

EPFNOSUPPORT

Address of second argument provided did not match address family of first argument.

cfmakeraw

Name

cfmakeraw -- get and set terminal attributes

Description

cfmakeraw sets the terminal attributes as follows:

termios_p->c_iflag &= ~(IGNBRK|BRKINT|PARMRK|ISTRIP |INLCR|IGNCR|ICRNL|IXON);

termios_p->c_oflag &= ~OPOST;

termios_p->c_lflag &= ~(ECHO|ECHONL|ICANON|ISIG|IEXTEN);

termios_p->c_cflag &= ~(CSIZE|PARENB);

termios_p->c_cflag |= CS8;

termios_p is a pointer to a termios structure. This structure contains the following members:

tcflag_t c_iflag; /* input modes */

tcflag_t c_oflag; /* output modes */

tcflag_t c_cflag; /* control modes */

tcflag_t c_lflag; /* local modes */

cc_t c_cc[NCCS]; /* control chars */

Return Value

On success, zero is returned. On failure, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

cfsetspeed

Name

cfsetspeed -- manipulate the termios structure

Description

The cfsetspeed function is provided for setting the baud rate values in the termios structure. The effects of the function on the terminal as described below do not become effective, nor are all errors detected, until the tcsetattr function is called. Certain values for baud rates set in the termios structure and passed to tcsetattr have special meanings.

Getting and Setting the Baud Rate

The input and output baud rates are found in the termios structure. The unsigned integer speed_t is typdef'd in the include file <termios.h>. The value of the integer corresponds directly to the baud rate being represented, however, the following symbolic values are defined.

#define B0 0

#define B50 50

#define B75 75

#define B110 110

#define B134 134

#define B150 150

#define B200 200

#define B300 300

#define B600 600

#define B1200 1200

#define B1800 1800

#define B2400 2400

#define B4800 4800

#define B9600 9600

#define B19200 19200

#define B38400 38400

#ifndef _POSIX_SOURCE

#define EXTA 19200

#define EXTB 38400

#endif /*_POSIX_SOURCE */

The cfsetspeed function sets both the input and output baud rate in the termios structure referenced by t to speed.

Return Value

On success, zero is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

daemon

Name

daemon -- run in the background

Description

The daemon() function is for programs wishing to detach themselves from the controlling terminal and run in the background as system daemons. Unless the argument nochdir is non-zero, daemon() changes the current working directory to the root (`/'). Unless the argument noclose is non-zero, daemon() will redirect standard input, standard output and standard error to /dev/null.

Errors

On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set to any of the errors specified for the library functions fork(2) and setsid(2).

err

Name

err -- display formatted error messages

Description

The err() function displays a formatted error message on the standard error output. The last component of the program name, a colon character, and a space are output. If the fmt argument is not NULL, the formatted error message, a colon character, and a space are output. The error message string affiliated with the current value of the global variable errno is output. The output is followed by a newline character.

The err() function does not return, but exits with the value of the argument eval.

error

Name

error -- print error message

Description

Print a message to standard error. First print the name of the program. If there is a function called error_print_progname (which would be provided by the application), call it to print the program name. If not, print the contents of the global variable program_name as the program name.

Then print a colon, a space, and the result of using the printf-style format and the optional arguments.

Then, if errnum is nonzero, print a colon, a space, and the result of strerror(errnum).

Then print a newline.

Then, if exitstatus is nonzero, call exit(exitstatus).

errx

Name

errx -- format error messages

Description

The errx() function displays a formatted error message on the standard error output. The last component of the program name, a colon character, and a space are output. If the fmt argument is not NULL, the formatted error message, a colon character, and a space are output. The output is followed by a newline character.

The errx() function does not return, but exits with the value of the argument eval.

flock

Name

flock -- apply or remove an advisory lock on an open file

Description

Apply or remove an advisory lock on an open file. The file is specified by fd. Valid operations are given below:

LOCK_SH

Shared lock. More than one process may hold a shared lock for a given file at a given time.

LOCK_EX

Exclusive lock. Only one process may hold an exclusive lock for a given file at a given time.

LOCK_UN

Unlock.

LOCK_NB

Don't block when locking. May be specified (by or'ing) along with one of the other operations.

A single file may not simultaneously have both shared and exclusive locks.

Return Value

On success, zero is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

Errors

EWOULDBLOCK

The file is locked and the LOCK_NB flag was selected.

fstatfs

Name

fstatfs -- get file system statistics

Description

fstatfs returns information about a mounted file system. fd is the open file descriptor of any file within the mounted filesystem. buf is a pointer to a statfs structure defined as follows:

struct statfs {

long f_type; /* type of filesystem (see below) */

long f_bsize; /* optimal transfer block size */

long f_blocks; /* total data blocks in file system */

long f_bfree; /* free blocks in fs */

long f_bavail; /* free blocks avail to non-superuser */

long f_files; /* total file nodes in file system */

long f_ffree; /* free file nodes in fs */

fsid_t f_fsid; /* file system id */

long f_namelen; /* maximum length of filenames */

long f_spare[6]; /* spare for later */

};

Fields that are undefined for a particular file system are set to 0.

Return Value

On success, zero is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

Errors

EBADF

fd is not a valid open file descriptor.

EFAULT

buf points to an invalid address.

EIO

An I/O error occurred while reading from or writing to the file system.

ENOSYS

The filesystem fd is open on does not support statfs.

fwprintf

Name

fwprintf -- formatted wide character output conversion

Description

The specification for "fwprintf" is as specified in the SUSv2 but with the following differences as listed below.

Wide-character Conversion:

The following wide-character are not specified in GNU:

d, i, o, u, x, X, f, e, E , g, G , c, s, p, n, C, S, %

Errors

The following error types are not specified in GNU:

EILSEQ

EINVAL

ENOMEM

getdomainname

Name

getdomainname -- get NIS domain name.

Description

If NIS is in use, provide the NIS domain name. Note that this is not the same as the domain name which provides the domain portion of a fully qualified domain name (for example, in DNS). If NIS is not in use, provide the string "(none)".

If the string which is provided is strictly less than namelen characters in length, getdomainname places it in the array pointed to by name followed by a terminating null character. If not, getdomainname may either truncate it to namelen characters and place it in name (without a terminating null character), or may fail with EINVAL.

Return Value

getdomainname returns 0 if successful; -1 if not (in which case errno is set to indicate the error).

gethostbyname

Name

gethostbyname -- get network host entry

Description

The gethostbyname() function returns a structure of type hostent for the given host name. Here name is either a host name, or an IPv4 address in standard dot notation, or an IPv6 address in colon (and possibly dot) notation. (See RFC 1884 for the description of IPv6 addresses.) If name is an IPv4 or IPv6 address, no lookup is performed and gethostbyname() simply copies name into the h_name field and its struct in_addr equivalent into the h_addr_list[0] field of the returned hostent structure. If name doesn't end in a dot and the environment variable HOSTALIASES is set, the alias file pointed to by HOSTALIASES will first be searched for name (see hostname(7) for the file format). The current domain and its parents are searched unless name ends in a dot.

The domain name queries carried out by gethostbyname() use a combination of any or all of the name server named(8), a broken out line from /etc/hosts, and the Network Information Service (NIS or YP), depending upon the contents of the order line in /etc/host.conf. (See resolv+(8)). The default action is to query named(8), followed by /etc/hosts.

The hostent structure is defined in <netdb.h> as follows:

struct hostent {

char *h_name; /* official name of host */

char **h_aliases; /* alias list */

int h_addrtype; /* host address type */

int h_length; /* length of address */

char **h_addr_list; /* list of addresses */

}

#define h_addr h_addr_list[0] /* for backward compatibility */

Return Value

The gethostbyname()) functions return the hostent structure or a NULL pointer if an error occurs. On error, the h_errno variable holds an error number.

Errors

ENOMEM

Insufficient memory to complete the operation.

gethostbyname_r

Name

gethostbyname_r -- find network host database entry matching host name

Description

The gethostbyname_r() function is a reentrant version of the gethostbyname function that searches the network host database for a host name match.

getloadavg

Name

getloadavg -- get system load averages

Description

The getloadavg() function returns the number of processes in the system run queue averaged over various periods of time. Up to nelem samples are retrieved and assigned to successive elements of loadavg[]. The system imposes a maximum of 3 samples, representing averages over the last 1, 5, and 15 minutes, respectively.

getopt

Name

getopt -- parse command line options

Description

The getopt() function parses command line arguments. GNU and POSIX specifications for this function vary in the following areas.

Option Characteristics

GNU specifies that:

  • an element of argv that starts with "-" (and is not exactly "-" or "--") is an option element.

  • characters of an option element, aside from the initial "-", are option characters.

POSIX specifies that:

  • applications using getopt() must obey the following syntax guidelines:

    • option name is a single alphanumeric character from the portable character set

    • option is preceded by the "-" delimiter character

    • options without option-arguments should be accepted when grouped behind one "-" delimiter

    • each option and option-argument is a separate argument

    • option-arguments are not optional

    • all options should precede operands on the command line

    • the argument "--" is accepted as a delimiter indicating the end of options and the consideration of subsequent arguments, if any, as operands

  • historical implementations of getopt() support other characters as options as an allowed extension, but applications that use extensions are not maximally portable.

  • support for multi-byte option characters is only possible when such characters can be represented as type int.

  • applications that call any utility with a first operand starting with "-" should usually specify "--" to mark the end of the options. Standard utilities that do not support this guideline indicate that fact in the OPTIONS section of the utility description.

Extensions

GNU specifies that:

  • if a character is followed by two colons, the option takes an optional arg; if there is text in the current argv-element, it is returned in optarg, otherwise optarg is set to zero.

  • if optstring contains W followed by a semi-colon, then -W foo is treated as the long option --foo. (Not available with libraries before GNU libc 2.)

  • getopt_long() works like getopt() except that it also accepts "long options", or, options that are preface with two dashes instead of one.

  • long option names may be abbreviated if the abbreviation is unique or an exact match for some defined option.

  • a long option may take a parameter, of the form --arg=param or --arg param.

  • getopt_long_only() works like getopt_long(), except that both "-" and "--" indicate long option. If an option that starts with "-" (not "--") doesn't match a long option, but does match a short option, it is parsed instead as a short option.

POSIX specifies that:

  • the -W option is reserved for implementation extensions.

Return Values

GNU specifies the following getopt() return values:

  • the next option character is returned, if found successfully.

  • colon character (":") is returned if a parameter is missing for one of the options.

  • question mark ("?") is returned if an unknown option character is encountered.

  • "-1" is returned for the end of the option list.

GNU specifies the following getopt_long() and getopt_long_only() return values:

  • when short option is recognized, the option character is returned.

  • when long option is recognized, val is returned if flag is NULL, otherwise, 0 is returned.

  • error and -1 returns are the same as for getopt().

  • question mark ("?") is returned for an ambiguous match or an extraneous parameter.

POSIX specifies the following getopt() return values:

  • the next option character is returned, if found successfully.

  • colon character (":") is returned if a parameter is missing for one of the options and the first character of opstring is ":".

  • question mark ("?") is returned if an unknown option character not in optstring is encountered, or if getopt() detects a missing argument and the first character of optstring is not ":".

  • "-1" is returned for the end of the option list.

Environmental Variables

GNU specifies that:

  • if the variable POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, option processing stops as soon as a non-option argument is encountered.

  • if POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, GNU getopt() conforms to POSIX.2.

  • the variable _[PID]_GNU_nonoption_argv_flags_ was used by bash 2.0 to communicate to GNU libc which arguments resulted from wildcard expansion and so should not be considered as options. This behavior was removed in bash version 2.01, but the support remains in GNU libc.

Environmental Variables

POSIX.2 Interpretation 150 reports a technical error in the function of getopt(). GNU implements the correct behavior of getopt().

getopt_long

Name

getopt_long -- parse command line options

Description

The getopt_long() function works like getopt() except that it also accepts long options, started out by two dashes. Long option names may be abbreviated if the abbreviation is unique or is an exact match for some defined option. A long option may take a parameter, of the form --arg=param or --arg param.

longopts is a pointer to the first element of an array of struct option declared in <getopt.h> as

struct option {

const char *name;

int *flag;

int has_arg;

int val;

};

Return Value

The getopt_long() function returns the option character if the option was found successfully, : if there was a missing parameter for one of the options, ? for an unknown option character, or -1 for the end of the option list.

getopt_long() also returns the option character when a short option is recognized. For a long option, they return val if flag is NULL, and 0 otherwise. Error and -1 returns are the same as for getopt(), plus ? for an ambiguous match or an extraneous parameter.

getopt_long_only

Name

getopt_long_only -- parse command line options

Description

getopt_long_only() is like getopt_long(), but - as well as -- can indicate a long option. If an option that starts with - (not --) doesn't match a long option, but does match a short option, it is parsed as a short option instead.

Return Value

The function getopt_long_only() returns the option character if the option was found successfully, : if there was a missing parameter for one of the options, ? for an unknown option character, or -1 for the end of the option list. getopt_long_only() also returns the option character when a short option is recognized. For a long option, they return val if flag is NULL, and 0 otherwise. Error and -1 returns are the same as for getopt(), plus ? for an ambiguous match or an extraneous parameter.

getprotobyname

Name

getprotobyname -- get protocol entry

Description

The getprotobyname() function returns a protoent structure for the line from /etc/protocols that matches the protocol name name.

The protoent structure is defined in <netdb.h> as follows:

struct protoent {

char *p_name; /* official protocol name */

char **p_aliases; /* alias list */

int p_proto; /* protocol number */

}

Return Value

The getprotobyname() function returns the protoent structure, or a NULL pointer if an error occurs or the end of the file is reached.

Files

/etc/protocols protocol database file

getprotoent

Name

getprotoent -- get protocol entry

Description

The getprotoent() function reads the next line from the file /etc/protocols and returns a structure protoent containing the broken out fields from the line. The /etc/protocols file is opened if necessary.

The protoent structure is defined in <netdb.h> as follows:

struct protoent {

char *p_name; /* official protocol name */

char **p_aliases; /* alias list */

int p_proto; /* protocol number */

}

Return Value

The getprotoent() function returns the protoent structure, or a NULL pointer if an error occurs or the end of the file is reached.

Files

/etc/protocols protocol database file

getpwnam_r

Name

getpwnam_r -- reentrant version of getpwnam

Description

Reentrant version of getpwnam. The additional arguments resultsbuf and buffer are for internal storage, buflen the size of the buffer, and result is the password structure used to return the requested information.

getservbyname

Name

getservbyname -- get service entry

Description

The getservbyname() function returns a servent structure for the line from /etc/services that matches the service name using protocol proto.

The servent structure is defined in <netdb.h> as follows:

struct servent {

char *s_name; /* official service name */

char **s_aliases; /* alias list */

int s_port; /* port number */

char *s_proto; /* protocol to use */

}

Return Value

getservbyname() returns the servent structure, or a NULL pointer if an error occurs or the end of the file is reached.

Files

/etc/services services database file

getservent

Name

getservent -- get service entry

Description

The getservent() function reads the next line from the file /etc/services and returns a structure servent containing the broken out fields from the line. The /etc/services file is opened if necessary.

The servent structure is defined in <netdb.h> as follows:

struct servent {

char *s_name; /* official service name */

char **s_aliases; /* alias list */

int s_port; /* port number */

char *s_proto; /* protocol to use */

}

Return Value

getservent() returns the servent structure, or a NULL pointer if an error occurs or the end of the file is reached.

Files

/etc/services services database file

gettext

Name

gettext -- look up MSGID in the current default message catalog for the current LC_MESSAGES locale

Description

Used to look up the MSGID in the DOMAINNAME message catalog for the current CATEGORY locale. If not found, returns MSGID itself (the default text).

getutent

Name

getutent -- access utmp file entries

Description

getutent() reads a line from the current file position in the utmp file. It returns a pointer to a structure containing the fields of the line.

Return Value

getutent() returns a pointer to a static struct utmp.

Errors

On error, (struct utmp*)0 will be returned.

Files

/var/run/utmp database of currently logged-in users

/var/log/wtmp database of past user logins

getutent_r

Name

getutent_r -- access utmp file entries

Description

The getutent_r() function is a reentrant version of the getutent utmp file handler.

glob64

Name

glob64 -- find pathnames matching a pattern (Large File Support)

Description

The glob64() function searches for all the pathnames matching pattern according to the rules used by the shell (see glob(7)). No tilde expansion or parameter substitution is done; if you want these, use wordexp(3). The results of a glob64() call are stored in the structure pointed to by pglob, which is a glob64_t which is declared in <glob.h> and includes the following elements defined by POSIX.2 (more may be present as an extension):

The glob64() function is a 64-bit version of glob.

Return Value

On successful completion, glob64() returns zero. Other possible returns are: GLOB_NOSPACE for running out of memory, GLOB_ABORTED for a read error, and GLOB_NOMATCH for no found matches.

globfree64

Name

globfree64 -- free memory from glob64() (Large File Support)

Description

The globfree64() function frees the dynamically allocate storage from an earlier call to glob64().

The globfree64 function is a 64-bit version of globfree.

initgroups

Name

initgroups -- initialize the supplementary group access list

Description

The initgroups() function initializes the group access list by reading the group database and using all groups of which user is a member. The additional group group is also added to the list.

Return Value

On success, zero is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

Errors

EPERM

The calling process does not have sufficient privileges.

ENOMEM

Insufficient memory to allocate group information structure.

isblank

Name

isblank -- character classification routine

Description

This functions checks whether c, which must have the value of an unsigned char or EOF, falls into a certain character class according to the current locale.

isblank() checks for a blank character; that is, a space or a tab. This function is a GNU extension.

Return Value

The values returned are nonzero if the character c falls into the tested class, and a zero value if not.

Notes

The details of what characters belong into which class depend on the current locale. For example, isupper() will not recognize an A - umlaut as an uppercase letter in the default C locale.

iswblank

Name

iswblank -- test for whitespace wide character

Description

The iswblank function is the wide-character equivalent of the isblank function. It tests whether wc is a wide character belonging to the wide character class "blank".

The wide character class "blank" is a subclass of the wide character class "space".

Being a subclass of the wide character class "space", the wide character class "blank" is disjoint from the wide character class "graph" and therefore also disjoint from its subclasses "alnum", "alpha", "upper", "lower", "digit", "xdigit", "punct".

The wide character class "blank" always contains at least the space character and the control character '\t'.

Return Value

The iswblank function returns non-zero if wc is a wide character belonging to the wide character class "blank". Otherwise it returns zero.

Notes

The behavior of iswblank depends on the LC_CTYPE category of the current locale.

iswctype

Name

iswctype -- wide character classification

Description

If wc is a wide character having the character property designated by desc (or in other words: belongs to the character class designated by desc), the iswctype function returns non-zero. Otherwise it returns zero. If wc is WEOF, zero is returned.

desc must be a character property descriptor returned by the wctype function.

Return Value

iswctype returns non-zero if the wc has the designated property. Otherwise it returns 0.

Notes

The behavior of iswctype depends on the LC_CTYPE category of the current locale.

kill

Name

kill -- send a signal

Description

The specification for "kill" is as specified in the SUSv2 but with the following differences as listed below.

Process ID -1 doesn't affect calling process

If pid is specified as -1, sig shall not be sent to the calling process.[13] Other than this, the rules in the SUSv2 apply.

mbsnrtowcs

Name

mbsnrtowcs -- convert a multibyte string to a wide character string

Description

The mbsnrtowcs function is like the mbsrtowcs function, except that the number of bytes to be converted, starting at *src, is limited to nms.

If dest is not a NULL pointer, the mbsnrtowcs function converts at most nms bytes from the multibyte string *src to a wide-character string starting at dest. At most len wide characters are written to dest. The state *ps is updated. The conversion is effectively performed by repeatedly calling mbrtowc(dest,*src,n,ps) where n is some positive number, as long as this call succeeds, and then incrementing dest by one and *src by the number of bytes consumed. The conversion can stop for three reasons:

1. An invalid multibyte sequence has been encountered. In this case *src is left pointing to the invalid multibyte sequence, (size_t)(-1) is returned, and errno is set to EILSEQ.

2. The nms limit forces a stop, or len non-L'\0' wide characters have been stored at dest. In this case *src is left pointing to the next multibyte sequence to be converted, and the number of wide characters written to dest is returned.

3. The multibyte string has been completely converted, including the terminating '\0' (which has the side effect of bringing back *ps to the initial state). In this case *src is set to NULL, and the number of wide characters written to dest, excluding the terminating L'\0' character, is returned.

If dest is NULL, len is ignored, and the conversion proceeds as above, except that the converted wide characters are not written out to memory, and that no destination length limit exists.

In both of the above cases, if ps is a NULL pointer, a static anonymous state only known to the mbsnrtowcs function is used instead.

The programmer must ensure that there is room for at least len wide characters at dest.

Return Value

The mbsnrtowcs function returns the number of wide characters that make up the converted part of the wide character string, not including the terminating null wide character. If an invalid multibyte sequence was encountered, (size_t)(-1) is returned, and errno set to EILSEQ.

Notes

The behavior of mbsnrtowcs depends on the LC_CTYPE category of the current locale.

Passing NULL as ps is not multi-thread safe.

memmem

Name

memmem -- locate a substring

Description

The memmem() function finds the start of the first occurrence of the substring needle of length needlelen in the memory area haystack of length haystacklen.

Return Value

The memmem() function returns a pointer to the beginning of the substring, or NULL if the substring is not found.

Notes

This function was broken in Linux libraries up to and including libc 5.0.9; there the needle and haystack arguments were interchanged, and a pointer to the end of the first occurrence of needle was returned. Since libc 5.0.9 is still widely used, this is a dangerous function to use.

Both old and new libc's have the bug that if needle is empty haystack-1 (instead of haystack) is returned. And glibc 2.0 makes it worse, and returns a pointer to the last byte of haystack. This is fixed in glibc 2.1.

memrchr

Name

memrchr -- scan memory for a character

Description

memrchr() returns a pointer to the last occurrence of the character represented by c in the first n characters of the string represented by s.

obstack_free

Name

obstack_free -- free an object in the obstack

Description

Free an object in the obstack.

opterr

Name

opterr -- external variable used in getopt()

Description

opterr is used as a flag to suppress error message generated by getopt(). When opterr is set to 0; it suppresses the error message generated by getopt() when getopt() does not recognize an option character.

optind

Name

optind -- external variable used in getopt()

Description

optind holds the current index of the array argr[] which contains the command line options being parsed by getopt().

optopt

Name

optopt -- external variable used in getopt()

Description

optopt holds the unknown option character when that option character is not recognized by getopt()

psignal

Name

psignal -- print signal message

Description

The psignal() function displays a message on stderr consisting of the string s, a colon, a space, and a string describing the signal number sig. If sig is invalid, the message displayed will indicate an unknown signal.

The array sys_siglist holds the signal description strings indexed by signal number.

Return Value

psignal() returns no value.

random_r

Name

random_r -- generate random number

Description

The random_r() function is a reentrant version of the random function that generates a pseudorandom number.

setbuffer

Name

setbuffer -- stream buffering operation

Description

setbuffer is an alias for call to setvbuf. It works the same, except that the size of the buffer is up to the caller, rather than being determined by the default BUFSIZ.

setdomainname

Name

setdomainname -- set NIS domain name.

Description

If NIS is in use, set the NIS domain name. Note that this is not the same as the domain name which provides the domain portion of a fully qualified domain name (for example, in DNS). If NIS is not in use, this function may set the domain name anyway, or it may fail.

This call shall fail unless the caller has appropriate privileges.

namelen shall be the length of the string pointed to by name.

Return Value

setdomainname returns 0 if successful; -1 if not (in which case errno is set to indicate the error).

setegid

Name

setegid -- set effective group ID

Description

The setegid() function is as specified in the SUSv3.

setenv

Name

setenv -- change or add an environment variable

Description

The setenv() function is as specified in the SUSv3.

seteuid

Name

seteuid -- set effective user ID

Description

The seteuid() function is as specified in the SUSv3.

setgroups

Name

setgroups -- set list of supplementary group IDs

Description

Sets the supplementary groups for the process. Only the super-user may use this function.

Return Value

On success, zero is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

Errors

EFAULT

list has an invalid address.

EPERM

The user is not the super-user.

EINVA

Size is greater than NGROUPS (32 for Linux 2.0.32).

Bugs

The __USE_BSD flag probably shouldn't be required for setgroups.

sethostid

Name

sethostid -- set the unique identifier of the current host

Description

Set a unique 32-bit identifier for the current machine. The 32-bit identifier is intended to be unique among all UNIX systems in existence. This normally resembles the Internet address for the local machine, as returned by gethostbyname(3), and thus usually never needs to be set.

The sethostid call is restricted to the superuser.

The hostid argument is stored in the file /etc/hostid.

Return Value

gethostid returns the 32-bit identifier for the current host as set by sethostid(2).

Files

/etc/hostid

sethostname

Name

sethostname -- set host name

Description

This function is used to change the host name of the current processor.

Return Value

On success, zero is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

Errors

EINVAL

len is negative or len is larger than the maximum allowed size.

EPERM

the caller was not the superuser.

EFAULT

name is an invalid address.

Notes

SUSv2 guarantees that Host names are limited to 255 bytes.

setmntent

Name

setmntent -- get file system descriptor file entry

Description

This routine is used to access the file system description file /etc/fstab and the mounted file system description file /etc/mtab.

The setmntent() function opens the file system description file filep and returns a file pointer which can be used by getmntent(). The argument type is the type of access required and can take the same values as the mode argument of fopen(3).

The mntent structure is defined in <mntent.h> as follows:

struct mntent {

char *mnt_fsname; /* name of mounted file system */

char *mnt_dir; /* file system path prefix */

char *mnt_type; /* mount type (see mntent.h) */

char *mnt_opts; /* mount options (see mntent.h) */

int mnt_freq; /* dump frequency in days */

int mnt_passno; /* pass number on parallel fsck */

};

Files

/etc/fstab file system description file /etc/mtab mounted file system description file

setutent

Name

setutent -- access utmp file entries

Description

setutent() rewinds the file pointer to the beginning of the utmp file. It is generally a Good Idea to call it before any of the other functions.

Errors

On error, (struct utmp*)0 will be returned.

Files

/var/run/utmp database of currently logged-in users /var/log/wtmp database of past user logins

sigandset

Name

sigandset -- build a new signal set by combining the two input sets using logical AND

Description

A signal function that builds a new signal set by combining the two input sets using logical AND.

sigblock

Name

sigblock -- manipulate the signal mask

Description

This interface is made obsolete by sigprocmask(2).

The sigblock system call adds the signals specified in mask to the set of signals currently being blocked from delivery.

Notes

Prototype for this function is only available if _BSD_SOURCE is defined before the inclusion of any system.

siggetmask

Name

siggetmask -- manipulate the signal mask

Description

This interface is made obsolete by sigprocmask(2).

siggetmask returns the current set of masked signals.

Notes

Prototype for this function is only available if _BSD_SOURCE is defined before the inclusion of any system header file.

sigisemptyset

Name

sigisemptyset -- signal function - check for empty SET

Description

Signal function - Check for empty SET. Returns non-empty value if SET is not empty.

sigorset

Name

sigorset -- build a new signal set by combining the two input sets using logical OR

Description

A signal function that builds a new signal set by combining the two input sets using logical OR.

sigreturn

Name

sigreturn -- return from signal handler and cleanup stack frame

Description

When the Linux kernel creates the stack frame for a signal handler, a call to sigreturn is inserted into the stack frame so that the the signal handler will call sigreturn upon return. This inserted call to sigreturn cleans up the stack so that the process can restart from where it was interrupted by the signal.

Return Value

sigreturn never returns.

Warning

sigreturn call is used by the kernel to implement signal handlers. It should never be called directly. Better yet, the specific use of the __unused argument varies depending on the architecture.

Files

/usr/src/linux/arch/i386/kernel/signal.c

/usr/src/linux/arch/alpha/kernel/entry.s

statfs

Name

statfs -- get file system statistics

Description

statfs returns information about a mounted file system. path is the path name of any file within the mounted filesystem.

buf is a pointer to a statfs structure defined as follow:

struct statfs {

long f_type; /* type of filesystem (see below) */

long f_bsize; /* optimal transfer block size */

long f_blocks; /* total data blocks in file system */

long f_bfree; /* free blocks in fs */

long f_bavail; /* free blocks avail to non-superuser */

long f_files; /* total file nodes in file system */

long f_ffree; /* free file nodes in fs */

long f_ffree; /* free file nodes in fs */

fsid_t f_fsid; /* file system id */

long f_namelen; /* maximum length of filenames */

long f_spare[6]; /* spare for later */

};

Fields that are undefined for a particular file system are set to 0.

Return Value

On success, zero is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

Errors

ENOTDIR

A component of the path prefix of path is not a directory.

ENAMETOOLONG

path is too long.

ENOENT

The file referred to by path does not exist.

EACCES

Search permission is denied for a component of the path prefix of path.

ELOOP

Too many symbolic links were encountered in translating path.

EFAULT

Buf or path points to an invalid address.

EIO

An I/O error occurred while reading from or writing to the file system.

ENOMEM

Insufficient kernel memory was available.

ENOSYS

The filesystem path is on does not support statfs.

stime

Name

stime -- set time

Description

stime sets the system's idea of the time and date. Time, pointed to by t, is measured in seconds from 00:00:00 GMT January 1, 1970. stime() may only be executed by the super user.

Return Value

On success, zero is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

Errors

EPERM

The caller is not the super-user.

Notes

Under glibc2, <time.h> only provides a prototype when _SVID_SOURCE is defined.

stpcpy

Name

stpcpy -- copy a string returning a pointer to its end

Description

The stpcpy() function copies the string pointed to by src (including the terminating \0 character) to the array pointed to by dest. The strings may not overlap, and the destination string dest must be large enough to receive the copy.

Return Value

stpcpy() returns a pointer to the end of the string dest (that is, the address of the terminating null character) rather than the beginning.

Example

For example, this program uses stpcpy to concatenate foo and bar to produce foobar, which it then prints.

#include <string.h>

int main (void) { char *to = buffer; to = stpcpy (to, "foo"); to = stpcpy (to, "bar"); printf ("%s\n", buffer); }

stpncpy

Name

stpncpy -- copy a fixed-size string, returning a pointer to its end

Description

The stpncpy function copies at most n characters from the string pointed to by src, including the terminating '\0' character, to the array pointed to by dest. Exactly n characters are written at dest. If the length strlen(src) is smaller than n, the remaining characters in the array pointed to by dest are filled with '\0' characters. If the length strlen(src) is greater or equal to n, the string pointed to by dest will not be '\0' terminated. The strings may not overlap. The programmer must ensure that there is room for at least n characters at dest.

Return Value

stpncpy returns a pointer to the terminating null in dest, or, if dest is not null-terminated, dest + n.

strcasestr

Name

strcasestr -- locate a substring - ignores the case of both strings

Description

Similar to strstr but this function ignores the case of both strings.

strerror_r

Name

strerror_r -- reentrant version of strerror

Description

Reentrant version of strerror. If a temporary buffer is required, at most BUFLEN bytes of BUF will be used.

strfry

Name

strfry -- randomize a string

Description

The strfry() function randomizes the contents of string by using rand(3) to randomly swap characters in the string. The result is an anagram of string.

Return Value

The strfry() functions returns a pointer to the randomized string.

strndup

Name

strndup -- return a malloc'd copy of at most the specified number of bytes of a string

Description

Return a malloc'd copy of at most n bytes of string. The resultant string is terminated even if no null terminator appears before STRING[N].

strnlen

Name

strnlen -- determine the length of a fixed-size string

Description

The strnlen function returns the number of characters in the string pointed to by s, not including the terminating '\0' character, but at most maxlen. In doing this, strnlen looks only at the first maxlen characters at s and never beyond s+maxlen.

Return Value

The strnlen function returns strlen(s), if that is less than maxlen, or maxlen if there is no '\0' character among the first maxlen characters pointed to by s.

strptime

Name

strptime -- parse a time string

Description

The specification for "strptime" is as specified in the SUSv2 but with the following differences as listed below.

Number of leading zeroes limited

For all fields for which the SUSv2 specifies, "leading zeros are permitted but not required", applications must not expect to be able to supply more leading zeroes than would be implied by the range of the field. Implementations may choose to either match an input with excess leading zeroes, or treat this as a non-matching input. For example, %j has a range of 001 to 366, so 0, 00, 000, 001, or 045 are acceptable inputs, but inputs such as 0000, 0366 and the like are not.

Rationale

Glibc developers consider forbidding excess leading zeroes to be the correct behavior. When trying to parse a given input against several format strings, forbidding excess leading zeroes could be helpful. For example, if one matches "0011-12-26" against "%m-%d-%Y" and then against "%Y-%m-%d", it seems useful for the first match to fail, as it would be perverse to parse that date as November 12, year 26. The second pattern parses it as December 26, year 11.

The SUS is not explicit that an unlimited number of leading zeroes are required, although it may imply this. The LSB explicitly allows implementations to have either behavior. Future versions of this standard may require implementations to forbid excess leading zeroes.

strsep

Name

strsep -- extract token from string

Description

If *stringp is NULL, the strsep() function returns NULL and does nothing else. Otherwise, this function finds the first token in the string *stringp, where tokens are delimited by symbols in the string delim. This token is terminated with a \0 character (by overwriting the delimiter) and *stringp is updated to point past the token. In case no delimiter was found, the token is taken to be the entire string *stringp, and *stringp is made NULL.

Return Value

The strsep() function returns a pointer to the token, that is, it returns the original value of *stringp.

Notes

The strsep() function was introduced as a replacement for strtok(), since the latter cannot handle empty fields. However, strtok() conforms to ANSI-C and hence is more portable.

Bugs

This function suffers from the same problems as strtok(). In particular, it modifies the original string. Avoid it.

strsignal

Name

strsignal -- return string describing signal

Description

The strsignal() function returns a string describing the signal number passed in the argument sig. The string can only be used until the next call to strsignal().

The array sys_siglist holds the signal description strings indexed by signal number. The strsignal() function should be used if possible instead of this array.

Return Value

The strsignal() function returns the appropriate description string, or an unknown signal message if the signal number is invalid. On some systems (but not on Linux), a NULL pointer may be returned instead for an invalid signal number.

strtok_r

Name

strtok_r -- extract tokens from strings

Description

A token is a nonempty string of characters not occurring in the string delim, followed by \0 or by a character occurring in delim.

The strtok_r() function can be used to parse the string s into tokens. The first call to strtok_r() should have s as its first argument. Subsequent calls should have the first argument set to NULL. Each call returns a pointer to the next token, or NULL when no more tokens are found.

If a token ends with a delimiter, this delimiting character is overwritten with a \0 and a pointer to the next character is saved for the next call to strtok_r(). The delimiter string delim may be different for each call.

ptrptr is a user allocated char* pointer. It must be the same while parsing the same string.

Bugs

Never use this function. Note that:

  • It modifies its first argument.

  • The identity of the delimiting character is lost.

  • This function cannot be used on constant strings.

Return Value

The strtok_r() function returns a pointer to the next token, or NULL if there are no more tokens.

strtoq

Name

strtoq -- convert string value to a long or quad_t integer

Description

The strtoq() function converts the string in nptr to a quadt value. The conversion is done according to the given base, which must be between 2 and 36 inclusive, or be the special value 0.

The string may begin with an arbitrary amount of white space (as determine by isspace(3)) followed by a single optional + or - sign. If base is zero or 16, the string may then include a 0x prefix, and the number will be read in base 16; otherwise, a zero base is taken as 10 (decimal) unless the next character is 0, in which case it is taken as 8 (octal).

The remainder of the string is converted to a long value in the obvious manner, stopping at the first character which is not a valid digit in the given base. (In bases above 10, the letter A in either upper or lower case represents 10, B represents 11, and so forth, with Z representing 35.)

Return Value

strtoq() function returns the result of the conversion, unless the value would underflow or overflow. If an underflow occurs, strtoq() returns QUAD_MIN. If an overflow occurs, strtoq() returns QUAD_MAX. In both cases, errno is set to ERANGE.

Errors

ERANGE

The given string was out of range; the value converted has been clamped.

strtouq

Name

strtouq -- convert a string to an uquad_t

Description

The strtouq() function converts the string in nptr to a uquadt value. The conversion is done according to the given base, which must be between 2 and 36 inclusive, or be the special value 0.

The string may begin with an arbitrary amount of white space (as determined by isspace(3)) followed by a single optional + or - sign. If base is zero or 16, the string may then include a 0x prefix, and the number will be read in base 16; otherwise, a zero base is taken as 10 (decimal) unless the next character is 0, in which case it is taken as 8 (octal).

The remainder of the string is converted to an unsigned long value in the obvious manner, stopping at the end of the string or at the first character that does not produce a valid digit in the given base. (In bases above 10, the letter A in either upper or lower case represents 10, B represents 11, and so forth, with Z representing 35.)

Return Value

Upon success the strtouq() function returns either the result of the conversion or, if there was a leading minus sign, the negation of the result of the conversion, unless the original (non-negated) value would overflow. In the case of an overflow the function returns UQUAD_MAX and the global variable errno is set to ERANGE.

Errors

ERANGE

The given string was out of range; the value converted has been clamped.

strverscmp

Name

strverscmp -- compare strings holding name and indices/version numbers

Description

Compare s1 and s2 as strings holding name and indices/version numbers.

system

Name

system -- execute a shell command

Description

system() executes a command specified in string by calling /bin/sh -c string, and returns after the command has been completed. During execution of the command, SIGCHLD will be blocked, and SIGINT and SIGQUIT will be ignored.

Return Value

The value returned is 127 if the execve() call for /bin/sh fails, -1 if there was another error and the return code of the command otherwise.

If the value of string is NULL, system() returns nonzero if the shell is available, and zero if not.

system() does not affect the wait status of any other children.

Notes

The fact that system() ignores interrupts is often not what a program wants. The Single UNIX Specification describes some of the consequences - one additional one is that a program which calls system() from a loop cannot reliably be interrupted. Many programs will want to use the exec(3) family of functions instead.

Do not use system() from a program with suid or sgid privileges, because strange values for some environment variables might be used to subvert system integrity. Use the exec(3) family of functions instead, but not execlp(3) or execvp(3). system() will not, in fact, work properly from programs with suid or sgid privileges on systems on which /bin/sh is bash version 2, since bash 2 drops privileges on startup. (Debian uses a modified bash which does not do this when invoked as sh.)

The check for the availability of /bin/sh is not actually performed; it is always assumed to be available. ISO C specifies the check, but POSIX.2 specifies that the return shall always be non-zero, since a system without the shell is not conforming, and it is this that is implemented.

It is possible for the shell command to return 127, so that code is not a sure indication that the execve() call failed; check errno to make sure.

unlink

Name

unlink -- remove a directory entry

Description

The specification for "unlink" is as specified in the SUSv2 but with the following differences as listed below.

See also Additional behaviors: unlink/link on directory>.

May return EISDIR on directories

If path specifies a directory, the implementation may return EISDIR instead of EPERM as specified by SUSv2. [14]

unsetenv

Name

unsetenv -- delete an environment variable

Description

The unsetenv() function is as specified in the SUSv3.

vasprintf

Name

vasprintf -- write formatted output to a string dynamically allocated with malloc and store the address of the string

Description

Write formatted output to a string dynamically allocated with malloc.

Store the address of the string in *ptr.

vdprintf

Name

vdprintf -- write formatted output to a file descriptor

Description

Write formatted output to a file descriptor.

verrx

Name

verrx -- display formatted error messages

Description

The verrx() function displays a formatted error message on the standard error output. The last component of the program name, a colon character, and a space are output. If the fmt argument is not NULL, the formatted error message, a colon character, and a space are output. The output is followed by a newline character.

The verrx() function does not return, but exits with the value of the argument eval.

vsyslog

Name

vsyslog -- log to system log

Description

Identical to syslog as specified in the SUS, except that arglist (as defined by stdarg.h) replaces the variable number of arguments.

The caller is responsible for running va_end after calling vsyslog.

wait4

Name

wait4 -- wait for process termination, BSD style

Description

The wait4 function suspends execution of the current process until a child as specified by the pid argument has exited, or until a signal is delivered whose action is to terminate the current process or to call a signal handling function. If a child as requested by pid has already exited by the time of the call (a so-called "zombie" process), the function returns immediately. Any system resources used by the child are freed.

The value of pid can be one of:

< -1

wait for any child process whose process group ID is equal to the absolute value of pid.

-1

wait for any child process; this is equivalent to calling wait3.

0

wait for any child process whose process group ID is equal to that of the calling process.

> 0

wait for the child whose process ID is equal to the value of pid.

The value of options is a bitwise OR of zero or more of the following constants:

WNOHANG

return immediately if no child is there to be waited for.

WUNTRACED

return for children which are stopped, and whose status has not been reported.

If status is not NULL, wait4 stores status information in the location pointed to by status.

This status can be evaluated with the following macros (these macros take the stat buffer (an int) as an argument -- not a pointer to the buffer!):

WIFEXITED(status)

is non-zero if the child exited normally.

WEXITSTATUS(status)

evaluates to the least significant eight bits of the return code of the child which terminated, which may have been set as the argument to a call to exit() or as the argument for a return statement in the main program. This macro can only be evaluated if WIFEXITED returned non-zero.

WIFSIGNALED(status)

returns true if the child process exited because of a signal which was not caught.

WTERMSIG(status)

returns the number of the signal that caused the child process to terminate. This macro can only be evaluated if WIFSIGNALED returned non-zero.

WIFSTOPPED(status)

returns true if the child process which caused the return is currently stopped; this is only possible if the call was done using WUNTRACED.

WSTOPSIG(status)

returns the number of the signal which caused the child to stop. This macro can only be evaluated if WIFSTOPPED returned non-zero.

If rusage is not NULL, the struct rusage as defined in <sys/resource.h> it points to will be filled with accounting information. See getrusage(2) for details.

Return Value

The process ID of the child which exited, -1 on error (in particular, when no unwaited-for child processes of the specified kind exist) or zero if WNOHANG was used and no child was available yet. In the latter two cases errno will be set appropriately.

Errors

ECHILD

No unwaited-for child process as specified does exist.

ERESTARTSYS

If WNOHANG was not set and an unblocked signal or a SIGCHLD was caught. This error is returned by the system call. The library interface is not allowed to return ERESTARTSYS, but will return EINTR.

warn

Name

warn -- formatted error messages

Description

The warn() function displays a formatted error message on the standard error output. The last component of the program name, a colon character, and a space are output. If the fmt argument is not NULL, the formatted error message, a colon character, and a space are output. The error message string affiliated with the current value of the global variable errno is output. The output is followed by a newline character.

warnx

Name

warnx -- formatted error messages

Description

The warnx() function displays a formatted error message on the standard error output. The last component of the program name, a colon character, and a space are output. If the fmt argument is not NULL, the formatted error message, a colon character, and a space are output. The output is followed by a newline character.

wcpcpy

Name

wcpcpy -- copy a wide character string, returning a pointer to its end

Description

The wcpcpy function is the wide-character equivalent of the stpcpy function. It copies the wide character string pointed to by src, including the terminating L'\0' character, to the array pointed to by dest.

The strings may not overlap.

The programmer must ensure that there is room for at least wcslen(src)+1 wide characters at dest.

Return Value

wcpcpy returns a pointer to the end of the wide-character string dest, that is, a pointer to the terminating L'\0' character.

wcpncpy

Name

wcpncpy -- copy a fixed-size string of wide characters, returning a pointer to its end

Description

The wcpncpy function is the wide-character equivalent of the stpncpy function. It copies at most n wide characters from the wide-character string pointed to by src, including the terminating L'\0' character, to the array pointed to by dest. Exactly n wide characters are written at dest. If the length wcslen(src) is smaller than n, the remaining wide characters in the array pointed to by dest are filled with L'\0' characters. If the length wcslen(src) is greater or equal to n, the string pointed to by dest will not be L'\0' terminated.

The strings may not overlap.

The programmer must ensure that there is room for at least n wide characters at dest.

Return Value

wcpncpy returns a pointer to the last wide character written, i.e. dest + n - 1.

wcscasecmp

Name

wcscasecmp -- compare two wide-character strings, ignoring case

Description

The wcscasecmp function is the wide-character equivalent of the strcasecmp function. It compares the wide-character string pointed to by s1 and the wide-character string pointed to by s2, ignoring case differences (towupper, towlower).

Return Value

The wcscasecmp function returns zero if the wide-character strings at s1 and s2 are equal except for case distinctions. It returns a positive integer if s1 is greater than s2, ignoring case. It returns a negative integer if s1 is smaller than s2, ignoring case.

Notes

The behavior of wcscasecmp depends on the LC_CTYPE category of the current locale.

wcsdup

Name

wcsdup -- duplicate a wide-character string

Description

The wcsdup function is the wide-character equivalent of the strdup function. It allocates and returns a new wide-character string whose initial contents is a duplicate of the wide-character string pointed to by s.

Memory for the new wide-character string is obtained with malloc(3), and can be freed with free(3).

Return Value

The wcsdup function returns a pointer to the new wide-character string, or NULL if sufficient memory was not available.

wcsncasecmp

Name

wcsncasecmp -- compare two fixed-size wide-character strings, ignoring case

Description

The wcsncasecmp function is the wide-character equivalent of the strncasecmp function. It compares the wide-character string pointed to by s1 and the wide-character string pointed to by s2, but at most n wide characters from each string, ignoring case differences (towupper, towlower).

Return Value

The wcsncasecmp function returns zero if the wide-character strings at s1 and s2, truncated to at most length n, are equal except for case distinctions. It returns a positive integer if truncated s1 is greater than truncated s2, ignoring case. It returns a negative integer if truncated s1 is smaller than truncated s2, ignoring case.

Notes

The behavior of wcsncasecmp depends on the LC_CTYPE category of the current locale.

wcsnlen

Name

wcsnlen -- determine the length of a fixed-size wide-character string

Description

The wcsnlen function is the wide-character equivalent of the strnlen function. It returns the number of wide-characters in the string pointed to by s, not including the terminating L'\0' character, but at most maxlen. In doing this, wcsnlen looks only at the first maxlen wide-characters at s and never beyond s+maxlen.

Return Value

The wcsnlen function returns wcslen(s), if that is less than maxlen, or maxlen if there is no L'\0' character among the first maxlen wide characters pointed to by s.

Notes

The behavior of wcsncasecmp depends on the LC_CTYPE category of the current locale.

wcsnrtombs

Name

wcsnrtombs -- convert a wide character string to a multi-byte string

Description

The wcsnrtombs function is like the wcsrtombs function, except that the number of wide characters to be converted, starting at *src, is limited to nwc.

If dest is not a NULL pointer, the wcsnrtombs function converts at most nwc wide characters from the wide-character string *src to a multibyte string starting at dest. At most len bytes are written to dest. The state *ps is updated. The conversion is effectively performed by repeatedly calling wcrtomb(dest,*src,ps), as long as this call succeeds, and then incrementing dest by the number of bytes written and *src by one. The conversion can stop for three reasons:

1. A wide character has been encountered that can not be represented as a multibyte sequence (according to the current locale). In this case *src is left pointing to the invalid wide character, (size_t)(-1) is returned, and errno is set to EILSEQ.

2. nwc wide characters have been converted without encountering a L'\0', or the length limit forces a stop. In this case *src is left pointing to the next wide character to be converted, and the number of bytes written to dest is returned.

3. The wide-character string has been completely converted, including the terminating L'\0' (which has the side effect of bringing back *ps to the initial state). In this case *src is set to NULL, and the number of bytes written to dest, excluding the terminating '\0' byte, is returned.

If dest is NULL, len is ignored, and the conversion proceeds as above, except that the converted bytes are not written out to memory, and that no destination length limit exists.

In both of the above cases, if ps is a NULL pointer, a static anonymous state only known to the wcsnrtombs function is used instead.

The programmer must ensure that there is room for at least len bytes at dest.

Return Value

The wcsnrtombs function returns the number of bytes that make up the converted part of multibyte sequence, not including the terminating null byte. If a wide character was encountered which could not be converted, (size_t)(-1) is returned, and errno set to EILSEQ.

Notes

The behavior of wcsnrtombs depends on the LC_CTYPE category of the current locale.

Passing NULL as ps is not multi-thread safe.

wcstoq

Name

wcstoq -- convert initial portion of wide string NPTR to long int representation

Description

Convert initial portion of wide string NPTR to long int representation.

wcstouq

Name

wcstouq -- convert initial portion of wide string NPTR to unsigned long long int representation

Description

Convert initial portion of wide string NPTR to unsigned long long int representation.


Interfaces for libm

The behavior of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following standards.

ISO/IEC 9899: 1999, Programming Languages --C[15]
CAE Specification, January 1997, System Interfaces and Headers (XSH), Issue 5 (ISBN: 1-85912-181-0, C606)[16]


Math

Table 11-27. libm - Math Function Interfaces

acos[16]ceilf[15]erfcl[15]j1[16]remainderl[15]
acosf[15]ceill[15]erff[15]j1f[15]remquo[15]
acosh[16]cexp[15]erfl[15]j1l[15]remquof[15]
acoshf[15]cexpf[15]exp[16]jn[16]remquol[15]
acoshl[15]cexpl[15]expm1[16]jnf[15]rint[16]
acosl[15]cimag[15]fabs[16]jnl[15]rintf[15]
asin[16]cimagf[15]fabsf[15]ldexp[16]rintl[15]
asinf[15]cimagl[15]fabsl[15]ldexpf[15]round[15]
asinh[16]clog[15]fdim[15]ldexpl[15]roundf[15]
asinhf[15]clog10[15]fdimf[15]lgamma[16]roundl[15]
asinhl[15]clog10f[15]fdiml[15]lgamma_r[15]scalb[16]
asinl[15]clog10l[15]feclearexcept[15]lgammaf[15]scalbf[15]
atan[16]clogf[15]fegetenv[15]lgammaf_r[15]scalbl[15]
atan2[16]clogl[15]fegetexceptflag[15]lgammal[15]scalbln[15]
atan2f[15]conj[15]fegetround[15]lgammal_r[15]scalblnf[15]
atan2l[15]conjf[15]feholdexcept[15]llrint[15]scalblnl[15]
atanf[15]conjl[15]feraiseexcept[15]llrintf[15]scalbn[15]
atanh[16]copysign[15]fesetenv[15]llrintl[15]scalbnf[15]
atanhf[15]copysignf[15]fesetexceptflag[15]llround[15]scalbnl[15]
atanhl[15]copysignl[15]fesetround[15]llroundf[15]significand[15]
atanl[15]cos[16]fetestexcept[15]llroundl[15]significandf[15]
cabs[16]cosf[15]feupdateenv[15]log[16]significandl[15]
cabsf[15]cosh[16]finite[16]log10[16]sin[16]
cabsl[15]coshf[15]finitef[15]log1p[16]sincos[15]
cacos[15]coshl[15]finitel[15]logb[16]sincosf[15]
cacosf[15]cosl[15]floor[16]lrint[15]sincosl[15]
cacosh[15]cpow[15]floorf[15]lrintf[15]sinf[15]
cacoshf[15]cpowf[15]floorl[15]lrintl[15]sinh[16]
cacoshl[15]cpowl[15]fma[15]lround[15]sinhf[15]
cacosl[15]cproj[15]fmaf[15]lroundf[15]sinhl[15]
carg[15]cprojf[15]fmal[15]lroundl[15]sinl[15]
cargf[15]cprojl[15]fmax[15]matherr[15]sqrt[16]
cargl[15]creal[15]fmaxf[15]modf[16]sqrtf[15]
casin[15]crealf[15]fmaxl[15]modff[15]sqrtl[15]
casinf[15]creall[15]fmin[15]modfl[15]tan[16]
casinh[15]csin[15]fminf[15]nan[15]tanf[15]
casinhf[15]csinf[15]fminl[15]nanf[15]tanh[16]
casinhl[15]csinh[15]fmod[16]nanl[15]tanhf[15]
casinl[15]csinhf[15]fmodf[15]nearbyint[15]tanhl[15]
catan[15]csinhl[15]fmodl[15]nearbyintf[15]tanl[15]
catanf[15]csinl[15]frexp[16]nearbyintl[15]tgamma[15]
catanh[15]csqrt[15]frexpf[15]nextafter[16]tgammaf[15]
catanhf[15]csqrtf[15]frexpl[15]nextafterf[15]tgammal[15]
catanhl[15]csqrtl[15]gamma[16]nextafterl[15]trunc[15]
catanl[15]ctan[15]gammaf[15]nexttoward[15]truncf[15]
cbrt[16]ctanf[15]gammal[15]nexttowardf[15]truncl[15]
cbrtf[15]ctanh[15]hypot[16]nexttowardl[15]y0[16]
cbrtl[15]ctanhf[15]hypotf[15]pow[15]y0f[15]
ccos[15]ctanhl[15]hypotl[15]pow10[15]y0l[15]
ccosf[15]ctanl[15]ilogb[16]pow10f[15]y1[16]
ccosh[15]dremf[15]ilogbf[15]pow10l[15]y1f[15]
ccoshf[15]dreml[15]ilogbl[15]powf[15]y1l[15]
ccoshl[15]erf[16]j0[16]powl[15]yn[16]
ccosl[15]erfc[16]j0f[15]remainder[16]ynf[15]
ceil[16]erfcf[15]j0l[15]remainderf[15]ynl[15]

Data Definitions for libm


math.h


#define HUGE_VAL	0x7FF00000UL
#define DOMAIN	1
#define SING	2


struct exception
{
  int type;
  char *name;
  double arg1;
  double arg2;
  double retval;
}
 ;
#define M_1_PI	0.31830988618379067154
#define M_LOG10E	0.43429448190325182765
#define M_2_PI	0.63661977236758134308
#define M_LN2	0.69314718055994530942
#define M_SQRT1_2	0.70710678118654752440
#define M_PI_4	0.78539816339744830962
#define M_2_SQRTPI	1.12837916709551257390
#define M_SQRT2	1.41421356237309504880
#define M_LOG2E	1.4426950408889634074
#define M_PI_2	1.57079632679489661923
#define M_LN10	2.30258509299404568402
#define M_E	2.7182818284590452354
#define M_PI	3.14159265358979323846

Interfaces for libpthread

LSB systems support POSIX threads with the following exceptions. This list is intended to match the behavior of historical Linux implementations. Applications should be written to deal with either POSIX threads or the thread behaviors described here.

The behavior of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following standards.

Linux Standard Base[17]
CAE Specification, January 1997, System Interfaces and Headers (XSH), Issue 5 (ISBN: 1-85912-181-0, C606)[18]


Posix Threads

Table 11-30. libpthread - Posix Threads Function Interfaces

pthread_attr_destroy[18]pthread_attr_setstackaddr[18]pthread_getspecific[18]pthread_once[18]pthread_setcanceltype[18]
pthread_attr_getdetachstate[18]pthread_attr_setstacksize[18]pthread_join[18]pthread_rwlock_destroy[18]pthread_setconcurrency[18]
pthread_attr_getguardsize[18]pthread_cancel[18]pthread_key_create[18]pthread_rwlock_init[18]pthread_setschedparam[18]
pthread_attr_getinheritsched[18]pthread_cond_broadcast[18]pthread_key_delete[18]pthread_rwlock_rdlock[18]pthread_setspecific[18]
pthread_attr_getschedparam[18]pthread_cond_destroy[18]pthread_kill[18]pthread_rwlock_timedrdlock[18]pthread_sigmask[18]
pthread_attr_getschedpolicy[18]pthread_cond_init[18]pthread_mutex_destroy[18]pthread_rwlock_timedwrlock[18]pthread_testcancel[18]
pthread_attr_getscope[18]pthread_cond_signal[18]pthread_mutex_init[18]pthread_rwlock_tryrdlock[18]sem_close[18]
pthread_attr_getstackaddr[18]pthread_cond_timedwait[18]pthread_mutex_lock[18]pthread_rwlock_trywrlock[18]sem_destroy[18]
pthread_attr_getstacksize[18]pthread_cond_wait[18]pthread_mutex_trylock[18]pthread_rwlock_unlock[18]sem_getvalue[18]
pthread_attr_init[18]pthread_condattr_destroy[18]pthread_mutex_unlock[18]pthread_rwlock_wrlock[18]sem_init[18]
pthread_attr_setdetachstate[18]pthread_condattr_init[18]pthread_mutexattr_destroy[18]pthread_rwlockattr_destroy[18]sem_open[18]
pthread_attr_setguardsize[18]pthread_create[18]pthread_mutexattr_getpshared[18]pthread_rwlockattr_getpshared[18]sem_post[18]
pthread_attr_setinheritsched[18]pthread_detach[18]pthread_mutexattr_gettype[18]pthread_rwlockattr_init[18]sem_timedwait[17]
pthread_attr_setschedparam[18]pthread_equal[18]pthread_mutexattr_init[18]pthread_rwlockattr_setpshared[18]sem_trywait[18]
pthread_attr_setschedpolicy[18]pthread_exit[18]pthread_mutexattr_setpshared[18]pthread_self[18]sem_unlink[18]
pthread_attr_setscope[18]pthread_getschedparam[18]pthread_mutexattr_settype[18]pthread_setcancelstate[18]sem_wait[18]

Data Definitions for libpthread


pthread.h


#define PTHREAD_MUTEX_DEFAULT	1
#define PTHREAD_MUTEX_NORMAL	1
#define PTHREAD_MUTEX_TIMED_NP	1
#define PTHREAD_RWLOCK_INITIALIZER	1
#define PTHREAD_MUTEX_RECURSIVE	2
#define PTHREAD_MUTEX_ERRORCHECK	3
#define __LOCK_INITIALIZER	{ 0, 0 }
#define PTHREAD_MUTEX_INITIALIZER	{0,0,0,PTHREAD_MUTEX_TIMED_NP,__LOCK_INITIALIZER}
#define PTHREAD_COND_INITIALIZER	{__LOCK_INITIALIZER,0}


typedef unsigned int pthread_key_t;
typedef int pthread_once_t;
typedef int __atomic_lock_t;


typedef unsigned long pthread_t;
struct _pthread_fastlock
{
  long __status;
  __atomic_lock_t __spinlock;
}
 ;


typedef struct _pthread_descr_struct *_pthread_descr;


typedef struct
{
  int __m_reserved;
  int __m_count;
  _pthread_descr __m_owner;
  int __m_kind;
  struct _pthread_fastlock __m_lock;
}
pthread_mutex_t;
typedef struct
{
  int __mutexkind;
}
pthread_mutexattr_t;


typedef struct
{
  int __detachstate;
  int __schedpolicy;
  struct sched_param __schedparam;
  int __inheritsched;
  int __scope;
  size_t __guardsize;
  int __stackaddr_set;
  void *__stackaddr;
  unsigned long __stacksize;
}
pthread_attr_t;


typedef struct
{
  struct _pthread_fastlock lock;
  _pthread_descr wait_chain;
}
pthread_cond_t;
typedef void *pthread_condattr_t;


typedef struct _pthread_rwlock_t
{
  struct _pthread_fastlock __rw_lock;
  int __rw_readers;
  _pthread_descr __rw_writer;
  _pthread_descr __rw_read_waiting;
  _pthread_descr __rw_write_waiting;
  int __rw_kind;
  int __rw_pshared;
}
pthread_rwlock_t;
typedef struct
{
  int __lockkind;
  int __pshared;
}
pthread_rwlockattr_t;



#define PTHREAD_CREATE_JOINABLE	0
#define PTHREAD_INHERIT_SCHED	0
#define PTHREAD_ONCE_INIT	0
#define PTHREAD_PROCESS_PRIVATE	0
#define PTHREAD_SCOPE_SYSTEM	0
#define PTHREAD_CREATE_DETACHED	1
#define PTHREAD_EXPLICIT_SCHED	1
#define PTHREAD_PROCESS_SHARED	1
#define PTHREAD_SCOPE_PROCESS	1



#define PTHREAD_CANCELED	((void*)-1)
#define PTHREAD_CANCEL_DEFERRED	0
#define PTHREAD_CANCEL_ENABLE	0
#define PTHREAD_CANCEL_ASYNCHRONOUS	1
#define PTHREAD_CANCEL_DISABLE	1

semaphore.h






typedef struct
{
  struct _pthread_fastlock __sem_lock;
  int __sem_value;
  _pthread_descr __sem_waiting;
}
sem_t;
#define SEM_FAILED	((sem_t*)0)



#define SEM_VALUE_MAX	((int)((~0u)>>1))

signal.h


#define SIGRTMAX	(__libc_current_sigrtmax ())
#define SIGRTMIN	(__libc_current_sigrtmin ())
#define SIGEV_SIGNAL	0
#define SIG_BLOCK	0
#define SIG_UNBLOCK	1
#define SIGEV_THREAD	2
#define SIG_SETMASK	2
#define NSIG	64


typedef int sig_atomic_t;
struct sigstack
{
  void *ss_sp;
  int ss_onstack;
}
 ;
#define SIG_ERR	((__sighandler_t)-1)
#define SIG_DFL	((__sighandler_t)0)
#define SIG_IGN	((__sighandler_t)1)
#define SIGHUP	1
#define SIGSEGV	11
#define SIGPIPE	13
#define SIGALRM	14
#define SIGTERM	15
#define SIGINT	2
#define SIGPROF	27
#define SIGQUIT	3
#define SIGILL	4
#define SIGTRAP	5
#define SIGABRT	6
#define SIGIOT	6
#define SIGFPE	8
#define SIGKILL	9
#define SIGCLD	SIGCHLD
#define SIGPOLL	SIGIO





typedef void (*__sighandler_t) (void);
#define SV_ONSTACK	(1<<0)
#define SV_INTERRUPT	(1<<1)
#define SV_RESETHAND	(1<<2)


typedef union sigval
{
  int sival_int;
  void *sival_ptr;
}
sigval_t;
#define SIGEV_NONE	1


typedef struct sigevent
{
  sigval_t sigev_value;
  int sigev_signo;
  int sigev_notify;
  union
  {
    int _pad[SI_PAD_SIZE];
    struct
    {
      void (*sigev_thread_func) (void);
      void *_attribute;
    }
    _sigev_thread;
  }
  _sigev_un;
}
sigevent_t;
#define SI_QUEUE	-1
#define SI_TIMER	-2
#define SI_MESGQ	-3
#define SI_ASYNCIO	-4
#define SI_USER	0
#define si_pid	_sifields._kill._pid
#define si_uid	_sifields._kill._uid
#define si_value	_sifields._rt._sigval
#define si_int	_sifields._rt._sigval.sival_int
#define si_ptr	_sifields._rt._sigval.sival_ptr
#define si_status	_sifields._sigchld._status
#define si_stime	_sifields._sigchld._stime
#define si_utime	_sifields._sigchld._utime
#define si_addr	_sifields._sigfault._addr
#define si_band	_sifields._sigpoll._band
#define si_fd	_sifields._sigpoll._fd
#define si_timer1	_sifields._timer._timer1


typedef struct siginfo
{
  int si_signo;
  int si_errno;
  int si_code;
  union
  {
    int _pad[SI_PAD_SIZE];
    struct
    {
      pid_t _pid;
      uid_t _uid;
    }
    _kill;
    struct
    {
      unsigned int _timer1;
      unsigned int _timer2;
    }
    _timer;
    struct
    {
      pid_t _pid;
      uid_t _uid;
      sigval_t _sigval;
    }
    _rt;
    struct
    {
      pid_t _pid;
      uid_t _uid;
      int _status;
      clock_t _utime;
      clock_t _stime;
    }
    _sigchld;
    struct
    {
      void *_addr;
    }
    _sigfault;
    struct
    {
      int _band;
      int _fd;
    }
    _sigpoll;
  }
  _sifields;
}
siginfo_t;


typedef struct
{
  unsigned long sig[_SIGSET_NWORDS];
}
sigset_t;
#define SA_NOCLDSTOP	0x00000001
#define SA_NOCLDWAIT	0x00000002
#define SA_SIGINFO	0x00000004
#define SA_ONSTACK	0x08000000
#define SA_RESTART	0x10000000
#define SA_INTERRUPT	0x20000000
#define SA_NODEFER	0x40000000
#define SA_RESETHAND	0x80000000
#define SA_NOMASK	SA_NODEFER
#define SA_ONESHOT	SA_RESETHAND


struct sigaction
{
  union
  {
    __sighandler_t _sa_handler;
    void (*_sa_sigaction) (void);
  }
  __sigaction_handler;
  unsigned long sa_flags;
  void (*sa_restorer) (void);
  sigset_t sa_mask;
}
 ;


typedef struct sigaltstack
{
  void *ss_sp;
  int ss_flags;
  size_t ss_size;
}
stack_t;

Interfaces Definitions for libpthread

Table of Contents
sem_timedwait -- operation on semaphore

sem_timedwait

Name

sem_timedwait -- operation on semaphore

Description

sem_timedwait() waits for semaphore object SEM being posted. It is a new function from IEEE Std. 1003.1-200x that is similar to sem_wait but waits only until ABSTIME.


Data Definitions for libdl


dlfcn.h


#define RTLD_LOCAL	0
#define RTLD_LAZY	0x00001
#define RTLD_NOW	0x00002
#define RTLD_GLOBAL	0x00100


typedef struct
{
  char *dli_fname;
  void *dli_fbase;
  char *dli_sname;
  void *dli_saddr;
}
Dl_info;

Interfaces Definitions for libdl

Table of Contents
dladdr -- library routine for dynamic linking of object files

dladdr

Name

dladdr -- library routine for dynamic linking of object files

Description

This function implements the System V dynamic linking routines.

The dladdr() function is the inverse of the dlsym() function. If the given address is successfully located inside a module, dladdr() returns nonzero, otherwise 0. On a successful return, the fields of dlip are filled in as follows:

dli_fname

the pathname of the module

dli_fbase

the base address of the module

dli_sname

the name of the highest addressed symbol whose address precedes the given address

dli_saddr

the address of that symbol

Shared objects must be linked using the -shared option to the linker ld(1). The linker flag -rpath may be used to add a directory to the default search path for shared objects and shared libraries. The linker flag -E or the C compiler flag -rdynamic should be used to cause the application to export its symbols to the shared objects.

Environment

LD_LIBRARY_PATH

directory search-path for object files


Data Definitions for libcrypt


unistd.h


#define SEEK_SET	0
#define STDIN_FILENO	0
#define SEEK_CUR	1
#define STDOUT_FILENO	1
#define SEEK_END	2
#define STDERR_FILENO	2


typedef long long off64_t;
typedef int *intptr_t;
#define F_OK	0
#define X_OK	1
#define W_OK	2
#define R_OK	4



#define _POSIX_ASYNCHRONOUS_IO	1
#define _POSIX_FSYNC	1
#define _POSIX_MAPPED_FILES	1
#define _POSIX_MEMLOCK	1
#define _POSIX_MEMLOCK_RANGE	1
#define _POSIX_MEMORY_PROTECTION	1
#define _POSIX_MESSAGE_PASSING	1
#define _POSIX_PRIORITY_SCHEDULING	1
#define _POSIX_REALTIME_SIGNALS	1
#define _POSIX_SEMAPHORES	1
#define _POSIX_SHARED_MEMORY_OBJECTS	1
#define _POSIX_SYNCHRONIZED_IO	1
#define _POSIX_TIMERS	1
#define _POSIX2_C_VERSION	199209L
#define _POSIX2_VERSION	199209L
#define _POSIX_VERSION	199506L



#define _PC_LINK_MAX	0
#define _PC_MAX_CANON	1
#define _PC_ASYNC_IO	10
#define _PC_PRIO_IO	11
#define _PC_FILESIZEBITS	13
#define _PC_MAX_INPUT	2
#define _PC_NAME_MAX	3
#define _PC_PATH_MAX	4
#define _PC_PIPE_BUF	5
#define _PC_CHOWN_RESTRICTED	6
#define _PC_NO_TRUNC	7
#define _PC_VDISABLE	8
#define _PC_SYNC_IO	9



#define _SC_ARG_MAX	0
#define _SC_CHILD_MAX	1
#define _SC_PRIORITY_SCHEDULING	10
#define _SC_TIMERS	11
#define _SC_ASYNCHRONOUS_IO	12
#define _SC_XBS5_ILP32_OFF32	125
#define _SC_XBS5_ILP32_OFFBIG	126
#define _SC_XBS5_LP64_OFF64	127
#define _SC_XBS5_LPBIG_OFFBIG	128
#define _SC_XOPEN_LEGACY	129
#define _SC_PRIORITIZED_IO	13
#define _SC_XOPEN_REALTIME	130
#define _SC_SYNCHRONIZED_IO	14
#define _SC_MAPPED_FILES	16
#define _SC_MEMLOCK	17
#define _SC_MEMLOCK_RANGE	18
#define _SC_MEMORY_PROTECTION	19
#define _SC_CLK_TCK	2
#define _SC_MESSAGE_PASSING	20
#define _SC_SEMAPHORES	21
#define _SC_SHARED_MEMORY_OBJECTS	22
#define _SC_AIO_LISTIO_MAX	23
#define _SC_AIO_MAX	24
#define _SC_AIO_PRIO_DELTA_MAX	25
#define _SC_DELAYTIMER_MAX	26
#define _SC_MQ_OPEN_MAX	27
#define _SC_MQ_PRIO_MAX	28
#define _SC_VERSION	29
#define _SC_NGROUPS_MAX	3
#define _SC_PAGESIZE	30
#define _SC_RTSIG_MAX	31
#define _SC_SEM_NSEMS_MAX	32
#define _SC_SEM_VALUE_MAX	33
#define _SC_SIGQUEUE_MAX	34
#define _SC_TIMER_MAX	35
#define _SC_BC_BASE_MAX	36
#define _SC_BC_DIM_MAX	37
#define _SC_BC_SCALE_MAX	38
#define _SC_BC_STRING_MAX	39
#define _SC_OPEN_MAX	4
#define _SC_COLL_WEIGHTS_MAX	40
#define _SC_EXPR_NEST_MAX	42
#define _SC_LINE_MAX	43
#define _SC_RE_DUP_MAX	44
#define _SC_2_VERSION	46
#define _SC_2_C_BIND	47
#define _SC_2_C_DEV	48
#define _SC_2_FORT_DEV	49
#define _SC_STREAM_MAX	5
#define _SC_2_FORT_RUN	50
#define _SC_2_SW_DEV	51
#define _SC_2_LOCALEDEF	52
#define _SC_TZNAME_MAX	6
#define _SC_THREADS	67
#define _SC_THREAD_SAFE_FUNCTIONS	68
#define _SC_JOB_CONTROL	7
#define _SC_THREAD_DESTRUCTOR_ITERATIONS	73
#define _SC_THREAD_KEYS_MAX	74
#define _SC_THREAD_STACK_MIN	75
#define _SC_THREAD_THREADS_MAX	76
#define _SC_THREAD_ATTR_STACKADDR	77
#define _SC_THREAD_ATTR_STACKSIZE	78
#define _SC_THREAD_PRIORITY_SCHEDULING	79
#define _SC_SAVED_IDS	8
#define _SC_THREAD_PRIO_INHERIT	80
#define _SC_THREAD_PRIO_PROTECT	81
#define _SC_THREAD_PROCESS_SHARED	82
#define _SC_PASS_MAX	88
#define _SC_XOPEN_VERSION	89
#define _SC_REALTIME_SIGNALS	9
#define _SC_XOPEN_CRYPT	92
#define _SC_XOPEN_ENH_I18N	93
#define _SC_XOPEN_SHM	94
#define _SC_2_C_VERSION	96
#define _SC_2_UPE	97



#define _CS_PATH	0
#define _CS_XBS5_ILP32_OFF32_CFLAGS	1100
#define _CS_XBS5_ILP32_OFF32_LDFLAGS	1101
#define _CS_XBS5_ILP32_OFF32_LIBS	1102
#define _CS_XBS5_ILP32_OFF32_LINTFLAGS	1103
#define _CS_XBS5_ILP32_OFFBIG_CFLAGS	1104
#define _CS_XBS5_ILP32_OFFBIG_LDFLAGS	1105
#define _CS_XBS5_ILP32_OFFBIG_LIBS	1106
#define _CS_XBS5_ILP32_OFFBIG_LINTFLAGS	1107
#define _CS_XBS5_LP64_OFF64_CFLAGS	1108
#define _CS_XBS5_LP64_OFF64_LDFLAGS	1109
#define _CS_XBS5_LP64_OFF64_LIBS	1110
#define _CS_XBS5_LP64_OFF64_LINTFLAGS	1111
#define _CS_XBS5_LPBIG_OFFBIG_CFLAGS	1112
#define _CS_XBS5_LPBIG_OFFBIG_LDFLAGS	1113
#define _CS_XBS5_LPBIG_OFFBIG_LIBS	1114
#define _CS_XBS5_LPBIG_OFFBIG_LINTFLAGS	1115



#define _XOPEN_REALTIME	1
#define _XOPEN_XPG4	1
#define _XOPEN_XCU_VERSION	4
#define _XOPEN_VERSION	500

Chapter 12. Libraries

An LSB-conforming implementation may also support some utility libraries which are built on top of the interfaces provided by the base libraries. These libraries implement common functionality, and hide additional system dependent information such as file formats and device names.


Data Definitions for libz


zlib.h






typedef void *voidpf;
typedef unsigned int uInt;
typedef unsigned long uLong;
typedef uLong uLongf;
typedef void *voidp;
typedef unsigned char Byte;


typedef voidpf (*alloc_func) (voidpf opaque, uInt items, uInt size);
typedef void (*free_func) (voidpf opaque, voidpf address);
struct internal_state
{
  int dummy;
}
 ;
typedef Byte Bytef;


typedef struct z_stream_s
{
  Bytef *next_in;
  uInt avail_in;
  uLong total_in;
  Bytef *next_out;
  uInt avail_out;
  uLong total_out;
  char *msg;
  struct internal_state *state;
  alloc_func zalloc;
  free_func zfree;
  voidpf opaque;
  int data_type;
  uLong adler;
  uLong reserved;
}
z_stream;


typedef z_stream *z_streamp;
typedef voidp gzFile;

Interfaces for libncurses

The behavior of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following standards.

CAE Specification, May 1996, X/Open Curses, Issue 4, Version 2 (ISBN: 1-85912-171-3, C610), plus Corrigendum U018[23]


Curses

Table 12-4. libncurses - Curses Function Interfaces

addch[23]has_ic[23]mvwaddch[23]scr_dump[23]waddchnstr[23]
addchnstr[23]has_il[23]mvwaddchnstr[23]scr_init[23]waddchstr[23]
addchstr[23]hline[23]mvwaddchstr[23]scr_restore[23]waddnstr[23]
addnstr[23]idcok[23]mvwaddnstr[23]scr_set[23]waddstr[23]
addstr[23]idlok[23]mvwaddstr[23]scrl[23]wattr_get[23]
attr_get[23]immedok[23]mvwchgat[23]scroll[23]wattr_off[23]
attr_off[23]inch[23]mvwdelch[23]scrollok[23]wattr_on[23]
attr_on[23]inchnstr[23]mvwgetch[23]set_term[23]wattr_set[23]
attr_set[23]inchstr[23]mvwgetnstr[23]setscrreg[23]wattroff[23]
attroff[23]init_color[23]mvwgetstr[23]setupterm[23]wattron[23]
attron[23]init_pair[23]mvwhline[23]slk_attr_set[23]wattrset[23]
attrset[23]initscr[23]mvwin[23]slk_attroff[23]wbkgd[23]
baudrate[23]innstr[23]mvwinch[23]slk_attron[23]wbkgdset[23]
beep[23]insch[23]mvwinchnstr[23]slk_attrset[23]wborder[23]
bkgd[23]insdelln[23]mvwinchstr[23]slk_clear[23]wchgat[23]
bkgdset[23]insertln[23]mvwinnstr[23]slk_color[23]wclear[23]
border[23]insnstr[23]mvwinsch[23]slk_init[23]wclrtobot[23]
box[23]insstr[23]mvwinsnstr[23]slk_label[23]wclrtoeol[23]
can_change_color[23]instr[23]mvwinsstr[23]slk_noutrefresh[23]wcolor_set[23]
cbreak[23]intrflush[23]mvwinstr[23]slk_refresh[23]wcursyncup[23]
chgat[23]is_linetouched[23]mvwprintw[23]slk_restore[23]wdelch[23]
clear[23]is_wintouched[23]mvwscanw[23]slk_set[23]wdeleteln[23]
clearok[23]isendwin[23]mvwvline[23]slk_touch[23]wechochar[23]
clrtobot[23]keyname[23]napms[23]standend[23]werase[23]
clrtoeol[23]keypad[23]newpad[23]standout[23]wgetch[23]
color_content[23]killchar[23]newterm[23]start_color[23]wgetnstr[23]
color_set[23]leaveok[23]newwin[23]subpad[23]wgetstr[23]
copywin[23]longname[23]nl[23]subwin[23]whline[23]
curs_set[23]meta[23]nocbreak[23]syncok[23]winch[23]
def_prog_mode[23]move[23]nodelay[23]termattrs[23]winchnstr[23]
def_shell_mode[23]mvaddch[23]noecho[23]termname[23]winchstr[23]
delay_output[23]mvaddchnstr[23]nonl[23]tgetent[23]winnstr[23]
delch[23]mvaddchstr[23]noqiflush[23]tgetflag[23]winsch[23]
deleteln[23]mvaddnstr[23]noraw[23]tgetnum[23]winsdelln[23]
delscreen[23]mvaddstr[23]notimeout[23]tgetstr[23]winsertln[23]
delwin[23]mvchgat[23]overlay[23]tgoto[23]winsnstr[23]
derwin[23]mvcur[23]overwrite[23]tigetflag[23]winsstr[23]
doupdate[23]mvdelch[23]pair_content[23]tigetnum[23]winstr[23]
dupwin[23]mvderwin[23]pechochar[23]tigetstr[23]wmove[23]
echo[23]mvgetch[23]pnoutrefresh[23]timeout[23]wnoutrefresh[23]
echochar[23]mvgetnstr[23]prefresh[23]tparm[23]wprintw[23]
endwin[23]mvgetstr[23]printw[23]tputs[23]wredrawln[23]
erase[23]mvhline[23]putp[23]typeahead[23]wrefresh[23]
erasechar[23]mvinch[23]putwin[23]ungetch[23]wscanw[23]
filter[23]mvinchnstr[23]qiflush[23]untouchwin[23]wscrl[23]
flash[23]mvinchstr[23]raw[23]use_env[23]wsetscrreg[23]
flushinp[23]mvinnstr[23]redrawwin[23]vidattr[23]wstandend[23]
getbkgd[23]mvinsch[23]refresh[23]vidputs[23]wstandout[23]
getch[23]mvinsnstr[23]reset_prog_mode[23]vline[23]wsyncdown[23]
getnstr[23]mvinsstr[23]reset_shell_mode[23]vw_printw[23]wsyncup[23]
getstr[23]mvinstr[23]resetty[23]vw_scanw[23]wtimeout[23]
getwin[23]mvprintw[23]ripoffline[23]vwprintw[23]wtouchln[23]
halfdelay[23]mvscanw[23]savetty[23]vwscanw[23]wvline[23]
has_colors[23]mvvline[23]scanw[23]waddch[23] 

Data Definitions for libncurses


curses.h


#define NCURSES_BITS(mask,shift)	((mask)<<((shift)+8))
#define A_CHARTEXT	(NCURSES_BITS(1UL,0)-1UL)
#define A_NORMAL	0L
#define A_COLOR	NCURSES_BITS(((1UL)<<8)-1UL,0)
#define A_REVERSE	NCURSES_BITS(1UL,10)
#define A_BLINK	NCURSES_BITS(1UL,11)
#define A_DIM	NCURSES_BITS(1UL,12)
#define A_BOLD	NCURSES_BITS(1UL,13)
#define A_ALTCHARSET	NCURSES_BITS(1UL,14)
#define A_INVIS	NCURSES_BITS(1UL,15)
#define A_PROTECT	NCURSES_BITS(1UL,16)
#define A_HORIZONTAL	NCURSES_BITS(1UL,17)
#define A_LEFT	NCURSES_BITS(1UL,18)
#define A_LOW	NCURSES_BITS(1UL,19)
#define A_RIGHT	NCURSES_BITS(1UL,20)
#define A_TOP	NCURSES_BITS(1UL,21)
#define A_VERTICAL	NCURSES_BITS(1UL,22)
#define A_STANDOUT	NCURSES_BITS(1UL,8)
#define A_UNDERLINE	NCURSES_BITS(1UL,9)
#define A_ATTRIBUTES	NCURSES_BITS(~(1UL-1UL),0)



#define WA_ALTCHARSET	A_ALTCHARSET
#define WA_ATTRIBUTES	A_ATTRIBUTES
#define WA_BLINK	A_BLINK
#define WA_BOLD	A_BOLD
#define WA_DIM	A_DIM
#define WA_HORIZONTAL	A_HORIZONTAL
#define WA_INVIS	A_INVIS
#define WA_LEFT	A_LEFT
#define WA_LOW	A_LOW
#define WA_NORMAL	A_NORMAL
#define WA_PROTECT	A_PROTECT
#define WA_REVERSE	A_REVERSE
#define WA_RIGHT	A_RIGHT
#define WA_STANDOUT	A_STANDOUT
#define WA_TOP	A_TOP
#define WA_UNDERLINE	A_UNDERLINE
#define WA_VERTICAL	A_VERTICAL



#define COLOR_BLACK	0
#define COLOR_RED	1
#define COLOR_GREEN	2
#define COLOR_YELLOW	3
#define COLOR_BLUE	4
#define COLOR_MAGENTA	5
#define COLOR_CYAN	6
#define COLOR_WHITE	7



#define _SUBWIN	0x01
#define _ENDLINE	0x02
#define _FULLWIN	0x04
#define _ISPAD	0x10
#define _HASMOVED	0x20
#define TRACE_MAXIMUM	0xffff





typedef unsigned long chtype;
typedef char bool;
typedef struct screen SCREEN;
typedef struct _win_st WINDOW;
typedef chtype attr_t;
typedef struct
{
  attr_t attr;
  wchar_t chars[5];
}
cchar_t;
struct pdat
{
  short _pad_y;
  short _pad_x;
  short _pad_top;
  short _pad_left;
  short _pad_bottom;
  short _pad_right;
}
 ;


struct _win_st
{
  short _cury;
  short _curx;
  short _maxy;
  short _maxx;
  short _begy;
  short _begx;
  short _flags;
  attr_t _attrs;
  chtype _bkgd;
  bool _notimeout;
  bool _clear;
  bool _leaveok;
  bool _scroll;
  bool _idlok;
  bool _idcok;
  bool _immed;
  bool _sync;
  bool _use_keypad;
  int _delay;
  struct ldat *_line;
  short _regtop;
  short _regbottom;
  int _parx;
  int _pary;
  WINDOW *_parent;
  struct pdat _pad;
  short _yoffset;
  cchar_t _bkgrnd;
}
 ;
#define KEY_CODE_YES	0400
#define KEY_BREAK	0401
#define KEY_MIN	0401
#define KEY_DOWN	0402
#define KEY_UP	0403
#define KEY_LEFT	0404
#define KEY_RIGHT	0405
#define KEY_HOME	0406
#define KEY_BACKSPACE	0407
#define KEY_F0	0410
#define KEY_DL	0510
#define KEY_IL	0511
#define KEY_DC	0512
#define KEY_IC	0513
#define KEY_EIC	0514
#define KEY_CLEAR	0515
#define KEY_EOS	0516
#define KEY_EOL	0517
#define KEY_SF	0520
#define KEY_SR	0521
#define KEY_NPAGE	0522
#define KEY_PPAGE	0523
#define KEY_STAB	0524
#define KEY_CTAB	0525
#define KEY_CATAB	0526
#define KEY_ENTER	0527
#define KEY_SRESET	0530
#define KEY_RESET	0531
#define KEY_PRINT	0532
#define KEY_LL	0533
#define KEY_A1	0534
#define KEY_A3	0535
#define KEY_B2	0536
#define KEY_C1	0537
#define KEY_C3	0540
#define KEY_BTAB	0541
#define KEY_BEG	0542
#define KEY_CANCEL	0543
#define KEY_CLOSE	0544
#define KEY_COMMAND	0545
#define KEY_COPY	0546
#define KEY_CREATE	0547
#define KEY_END	0550
#define KEY_EXIT	0551
#define KEY_FIND	0552
#define KEY_HELP	0553
#define KEY_MARK	0554
#define KEY_MESSAGE	0555
#define KEY_MOVE	0556
#define KEY_NEXT	0557
#define KEY_OPEN	0560
#define KEY_OPTIONS	0561
#define KEY_PREVIOUS	0562
#define KEY_REDO	0563
#define KEY_REFERENCE	0564
#define KEY_REFRESH	0565
#define KEY_REPLACE	0566
#define KEY_RESTART	0567
#define KEY_RESUME	0570
#define KEY_SAVE	0571
#define KEY_SBEG	0572
#define KEY_SCANCEL	0573
#define KEY_SCOMMAND	0574
#define KEY_SCOPY	0575
#define KEY_SCREATE	0576
#define KEY_SDC	0577
#define KEY_SDL	0600
#define KEY_SELECT	0601
#define KEY_SEND	0602
#define KEY_SEOL	0603
#define KEY_SEXIT	0604
#define KEY_SFIND	0605
#define KEY_SHELP	0606
#define KEY_SHOME	0607
#define KEY_SIC	0610
#define KEY_SLEFT	0611
#define KEY_SMESSAGE	0612
#define KEY_SMOVE	0613
#define KEY_SNEXT	0614
#define KEY_SOPTIONS	0615
#define KEY_SPREVIOUS	0616
#define KEY_SPRINT	0617
#define KEY_SREDO	0620
#define KEY_SREPLACE	0621
#define KEY_SRIGHT	0622
#define KEY_SRSUME	0623
#define KEY_SSAVE	0624
#define KEY_SSUSPEND	0625
#define KEY_SUNDO	0626
#define KEY_SUSPEND	0627
#define KEY_UNDO	0630
#define KEY_MOUSE	0631
#define KEY_RESIZE	0632
#define KEY_MAX	0777

Data Definitions for libutil


utmp.h


#define UT_HOSTSIZE	256
#define UT_LINESIZE	32
#define UT_NAMESIZE	32


struct exit_status
{
  short e_termination;
  short e_exit;
}
 ;
struct lastlog
{
  timer_t ll_time;
  char ll_line[UT_LINESIZE];
  char ll_host[UT_HOSTSIZE];
}
 ;


struct utmp
{
  short ut_type;
  pid_t ut_pid;
  char ut_line[UT_LINESIZE];
  char ut_id[4];
  char ut_user[UT_NAMESIZE];
  char ut_host[UT_HOSTSIZE];
  struct exit_status ut_exit;
  long ut_session;
  struct timeval ut_tv;
  int32_t ut_addr_v6[4];
  char __unused[20];
}
 ;
#define EMPTY	0
#define RUN_LVL	1
#define BOOT_TIME	2
#define NEW_TIME	3
#define OLD_TIME	4
#define INIT_PROCESS	5
#define LOGIN_PROCESS	6
#define USER_PROCESS	7
#define DEAD_PROCESS	8
#define ACCOUNTING	9

Interfaces Definitions for libutil

Table of Contents
forkpty -- find and open an available pseudo-tty
login -- login utility function
login_tty -- find and open an available pseudo-tty
logout -- logout utility function
logwtmp -- append an entry to the wtmp file
openpty -- find and open an available pseudo-tty

forkpty

Name

forkpty -- find and open an available pseudo-tty

Description

The forkpty() function joins openpty(), fork(), and login_tty() to create a new process operating on a pseudo-tty. The file descriptor of the master side of the pseudo-tty is returned in amaster, and null or the filename of the slave in name. If non-null, the termp and winp parameters will determine the terminal attributes and window size of the slave side of the pseudo-tty.

Return Value

On success of the child process, zero is returned. When the parent process receives the PID of its child process, pid is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

login

Name

login -- login utility function

Description

The login() function updates the /var/run/utmp and /var/log/wtmp files with user information contained in ut.

login_tty

Name

login_tty -- find and open an available pseudo-tty

Description

login_tty() sets up for a login on the tty referenced by the file descriptor fdr. This function creates a new session, makes the tty for the current process the controlling terminal, sets the standard input, output, and error streams of the current process, and closes fdr.

Return Value

On success, zero is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

logout

Name

logout -- logout utility function

Description

Given the device line, the logout() function removes the entry from the corresponding /var/run/utmp system file.

Return Value

Zero is returned if there was no entry to remove. A non-zero return value indicates success.

logwtmp

Name

logwtmp -- append an entry to the wtmp file

Description

logwtmp() constructs an utmp structure using line, name, host, current time and current process id. Then it calls updwtmp() to append the structure to the utmp file.

Availability

Both functions are available under glibc2, but not under libc5. However, logwtmp occurs in the old libbsd.

Files

/var/log/wtmp database of past user logins

openpty

Name

openpty -- find and open an available pseudo-tty

Description

The openpty() function finds an available pseudo-tty and returns file descriptors for the amaster and aslave. The filename of the slave is returned in name, otherwise a null. The terminal parameters of the slave will be set to the values in termp, otherwise a null. The window size of the slave will be set to the values in winp, otherwise a null.

Return Value

On success, zero is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

Errors

ENOENT

There are no available ttys.


Chapter 13. Libraries

The X Libraries should be built thread-safe.


Interfaces for libX11

The behavior of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following standards.

X11R6.4 Xlib - C library[25]


X Windows System Interface

Table 13-2. libX11 - X Windows System Interface Function Interfaces

XActivateScreenSaver[25]XESetWireToEvent[25]XOffsetRegion[25]XTextWidth[25]XkbFreeComponentList[25]
XAddConnectionWatch[25]XEmptyRegion[25]XOpenDisplay[25]XTextWidth16[25]XkbFreeControls[25]
XAddExtension[25]XEnableAccessControl[25]XOpenIM[25]XTranslateCoordinates[25]XkbFreeGeomColors[25]
XAddHost[25]XEqualRegion[25]XOpenOM[25]XUndefineCursor[25]XkbFreeGeomDoodads[25]
XAddHosts[25]XEventMaskOfScreen[25]XParseColor[25]XUngrabButton[25]XkbFreeGeomKeyAliases[25]
XAddPixel[25]XEventsQueued[25]XParseGeometry[25]XUngrabKey[25]XkbFreeGeomKeys[25]
XAddToExtensionList[25]XExtendedMaxRequestSize[25]XPeekEvent[25]XUngrabKeyboard[25]XkbFreeGeomOutlines[25]
XAddToSaveSet[25]XExtentsOfFontSet[25]XPeekIfEvent[25]XUngrabPointer[25]XkbFreeGeomOverlayKeys[25]
XAllPlanes[25]XFetchBuffer[25]XPending[25]XUngrabServer[25]XkbFreeGeomOverlayRows[25]
XAllocClassHint[25]XFetchBytes[25]XPlanesOfScreen[25]XUninstallColormap[25]XkbFreeGeomOverlays[25]
XAllocColor[25]XFetchName[25]XPointInRegion[25]XUnionRectWithRegion[25]XkbFreeGeomPoints[25]
XAllocColorCells[25]XFillArc[25]XPolygonRegion[25]XUnionRegion[25]XkbFreeGeomProperties[25]
XAllocColorPlanes[25]XFillArcs[25]XProcessInternalConnection[25]XUnloadFont[25]XkbFreeGeomRows[25]
XAllocIconSize[25]XFillPolygon[25]XProtocolRevision[25]XUnlockDisplay[25]XkbFreeGeomSections[25]
XAllocNamedColor[25]XFillRectangle[25]XProtocolVersion[25]XUnmapSubwindows[25]XkbFreeGeomShapes[25]
XAllocSizeHints[25]XFillRectangles[25]XPutBackEvent[25]XUnmapWindow[25]XkbFreeGeometry[25]
XAllocStandardColormap[25]XFilterEvent[25]XPutImage[25]XUnregisterIMInstantiateCallback[25]XkbFreeIndicatorMaps[25]
XAllocWMHints[25]XFindContext[25]XPutPixel[25]XUnsetICFocus[25]XkbFreeKeyboard[25]
XAllowEvents[25]XFindOnExtensionList[25]XQLength[25]XVaCreateNestedList[25]XkbFreeNames[25]
XAutoRepeatOff[25]XFlush[25]XQueryBestCursor[25]XVendorRelease[25]XkbFreeServerMap[25]
XAutoRepeatOn[25]XFlushGC[25]XQueryBestSize[25]XVisualIDFromVisual[25]XkbGetAutoRepeatRate[25]
XBaseFontNameListOfFontSet[25]XFontsOfFontSet[25]XQueryBestStipple[25]XWMGeometry[25]XkbGetCompatMap[25]
XBell[25]XForceScreenSaver[25]XQueryBestTile[25]XWarpPointer[25]XkbGetControls[25]
XBitmapBitOrder[25]XFree[25]XQueryColor[25]XWhitePixel[25]XkbGetGeometry[25]
XBitmapPad[25]XFreeColormap[25]XQueryColors[25]XWhitePixelOfScreen[25]XkbGetIndicatorMap[25]
XBitmapUnit[25]XFreeColors[25]XQueryExtension[25]XWidthMMOfScreen[25]XkbGetIndicatorState[25]
XBlackPixel[25]XFreeCursor[25]XQueryFont[25]XWidthOfScreen[25]XkbGetKeyActions[25]
XBlackPixelOfScreen[25]XFreeExtensionList[25]XQueryKeymap[25]XWindowEvent[25]XkbGetKeyBehaviors[25]
XCellsOfScreen[25]XFreeFont[25]XQueryPointer[25]XWithdrawWindow[25]XkbGetKeyExplicitComponents[25]
XChangeActivePointerGrab[25]XFreeFontInfo[25]XQueryTextExtents[25]XWriteBitmapFile[25]XkbGetKeyModifierMap[25]
XChangeGC[25]XFreeFontNames[25]XQueryTextExtents16[25]XXorRegion[25]XkbGetKeySyms[25]
XChangeKeyboardControl[25]XFreeFontPath[25]XQueryTree[25]XauDisposeAuth[25]XkbGetKeyTypes[25]
XChangeKeyboardMapping[25]XFreeFontSet[25]XRaiseWindow[25]XauFileName[25]XkbGetKeyboard[25]
XChangePointerControl[25]XFreeGC[25]XReadBitmapFile[25]XauGetBestAuthByAddr[25]XkbGetKeyboardByName[25]
XChangeProperty[25]XFreeModifiermap[25]XReadBitmapFileData[25]XauReadAuth[25]XkbGetMap[25]
XChangeSaveSet[25]XFreePixmap[25]XRebindKeysym[25]XcmsAddColorSpace[25]XkbGetMapChanges[25]
XChangeWindowAttributes[25]XFreeStringList[25]XRecolorCursor[25]XcmsAddFunctionSet[25]XkbGetNamedGeometry[25]
XCheckIfEvent[25]XGContextFromGC[25]XReconfigureWMWindow[25]XcmsAllocColor[25]XkbGetNamedIndicator[25]
XCheckMaskEvent[25]XGeometry[25]XRectInRegion[25]XcmsAllocNamedColor[25]XkbGetNames[25]
XCheckTypedEvent[25]XGetAtomName[25]XRefreshKeyboardMapping[25]XcmsCCCOfColormap[25]XkbGetState[25]
XCheckTypedWindowEvent[25]XGetAtomNames[25]XRegisterIMInstantiateCallback[25]XcmsCIELabClipL[25]XkbGetUpdatedMap[25]
XCheckWindowEvent[25]XGetClassHint[25]XRemoveConnectionWatch[25]XcmsCIELabClipLab[25]XkbGetVirtualMods[25]
XCirculateSubwindows[25]XGetCommand[25]XRemoveFromSaveSet[25]XcmsCIELabClipab[25]XkbGetXlibControls[25]
XCirculateSubwindowsDown[25]XGetDefault[25]XRemoveHost[25]XcmsCIELabQueryMaxC[25]XkbIgnoreExtension[25]
XCirculateSubwindowsUp[25]XGetErrorDatabaseText[25]XRemoveHosts[25]XcmsCIELabQueryMaxL[25]XkbInitCanonicalKeyTypes[25]
XClearArea[25]XGetErrorText[25]XReparentWindow[25]XcmsCIELabQueryMaxLC[25]XkbKeyTypesForCoreSymbols[25]
XClearWindow[25]XGetFontPath[25]XResetScreenSaver[25]XcmsCIELabQueryMinL[25]XkbKeycodeToKeysym[25]
XClipBox[25]XGetFontProperty[25]XResizeWindow[25]XcmsCIELabToCIEXYZ[25]XkbKeysymToModifiers[25]
XCloseDisplay[25]XGetGCValues[25]XResourceManagerString[25]XcmsCIELabWhiteShiftColors[25]XkbLatchGroup[25]
XCloseIM[25]XGetGeometry[25]XRestackWindows[25]XcmsCIELuvClipL[25]XkbLatchModifiers[25]
XCloseOM[25]XGetICValues[25]XRootWindow[25]XcmsCIELuvClipLuv[25]XkbLibraryVersion[25]
XConfigureWindow[25]XGetIMValues[25]XRootWindowOfScreen[25]XcmsCIELuvClipuv[25]XkbListComponents[25]
XConnectionNumber[25]XGetIconName[25]XRotateBuffers[25]XcmsCIELuvQueryMaxC[25]XkbLockGroup[25]
XContextDependentDrawing[25]XGetIconSizes[25]XRotateWindowProperties[25]XcmsCIELuvQueryMaxL[25]XkbLockModifiers[25]
XContextualDrawing[25]XGetImage[25]XSaveContext[25]XcmsCIELuvQueryMaxLC[25]XkbLookupKeyBinding[25]
XConvertCase[25]XGetInputFocus[25]XScreenCount[25]XcmsCIELuvQueryMinL[25]XkbLookupKeySym[25]
XConvertSelection[25]XGetKeyboardControl[25]XScreenNumberOfScreen[25]XcmsCIELuvToCIEuvY[25]XkbNoteControlsChanges[25]
XCopyArea[25]XGetKeyboardMapping[25]XScreenOfDisplay[25]XcmsCIELuvWhiteShiftColors[25]XkbNoteMapChanges[25]
XCopyColormapAndFree[25]XGetModifierMapping[25]XScreenResourceString[25]XcmsCIEXYZToCIELab[25]XkbNoteNameChanges[25]
XCopyGC[25]XGetMotionEvents[25]XSelectInput[25]XcmsCIEXYZToCIEuvY[25]XkbOpenDisplay[25]
XCopyPlane[25]XGetNormalHints[25]XSendEvent[25]XcmsCIEXYZToCIExyY[25]XkbQueryExtension[25]
XCreateBitmapFromData[25]XGetOCValues[25]XServerVendor[25]XcmsCIEXYZToRGBi[25]XkbRefreshKeyboardMapping[25]
XCreateColormap[25]XGetOMValues[25]XSetAccessControl[25]XcmsCIEuvYToCIELuv[25]XkbResizeKeyActions[25]
XCreateFontCursor[25]XGetPixel[25]XSetAfterFunction[25]XcmsCIEuvYToCIEXYZ[25]XkbResizeKeySyms[25]
XCreateFontSet[25]XGetPointerControl[25]XSetArcMode[25]XcmsCIEuvYToTekHVC[25]XkbResizeKeyType[25]
XCreateGC[25]XGetPointerMapping[25]XSetAuthorization[25]XcmsCIExyYToCIEXYZ[25]XkbSelectEventDetails[25]
XCreateGlyphCursor[25]XGetRGBColormaps[25]XSetBackground[25]XcmsClientWhitePointOfCCC[25]XkbSelectEvents[25]
XCreateIC[25]XGetScreenSaver[25]XSetClassHint[25]XcmsConvertColors[25]XkbSetAtomFuncs[25]
XCreateImage[25]XGetSelectionOwner[25]XSetClipMask[25]XcmsCreateCCC[25]XkbSetAutoRepeatRate[25]
XCreateOC[25]XGetSizeHints[25]XSetClipOrigin[25]XcmsDefaultCCC[25]XkbSetAutoResetControls[25]
XCreatePixmap[25]XGetStandardColormap[25]XSetClipRectangles[25]XcmsDisplayOfCCC[25]XkbSetCompatMap[25]
XCreatePixmapCursor[25]XGetSubImage[25]XSetCloseDownMode[25]XcmsFormatOfPrefix[25]XkbSetControls[25]
XCreatePixmapFromBitmapData[25]XGetTextProperty[25]XSetCommand[25]XcmsFreeCCC[25]XkbSetDebuggingFlags[25]
XCreateRegion[25]XGetTransientForHint[25]XSetDashes[25]XcmsLookupColor[25]XkbSetDetectableAutoRepeat[25]
XCreateSimpleWindow[25]XGetVisualInfo[25]XSetErrorHandler[25]XcmsPrefixOfFormat[25]XkbSetGeometry[25]
XCreateWindow[25]XGetWMClientMachine[25]XSetFillRule[25]XcmsQueryBlack[25]XkbSetIgnoreLockMods[25]
XDefaultColormap[25]XGetWMColormapWindows[25]XSetFillStyle[25]XcmsQueryBlue[25]XkbSetIndicatorMap[25]
XDefaultColormapOfScreen[25]XGetWMHints[25]XSetFont[25]XcmsQueryColor[25]XkbSetMap[25]
XDefaultDepth[25]XGetWMIconName[25]XSetFontPath[25]XcmsQueryColors[25]XkbSetNamedIndicator[25]
XDefaultDepthOfScreen[25]XGetWMName[25]XSetForeground[25]XcmsQueryGreen[25]XkbSetNames[25]
XDefaultGC[25]XGetWMNormalHints[25]XSetFunction[25]XcmsQueryRed[25]XkbSetServerInternalMods[25]
XDefaultGCOfScreen[25]XGetWMProtocols[25]XSetGraphicsExposures[25]XcmsQueryWhite[25]XkbSetXlibControls[25]
XDefaultRootWindow[25]XGetWMSizeHints[25]XSetICFocus[25]XcmsRGBToRGBi[25]XkbToControl[25]
XDefaultScreen[25]XGetWindowAttributes[25]XSetICValues[25]XcmsRGBiToCIEXYZ[25]XkbTranslateKeyCode[25]
XDefaultScreenOfDisplay[25]XGetWindowProperty[25]XSetIMValues[25]XcmsRGBiToRGB[25]XkbTranslateKeySym[25]
XDefaultString[25]XGetZoomHints[25]XSetIOErrorHandler[25]XcmsScreenNumberOfCCC[25]XkbUpdateMapFromCore[25]
XDefaultVisual[25]XGrabButton[25]XSetIconName[25]XcmsScreenWhitePointOfCCC[25]XkbUseExtension[25]
XDefaultVisualOfScreen[25]XGrabKey[25]XSetIconSizes[25]XcmsSetCCCOfColormap[25]XkbVirtualModsToReal[25]
XDefineCursor[25]XGrabKeyboard[25]XSetInputFocus[25]XcmsSetCompressionProc[25]XmbDrawImageString[25]
XDeleteContext[25]XGrabPointer[25]XSetLineAttributes[25]XcmsSetWhiteAdjustProc[25]XmbDrawString[25]
XDeleteModifiermapEntry[25]XGrabServer[25]XSetLocaleModifiers[25]XcmsSetWhitePoint[25]XmbDrawText[25]
XDeleteProperty[25]XHeightMMOfScreen[25]XSetModifierMapping[25]XcmsStoreColor[25]XmbLookupString[25]
XDestroyIC[25]XHeightOfScreen[25]XSetNormalHints[25]XcmsStoreColors[25]XmbResetIC[25]
XDestroyImage[25]XIMOfIC[25]XSetOCValues[25]XcmsTekHVCClipC[25]XmbSetWMProperties[25]
XDestroyOC[25]XIconifyWindow[25]XSetOMValues[25]XcmsTekHVCClipV[25]XmbTextEscapement[25]
XDestroyRegion[25]XIfEvent[25]XSetPlaneMask[25]XcmsTekHVCClipVC[25]XmbTextExtents[25]
XDestroySubwindows[25]XImageByteOrder[25]XSetPointerMapping[25]XcmsTekHVCQueryMaxC[25]XmbTextListToTextProperty[25]
XDestroyWindow[25]XInitExtension[25]XSetRGBColormaps[25]XcmsTekHVCQueryMaxV[25]XmbTextPerCharExtents[25]
XDirectionalDependentDrawing[25]XInitImage[25]XSetRegion[25]XcmsTekHVCQueryMaxVC[25]XmbTextPropertyToTextList[25]
XDisableAccessControl[25]XInitThreads[25]XSetScreenSaver[25]XcmsTekHVCQueryMaxVSamples[25]XrmCombineDatabase[25]
XDisplayCells[25]XInsertModifiermapEntry[25]XSetSelectionOwner[25]XcmsTekHVCQueryMinV[25]XrmCombineFileDatabase[25]
XDisplayHeight[25]XInstallColormap[25]XSetSizeHints[25]XcmsTekHVCToCIEuvY[25]XrmDestroyDatabase[25]
XDisplayHeightMM[25]XInternAtom[25]XSetStandardColormap[25]XcmsTekHVCWhiteShiftColors[25]XrmEnumerateDatabase[25]
XDisplayKeycodes[25]XInternAtoms[25]XSetStandardProperties[25]XcmsVisualOfCCC[25]XrmGetDatabase[25]
XDisplayMotionBufferSize[25]XInternalConnectionNumbers[25]XSetState[25]XkbAllocClientMap[25]XrmGetFileDatabase[25]
XDisplayName[25]XIntersectRegion[25]XSetStipple[25]XkbAllocCompatMap[25]XrmGetResource[25]
XDisplayOfIM[25]XKeycodeToKeysym[25]XSetSubwindowMode[25]XkbAllocControls[25]XrmGetStringDatabase[25]
XDisplayOfOM[25]XKeysymToKeycode[25]XSetTSOrigin[25]XkbAllocGeomColors[25]XrmInitialize[25]
XDisplayOfScreen[25]XKeysymToString[25]XSetTextProperty[25]XkbAllocGeomDoodads[25]XrmLocaleOfDatabase[25]
XDisplayPlanes[25]XKillClient[25]XSetTile[25]XkbAllocGeomKeyAliases[25]XrmMergeDatabases[25]
XDisplayString[25]XLastKnownRequestProcessed[25]XSetTransientForHint[25]XkbAllocGeomKeys[25]XrmParseCommand[25]
XDisplayWidth[25]XListDepths[25]XSetWMClientMachine[25]XkbAllocGeomOutlines[25]XrmPermStringToQuark[25]
XDisplayWidthMM[25]XListExtensions[25]XSetWMColormapWindows[25]XkbAllocGeomOverlayKeys[25]XrmPutFileDatabase[25]
XDoesBackingStore[25]XListFonts[25]XSetWMHints[25]XkbAllocGeomOverlayRows[25]XrmPutLineResource[25]
XDoesSaveUnders[25]XListFontsWithInfo[25]XSetWMIconName[25]XkbAllocGeomOverlays[25]XrmPutResource[25]
XDrawArc[25]XListHosts[25]XSetWMName[25]XkbAllocGeomPoints[25]XrmPutStringResource[25]
XDrawArcs[25]XListInstalledColormaps[25]XSetWMNormalHints[25]XkbAllocGeomProps[25]XrmQGetResource[25]
XDrawImageString[25]XListPixmapFormats[25]XSetWMProperties[25]XkbAllocGeomRows[25]XrmQGetSearchList[25]
XDrawImageString16[25]XListProperties[25]XSetWMProtocols[25]XkbAllocGeomSectionDoodads[25]XrmQGetSearchResource[25]
XDrawLine[25]XLoadFont[25]XSetWMSizeHints[25]XkbAllocGeomSections[25]XrmQPutResource[25]
XDrawLines[25]XLoadQueryFont[25]XSetWindowBackground[25]XkbAllocGeomShapes[25]XrmQPutStringResource[25]
XDrawPoint[25]XLocaleOfFontSet[25]XSetWindowBackgroundPixmap[25]XkbAllocGeometry[25]XrmQuarkToString[25]
XDrawPoints[25]XLocaleOfIM[25]XSetWindowBorder[25]XkbAllocIndicatorMaps[25]XrmSetDatabase[25]
XDrawRectangle[25]XLocaleOfOM[25]XSetWindowBorderPixmap[25]XkbAllocKeyboard[25]XrmStringToBindingQuarkList[25]
XDrawRectangles[25]XLockDisplay[25]XSetWindowBorderWidth[25]XkbAllocNames[25]XrmStringToQuark[25]
XDrawSegments[25]XLookupColor[25]XSetWindowColormap[25]XkbAllocServerMap[25]XrmStringToQuarkList[25]
XDrawString[25]XLookupKeysym[25]XSetZoomHints[25]XkbApplyCompatMapToKey[25]XrmUniqueQuark[25]
XDrawString16[25]XLookupString[25]XShrinkRegion[25]XkbBell[25]Xutf8TextListToTextProperty
XDrawText[25]XLowerWindow[25]XStoreBuffer[25]XkbBellEvent[25]Xutf8TextPropertyToTextList
XDrawText16[25]XMapRaised[25]XStoreBytes[25]XkbChangeEnabledControls[25]XwcDrawImageString[25]
XEHeadOfExtensionList[25]XMapSubwindows[25]XStoreColor[25]XkbChangeMap[25]XwcDrawString[25]
XESetBeforeFlush[25]XMapWindow[25]XStoreColors[25]XkbChangeNames[25]XwcDrawText[25]
XESetCloseDisplay[25]XMaskEvent[25]XStoreName[25]XkbChangeTypesOfKey[25]XwcFreeStringList[25]
XESetCopyGC[25]XMatchVisualInfo[25]XStoreNamedColor[25]XkbComputeEffectiveMap[25]XwcLookupString[25]
XESetCreateFont[25]XMaxCmapsOfScreen[25]XStringListToTextProperty[25]XkbComputeRowBounds[25]XwcResetIC[25]
XESetCreateGC[25]XMaxRequestSize[25]XStringToKeysym[25]XkbComputeSectionBounds[25]XwcTextEscapement[25]
XESetError[25]XMinCmapsOfScreen[25]XSubImage[25]XkbComputeShapeBounds[25]XwcTextExtents[25]
XESetErrorString[25]XMoveResizeWindow[25]XSubtractRegion[25]XkbComputeShapeTop[25]XwcTextListToTextProperty[25]
XESetEventToWire[25]XMoveWindow[25]XSupportsLocale[25]XkbCopyKeyType[25]XwcTextPerCharExtents[25]
XESetFlushGC[25]XNewModifiermap[25]XSync[25]XkbCopyKeyTypes[25]XwcTextPropertyToTextList[25]
XESetFreeFont[25]XNextEvent[25]XSynchronize[25]XkbFindOverlayForKey[25] 
XESetFreeGC[25]XNextRequest[25]XTextExtents[25]XkbForceBell[25] 
XESetPrintErrorValues[25]XNoOp[25]XTextExtents16[25]XkbFreeClientMap[25] 
XESetWireToError[25]XOMOfOC[25]XTextPropertyToStringList[25]XkbFreeCompatMap[25] 

Data Definitions for libX11


X11/Xauth.h



typedef struct xauth
{
  unsigned short family;
  unsigned short address_length;
  char *address;
  unsigned short number_length;
  char *number;
  unsigned short name_length;
  char *name;
  unsigned short data_length;
  char *data;
}
Xauth;

X11/Xcms.h



typedef struct _XcmsFunctionSet
{
  XcmsColorSpace **DDColorSpaces;
  XcmsScreenInitProc screenInitProc;
  XcmsScreenFreeProc screenFreeProc;
}
XcmsFunctionSet;


typedef unsigned long XcmsColorFormat;
typedef double XcmsFloat;
typedef struct
{
  unsigned short red;
  unsigned short green;
  unsigned short blue;
}
XcmsRGB;
typedef struct
{
  XcmsFloat red;
  XcmsFloat green;
  XcmsFloat blue;
}
XcmsRGBi;
typedef struct
{
  XcmsFloat X;
  XcmsFloat Y;
  XcmsFloat Z;
}
XcmsCIEXYZ;
typedef struct
{
  XcmsFloat u_prime;
  XcmsFloat v_prime;
  XcmsFloat Y;
}
XcmsCIEuvY;
typedef struct
{
  XcmsFloat x;
  XcmsFloat y;
  XcmsFloat Y;
}
XcmsCIExyY;
typedef struct
{
  XcmsFloat L_star;
  XcmsFloat a_star;
  XcmsFloat b_star;
}
XcmsCIELab;
typedef struct
{
  XcmsFloat L_star;
  XcmsFloat u_star;
  XcmsFloat v_star;
}
XcmsCIELuv;
typedef struct
{
  XcmsFloat H;
  XcmsFloat V;
  XcmsFloat C;
}
XcmsTekHVC;
typedef struct
{
  XcmsFloat pad0;
  XcmsFloat pad1;
  XcmsFloat pad2;
  XcmsFloat pad3;
}
XcmsPad;


typedef union
{
  XcmsRGB RGB;
  XcmsRGBi RGBi;
  XcmsCIEXYZ CIEXYZ;
  XcmsCIEuvY CIEuvY;
  XcmsCIExyY CIExyY;
  XcmsCIELab CIELab;
  XcmsCIELuv CIELuv;
  XcmsTekHVC TekHVC;
  XcmsPad Pad;
}
XcmsColor;


typedef struct _XcmsPerScrnInfo
{
  XcmsColor screenWhitePt;
  XPointer functionSet;
  XPointer screenData;
  unsigned char state;
  char pad[1];
}
XcmsPerScrnInfo;


typedef int (*XcmsCompressionProc) (void);
typedef int (*XcmsWhiteAdjustProc) (void);
typedef int (*XcmsScreenInitProc) (void);
typedef void (*XcmsScreenFreeProc) (void);
typedef int (*XcmsConversionProc) (void);
typedef int (*XcmsParseStringProc) (void);


typedef struct _XcmsCCC
{
  Display *dpy;
  int screenNumber;
  Visual *visual;
  XcmsColor clientWhitePt;
  XcmsCompressionProc gamutCompProc;
  XPointer gamutCompClientData;
  XcmsWhiteAdjustProc whitePtAdjProc;
  XPointer whitePtAdjClientData;
  XcmsPerScrnInfo *pPerScrnInfo;
}
 *XcmsCCC;


typedef XcmsConversionProc *XcmsFuncListPtr;


typedef struct _XcmsColorSpace
{
  char *prefix;
  XcmsColorFormat id;
  XcmsParseStringProc parseString;
  XcmsFuncListPtr to_CIEXYZ;
  XcmsFuncListPtr from_CIEXYZ;
  int inverse_flag;
}
XcmsColorSpace;

X11/Xlib.h



struct _XDisplay;
typedef struct XColor;
typedef void *XVaNestedList;
typedef int (*XErrorHandler) (void);
typedef int (*XIOErrorHandler) (void);
typedef void (*XConnectionWatchProc) (void);


typedef char *XPointer;


typedef struct _XExtData
{
  int number;
  struct _XExtData *next;
  int (*free_private) (struct _XExtData * extension);
  XPointer private_data;
}
XExtData;
typedef struct XExtCodes;


typedef struct XPixmapFormatValues;


typedef struct XGCValues;


typedef struct _XGC *GC;


typedef struct Visual;


typedef struct Depth;


typedef struct Screen;


typedef struct ScreenFormat;


typedef struct XSetWindowAttributes;
typedef struct XWindowAttributes;


typedef struct XHostAddress;


typedef struct _XImage
{
  int width;
  int height;
  int xoffset;
  int format;
  char *data;
  int byte_order;
  int bitmap_unit;
  int bitmap_bit_order;
  int bitmap_pad;
  int depth;
  int bytes_per_line;
  int bits_per_pixel;
  unsigned long red_mask;
  unsigned long green_mask;
  unsigned long blue_mask;
  XPointer obdata;
  struct funcs f;
}
XImage;


typedef struct XWindowChanges;


typedef struct XSegment;
typedef struct XPoint;
typedef struct XRectangle;
typedef struct XArc;


typedef struct XKeyboardControl;


typedef struct XKeyboardState;


typedef struct XTimeCoord;


typedef struct XModifierKeymap;


typedef struct _XDisplay Display;


typedef struct XKeyEvent;
typedef XKeyEvent XKeyPressedEvent;
typedef XKeyEvent XKeyReleasedEvent;
typedef struct XButtonEvent;
typedef XButtonEvent XButtonPressedEvent;
typedef XButtonEvent XButtonReleasedEvent;
typedef struct XMotionEvent;
typedef XMotionEvent XPointerMovedEvent;
typedef struct XCrossingEvent;
typedef XCrossingEvent XEnterWindowEvent;
typedef XCrossingEvent XLeaveWindowEvent;
typedef struct XFocusChangeEvent;
typedef XFocusChangeEvent XFocusInEvent;
typedef XFocusChangeEvent XFocusOutEvent;
typedef struct XKeymapEvent;
typedef struct XExposeEvent;
typedef struct XGraphicsExposeEvent;
typedef struct XNoExposeEvent;
typedef struct XVisibilityEvent;
typedef struct XCreateWindowEvent;
typedef struct XDestroyWindowEvent;
typedef struct XUnmapEvent;
typedef struct XMapEvent;
typedef struct XMapRequestEvent;
typedef struct XReparentEvent;
typedef struct XConfigureEvent;
typedef struct XGravityEvent;
typedef struct XResizeRequestEvent;
typedef struct XConfigureRequestEvent;
typedef struct XCirculateEvent;
typedef struct XCirculateRequestEvent;
typedef struct XPropertyEvent;
typedef struct XSelectionClearEvent;
typedef struct XSelectionRequestEvent;
typedef struct XSelectionEvent;
typedef struct XColormapEvent;
typedef union XClientMessageEvent;
typedef struct XMappingEvent;
typedef struct XErrorEvent;
typedef struct XAnyEvent;


typedef union _XEvent
{
  int type;
  XAnyEvent xany;
  XKeyEvent xkey;
  XButtonEvent xbutton;
  XMotionEvent xmotion;
  XCrossingEvent xcrossing;
  XFocusChangeEvent xfocus;
  XExposeEvent xexpose;
  XGraphicsExposeEvent xgraphicsexpose;
  XNoExposeEvent xnoexpose;
  XVisibilityEvent xvisibility;
  XCreateWindowEvent xcreatewindow;
  XDestroyWindowEvent xdestroywindow;
  XUnmapEvent xunmap;
  XMapEvent xmap;
  XMapRequestEvent xmaprequest;
  XReparentEvent xreparent;
  XConfigureEvent xconfigure;
  XGravityEvent xgravity;
  XResizeRequestEvent xresizerequest;
  XConfigureRequestEvent xconfigurerequest;
  XCirculateEvent xcirculate;
  XCirculateRequestEvent xcirculaterequest;
  XPropertyEvent xproperty;
  XSelectionClearEvent xselectionclear;
  XSelectionRequestEvent xselectionrequest;
  XSelectionEvent xselection;
  XColormapEvent xcolormap;
  XClientMessageEvent xclient;
  XMappingEvent xmapping;
  XErrorEvent xerror;
  XKeymapEvent xkeymap;
  long pad[1];
}
XEvent;


typedef struct XCharStruct;


typedef struct XFontProp;
typedef struct XFontStruct;
typedef struct XFontSetExtents;


typedef struct XTextItem;
typedef struct XChar2b;
typedef struct XTextItem16;


typedef union XEDataObject;


typedef struct _XOM *XOM;
typedef struct _XOC *XOC;
typedef struct _XOC *XFontSet;


typedef struct XmbTextItem;
typedef struct XwcTextItem;





typedef struct _XIM *XIM;
typedef struct _XIC *XIC;
typedef void (*XIDProc) (void);

X11/Xutil.h



typedef struct XSizeHints;
typedef struct XWMHints;
typedef struct XTextProperty;
typedef struct XIconSize;
typedef struct XClassHint;
typedef struct _XComposeStatus
{
  XPointer compose_ptr;
  int chars_matched;
}
XComposeStatus;
typedef struct _XRegion *Region;
typedef struct XVisualInfo;
typedef struct XStandardColormap;
typedef int XContext;
typedef enum XICCEncodingStyle;

Interfaces for libXext

The behavior of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following standards.

Double Buffer Extension Library[26]
X Display Power Management Signaling (DPMS) Extension, Library Specification[27]
Security Extension Specification, Version 7.1[28]
X Nonrectangular Window Shape Extension Library Version 1.0[29]
MIT-SHM--The MIT Shared Memory Extension[30]
X Synchronization Extension Library[31]


Data Definitions for libXext


X11/extensions/security.h



typedef unsigned long XSecurityAuthorization;
typedef struct
{
  unsigned int timeout;
  unsigned int trust_level;
  XID group;
  long event_mask;
}
XSecurityAuthorizationAttributes;

X11/extensions/sync.h



typedef struct _XSyncSystemCounter
{
  char *name;
  XSyncCounter counter;
  XSyncValue resolution;
}
XSyncSystemCounter;
typedef struct
{
  XSyncCounter counter;
  XSyncValueType value_type;
  XSyncValue wait_value;
  XSyncTestType test_type;
}
XSyncTrigger;
typedef struct
{
  XSyncTrigger trigger;
  XSyncValue event_threshold;
}
XSyncWaitCondition;
typedef struct
{
  XSyncTrigger trigger;
  XSyncValue delta;
  int events;
  XSyncAlarmState state;
}
XSyncAlarmAttributes;


typedef XID XSyncCounter;
typedef XID XSyncAlarm;
typedef struct _XSyncValue
{
  int hi;
  unsigned int lo;
}
XSyncValue;
typedef enum
{
  XSyncAbsolute, XSyncRelative
}
XSyncValueType;
typedef enum
{
  XSyncPositiveTransition, XSyncNegativeTransition, XSyncPositiveComparison,
    XSyncNegativeComparison
}
XSyncTestType;
typedef enum
{
  XSyncAlarmActive, XSyncAlarmInactive, XSyncAlarmDestroyed
}
XSyncAlarmState;

Data Definitions for libSM


X11/SM/SMlib.h



typedef IcePointer SmPointer;
typedef struct _SmcConn *SmcConn;
typedef struct _SmsConn *SmsConn;


typedef struct
{
  int length;
  SmPointer value;
}
SmPropValue;
typedef struct
{
  char *name;
  char *type;
  int num_vals;
  SmPropValue *vals;
}
SmProp;


typedef enum
{
  SmcClosedNow, SmcClosedASAP, SmcConnectionInUse
}
SmcCloseStatus;


typedef void (*SmcSaveYourselfPhase2Proc) (void);
typedef void (*SmcInteractProc) (void);
typedef void (*SmcDieProc) (void);
typedef void (*SmcShutdownCancelledProc) (void);
typedef void (*SmcSaveCompleteProc) (void);
typedef void (*SmcPropReplyProc) (void);


typedef struct
{
  SmcShutdownCancelledProc callback;
  SmPointer client_data;
}
SmcCallbacks;


typedef void (*SmsSetPropertiesProc) (void);
typedef void (*SmsDeletePropertiesProc) (void);
typedef void (*SmsGetPropertiesProc) (void);


typedef struct
{
  SmsGetPropertiesProc callback;
  SmPointer manager_data;
}
SmsCallbacks;


typedef int (*SmsNewClientProc) (void);


typedef void (*SmcErrorHandler) (void);
typedef void (*SmsErrorHandler) (void);

Data Definitions for libICE


X11/ICE/ICElib.h



typedef void *IcePointer;
typedef enum
{
  IcePoAuthHaveReply, IcePoAuthRejected, IcePoAuthFailed, IcePoAuthDoneCleanup
}
IcePoAuthStatus;
typedef enum
{
  IcePaAuthContinue, IcePaAuthAccepted, IcePaAuthRejected, IcePaAuthFailed
}
IcePaAuthStatus;
typedef enum
{
  IceConnectPending, IceConnectAccepted, IceConnectRejected, IceConnectIOError
}
IceConnectStatus;
typedef enum
{
  IceProtocolSetupSuccess, IceProtocolSetupFailure, IceProtocolSetupIOError,
    IceProtocolAlreadyActive
}
IceProtocolSetupStatus;
typedef enum
{
  IceAcceptSuccess, IceAcceptFailure, IceAcceptBadMalloc
}
IceAcceptStatus;
typedef enum
{
  IceClosedNow, IceClosedASAP, IceConnectionInUse,
    IceStartedShutdownNegotiation
}
IceCloseStatus;
typedef enum
{
  IceProcessMessagesSuccess, IceProcessMessagesIOError,
    IceProcessMessagesConnectionClosed
}
IceProcessMessagesStatus;


typedef struct
{
  unsigned long sequence_of_request;
  int major_opcode_of_request;
  int minor_opcode_of_request;
  IcePointer reply;
}
IceReplyWaitInfo;


typedef struct _IceConn *IceConn;
typedef struct _IceListenObj *IceListenObj;


typedef void (*IceWatchProc) (void);
typedef void (*IcePoProcessMsgProc) (void);
typedef void (*IcePaProcessMsgProc) (void);
typedef IcePoAuthStatus (*IcePoAuthProc) (void);
typedef IcePaAuthStatus (*IcePaAuthProc) (void);
typedef int (*IceHostBasedAuthProc) (void);
typedef int (*IceProtocolSetupProc) (void);
typedef void (*IceProtocolActivateProc) (void);
typedef void (*IceIOErrorProc) (void);
typedef void (*IcePingReplyProc) (void);
typedef void (*IceErrorHandler) (void);
typedef void (*IceIOErrorHandler) (void);


typedef struct
{
  int major_version;
  int minor_version;
  IcePoProcessMsgProc process_msg_proc;
}
IcePoVersionRec;
typedef struct
{
  int major_version;
  int minor_version;
  IcePaProcessMsgProc process_msg_proc;
}
IcePaVersionRec;

X11/ICE/ICEutil.h



typedef struct
{
  char *protocol_name;
  unsigned short protocol_data_length;
  char *protocol_data;
  char *network_id;
  char *auth_name;
  unsigned short auth_data_length;
  char *auth_data;
}
IceAuthFileEntry;
typedef struct
{
  char *protocol_name;
  char *network_id;
  char *auth_name;
  unsigned short auth_data_length;
  char *auth_data;
}
IceAuthDataEntry;

Interfaces for libXt

The behavior of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following standards.

Linux Standard Base[34]
X11R6.4 X Toolkit Intrinsics[35]


X Toolkit

Table 13-15. libXt - X Toolkit Function Interfaces

XtAddActions[35]XtCancelSelectionRequest[35]XtError[35]XtMainLoop[35]XtSessionGetToken[35]
XtAddCallback[35]XtChangeManagedSet[35]XtErrorMsg[35]XtMakeGeometryRequest[35]XtSessionReturnToken[35]
XtAddCallbacks[35]XtClass[35]XtFindFile[35]XtMakeResizeRequest[35]XtSetErrorHandler[35]
XtAddConverter[35]XtCloseDisplay[35]XtFree[35]XtMalloc[35]XtSetErrorMsgHandler[35]
XtAddEventHandler[35]XtConfigureWidget[35]XtGetActionKeysym[35]XtManageChild[35]XtSetEventDispatcher[35]
XtAddExposureToRegion[35]XtConvert[35]XtGetActionList[35]XtManageChildren[35]XtSetKeyTranslator[35]
XtAddGrab[35]XtConvertAndStore[35]XtGetApplicationNameAndClass[35]XtMapWidget[35]XtSetKeyboardFocus[35]
XtAddInput[35]XtConvertCase[35]XtGetApplicationResources[35]XtMenuPopupAction[35]XtSetLanguageProc[35]
XtAddRawEventHandler[35]XtCreateApplicationContext[35]XtGetClassExtension[35]XtMergeArgLists[35]XtSetMappedWhenManaged[35]
XtAddSignal[35]XtCreateApplicationShell[35]XtGetConstraintResourceList[35]XtMoveWidget[35]XtSetMultiClickTime[35]
XtAddTimeOut[35]XtCreateManagedWidget[35]XtGetDisplays[35]XtName[35]XtSetSelectionParameters[35]
XtAddWorkProc[35]XtCreatePopupShell[35]XtGetErrorDatabase[35]XtNameToWidget[35]XtSetSelectionTimeout[35]
XtAllocateGC[35]XtCreateSelectionRequest[35]XtGetErrorDatabaseText[35]XtNewString[35]XtSetSensitive[35]
XtAppAddActionHook[35]XtCreateWidget[35]XtGetGC[35]XtNextEvent[35]XtSetSubvalues[35]
XtAppAddActions[35]XtCreateWindow[35]XtGetKeyboardFocusWidget[35]XtNoticeSignal[35]XtSetTypeConverter[35]
XtAppAddBlockHook[35]XtCvtColorToPixel[35]XtGetKeysymTable[35]XtOpenApplication[35]XtSetValues[35]
XtAppAddConverter[35]XtCvtIntToBool[35]XtGetMultiClickTime[35]XtOpenDisplay[35]XtSetWMColormapWindows[35]
XtAppAddInput[35]XtCvtIntToBoolean[35]XtGetResourceList[35]XtOverrideTranslations[35]XtSetWarningHandler[35]
XtAppAddSignal[35]XtCvtIntToColor[35]XtGetSelectionParameters[35]XtOwnSelection[35]XtSetWarningMsgHandler[35]
XtAppAddTimeOut[35]XtCvtIntToFloat[35]XtGetSelectionRequest[35]XtOwnSelectionIncremental[35]XtStringConversionWarning[35]
XtAppAddWorkProc[35]XtCvtIntToFont[35]XtGetSelectionTimeout[35]XtParent[35]XtSuperclass[35]
XtAppCreateShell[35]XtCvtIntToPixel[35]XtGetSelectionValue[35]XtParseAcceleratorTable[35]XtToolkitInitialize[35]
XtAppError[35]XtCvtIntToPixmap[35]XtGetSelectionValueIncremental[35]XtParseTranslationTable[35]XtToolkitThreadInitialize[35]
XtAppErrorMsg[35]XtCvtIntToShort[35]XtGetSelectionValues[35]XtPeekEvent[35]XtTranslateCoords[35]
XtAppGetErrorDatabase[35]XtCvtIntToUnsignedChar[35]XtGetSelectionValuesIncremental[35]XtPending[35]XtTranslateKey[35]
XtAppGetErrorDatabaseText[35]XtCvtStringToAcceleratorTable[35]XtGetSubresources[35]XtPopdown[35]XtTranslateKeycode[35]
XtAppGetExitFlag[35]XtCvtStringToAtom[35]XtGetSubvalues[35]XtPopup[35]XtUngrabButton[35]
XtAppGetSelectionTimeout[35]XtCvtStringToBool[35]XtGetValues[35]XtPopupSpringLoaded[35]XtUngrabKey[35]
XtAppInitialize[35]XtCvtStringToBoolean[35]XtGrabButton[35]XtProcessEvent[35]XtUngrabKeyboard[35]
XtAppLock[35]XtCvtStringToCommandArgArray[35]XtGrabKey[35]XtProcessLock[35]XtUngrabPointer[35]
XtAppMainLoop[35]XtCvtStringToCursor[35]XtGrabKeyboard[35]XtProcessUnlock[35]XtUninstallTranslations[35]
XtAppNextEvent[35]XtCvtStringToDimension[35]XtGrabPointer[35]XtQueryGeometry[35]XtUnmanageChild[35]
XtAppPeekEvent[35]XtCvtStringToDirectoryString[35]XtHasCallbacks[35]XtRealizeWidget[35]XtUnmanageChildren[35]
XtAppPending[35]XtCvtStringToDisplay[35]XtHooksOfDisplay[35]XtRealloc[35]XtUnmapWidget[35]
XtAppProcessEvent[35]XtCvtStringToFile[35]XtInitialize[35]XtRegisterCaseConverter[35]XtUnrealizeWidget[35]
XtAppReleaseCacheRefs[35]XtCvtStringToFloat[35]XtInitializeWidgetClass[35]XtRegisterDrawable[35]XtUnregisterDrawable[35]
XtAppSetErrorHandler[35]XtCvtStringToFont[35]XtInsertEventHandler[35]XtRegisterExtensionSelector[35]XtVaAppCreateShell[35]
XtAppSetErrorMsgHandler[35]XtCvtStringToFontSet[35]XtInsertEventTypeHandler[35]XtRegisterGrabAction[35]XtVaAppInitialize[35]
XtAppSetExitFlag[35]XtCvtStringToFontStruct[35]XtInsertRawEventHandler[35]XtReleaseGC[35]XtVaCreateArgsList[35]
XtAppSetFallbackResources[35]XtCvtStringToGravity[35]XtInstallAccelerators[35]XtReleasePropertyAtom[35]XtVaCreateManagedWidget[35]
XtAppSetSelectionTimeout[35]XtCvtStringToInitialState[35]XtInstallAllAccelerators[35]XtRemoveActionHook[35]XtVaCreatePopupShell[35]
XtAppSetTypeConverter[35]XtCvtStringToInt[35]XtIsApplicationShell[35]XtRemoveAllCallbacks[35]XtVaCreateWidget[35]
XtAppSetWarningHandler[35]XtCvtStringToPixel[35]XtIsComposite[35]XtRemoveBlockHook[35]XtVaGetApplicationResources[35]
XtAppSetWarningMsgHandler[35]XtCvtStringToRestartStyle[35]XtIsConstraint[35]XtRemoveCallback[35]XtVaGetSubresources[35]
XtAppUnlock[35]XtCvtStringToShort[35]XtIsManaged[35]XtRemoveCallbacks[35]XtVaGetSubvalues[35]
XtAppWarning[35]XtCvtStringToTranslationTable[35]XtIsObject[35]XtRemoveEventHandler[35]XtVaGetValues[35]
XtAppWarningMsg[35]XtCvtStringToUnsignedChar[35]XtIsOverrideShell[35]XtRemoveEventTypeHandler[35]XtVaOpenApplication[35]
XtAugmentTranslations[35]XtCvtStringToVisual[35]XtIsRealized[35]XtRemoveGrab[35]XtVaSetSubvalues[35]
XtBuildEventMask[35]XtDatabase[35]XtIsRectObj[35]XtRemoveInput[35]XtVaSetValues[35]
XtCallAcceptFocus[35]XtDestroyApplicationContext[35]XtIsSensitive[35]XtRemoveRawEventHandler[35]XtWarning[35]
XtCallActionProc[35]XtDestroyGC[35]XtIsSessionShell[35]XtRemoveSignal[35]XtWarningMsg[35]
XtCallCallbackList[35]XtDestroyWidget[35]XtIsShell[35]XtRemoveTimeOut[35]XtWidgetToApplicationContext[35]
XtCallCallbacks[35]XtDirectConvert[35]XtIsSubclass[35]XtRemoveWorkProc[35]XtWindow[35]
XtCallConverter[35]XtDisownSelection[35]XtIsTopLevelShell[35]XtReservePropertyAtom[35]XtWindowOfObject[35]
XtCallbackExclusive[35]XtDispatchEvent[35]XtIsTransientShell[35]XtResizeWidget[35]XtWindowToWidget[35]
XtCallbackNone[35]XtDispatchEventToWidget[35]XtIsVendorShell[35]XtResizeWindow[35]_XtCheckSubclassFlag[35]
XtCallbackNonexclusive[35]XtDisplay[35]XtIsWMShell[35]XtResolvePathname[35]_XtCopyFromArg[34]
XtCallbackPopdown[35]XtDisplayInitialize[35]XtIsWidget[35]XtScreen[35]_XtInherit[34]
XtCallbackReleaseCacheRef[35]XtDisplayOfObject[35]XtKeysymToKeycodeList[35]XtScreenDatabase[35]_XtIsSubclassOf[34]
XtCallbackReleaseCacheRefList[35]XtDisplayStringConversionWarning[35]XtLastEventProcessed[35]XtScreenOfObject[35] 
XtCalloc[35]XtDisplayToApplicationContext[35]XtLastTimestampProcessed[35]XtSendSelectionRequest[35] 

Data Definitions for libXt


X11/Composite.h



typedef Cardinal (*XtOrderProc) (Widget child);
typedef void (*XtDoChangeProc) (Widget composite_parent,
				WidgetList unmanage_children,
				Cardinal * num_unmanage_children,
				WidgetList manage_children,
				Cardinal * num_manage_children,
				XtPointer client_data);

X11/CompositeP.h


#define XtInheritGeometryManager	((XtGeometryHandler) _XtInherit)
#define XtInheritDeleteChild	((XtWidgetProc) _XtInherit)
#define XtInheritInsertChild	((XtWidgetProc) _XtInherit)
#define XtCompositeExtensionVersion	2L











typedef struct _CompositeClassPart CompositeClassPart;





typedef struct _CompositeClassRec CompositeClassRec;

X11/ConstrainP.h


#define XtConstraintExtensionVersion	1L


typedef struct _ConstraintPart ConstraintPart;
typedef struct _ConstraintClassPart ConstraintClassPart;
typedef struct _ConstraintClassRec
{
  CoreClassPart core_class;
  CompositeClassPart composite_class;
  ConstraintClassPart constraint_class;
}
ConstraintClassRec;

X11/Constraint.h



typedef struct _ConstraintClassRec *ConstraintWidgetClass;

X11/ObjectP.h


#define XtInheritAllocate	((XtAllocateProc) _XtInherit)
#define XtInheritDeallocate	((XtDeallocateProc) _XtInherit)
#define XtObjectExtensionVersion	1L





typedef struct _ObjectPart
{
  Widget self;
  WidgetClass widget_class;
  Widget parent;
  XrmName xrm_name;
  Boolean being_destroyed;
  XtCallbackList destroy_callbacks;
  XtPointer constraints;
}
ObjectPart;


typedef struct _ObjectRec
{
  ObjectPart object;
}
ObjectRec;


typedef struct _ObjectClassPart
{
  WidgetClass superclass;
  String class_name;
  Cardinal widget_size;
  XtProc class_initialize;
  XtWidgetClassProc class_part_initialize;
  XtEnum class_inited;
  XtInitProc initialize;
  XtArgsProc initialize_hook;
  XtProc obj1;
  XtProc obj2;
  XtProc obj3;
  XtResourceList resources;
  Cardinal num_resources;
  XrmClass xrm_class;
  Boolean obj4;
  XtEnum obj5;
  Boolean obj6;
  Boolean obj7;
  XtWidgetProc destroy;
  XtProc obj8;
  XtProc obj9;
  XtSetValuesFunc set_values;
  XtArgsFunc set_values_hook;
  XtProc obj10;
  XtArgsProc get_values_hook;
  XtProc obj11;
  XtVersionType version;
  XtPointer callback_private;
  String obj12;
  XtProc obj13;
  XtProc obj14;
  XtPointer extension;
}
ObjectClassPart;


struct
{
  XtPointer next_extension;
  XrmQuark record_type;
  long version;
  Cardinal record_size;
  XtAllocateProc allocate;
  XtDeallocateProc deallocate;
}
 ;


typedef struct
{
  XtPointer next_extension;
  XrmQuark record_type;
  long version;
  Cardinal record_size;
  XtAllocateProc allocate;
  XtDeallocateProc deallocate;
}
ObjectClassExtensionRec;
typedef struct
{
  XtPointer next_extension;
  XrmQuark record_type;
  long version;
  Cardinal record_size;
  XtAllocateProc allocate;
  XtDeallocateProc deallocate;
}
 *ObjectClassExtension;


typedef struct _ObjectClassRec
{
  ObjectClassPart object_class;
}
ObjectClassRec;

Interfaces Definitions for libXt

Table of Contents
_XtCopyFromArg -- Copy "size" bytes from src to dst.
_XtInherit -- inheritance operation.
_XtInheritTranslations -- an inheritance constant
_XtIsSubclassOf -- determine if Widget is a subclass of WidgetClass.

_XtCopyFromArg

Name

_XtCopyFromArg -- Copy "size" bytes from src to dst.

Description

The _XtCopyFromArg() function copies "size" bytes from src to dst. This is an internal X function call.

_XtInherit

Name

_XtInherit -- inheritance operation.

Description

_XtInherit() is a procedure that issues an error message if it is actually called.

_XtInheritTranslations

Name

_XtInheritTranslations -- an inheritance constant

Description

_XtInheritTranslations is an inheritance constant.

_XtIsSubclassOf

Name

_XtIsSubclassOf -- determine if Widget is a subclass of WidgetClass.

Description

Determine if Widget(object) is a subclass of WidgetClass(widget_class).


Interfaces for libGL

The behavior of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following standards.

OpenGL® Application Binary Interface for Linux[36]


OpenGL

Table 13-19. libGL - OpenGL Function Interfaces

glAccum[36]glDepthRange[36]glIndexPointer[36]glNormal3d[36]glTexCoord1f[36]
glActiveTextureARB[36]glDisable[36]glIndexd[36]glNormal3dv[36]glTexCoord1fv[36]
glAlphaFunc[36]glDisableClientState[36]glIndexdv[36]glNormal3f[36]glTexCoord1i[36]
glAreTexturesResident[36]glDrawArrays[36]glIndexf[36]glNormal3fv[36]glTexCoord1iv[36]
glArrayElement[36]glDrawBuffer[36]glIndexfv[36]glNormal3i[36]glTexCoord1s[36]
glBegin[36]glDrawElements[36]glIndexi[36]glNormal3iv[36]glTexCoord1sv[36]
glBindTexture[36]glDrawPixels[36]glIndexiv[36]glNormal3s[36]glTexCoord2d[36]
glBitmap[36]glDrawRangeElements[36]glIndexs[36]glNormal3sv[36]glTexCoord2dv[36]
glBlendColor[36]glEdgeFlag[36]glIndexsv[36]glNormalPointer[36]glTexCoord2f[36]
glBlendColorEXT[36]glEdgeFlagPointer[36]glIndexub[36]glOrtho[36]glTexCoord2fv[36]
glBlendEquation[36]glEdgeFlagv[36]glIndexubv[36]glPassThrough[36]glTexCoord2i[36]
glBlendEquationEXT[36]glEnable[36]glInitNames[36]glPixelMapfv[36]glTexCoord2iv[36]
glBlendFunc[36]glEnableClientState[36]glInterleavedArrays[36]glPixelMapuiv[36]glTexCoord2s[36]
glCallList[36]glEnd[36]glIsEnabled[36]glPixelMapusv[36]glTexCoord2sv[36]
glCallLists[36]glEndList[36]glIsList[36]glPixelStoref[36]glTexCoord3d[36]
glClear[36]glEvalCoord1d[36]glIsTexture[36]glPixelStorei[36]glTexCoord3dv[36]
glClearAccum[36]glEvalCoord1dv[36]glLightModelf[36]glPixelTransferf[36]glTexCoord3f[36]
glClearColor[36]glEvalCoord1f[36]glLightModelfv[36]glPixelTransferi[36]glTexCoord3fv[36]
glClearDepth[36]glEvalCoord1fv[36]glLightModeli[36]glPixelZoom[36]glTexCoord3i[36]
glClearIndex[36]glEvalCoord2d[36]glLightModeliv[36]glPointParameterfvEXT[36]glTexCoord3iv[36]
glClearStencil[36]glEvalCoord2dv[36]glLightf[36]glPointSize[36]glTexCoord3s[36]
glClientActiveTextureARB[36]glEvalCoord2f[36]glLightfv[36]glPolygonMode[36]glTexCoord3sv[36]
glClipPlane[36]glEvalCoord2fv[36]glLighti[36]glPolygonOffset[36]glTexCoord4d[36]
glColor3b[36]glEvalMesh1[36]glLightiv[36]glPolygonStipple[36]glTexCoord4dv[36]
glColor3bv[36]glEvalMesh2[36]glLineStipple[36]glPopAttrib[36]glTexCoord4f[36]
glColor3d[36]glEvalPoint1[36]glLineWidth[36]glPopClientAttrib[36]glTexCoord4fv[36]
glColor3dv[36]glEvalPoint2[36]glListBase[36]glPopMatrix[36]glTexCoord4i[36]
glColor3f[36]glFeedbackBuffer[36]glLoadIdentity[36]glPopName[36]glTexCoord4iv[36]
glColor3fv[36]glFinish[36]glLoadMatrixd[36]glPrioritizeTextures[36]glTexCoord4s[36]
glColor3i[36]glFlush[36]glLoadMatrixf[36]glPushAttrib[36]glTexCoord4sv[36]
glColor3iv[36]glFogf[36]glLoadName[36]glPushClientAttrib[36]glTexCoordPointer[36]
glColor3s[36]glFogfv[36]glLogicOp[36]glPushMatrix[36]glTexEnvf[36]
glColor3sv[36]glFogi[36]glMap1d[36]glPushName[36]glTexEnvfv[36]
glColor3ub[36]glFogiv[36]glMap1f[36]glRasterPos2d[36]glTexEnvi[36]
glColor3ubv[36]glFrontFace[36]glMap2d[36]glRasterPos2dv[36]glTexEnviv[36]
glColor3ui[36]glFrustum[36]glMap2f[36]glRasterPos2f[36]glTexGend[36]
glColor3uiv[36]glGenLists[36]glMapGrid1d[36]glRasterPos2fv[36]glTexGendv[36]
glColor3us[36]glGenTextures[36]glMapGrid1f[36]glRasterPos2i[36]glTexGenf[36]
glColor3usv[36]glGetBooleanv[36]glMapGrid2d[36]glRasterPos2iv[36]glTexGenfv[36]
glColor4b[36]glGetClipPlane[36]glMapGrid2f[36]glRasterPos2s[36]glTexGeni[36]
glColor4bv[36]glGetColorTable[36]glMaterialf[36]glRasterPos2sv[36]glTexGeniv[36]
glColor4d[36]glGetColorTableParameterfv[36]glMaterialfv[36]glRasterPos3d[36]glTexImage1D[36]
glColor4dv[36]glGetColorTableParameteriv[36]glMateriali[36]glRasterPos3dv[36]glTexImage2D[36]
glColor4f[36]glGetConvolutionFilter[36]glMaterialiv[36]glRasterPos3f[36]glTexImage3D[36]
glColor4fv[36]glGetConvolutionParameterfv[36]glMatrixMode[36]glRasterPos3fv[36]glTexParameterf[36]
glColor4i[36]glGetConvolutionParameteriv[36]glMinmax[36]glRasterPos3i[36]glTexParameterfv[36]
glColor4iv[36]glGetDoublev[36]glMultMatrixd[36]glRasterPos3iv[36]glTexParameteri[36]
glColor4s[36]glGetError[36]glMultMatrixf[36]glRasterPos3s[36]glTexParameteriv[36]
glColor4sv[36]glGetFloatv[36]glMultiTexCoord1dARB[36]glRasterPos3sv[36]glTexSubImage1D[36]
glColor4ub[36]glGetHistogram[36]glMultiTexCoord1dvARB[36]glRasterPos4d[36]glTexSubImage2D[36]
glColor4ubv[36]glGetHistogramParameterfv[36]glMultiTexCoord1fARB[36]glRasterPos4dv[36]glTexSubImage3D[36]
glColor4ui[36]glGetHistogramParameteriv[36]glMultiTexCoord1fvARB[36]glRasterPos4f[36]glTranslated[36]
glColor4uiv[36]glGetIntegerv[36]glMultiTexCoord1iARB[36]glRasterPos4fv[36]glTranslatef[36]
glColor4us[36]glGetLightfv[36]glMultiTexCoord1ivARB[36]glRasterPos4i[36]glVertex2d[36]
glColor4usv[36]glGetLightiv[36]glMultiTexCoord1sARB[36]glRasterPos4iv[36]glVertex2dv[36]
glColorMask[36]glGetMapdv[36]glMultiTexCoord1svARB[36]glRasterPos4s[36]glVertex2f[36]
glColorMaterial[36]glGetMapfv[36]glMultiTexCoord2dARB[36]glRasterPos4sv[36]glVertex2fv[36]
glColorPointer[36]glGetMapiv[36]glMultiTexCoord2dvARB[36]glReadBuffer[36]glVertex2i[36]
glColorSubTable[36]glGetMaterialfv[36]glMultiTexCoord2fARB[36]glReadPixels[36]glVertex2iv[36]
glColorTable[36]glGetMaterialiv[36]glMultiTexCoord2fvARB[36]glRectd[36]glVertex2s[36]
glColorTableParameterfv[36]glGetMinmax[36]glMultiTexCoord2iARB[36]glRectdv[36]glVertex2sv[36]
glColorTableParameteriv[36]glGetMinmaxParameterfv[36]glMultiTexCoord2ivARB[36]glRectf[36]glVertex3d[36]
glConvolutionFilter1D[36]glGetMinmaxParameteriv[36]glMultiTexCoord2sARB[36]glRectfv[36]glVertex3dv[36]
glConvolutionFilter2D[36]glGetPixelMapfv[36]glMultiTexCoord2svARB[36]glRecti[36]glVertex3f[36]
glConvolutionParameterf[36]glGetPixelMapuiv[36]glMultiTexCoord3dARB[36]glRectiv[36]glVertex3fv[36]
glConvolutionParameterfv[36]glGetPixelMapusv[36]glMultiTexCoord3dvARB[36]glRects[36]glVertex3i[36]
glConvolutionParameteri[36]glGetPointerv[36]glMultiTexCoord3fARB[36]glRectsv[36]glVertex3iv[36]
glConvolutionParameteriv[36]glGetPolygonStipple[36]glMultiTexCoord3fvARB[36]glRenderMode[36]glVertex3s[36]
glCopyColorSubTable[36]glGetSeparableFilter[36]glMultiTexCoord3iARB[36]glResetHistogram[36]glVertex3sv[36]
glCopyColorTable[36]glGetString[36]glMultiTexCoord3ivARB[36]glResetMinmax[36]glVertex4d[36]
glCopyConvolutionFilter1D[36]glGetTexEnvfv[36]glMultiTexCoord3sARB[36]glRotated[36]glVertex4dv[36]
glCopyConvolutionFilter2D[36]glGetTexEnviv[36]glMultiTexCoord3svARB[36]glRotatef[36]glVertex4f[36]
glCopyPixels[36]glGetTexGendv[36]glMultiTexCoord4dARB[36]glScaled[36]glVertex4fv[36]
glCopyTexImage1D[36]glGetTexGenfv[36]glMultiTexCoord4dvARB[36]glScalef[36]glVertex4i[36]
glCopyTexImage2D[36]glGetTexGeniv[36]glMultiTexCoord4fARB[36]glScissor[36]glVertex4iv[36]
glCopyTexSubImage1D[36]glGetTexImage[36]glMultiTexCoord4fvARB[36]glSelectBuffer[36]glVertex4s[36]
glCopyTexSubImage2D[36]glGetTexLevelParameterfv[36]glMultiTexCoord4iARB[36]glSeparableFilter2D[36]glVertex4sv[36]
glCopyTexSubImage3D[36]glGetTexLevelParameteriv[36]glMultiTexCoord4ivARB[36]glShadeModel[36]glVertexPointer[36]
glCullFace[36]glGetTexParameterfv[36]glMultiTexCoord4sARB[36]glStencilFunc[36]glViewport[36]
glDeleteLists[36]glGetTexParameteriv[36]glMultiTexCoord4svARB[36]glStencilMask[36]glXChooseFBConfig[36]
glDeleteTextures[36]glHint[36]glNewList[36]glStencilOp[36] 
glDepthFunc[36]glHistogram[36]glNormal3b[36]glTexCoord1d[36] 
glDepthMask[36]glIndexMask[36]glNormal3bv[36]glTexCoord1dv[36] 

Data Definitions for libGL


GL/gl.h






typedef unsigned int GLenum;
typedef unsigned char GLboolean;
typedef unsigned int GLbitfield;
typedef void GLvoid;
typedef char GLbyte;
typedef short GLshort;
typedef int GLint;
typedef unsigned char GLubyte;
typedef unsigned short GLushort;
typedef unsigned int GLuint;
typedef int GLsizei;
typedef float GLfloat;
typedef float GLclampf;
typedef double GLdouble;
typedef double GLclampd;



#define GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE	0x1401
#define GL_SHORT	0x1402
#define GL_UNSIGNED_SHORT	0x1403
#define GL_INT	0x1404
#define GL_UNSIGNED_INT	0x1405
#define GL_FLOAT	0x1406
#define GL_2_BYTES	0x1407
#define GL_3_BYTES	0x1408
#define GL_4_BYTES	0x1409
#define GL_DOUBLE	0x140A



#define GL_POINTS	0x0000
#define GL_LINES	0x0001
#define GL_LINE_LOOP	0x0002
#define GL_LINE_STRIP	0x0003
#define GL_TRIANGLES	0x0004
#define GL_TRIANGLE_STRIP	0x0005
#define GL_TRIANGLE_FAN	0x0006
#define GL_QUADS	0x0007
#define GL_QUAD_STRIP	0x0008
#define GL_POLYGON	0x0009



#define GL_V2F	0x2A20
#define GL_V3F	0x2A21
#define GL_C4UB_V2F	0x2A22
#define GL_C4UB_V3F	0x2A23
#define GL_C3F_V3F	0x2A24
#define GL_N3F_V3F	0x2A25
#define GL_C4F_N3F_V3F	0x2A26
#define GL_T2F_V3F	0x2A27
#define GL_T4F_V4F	0x2A28
#define GL_T2F_C4UB_V3F	0x2A29
#define GL_T2F_C3F_V3F	0x2A2A
#define GL_T2F_N3F_V3F	0x2A2B
#define GL_T2F_C4F_N3F_V3F	0x2A2C
#define GL_T4F_C4F_N3F_V4F	0x2A2D
#define GL_VERTEX_ARRAY	0x8074
#define GL_NORMAL_ARRAY	0x8075
#define GL_COLOR_ARRAY	0x8076
#define GL_INDEX_ARRAY	0x8077
#define GL_TEXTURE_COORD_ARRAY	0x8078
#define GL_EDGE_FLAG_ARRAY	0x8079
#define GL_VERTEX_ARRAY_SIZE	0x807A
#define GL_VERTEX_ARRAY_TYPE	0x807B
#define GL_VERTEX_ARRAY_STRIDE	0x807C
#define GL_NORMAL_ARRAY_TYPE	0x807E
#define GL_NORMAL_ARRAY_STRIDE	0x807F
#define GL_COLOR_ARRAY_SIZE	0x8081
#define GL_COLOR_ARRAY_TYPE	0x8082
#define GL_COLOR_ARRAY_STRIDE	0x8083
#define GL_INDEX_ARRAY_TYPE	0x8085
#define GL_INDEX_ARRAY_STRIDE	0x8086
#define GL_TEXTURE_COORD_ARRAY_SIZE	0x8088
#define GL_TEXTURE_COORD_ARRAY_TYPE	0x8089
#define GL_TEXTURE_COORD_ARRAY_STRIDE	0x808A
#define GL_EDGE_FLAG_ARRAY_STRIDE	0x808C
#define GL_VERTEX_ARRAY_POINTER	0x808E
#define GL_NORMAL_ARRAY_POINTER	0x808F
#define GL_COLOR_ARRAY_POINTER	0x8090
#define GL_INDEX_ARRAY_POINTER	0x8091
#define GL_TEXTURE_COORD_ARRAY_POINTER	0x8092



#define GL_MATRIX_MODE	0x0BA0
#define GL_MODELVIEW	0x1700
#define GL_PROJECTION	0x1701
#define GL_TEXTURE	0x1702

GL/glx.h



typedef struct __GLXcontextRec *GLXContext;
typedef struct __GLXFBConfigRec *GLXFBConfig;
typedef XID GLXContextID;
typedef XID GLXPixmap;
typedef XID GLXDrawable;
typedef XID GLXPbuffer;
typedef XID GLXWindow;

Chapter 14. Software Installation


Package Naming

Because there is no consistent packaging naming among the various Linux distributions, it is necessary for LSB-conformant packages to adhere the following naming rules to avoid conflicts with packages provided by the distributions.


Chapter 15. Command and Utilities

Command and Utilities

The following table lists the Commands and Utilities. Unless otherwise specified the command or utility is described in the Single UNIX Specification (SUS). When an interface is not defined in the SUS, then the next prevailing standard is referenced (ie., POSIX, SVID).

The behavior of the interfaces described in this section are specified by the following standards.

LI18NUX 2000 Globalization Specification, Version 1.0 with Amendment 4 [39]
Linux Standard Base [40]
CAE Specification, January 1997, Commands and Utilities (XCU), Issue 5 (ISBN: 1-85912-191-8, C604) [41]


Command Behavior

Table of Contents
ar -- create and maintain library archives
at -- examine or delete jobs for later execution
awk -- pattern scanning and processing language
batch -- execute commands when the system load permits
bc -- An arbitrary precision calculator language
cat -- concatenate and print files
chfn -- change user name and information
chgrp -- change group ownership
chmod -- change file access permissions
chown -- change file owner and group
chsh -- change login shell
col -- filter reverse line feeds from input
cp -- copy files and directories
cpio -- copy file archives in and out
crontab -- maintain crontab files for individual users
csplit -- split a file into sections determined by context lines
cut -- split a file into sections determined by context lines
date -- print or set the system date and time
dd -- convert and copy a file
df -- report filesystem disk space usage
diff -- find differences between two files
dmesg -- print or control the kernel ring buffer
du -- estimate file space usage
echo -- display a line of text
egrep -- search a file with an ERE pattern
env -- run a program in a modified environment
expand -- convert tabs to spaces
expr -- evaluate expressions
fgrep -- search a file with an ERE pattern
file -- determine file type
find -- search for files in a directory hierarchy
fuser -- identify processes using files or sockets
gencat -- generate a formatted message catalogue
grep -- print lines matching a pattern
groupadd -- create a new group
groupdel -- delete a group
groupmod -- modify a group
groups -- display a group
gunzip -- uncompress files
gzip -- compress or expand files
head -- output the first part of files
hostname -- show the system's host name
iconv -- convert file character encoding
install -- copy files and set attributes
install_initd -- install an init.d file
ipcrm -- provide information on ipc facilities
ipcs -- provide information on ipc facilities
killall -- kill processes by name
ln -- make links between files
localedef -- compile locale definition files
lpr -- off line print
ls -- list directory contents
lsb_release -- print distribution specific information
m4 -- macro processor
make -- maintain, update and regenerate groups of programs
man -- display system documentation
md5sum -- generates or checks MD5 message digests
mkdir -- make directories
mknod -- make block or character special files
mktemp -- make temporary file name (unique)
more -- file perusal filter for crt viewing
mount -- mount a file system
mv -- move (rename) files
newgrp -- change group ID
nice -- run a program with modified scheduling priority
nl -- number lines of files
nohup -- runs a command immune to hangups, with output to a non-tty
od -- dump files in octal and other formats
passwd -- change user password
paste -- merge lines of files
patch -- apply a diff file to an original
pathchk -- check whether file names are valid or portable
pidof -- find the process ID of a running program
pr -- split a file into sections determined by context lines
printf -- format and print data
pwd -- print name of current/working directory
remove_initd -- clean up boot script system modifications introduced by install_initd
renice -- alter priority of running processes
rm -- remove files or directories
rmdir -- remove empty directories
rsync -- faster, flexible replacement for rcp
sed -- stream editor
sendmail -- an electronic mail transport agent
shutdown -- bring the system down
sleep -- delay for a specified amount of time
sort -- sort, merge or sequence check text files
split -- split a file into pieces
strip -- remove unnecessary information from executable files
su -- change user ID or become super-user
sum -- print checksum and block count of a file (deprecated)
sync -- flush filesystem buffers
tail -- output the last part of files
tar -- file archiver
tee -- read from standard input and write to standard output and files
test -- check file types and compare values
time -- run programs and summarize system resource usage
touch -- change file access and modification times
tr -- translate or delete characters
tty -- print the file name of the terminal connected to standard input
umount -- unmount file systems
uname -- return system name
unexpand -- convert spaces to tabs
uniq -- remove duplicate lines from a sorted file
useradd -- create a new user or update default new user information
userdel -- delete a user account and related files
usermod -- modify a user account
wc -- print the number of bytes, words, and lines in files
xargs -- build and execute command lines from standard input

This section contains descriptions for commands and utilities whose specified behavior in the LSB contradicts or extends the standards referenced. It also contains commands and utilities only required by the LSB and not specified by other standards.

ar

Name

ar -- create and maintain library archives

Description

ar is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

-T, -C

need not be accepted.

-l

has implementation-dependent behavior.

-q

has implementation-dependent behavior; using -r is suggested.

at

Name

at -- examine or delete jobs for later execution

Description

at is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

-d

is functionally equivalent to the -r option specified in the SUS.

-r

need not be supported, but the '-d' option is equivalent.

-t time

need not be supported.

Files

The files at.allow and at.deny reside in /etc rather than /usr/lib/cron.

LSB Deprecated Differences

-c

cats the jobs listed on the command line to standard output.

-V

prints the version number to standard error.

-v

shows the time the job will be executed.

awk

Name

awk -- pattern scanning and processing language

Description

awk is as specified in the SUS with no differences.

LSB Deprecated Differences

gawk and mawk shall be SUS-compliant implementations of the awk language. However, gawk and mawk are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; LSB applications should invoke awk instead.

batch

Name

batch -- execute commands when the system load permits

Description

The specification for batch is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences as listed below.

Files

The files at.allow and at.deny reside in /etc rather than /usr/lib/cron.

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

-f file

reads the job from file rather than standard input.

-m

sends mail to the user when the job has completed even if there was no output.

-q queue

uses the specified queue. A queue designation consists of a single letter; valid queue designations range from a to z. and A to Z. The a queue is the default for at and the b queue for batch. Queues with higher letters run with increased niceness. The special queue "=" is reserved for jobs which are currently running.

-V

prints the version number to standard error.

-v

shows the time the job will be executed.

bc

Name

bc -- An arbitrary precision calculator language

Description

bc is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

-s, --standard

processes exactly the POSIX bc language.

-w, --warn

gives warnings for extensions to POSIX bc.

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

-q, --quiet

does not print the normal welcome message.

-v, --version

prints the version number and copyright and quits.

cat

Name

cat -- concatenate and print files

Description

cat is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

-A, --show-all

is equivalent to -vET.

-b, --number-nonblank

numbers nonblank output lines.

-e

is equivalent to -vE.

-E, --show-ends

displays $ at end of each line.

-n, --number

numbers all output lines.

-s, --squeeze-blank

displays never more than one single blank line.

-t

is equivalent to -vT.

-T, --showtabs

displays TAB characters as ^I.

-u

has implementation-dependent behavior.

-v, --show-nonprinting

uses ^ and M- notation, except for LFD and TAB.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

chfn

Name

chfn -- change user name and information

Description

chfn changes user fullname and other information for a user's account. This information is typically printed by finger and similar programs. A normal user may only change the fields for their own account, the super user may change the fields for any account.

The only restrictions placed on the contents of the fields is that no control characters may be present, nor any of comma, colon, or equal sign.

If none of the options are selected, chfn operates in an interactive fashion. The prompts and expected input in interactive mode are implementation-dependent and should not be relied upon.

As it is possible for the system to be configured to restrict which fields a non-privileged user is permitted to change, applications should be written to gracefully handle these situations.

Standard Options

-f full_name

sets the user's full name.

-h home-phone

sets the user's home phone number.

[42]

chgrp

Name

chgrp -- change group ownership

Description

chgrp is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

-c, --changes

is like verbose, but reports only when a change is made.

--dereference

affects the referent of each symbolic link, rather than the symbolic link itself.

-h, --no-dereference

affects symbolic links instead of any referenced file. (Available only on systems that can change the ownership of a symlink.)

-f, --silent, --quiet

suppresses most error messages.

--reference=RFILE

uses RFILE's group rather than the specified GROUP value.

-v, --verbose

outputs a diagnostic for every file processed.

--version

outputs version information and exit.

chmod

Name

chmod -- change file access permissions

Description

chmod is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

-c, --changes

is like verbose, but reports only when a change is made.

-f, --silent, --quiet

suppresses most error messages.

--reference=RFILE

uses RFILE's mode instead of MODE values.

-v, --verbose

outputs a diagnostic for every file processed.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

chown

Name

chown -- change file owner and group

Description

chown is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

The use of the '.' character as a separator between the specification of the user name and group name is supported (in addition to the use of the ':' character as specified in the SUS).

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

-c, --changes

is like verbose, but reports only when a change is made.

--dereference

affects the referent of each symbolic link, rather than the symbolic link itself.

-h, --no-dereference

affects symbolic links instead of any referenced file. (Available only on systems that can change the ownership of a symlink.)

--from=CURRENT_OWNER:CURRENT_GROUP

changes the owner and/or group of each file only if its current owner and/or group match those specified here. Either may be omitted, in which case a match is not required for the omitted attribute.

-f, --silent, --quiet

suppresses most error messages.

--reference=RFILE

uses RFILE's owner and group rather than the specified OWNER:GROUP values.

-v, --verbose

outputs a diagnostic for every file processed.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

chsh

Name

chsh -- change login shell

Description

chsh changes the user login shell. This determines the name of the user's initial login command. A normal user may only change the login shell for their own account, the super user may change the login shell for any account.

The only restrictions placed on the login shell is that the command name must be listed in /etc/shells, unless the invoker is the super-user, and then any value may be added. Accounts which are restricted (in an implementation-defined manner) may not change their login shell.

If the -s option is not selected, chsh operates in an interactive mode. The prompts and expected input in this mode are implementation-defined.

Standard Options

-s login_shell

sets the login shell.

col

Name

col -- filter reverse line feeds from input

Description

col is as specified in the SUSv2 with the difference that the -p option has implementation-dependent behavior.

Although col is shown as legacy in the SUSv2, it is not (yet) deprecated in the LSB.

cp

Name

cp -- copy files and directories

Description

cp is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

-a archive

is the same as -dpR.

--backup[=CONTROL]

makes a backup of each existing destination file.

-b

is like --backup but does not accept an argument.

-d, --no-dereference

never follows symbolic links.

-H

follows command-line symbolic links.

-l, --link

links files instead of copying.

-L, --dereference

always follows symbolic links.

--parents

appends source path to DIRECTORY.

--remove-destination

removes each existing destination file before attempting to open it. (Contrast with --force.)

--sparse=WHEN

controls creation of sparse files.

By default, sparse SOURCE files are detected by a crude heuristic and the corresponding DEST file is made sparse as well. That is the behavior selected by --sparse=auto. Specify --sparse=always to create a sparse DEST file whenever the SOURCE file contains a long enough sequence of zero bytes. Use --sparse=never to inhibit creation of sparse files.

--strip-trailing-slashes

removes any trailing slashes from each SOURCE argument.

-s, --symbolic-link

makes symbolic links instead of copying.

-S, --suffix=SUFFIX

overrides the usual backup suffix.

--target-directory=DIRECTORY

moves all SOURCE arguments into DIRECTORY.

-u, --update

copies only when the SOURCE file is newer than the destination file or when the destination file is missing.

-v, --verbose

explains what is being done.

-x, --one-file-system

stays on this file system.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

cpio

Name

cpio -- copy file archives in and out

Description

cpio is as specified in the SUS. While additional features may be found in Linux versions of this command, the SUS-specified interface is correctly and completely implemented.

crontab

Name

crontab -- maintain crontab files for individual users

Description

crontab is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Files

The files cron.allow and cron.deny reside in /etc rather than /usr/lib/cron.

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

-u user

specifies the name of the user whose crontab is to be used, rather than the user who is running crontab.

csplit

Name

csplit -- split a file into sections determined by context lines

Description

csplit is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

-b, --sufix-format=FORMAT

uses sprintf FORMAT instead of %d.

--quiet, --silent

are equivalent to the -s option as specified in the SUS.

-z, --elide-empty-files

removes empty output files.

--version

outputs version information and exit.

cut

Name

cut -- split a file into sections determined by context lines

Description

cut is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

-n

has implementation-dependent behavior.

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

date

Name

date -- print or set the system date and time

Description

date is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

-d, --date=STRING

displays time described by STRING, not now.

-f, --file=DATAFILE

is like --date once for each line of DATEFILE.

-r, --reference=FILE

displays the last modification time of FILE.

-R, --rfc-822

outputs RFC2822-compliant date string.

-s, --set=STRING

sets time described by STRING.

--utc, --universal

is equivalent to the -u option as specified in the SUS.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

dd

Name

dd -- convert and copy a file

Description

dd is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

SWAB

is a keyword to the CONV= option causing alternate bytes to be swapped. The treatment of the odd character is implementation-dependent.

df

Name

df -- report filesystem disk space usage

Description

df is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences.

If the -k option is not specified, disk space is shown in unspecified units. Applications should specify -k.

If an argument is the absolute file name of a disk device node containing a mounted filesystem, df shows the space available on that filesystem rather than on the filesystem containing the device node (which is always the root filesystem).

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

-a, --all

includes filesystems having 0 blocks.

--block-size=SIZE

uses SIZE-byte blocks.

-h, --human-readable

prints sizes in human-readable format (e.g., 1K, 234M, 2G).

-H, --si

prints sizes in human-readable format, but uses powers of 1000 (not 1024).

-i, --inodes

lists inode information instead of block usage.

-l, --local

limits listing to local filesystems.

-m, --megabytes

is like --block-size=1048576

--no-sync

does not invoke sync before getting usage info. (default)

-P, --portability

uses the POSIX output format.

--sync

invokes sync before getting usage info.

-t, --type=TYPE

has implementation-dependent behavior.

--portability

is same as -P as specified in the SUS.

--sync

invokes sync before getting usage info.

-t, --type=TYPE

limits listing to filesystems of type TYPE. (Different from behavior as specified in the SUS.)

-T, --print-type

prints filesystem type.

-x, --exclude-type=TYPE

limits listing to filesystems not of type TYPE.

diff

Name

diff -- find differences between two files

Description

diff is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

-a

treats all files as text and compares them line-by-line, even if they do not seem to be text.

-B

ignores changes that just insert or delete blank lines.

--brief

reports only whether the files differ, not the details of the differences.

--context[=lines]

is equivalent to -C as specified in the SUS.

-d

changes the algorithm to perhaps find a smaller set of changes; this makes diff slower (sometimes much slower).

-D name

makes merged if-then-else format output conditional on the preprocessor macro name.

--ed

is equivalent to -e as specified in the SUS.

--exclude=pattern

when comparing directories, ignores files and subdirectories whose basenames match pattern.

--exclude-from=file

when comparing directories, ignores files and subdirectories whose basenames match any pattern contained in file.

--expand-tabs

expands tabs to spaces in the output to preserve the alignment of tabs in the input files.

-F regexp

in context and unified format, shows some of the last preceding line that matches regexp for each hunk of differences.

--forward-ed

makes output that looks vaguely like an ed script, but has changes in the order they appear in the file.

-H

uses heuristics to speed handling of large files that have numerous scattered small changes.

--horizon-lines=lines

does not discard the last lines lines of the common prefix and the first lines lines of the common suffix.

-i

ignores changes in case; considers upper and lower case letters equivalent.

-I regexp

ignores changes that just insert or delete lines that match regexp.

--ifdef=name

makes merged if-then-else format output conditional on the preprocessor macro name.

--ignore-all-space

ignores white space when comparing lines.

--ignore-case

ignores changes in case; considers upper and lower case to be the same.

--ignore-matching-lines=regexp

ignores changes that just insert or delete lines that match regexp.

--ignore-space-change

ignores changes in amount of white space.

--initial-tab

outputs a tab rather than a space before the text of a line in normal or context format. This causes the alignment of tabs in the line to look normal.

-l

passes the output through pr to paginate it.

--ignore-case

ignores changes in case; considers upper and lower case to be the same.

dmesg

Name

dmesg -- print or control the kernel ring buffer

Description

dmesg examines or controls the kernel ring buffer.

Standard Options

-c

clears the ring buffer contents after printing.

-n level

sets the level at which logging of messages is done to the console.

-s bufsize

uses a buffer of bufsize to query the kernel ring buffer. This is 8196 by default (this matches the default kernel syslog buffer size in 2.0.33 and 2.1.103). If you have set the kernel buffer to larger than the default then this option can be used to view the entire buffer.

du

Name

du -- estimate file space usage

Description

du is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

If the -k option is not specified, disk space is shown in unspecified units. Applications should specify -k.

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

--block-size=SIZE

uses SIZE-byte blocks.

-b, --bytes

prints size in bytes.

-c, --total

produces a grand total.

-D, --dereference-args

dereferences PATHs when symbolic link.

-h, --human-readable

prints sizes in human-readable format (e.g., 1K, 234M, 2G).

--kilobytes

is equivalent to --block-size=1024.

--l, --count-links

counts sizes many times if hard-linked.

-L, --dereference

dereferences all symbolic links.

-m, --megabytes

is equivalent to --block-size=1048576.

-r

has implementation-dependent behavior.

-S, --separate-dirs

does not include size of subdirectories.

-X FILE, --exclude-from=FILE

excludes files that match any pattern in FILE.

--exclude=PAT

excludes files that match PAT.

--max-depth=N

prints the total for a directory (or file, with --all) only if it is N or fewer levels below the command line argument; --max-depth=0 is the same as --summarize.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

echo

Name

echo -- display a line of text

Description

Unlike the behavior specified in the SUS, whether echo supports options is implementation defined. Applications should not run echo with a first argument starting with a hyphen, or with any arguments containing backslashes; they should use printf in those cases.

egrep

Name

egrep -- search a file with an ERE pattern

Description

egrep is equivalent to grep -E. For further details, see the specification for grep.

env

Name

env -- run a program in a modified environment

Description

env is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

--ignore-environment

is equivalent to -i.

-u, --unset=NAME

removes variable from the environment.

expand

Name

expand -- convert tabs to spaces

Description

expand is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

-i, --initial

does not convert TABs after non-whitespace.

-t, --tabs=NUMBER

supplements behavior as specified in the SUS by allowing argument to specify the number of characters-apart tabs are (instead of 8).

expr

Name

expr -- evaluate expressions

Description

expr is as specified in the SUS but supports extra operands as listed below.

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

The following are extra operands:

match STRING REGEXP

is same as STRING : REGEXP.

substr STRING POS LENGTH

is substring of STRING, POS counted from 1.

index STRING CHARS

is index in STRING where any CHARS is found, or 0.

length STRING

is length of STRING.

quote STRING

interprets TOKEN as a string, even if it is a keyword like match or an operator like /.

fgrep

Name

fgrep -- search a file with an ERE pattern

Description

fgrep is equivalent to grep -F. For further details, see the specification for grep.

file

Name

file -- determine file type

Description

file is as specified in the SUS but with additional options as specified below.

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

-b, --brief

does not prepend filenames to output lines.

-c, --checking-printout

causes a checking printout of the parsed form of the magic file. This is usually used in conjunction with -m to debug a new magic file before installing it.

-f, --files-from namefile

reads the names of the files to be examined from namefile (one per line) before the argument list. Either namefile or at least one filename argument must be present; to test the standard input, use `-' as a filename argument.

-i, --mime

causes the file command to output mime type strings rather than the more traditional human-readable ones. Thus, it may say `text/plain; charset=us-ascii' rather than `ASCII text'. In order for this option to work, file changes the way it handles files recognized by the command itself (such as many of the text file types, directories, etc.), and makes use of an alternative `magic' file.

-k, --keep-going

does not stop at the first match, keeps going.

-m, --magic-file list

specifies an alternate list of files containing magic numbers. This can be a single file, or a colon-separated list of files.

-n, --no-buffer

forces stdout to be flushed after checking each file. This is only useful if checking a list of files. It is intended to be used by programs that want filetype output from a pipe.

-z, --uncompress

tries to look inside compressed files.

-L, --dereference

causes symlinks to be followed.

-s, --special-files

causes block or character special files (that are potentially problematic when processed by file) to be read in addition to the argument files ordinarily identified by stat(2). This is useful for determining the filesystem types of the data in raw disk partitions, which are block special files. This option also causes file to disregard the file size as reported by stat(2) since on some systems it reports a zero size for raw disk partitions.

find

Name

find -- search for files in a directory hierarchy

Description

find is as specified in the SUS but with additional options as specified below.

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

-daystart

measures times (for -amin, -atime, -cmin, -ctime, -mmin, and -mtime) from the beginning of today rather than from 24 hours ago.

-follow

dereferences symbolic links. Implies -noleaf.

-maxdepth levels

descends at most levels (a non-negative integer) levels of directories below the command line arguments. -maxdepth 0 means only apply the tests and actions to the command line arguments.

-mindepth levels

applies no tests or actions at levels less than levels (a non-negative integer). -mindepth 1 means process all files except the command line arguments.

-mount

is equivalent to -xdev as specified in the SUS.

-noleaf

does not optimize by assuming that directories contain 2 fewer subdirectories than their hard link count.

-version

prints the find version number and exits.

-amin n

displays files last accessed n minutes ago.

-anewer file

displays files last accessed more recently than file was modified. -anewer is affected by -follow only if -follow comes before -anewer on the command line.

-cmin n

displays files with status last changed n minutes ago.

-cnewer file

displays files with status last changed more recently than file was modified. -cnewer is affected by -follow only if -follow comes before -cnewer on the command line.

-empty

displays files that are empty and are either regular or directory files.

-false

is always false.

-fstype type

displays files on a filesystem of type type.

-gid n

displays files with numeric group ID of n.

-ilname pattern

is like -lname, but the match is case-insensitive.

-iname pattern

is like -name, but the match is case-insensitive.

-inum n

displays files with inode number of n.

-ipath path

is like -path, but the match is case-insensitive.

-iregex pattern

is like -regex, but the match is case-insensitive.

-lname

displays files that are symbolic links whose contents match shell pattern pattern. The metacharacters do not treat / or . specially.

-mmin n

displays files with data last modified n minutes ago.

-nouser

displays files with numeric user ID corresponding to no user.

-nogroup

displays files with numeric group ID corresponding to no group.

-path pattern

displays files with name matching shell pattern pattern.

-perm +mode

displays files with any of the permission bits mode set.

-regex

displays files with names matching regular expression pattern. This is a match on the whole path, not a search.

-true

is always true.

-type c

supplements types as specified in the SUS with the letters l and s (symbolic links and sockets, respectively).

-uid n

displays files with numeric user ID of n.

-used

displays files last accessed n days after status was last changed.

-xtype c

is equivalent to -type unless the file is a symbolic link. For symbolic links: if -follow has not been given, true if the file is a link to a file of type c; if -follow has been given, true if c is l. In other words, for symbolic links, -xtype checks the type of the file that -type does not check.

-fls file

is true. Is like -ls but write to file like -fprint.

-fprint file

is true. Prints the full file name into file file. If file does not exist when find is run, it is created; if it does exist, it is truncated. The file names `/dev/stdout' and `/dev/stderr' are handled specially; they refer to the standard output and standard error output, respectively.

-fprint0 file

is true. Is like -print0 but write to file like -fprint.

-fprintf file format

is true. Like -printf but write to file like -fprint.

-print0

is true. Prints the full file name on the standard output, followed by a null character. This allows file names that contain newlines to be correctly interpreted by programs that process the find output.

-printf format

is true. Prints format on the standard output, interpreting \ escapes and % directives. Field widths and precisions can be specified as with the printf C function. Unlike -print, -printf does not add a newline at the end of the string. The escapes and directives are:

\a

alarm bell.

\b

backspace.

\c

stops printing from this format immediately and flushes the output.

\f

form feed.

\n

newline.

\r

carriage return.

\t

horizontal tab.

\v

vertical tab.

\\

literal backslash (\).

%%

literal percent sign.

%a

last file access time in the format returned by the C ctime function.

%Ak

last file access time in the format specified by k, which is either @ or a directive for the C strftime function. The possible values for k are listed below; some of them might not be available on all systems, due to differences in strftime between systems.

@

seconds since Jan. 1, 1970, 00:00 GMT.

H

hour (00..23).

I

hour (01..12).

k

hour ( 0..23).

l

hour ( 1..12).

M

minute (00..59).

p

locale's AM or PM.

r

time, 12-hour (hh:mm:ss [AP]M).

S

second (00..61).

T

time, 24-hour (hh:mm:ss).

X

locale's time representation (H:M:S).

Z

time zone (e.g., EDT), or nothing if no time zone is determinable.

a

locale's abbreviated weekday name (Sun..Sat).

A

locale's full weekday name, variable length (Sunday..Saturday).

b

locale's abbreviated month name (Jan..Dec).

B

locale's full month name, variable.

c

locale's date and time (Sat Nov 04 12:02:33 EST 1989).

d

day of month (01..31).

D

date (mm/dd/yy).

h

same as b.

j

day of year (001.366).

m

month (01..12).

U

week number of year with Sunday as first day of week (00..53).

w

day of week (0..6).

W

week number of year with Monday as first day of week (00..53).

x

locale's date representation (mm/dd/yy).

y

last two digits of year (00..99).

Y

year (1970...).

%b

file's size in 512-byte blocks (rounded up).

%c

last file status change time in the format returned by the C ctime function.

%Ck

last file status change time in the format specified by k, which is the same as for %A.

%d

file's depth in the directory tree; 0 means the file is a command line argument.

%f

file's name with any leading directories removed (only the last element).

%F

type of the filesystem the file is on; this value can be used for -fstype.

%g

file's group name, or numeric group ID if the group has no name.

%G

file's numeric group ID.

%h

leading directories of file's name (all but the last element).

%H

mommand line argument under which file was found.

%i

file's inode number (in decimal).

%k

file's size in 1K blocks (rounded up).

%l

object of symbolic link (empty string if file is not a symbolic link).

%m

file's permission bits (in octal).

%n

number of hard links to file.

%p

file's name.

%P

file's name with the name of the command line argument under which it was found removed.

%s

file's size in bytes.

%t

file's last modification time in the format returned by the C ctime function.

%Tk

file's last modification time in the format specified by k, which is the same as for %A.

%u

file's user name, or numeric user ID if the user has no name.

%U

file's numeric user ID.

-ls

is true. Lists current file in ls -dils format on standard output. The block counts are of 1K blocks, unless the environment variable POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, in which case 512-byte blocks are used.

Extra Operators

The following operators are supported in order of decreasing precedence and override what is specified in the SUS.

( expr )

force precedence.

! expr

true if expr is false

-not expr

same as ! expr.

expr1 expr2

and (implied); expr2 is not evaluated if expr1 is false.

expr1 -a expr2

same as expr1 expr2.

expr1 -and expr2

same as expr1 expr2.

expr1 -o expr2

or; expr2 is not evaluated if expr1 is true.

expr1 -or expr2

same as expr1 -o expr2.

expr1, expr2

list; both expr1 and expr2 are always evaluated. The value of expr1 is discarded; the value of the list is the value of expr2.

fuser

Name

fuser -- identify processes using files or sockets

Description

fuser is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

-c

has implementation-dependent behavior.

-f

has implementation-dependent behavior.

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

-a

shows all files specified on the command line. By default, only files that are accessed by at least one process are shown.

-k

kills processes accessing the file. Unless changed with -signal, SIGKILL is sent. An fuser process never kills itself, but may kill other fuser processes. The effective user ID of the process executing fuser is set to its real user ID before attempting to kill.

-i

asks the user for confirmation before killing a process. This option is silently ignored if -k is not present too.

-l

lists all known signal names.

-m

name specifies a file on a mounted file system or a block device that is mounted. All processes accessing files on that file system are listed. If a directory file is specified, it is automatically changed to name/. to use any file system that might be mounted on that directory.

-n space

selects a different name space. The name spaces file (file names, the default), udp (local UDP ports), and tcp (local TCP ports) are supported. For ports, either the port number or the symbolic name can be specified. If there is no ambiguity, the shortcut notation name/space (e.g. name/proto) can be used.

-s

operates silently. -u and -v are ignored in this mode. -a must not be used with -s.

-signal

uses the specified signal instead of SIGKILL when killing processes. Signals can be specified either by name (e.g. -HUP) or by number (e.g. -1).

-v

verbose mode.

-V

displays version information.

-

resets all options and set the signal back to SIGKILL.

gencat

Name

gencat -- generate a formatted message catalogue

Description

gencat is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

-H, --header=NAME

creates C header file NAME containing symbol definitions.

--new

does not use existing catalog, forces new output file.

-o, --output=NAME

writes output to file NAME.

grep

Name

grep -- print lines matching a pattern

Description

grep is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

-A NUM, --after-context=NUM

prints NUM lines of trailing context after matching lines.

-a, --text

processes a binary file as if it were text; this is equivalent to the --binary-files=text option.

-B NUM, --before-context=NUM

prints NUM lines of leading context before matching lines.

-C [NUM], -NUM, --context[=NUM]

prints NUM lines (default 2) of output context.

-b, --byte-offset

prints the byte offset within the input file before each line of output.

--binary-files=TYPE

assumes that the file is of type TYPE if its first few bytes indicate it contains binary data. By default, TYPE is binary, and grep normally outputs either a one-line message saying that a binary file matches, or no message if there is no match. If TYPE is without-match, grep assumes that a binary file does not match; this is equivalent to the -I option. If TYPE is text, grep processes a binary file as if it were text; this is equivalent to the -a option. Warning: grep --binary-files=text might output binary garbage, which can have nasty side effects if the output is a terminal and if the terminal driver interprets some of it as commands.

-c, --count

suppresses normal output; instead, prints a count of matching lines for each input file. With the -v, --invert-match option (see below), counts non-matching lines.

-d ACTION, --directories=ACTION

processes the input file as a directory with ACTION. By default, ACTION is read, which means that directories are read just as if they were ordinary files. If ACTION is skip, directories are silently skipped. If ACTION is recurse, grep reads all files under each directory, recursively; this is equivalent to the -r option.

-G, --basic-regexp

interprets PATTERN as a basic regular expression. (default)

-H, --with-filename

prints the filename for each match.

-h, --no-filename

suppresses the prefixing of filenames on output when multiple files are searched.

-I

processes a binary file as if it did not contain matching data; this is equivalent to the --binary-files=without-match option.

--ignore-case

equivalent to -i.

-L, --files-without-match

suppresses normal output; instead, prints the name of each input file from which no output would normally have been printed. The scanning will stop on the first match.

--files-with-matches

equivalent to -l.

--map

uses the mmap(2) system call to read input, if possible, instead of the default read(2) system call. In some situations, --mmap yields better performance. However, --mmap can cause undefined behavior (including core dumps) if an input file shrinks while grep is operating, or if an I/O error occurs.

--line-number

equivalent to -n.

--quiet

equivalent to -q.

-r, --recursive

reads all files under each directory, recursively; this is equivalent to the -d recurse option.

--no-messages

equivalent to -s.

-V, --version

prints the version number of grep to standard error.

--invert-match

equivalent to -v.

-w, --word-regexp

selects only those lines containing matches that form whole words. The test is that the matching substring must either be at the beginning of the line, or preceded by a non-word constituent character. Similarly, it must be either at the end of the line or followed by a non-word constituent character. Word-constituent characters are letters, digits, and the underscore.

--line-regexp

equivalent to -x.

-Z, --null

outputs a zero byte (the ASCII NUL character) instead of the character that normally follows a file name.

groupadd

Name

groupadd -- create a new group

Options

-g gid [-o]

specifies the numerical value of the group's ID. This value must be unique, unless the -o option is used. The value must be non-negative.

groupdel

Name

groupdel -- delete a group

Description

groupdel modifies the system account files, deleting all entries that refer to group. The named group must exist.

groupmod

Name

groupmod -- modify a group

Options

-g gid [-o]

specifies the numerical value of the group's ID. This value must be unique, unless the -o option is used. The value must be non-negative. Any files which the old group ID is the file group ID must have the file group ID changed manually.

-n groupname

changes the name of the group from group to group_name.

groups

Name

groups -- display a group

Description

groups displays the current group ID names or values. If the value does not have a corresponding entry in the group database, the value will be displayed as the numerical group value. The optional user parameter will display the groups for the named user.

gunzip

Name

gunzip -- uncompress files

Description

gunzip is equivalent to gzip -d. See the specification for gzip for further details.

gzip

Name

gzip -- compress or expand files

Description

gzip tries to reduce the size of the named files. Whenever possible, each file is replaced by one with the extension .gz, while keeping the same ownership modes, access and modification times. If no files are specified, or if a file name is "-", the standard input is compressed to the standard output. gzip will only attempt to compress regular files. In particular, it will ignore symbolic links.

When compressing, gzip uses the deflate algorithm specified in RFC1951 and stores the result in a file using the gzip file format specified in RFC1952.

Options

-a, --ascii

does nothing on Linux systems.

-c, --stdout, --to-stdout

writes output on standard output; keeps original files unchanged. If there are several input files, the output consists of a sequence of independently compressed members. To obtain better compression, concatenate all input files before compressing them.

-d, --decompress, --uncompress

decompresses.

-f, --force

forces compression or decompression even if the file has multiple links or the corresponding file already exists, or if the compressed data is read from or written to a terminal. If the input data is not in a format recognized by gzip, and if the option --stdout is also given, copy the input data without change to the standard ouput: let gzip behave as cat. If -f is not given, and when not running in the background, gzip prompts to verify whether an existing file should be overwritten.

-l, --list

lists the compressed size, uncompressed size, ration and uncompressed name for each compressed file. Gives the uncompressed size as -1 for files not in gzip format. Additionally displays method, crc and timestamp for the uncompress file when used in combination with --verbose.

The compression methods currently supported are deflate, compress, lzh (SCO compress -H) and pack. The crc is given as ffffffff for a file not in gzip format.

With --name, the uncompressed name, date and time are those stored within the compress file, if present.

With --verbose, the size totals and compression ratio for all files is also displayed, unless some sizes are unknown. With --quiet, the title and totals lines are not displayed.

-L, --license

displays the gzip license and quit.

-n, --no-name

does not save the original file name and time stamp by default when compressing. (The original name is always saved if the name had to be truncated.) When decompressing, do not restore the original file name if present (remove only the gzip suffix from the compressed file name) and do not restore the original time stamp if present (copy it from the compressed file). This option is the default when decompressing.

-N, --name

always saves the original file name and time stamp when compressing; this is the default. When decompressing, restore the original file name and time stamp if present. This option is useful on systems which have a limit on file name length or when the time stamp has been lost after a file transfer.

-q, --quiet

suppresses all warnings.

-r, --recursive

travels the directory structure recursively. If any of the file names specified on the command line are directories, gzip will descend into the directory and compress all the files it finds there (or decompress them in the case of gunzip).

-S .suf, --sufix .suf

uses suffix .suf instead of .gz.

-t, --test

checks the compressed file integrity.

-v, --verbose

displays the name and percentage reduction for each file compressed or decompressed.

-V, --version

displays the version number and compilation options, then quits.

-#, --fast, --best

regulates the speed of compression using the specified digit #, where -1 or --fast indicates the fastest compression method (less compression) and -9 or --best indicates the slowest compression method (best compression). The default compression level is -6 (that is, biased towards high compression at expense of speed).

head

Name

head -- output the first part of files

Description

head is as specified in the SUS but with additional options as specified below.

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

-c, --bytes=SIZE

prints first SIZE bytes. SIZE may have a multiplier suffix: b for 512, k for 1K, m for 1 Meg.

--lines=NUMBER

is equivalent to -n.

-q, --quiet, --silent

does not print headers giving file names.

-v

prints headers giving file names.

hostname

Name

hostname -- show the system's host name

Description

hostname is used to either set or display the current host or domain name of the system. This name is used by many of the networking programs to identify the machine. The domain name is also used by NIS/YP.

When called without any arguments, the program displays the name of the system as returned by the gethostname(2) function.

When called with one argument or with the --file option, the commands set the host name or the NIS/YP domain name. Note, that only the super-user can change the names.

Options

-a, --alias

displays the alias name of the host (if used).

-d, --domain

displays the name of the DNS domain.

-F, --file filename

reads the host name from the specified file. Comments (lines starting with a #) are ignored.

-f, --fqdn, --long

displays the FQDN (Fully Qualified Domain Name).

-i, --ip-address

displays the IP address(es) of the host.

-s, --short

displays the short host name. This is the host name cut at the first dot.

-V, --version

prints version information on standard output and exits successfully.

-v, --verbose

tells what's going on.

-y, --yp, --nis

displays the NIS domain name. If a parameter is given (or --file name) then root can also set a new NIS domain.

iconv

Name

iconv -- convert file character encoding

Description

The specification for "iconv" is as specified in the SUSv2 but with the following differences as listed below.

LSB-deprecated Options

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

--list

lists known coded character sets (synonym for the -l option which is found in the SUSv3 but not yet specified here).

-o, --output file

write output to specified output file (instead of stdin).

--verbose

prints progress information.

install

Name

install -- copy files and set attributes

Description

In the first two formats, copy SOURCE to DEST or multiple SOURCE(s) to the existing DIRECTORY, while setting permission modes and owner/group. In the third format, create all components of the given DIRECTORY(ies).

Standard Options

--backup[=CONTROL]

makes a backup of each existing destination file.

-b

is like --backup, but does not accept an argument.

-d, --directory

treats all arguments as directory names; creates all components of the specified directories.

-D

creates all leading components of DEST except the last, then copies SOURCE to DEST; useful in the 1st format.

-g, --group=GROUP

sets group ownership, instead of process' current group.

-m, --mode=MODE

sets permission mode (as in chmod), instead of rwxr-xr-x.

-o, --owner=OWNER

sets ownership (super-user only).

-p, --preserve-timestamps

applies access/modification times of SOURCE files to corresponding destination files.

-s, --strip

strips symbol tables, only for 1st and 2nd formats.

-S, --suffix=SUFFIX

overrides the usual backup suffix.

--verbose

prints the name of each directory as it is created.

install_initd

Name

install_initd -- install an init.d file

Description

install_initd installs an init.d file that has been copied to the /etc/init.d location or symlink. In the postinstall script of a package, the program /usr/lib/lsb/install_initd configures a distribution's boot script system to call the init.d file of the package at an appropriate time. See also the Section called Installation and removal of init.d files in Chapter 22.

ipcrm

Name

ipcrm -- provide information on ipc facilities

Description

ipcrm removes the resource(s) specified by id.

ipcs

Name

ipcs -- provide information on ipc facilities

Description

ipcs provides information on the ipc facilities for which the calling process has read access.

Resource display options

-m

shared memory segments.

-q

message queues.

-s

semaphore arrays.

Output format options

-t

time.

-p

pid.

-c

creator.

Application Usage

In some implementations of ipcs the -a option will print all information available. In other implementations the -a option will print all resource types. Therefore, applications must not use the -a option.

Some implements of ipcs implement more output formats than are specified here. These options are not consistent between differing implementations of ipcs. Therefore, only the -t -c and -p option flags may be used. At least one of the -t -c and -p options must be specified.

killall

Name

killall -- kill processes by name

Description

killall sends a signal to all processes running any of the specified commands. If no signal name is specified, SIGTERM is sent.

Signals can be specified either by name (e.g. -HUP) or by number (e.g. -1). Signal 0 (check if a process exists) can only be specified by number.

If the command name contains a slash (/), processes executing that particular file will be selected for killing, independent of their name.

killall returns a non-zero return code if no process has been killed for any of the listed commands. If at least one process has been killed for each command, killall returns zero.

A killall process never kills itself (but may kill other killall processes).

Standard Options

-e

requires an exact match for very long names. If a command name is longer than 15 characters, the full name may be unavailable (i.e. it is swapped out). In this case, killall will kill everything that matches within the first 15 characters. With -e, such entries are skipped. killall prints a message for each skipped entry if -v is specified in addition to -e.

-g

kills the process group to which the process belongs. The kill signal is only sent once per group, even if multiple processes belonging to the same process group were found.

-i

asks interactively for confirmation before killing.

-l

lists all known signal names.

-q

does not complain if no processes were killed.

-v

reports if the signal was successfully sent.

-V

displays version information.

ln

Name

ln -- make links between files

Description

ln is as specified in the SUSv2 but with differences as listed below.

Differences

-s

as specified in the SUSv3

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

-b, --backup[=CONTROL]

makes a backup of each existing destination file.

-n, --no-dereference

treats destination that is a symlink to a directory as if it were a normal file.

-i, --interactive

prompts whether to remove destinations.

--symbolic

synonym for -s.

-S, --suffix=SUFFIX

overrides the usual backup suffix.

--target-directory=DIR

moves all SOURCE arguments into directory DIR.

-v, --verbose

prints name of each file before linking.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

Notes

The backup suffix is ~, unless set with --suffix or SIMPLE_BACKUP_SUFFIX. The version control method may be selected via the --backup option or through the VERSION_CONTROL environment variable. Here are the values:

none, off

never makes backups (even if --backup is given).

numbered, t

makes numbered backups.

existing, nil

numbered if numbered backups exist, simple otherwise

simple, never

always makes simple backups.

localedef

Name

localedef -- compile locale definition files

Description

localedef is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

--charmap=charmapfile

is equivalent to -f.

--inputfile=intputfile

is equivalent to -i.

--force

is equivalent to -c.

-v, --verbose

generates extra warnings about errors that are normally ignored.

--quiet

suppresses all notifications and warnings, and reports only fatal errors.

lpr

Name

lpr -- off line print

Description

lpr uses a spooling daemon to print the named files when facilities become available. If no names appear, the standard input is assumed.

Standard Options

-l

identifies binary data that is not to be filtered but sent as raw input to printer.

-p

formats with "pr" before sending to printer.

-Pprinter

sends output to the printer named printer instead of the default printer.

-h

suppresses header page.

-s

uses symbolic links.

-#copies

specifies copies as the number of copies to print.

-J name

specifies name as the job name for the header page.

-T title

specifies title as the title used for "pr".

ls

Name

ls -- list directory contents

Description

ls is as specified in the SUS, but with differences listed below.

Differences

-p

in addition to the SUS behavior of printing a slash for a directory, ls -p may display other characters for other file types.

lsb_release

Name

lsb_release -- print distribution specific information

Description

The lsb_release command prints certain LSB (Linux Standard Base) and Distribution information.

With no option, same as -v.

Options

-v, --version

displays version of LSB against which distribution is compliant.

-i, --id

displays string id of distributor.

-d, --description

displays single line text description of distribution.

-r, --release

displays release number of distribution.

-c, --codename

displays codename according to distribution release.

-a, --all

displays all of the above information.

-s, --short

displays all of the above information in short output format.

-h, --help

displays a human-readable help message.

m4

Name

m4 -- macro processor

Description

m4 is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

-P

forces a m4_ prefix to all builtins.

-I directory

Add directory to the end of the search path for includes.

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

-e, --interactive

unbuffers output, ignores interrupts.

-E, --fatal-warnings

stops execution after first warning.

-Q, --quiet, --silent

suppresses some warnings for builtins.

--prefix-builtins

is equivalent to -P.

--include=DIRECTORY

is equivalent to -I.

--define=NAME[=VALUE]

is equivalent to -D.

--undefine=NAME

deletes builtin NAME.

--synclines

is equivalent to -s.

-G, --traditional

suppresses all GNU extensions.

-H, --hashsize=PRIME

sets symbol lookup hash table size.

-L, --nesting-limit=NUMBER

changes artificial nesting limit.

-F, --freeze-state=FILE

produces a frozen state on FILE at end.

-R, --reload-state=FILE

reloads a frozen state from FILE at start.

-d, --debug=[FLAGS]

sets debug level (no FLAGS implies 'aeq'). FLAGS is any of:

t

traces for all macro calls, not only 'ed.

a

shows actual arguments.

e

shows expansion.

q

quotes values as necessary, with a or e flag.

c

shows before collect, after collect and after call.

x

adds a unique macro call id, useful with c flag.

f

says current input file name.

l

says current input line number.

p

shows results of path searches.

i

shows changes in input files.

V

is shorthand for all of the above flags.

-t, --trace=NAME

traces NAME when it will be defined.

-l, --arglength=NUM

restricts macro tracing size.

-o, --error-output=FILE

redirects debug and traces output.

make

Name

make -- maintain, update and regenerate groups of programs

Description

make is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

The GNU make command contains syntax extensions beyond those specified in the SUS. Use of these extensions is deprecated.

-C dir

changes to directory dir before reading the makefiles or doing anything else. If multiple -C options are specified, each is interpreted relative to the previous one: -C / -C etc is equivalent to -C /etc. This is typically used with recursive invocations of make.

-d

prints debugging information in addition to normal processing. The debugging information says which files are being considered for remaking, which filetimes are being compared and with what results, which files actually need to be remade, which implicit rules are considered and which are applied---everything interesting about how make decides what to do.

-I dir

specifies a directory dir to search for included makefiles. If several -I options are used to specify several directories, the directories are searched in the order specified. Unlike the arguments to other flags of make, directories given with -I flags may come directly after the flag: -Idir is allowed, as well as -I dir. This syntax is allowed for compatibility with the C preprocessor's -I flag.

-j jobs

specifies the number of jobs (commands) to run simultaneously. If there is more than one -j option, the last one is effective. If the -j option is given without an argument, make will not limit the number of jobs that can run simultaneously.

-l [load]

specifies that no new jobs (commands) should be started if there are others jobs running and the load average is at least load (a floating-point number). With no argument, removes a previous load limit.

-o file

does not remake the file file even if it is older than its dependencies, and do not remake anything on account of changes in file. Essentially the file is treated as very old and its rules are ignored.

-v

prints the version of the make program plus a copyright, a list of authors and a notice that there is no warranty.

-w

prints a message containing the working directory before and after other processing. This may be use­ ful for tracking down errors from complicated nests of recursive make commands.

-W file

pretends that the target file has just been modified. When used with the -n flag, this shows you what would happen if you were to modify that file. Without -n, it is almost the same as running a touch command on the given file before running make, except that the modification time is changed only in the imagination of make.

man

Name

man -- display system documentation

Description

man is as specified in the SUS. While additional features my be found in Linux versions of this command, the SUS specified interface is correctly and completely implemented.

md5sum

Name

md5sum -- generates or checks MD5 message digests

Options

-b

uses binary mode.

-c [file]

checks md5sum of all files listed in file against the checksum listed in the same file. The actual format of that file is the same as output of md5sum. That is, each line in the file describes a file.

mkdir

Name

mkdir -- make directories

Description

mkdir is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

--verbose

prints a message for each created directory.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

mknod

Name

mknod -- make block or character special files

Description

Create the special file NAME of the given TYPE.

MAJOR MINOR are forbidden for TYPE p, mandatory otherwise. TYPE may be:

b

creates a block (buffered) special file.

c, u

creates a character (unbuffered) special file.

p

creates a FIFO.

Standard Options

-m, --mode=MODE

sets permission mode (as in chmod), not a=rw - umask.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

mktemp

Name

mktemp -- make temporary file name (unique)

Description

mktemp takes the given file name template and overwrites a portion of it to create a file name. This file name is unique and suitable for use by the application.

Options

-q

fails silently if an error occurs. This is useful if a script does not want error output to go to standard error.

-u

operates in `unsafe' mode. The temp file will be unlinked before mktemp exits. This is slightly better than mktemp(3) but still introduces a race condition. Use of this option is not encouraged.

more

Name

more -- file perusal filter for crt viewing

Description

more is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

The more command need not respect the LINES and COLUMNS environment variables.

-num

specifies an integer which is the screen size (in lines).

-e

has implementation-dependent behavior.

-i

has implementation-dependent behavior.

-n

has implementation-dependent behavior.

-p

Either (1) clear the whole screen and then display the text (instead of the usual scrolling behavior), or (2) provide the behavior specified by the SUS. In the latter case, the syntax is "-p command".

-t

has implementation-dependent behavior.

+num

starts at line number num.

+/string

specifies a string that will be searched for before each file is displayed.

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

-d

prompts user with the message "[Press space to continue, 'q' to quit.]" and will display "[Press 'h' for instructions.]" instead of ringing the bell when an illegal key is pressed.

-l

prevents the typical behavior where more treats ^L (form feed) as a special character and pauses after any line that contains a form feed.

-f

counts logical, rather than screen lines (i.e., long lines are not folded).

Rationale

The +num and +/string options are deprecated in the SUSv2; however we must continue to specify them because util-linux-2.11f does not support the SUS replacement (-p command). The SUSv2 +command is more general than what we specify, but util-linux-2.11f appears to only support the more specific +num and +/string forms.

mount

Name

mount -- mount a file system

Description

All files accessible in a UNIX system are arranged in one big tree, the file hierarchy, rooted at /. These files can be spread out over several devices. mount serves to attach the file system found on some device to the big file tree. Conversely, umount(8) will detach it again.

Standard Options

-V

outputs version.

-v

invokes verbose mode.

-a

mounts all filesystems (of the given types) mentioned in fstab.

-F

combines with -a. to fork off a new incarnation of mount for each device. This will do the mounts on different devices or different NFS servers in parallel.

-f

causes everything to be done except for the actual system call; if it's not obvious, this `fakes' mounting the file system.

-n

mounts without writing in /etc/mtab. This is necessary for example when /etc is on a read-only file system.

-s

tolerates sloppy mount options rather than failing. This will ignore mount options not supported by a filesystem type. Not all filesystems support this option.

-r

mounts the file system read-only. A synonym is -o ro.

-w

mounts the file system read/write. (default) A synonym is -o rw.

-L label

mounts the partition that has the specified label.

-U uuid

mounts the partition that has the specified uuid. These two options require the file /proc/partitions to exist.

-t vfstype

indicates a file system type of vfstype.

More than one type may be specified in a comma separated list. The list of file system types can be prefixed with no to specify the file system types on which no action should be taken.

-o

options are specified with a -o flag followed by a comma-separated string of options. Some of these options are only useful when they appear in the /etc/fstab file. The following options apply to any file system that is being mounted:

async

does all I/O to the file system asynchronously.

atime

updates inode access time for each access. (default)

auto

is mountable with -a.

defaults

uses default options: rw, suid, dev, exec, auto, nouser, and async.

dev

interprets character or block special devices on the file system.

exec

permits execution of binaries.

noatime

does not update inode access times on this file system.

noauto

is only explicitly mountable.

nodev

does not interpret character or block special devices on the file system.

noexec

does not allow execution of any binaries on the mounted file system.

nosuid

does not allow set-user-identifier or set-group-identifier bits to take effect.

nouser

forbids an ordinary (i.e., non-root) user to mount the file system. (default)

remount

attempts to remount an already-mounted file system. This is commonly used to change the mount flags for a file system, especially to make a read-only file system writable.

ro

mounts the file system read-only.

rw

mounts the file system read-write.

suid

allows set-user-identifier or set-group-identifier bits to take effect.

sync

does all I/O to the file system synchronously.

user

allows an ordinary user to mount the file system. This option implies the options noexec, nosuid, and nodev (unless overridden by subsequent options, as in the option line user,exec,dev,suid).

mv

Name

mv -- move (rename) files

Description

mv is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

-b, --backup[=CONTROL]

makes backup before removal.

-S, --suffix=SUFFIX

overrides the usual backup suffix.

--strip-trailing-slashes

removes any trailing slashes from each SOURCE argument.

-S, --suffix=SUFFIX

overrides the usual backup suffix.

--target-directory=DIRECTORY

moves all SOURCE arguments into DIRECTORY.

-u, --update

moves only older or brand new non-directories.

-v, --verbose

explains what is being done.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

Notes

The backup suffix is ~, unless set with --suffix or SIMPLE_BACKUP_SUFFIX. The version control method may be selected via the --backup option or through the VERSION_CONTROL environment variable. Here are the values:

none, off

makes no backups (even if --backup is given).

numbered, t

makes numbered backups.

existing, nil

is numbered if numbered backups exist, simple otherwise.

simple, never

makes simple backups.

newgrp

Name

newgrp -- change group ID

Description

newgrp changes the current group ID during a login session. If the optional - flag is given, the user's environment will be reinitialized as though the user had logged in, otherwise the current environment, including current working directory, remains unchanged.

nice

Name

nice -- run a program with modified scheduling priority

Description

nice is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

-ADJUST

increments priority by ADJUST first.

--help

displays this help and exits.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

nl

Name

nl -- number lines of files

Description

nl is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

--help

displays this help and exits.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

nohup

Name

nohup -- runs a command immune to hangups, with output to a non-tty

Description

nohup is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

--help

displays this help and exits.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

od

Name

od -- dump files in octal and other formats

Description

od is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

-w, --width[=BYTES]

outputs BYTES bytes per output line.

--traditional

accepts arguments in pre-POSIX form.

Pre-POSIX Specifications

The LSB supports option intermixtures with the following pre-POSIX specifications:

-a

is equivalent to -t a, selects named characters.

-f

is equivalent to -t fF, selects floats.

-h

is equivalent to -t x2, selects hexadecimal shorts.

-i

is equivalent to -t d2, selects decimal shorts.

-l

is equivalent to -t d4, selects decimal longs.

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

--help

displays this help and exits.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

passwd

Name

passwd -- change user password

Description

passwd changes passwords for user and group accounts. A normal user may only change the password for their own account, the super user may change the password for any account. passwd also changes password expiry dates and intervals. Applications may not assume the format of prompts and anticipated input for user interaction, because they are implementation-dependent.

Options

-x max

sets the maximum number of days a password remains valid.

-n min

sets the minimum number of days before a password may be changed.

-w warn

sets the number of days warning the user will receive before their password will expire.

-i inactive

disables an account after the password has been expired for the given number of days.

-l

disables an account by changing the password to a value which matches no possible encrypted value.

-u

re-enables an account by changing the password back to its previous value.

paste

Name

paste -- merge lines of files

Description

paste is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

--help

displays this help and exits.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

patch

Name

patch -- apply a diff file to an original

Description

patch is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

--binary

reads and write all files in binary mode, except for standard output and /dev/tty. This option has no effect on POSIX-compliant systems.

-u, --unified

interprets the patch file as a unified context diff.

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

--backup-if-mismatch

backs up a file if the patch does not match the file exactly and if backups are not otherwise requested.

--no-backup-if-mismatch

does not back up a file if the patch does not match the file exactly and if backups are not otherwise requested.

-B pref, --prefix=pref

prefixes pref to a file name when generating its simple backup file name.

--dry-run

prints the results of applying the patches without actually changing any files.

-E, --remove-empty-files

removes output files that are empty after the patches have been applied. When patch removes a file, it also attempts to remove any empty ancestor directories.

-f, --force

skips patches whose headers do not say which file is to be patched; patches files even though they have the wrong version for the Prereq: line in the patch; assumes that patches are not reversed even if they look like they are.

-F num, --fuzz=num

sets the maximum fuzz factor. This option only applies to diffs that have context, and ignores up to that many lines in looking for places to install a hunk.

-g num, --get=num

controls patch behavior when a file is under RCS or SCCS control and does not exist or is read-only and matches the default version. If num is positive, patch gets (or checks out) the file from the revision control system; if zero, patch ignores RCS and SCCS and does not get the file; and if negative, patch asks the user where to get the file.

-s, --silent, --quiet

works silently, unless an error occurs.

-t, --batch

suppresses questions like -f, but makes some different assumptions: skips patches whose headers do not contain file names; skips patches for which the file has the wrong version for the Prereq: line in the patch; and assumes that patches are reversed if they look like they are.

-T, --set-time

sets the modification and access times of patched files from time stamps given in context diff headers, assuming that the context diff headers use local time.

-v, --version

prints out patch's revision header and patch level, and exits.

-V method, --version-control=method

uses method to determine backup file names. The method can also be given by the PATCH_VERSION_CONTROL environment variable, which is overridden by this option.

--verbose

outputs extra information about the work being done.

-Y pref, --basename-prefix=pref

prefixes pref to the basename of a file name when generating its simple backup file name.

-z suffix, --suffix=suffix

uses suffix as the simple backup suffix.

-Z, --set-utc

sets the modification and access times of patched files from time stamps given in context diff headers.

--help

displays this help and exits.

pathchk

Name

pathchk -- check whether file names are valid or portable

Description

pathchk is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

--help

displays this help and exits.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

pidof

Name

pidof -- find the process ID of a running program

Description

Return the process ID of a process which is running the program named on the command line.[43]

Options

-s

instructs the program to only return one pid.

-x

causes the program to also return process id's of shells running the named scripts.

-o

omits processes with specified process id.

pr

Name

pr -- split a file into sections determined by context lines

Description

pr is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

-P

has implementation-dependent behavior.

-c, --show-control-chars

uses hat notation (^G) and octal backslash notation.

-J, --join-lines

merges full lines, turns off -W line truncation, no column alignment.

-N NUMBER, --first-line-number=NUMBER

starts counting with NUMBER at 1st line of first page printed.

-S[STRING], --sep-string=[=STRING]

separates columns by an optional STRING, doesn't use -S "STRING", -S only: No separator used without -S.

-T, --omit-pagination

omits page headers and trailers, eliminates any pagination by form feeds set in input files.

-v, --show-nonprinting

uses octal backslash notation.

-W PAGE_WIDTH, --page-width=PAGE_WIDTH

sets page width to PAGE_WIDTH (72) characters always, truncates lines, except -J option is set, no interference with -S or -s.

--help

displays this help and exits.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

printf

Name

printf -- format and print data

Description

printf is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

--help

displays this help and exits.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

pwd

Name

pwd -- print name of current/working directory

Description

pwd is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

--help

displays this help and exits.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

remove_initd

Name

remove_initd -- clean up boot script system modifications introduced by install_initd

Description

remove_initd processes the removal of the modifications made to a distribution's boot script system by the install_initd program. This cleanup is performed in the preuninstall script of a package; however, the package manager is still responsible for removing the /etc/init.d file. See also the Section called Installation and removal of init.d files in Chapter 22.

renice

Name

renice -- alter priority of running processes

Description

renice is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

-n increment

has implementation-dependent behavior.

rm

Name

rm -- remove files or directories

Description

rm is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

-v, --verbose

explains what is being done.

--help

displays this help and exits.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

rmdir

Name

rmdir -- remove empty directories

Description

rmdir is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

--ignore-fail-on-non-empty

ignores each failure that is solely because a directory is non-empty.

--verbose

outputs a diagnostic for every directory processed.

--help

displays this help and exits.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

rsync

Name

rsync -- faster, flexible replacement for rcp

Description

rsync behaves in much the same way that rcp does, but has many more options and uses its remote-update protocol to greatly speedup file transfers when the destination file already exists.

The remote-update protocol allows rsync to transfer just the differences between two sets of files across the network link, using an efficient checksum-search algorithm described in the technical report that accompanies this package.

Standard Options

--version

prints the rsync version number and exits.

-v, --verbose

increases the amount of information given during the transfer. By default, rsync works silently. A single -v gives information about what files are being transferred and a brief summary at the end. Two -v flags give information on what files are being skipped and slightly more information at the end.

-q, --quiet

decreases the amount of information given during the transfer, notably suppressing information messages from the remote server. This flag is useful when invoking rsync from cron.

-I, --ignore-times

turns off the skipping of files that are already the same length and have the same time-stamp.

-c, --checksum

forces the sender to checksum all files using a 128-bit MD4 checksum before transfer. The checksum is then explicitly checked on the receiver and any files of the same name which already exist and have the same checksum and size on the receiver are skipped. This option can be quite slow.

-a, --archive

is a shortcut for specifying recursion and to preserve all attributes.

-r, --recursive

copies directories recursively. If not specified, rsync will not copy directories at all.

-R, --relative

uses relative paths. This means that the full path names specified on the command line are sent to the server rather than just the last parts of the filenames.

-b, --backup

renames preexisting destination files with a ~ extension as each file is transferred. You can control the backup suffix using the --suffix option.

--backup-dir=DIR

combines with --backup to store all backups in the specified directory. This is very useful for incremental backups.

--suffix=SUFFIX

overrides the default backup suffix used with the -b option. The default is a ~.

-u, --update

skips any files for which the destination file already exists and has a date later than the source file.

-l, --links

recreates symbolic links on the remote system to be the same as the local system. Without this option, all symbolic links are skipped.

-L, --copy-links

transfers the file referenced by a symbolic link, rather than recreating the link.

--copy-unsafe-links

treats symbolic links that point outside the source tree like ordinary files. Absolute symlinks are also treated like ordinary files, and so are any symlinks in the source path itself when --relative is used.

--safe-links

ignores any symbolic links that point outside the destination tree. All absolute symlinks are also ignored.

-H, --hard-links

recreates hard links on the remote system to be the same as the local system. Without this option hard links are treated like regular files.

-W, --whole-file

does not use the incremental rsync algorithm and sends the whole file as-is instead. This may be useful when using rsync with a local machine.

-p, --perms

updates the remote permissions to be the same as the local permissions.

-o, --owner

updates the remote owner of the file to be the same as the local owner. This is only available to the super-user. Note that if the source system is a daemon using chroot, --numeric-ids is implied because the source system cannot get access to the usernames.

-g, --group

updates the remote group of the file to be the same as the local group. If the receiving system is not running as the super-user, only groups that the receiver is a member of will be preserved (by group name, not group id number).

-D, --devices

transfers character and block device information to the remote system to recreate these devices. This option is only available to the super-user.

-t, --times

transfers modification times along with the files and updates them on the remote system.

-n, --dry-run

does not perform any file transfers, but simply reports the actions it would have taken.

-x, --one-file-system

does not cross filesystem boundaries when recursing.

--existing

does not create any new files - only updates files that already exist on the destination.

--max-delete=NUM

does not delete more than NUM files or directories.

--delete

deletes any files on the receiving side that are not on the sending side. Files that are excluded from transfer are excluded from being deleted unless --delete-excluded is specified.

has no effect if directory recursion is not selected.

--delete-excluded

deletes any files on the receiving side that are excluded, in addition to deleting the files on the receiving side that are not on the sending side. (See --exclude.)

--delete-after

processes file deletions after transferring files, as opposed to the default behavior of deleting before the transfer to ensure that there is sufficient space on the receiving filesystem.

-B, --block-size=BLOCKSIZE

controls the block size used in the rsync algorithm. See the technical report for details.

-e, --rsh=COMMAND

specifies the remote shell program to use for communication between the local and remote copies of rsync.

You can also choose the remote shell program using the RSYNC_RSH environment variable.

--rsync-path=PATH

specifies the path to the copy of rsync on the remote machine. Note that this is the full path to the binary, not just the directory that the binary is in.

--exclude=PATTERN

selectively excludes certain files from the list of files to be transferred.

You may use as many --exclude options on the command line as you like to build up the list of files to exclude.

--exclude-from=FILE

is like the --exclude option, but instead adds all exclude patterns listed in the file FILE to the exclude list. Blank lines in FILE and lines starting with “;“ or “#“ are ignored.

--include=PATTERN

does not exclude the specified pattern of filenames. This is useful as it allows you to build up quite complex exclude/include rules.

--include-from=FILE

specifies a list of include patterns from a file.

-T, --temp-dir=DIR

instructs rsync to use DIR as a scratch directory when creating temporary copies of the files transferred on the receiving side. The default behavior is to create the temporary files in the receiving directory.

-z, --compress

compresses any data from the source file(s) that it sends to the destination machine.

--numeric-ids

transfers numeric group and user ids rather than using user and group names and mapping them at both ends.

By default rsync will use the user name and group name to determine what ownership to give files. The special uid 0 and the special group 0 are never mapped via user/group names even if --numeric-ids is not specified.

--timeout=TIMEOUT

sets a maximum IO timeout in seconds. If no data is transferred for the specified time, rsync will exit. The default is 0, which means no timeout.

--port=PORT

specifies an alternate TCP port number to use rather than the default port 873. This only has effect when using rsync to connect to a remote rsync daemon.

--blocking-io

specifies whether rsync will use blocking IO when launching a remote shell transport. You may find this is needed for some remote shells that can“t handle the default non-blocking IO.

--partial

keeps any partially-transferred file in the event of an incomplete transfer (causing a subsequent transfer of the file remainder to process more rapidly) as opposed to the default behavior of rsync where an incomplete file is deleted.

--progress

prints information showing the progress of the transfer.

-P

is equivalent to --partial --progress.

--password-file

allows you to provide a password in a file for accessing a remote rsync server. Note that this option is only useful when accessing a rsync server using the built in transport, not when using a remote shell as the transport. The file must not be world readable. It should contain just the password as a single line.

--bwlimit=KBPS

specifies a maximum transfer rate in kilobytes per second. A value of zero specifies no limit.

sed

Name

sed -- stream editor

Description

sed is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

-V, --version

prints out the version of sed that is being run and a copyright notice, then exits.

--quiet, --silent

is equivalent to -n.

--expression

is equivalent to -e.

--file=script-file

is equivalent to -f.

sendmail

Name

sendmail -- an electronic mail transport agent

Description

To deliver electronic mail (email), applications shall support the interface provided by /usr/sbin/sendmail (described here). This interface shall be the default delivery method for applications.

This program sends an email message to one or more recipients, routing the message as necessary. This program is not intended as a user interface routine.

With no flags, sendmail reads its standard input up to an end-of-file or a line consisting only of a single dot and sends a copy of the message found there to all of the addresses listed. It determines the network(s) to use based on the syntax and contents of the addresses.

It is recommended that applications use as few flags as necessary, none if possible.

Some agents allow aliasing on the local system to be prevented by preceding the address with a backslash.

The format of messages must be as defined in RFC 2822.

Options

-bm

reads mail from standard input and delivers to the recipient addresses. This is the default mode of operation.

-bp

lists information about messages currently in the input mail queue.

-bs

uses the SMTP protocol as described in RFC 2821; reads SMTP commands on standard input and writes SMTP responses on standard output.

Note that RFC 2821 specifies \r\n (CR-LF) be used at the end of each line, but UNIX pipes almost always use \n (LF) instead. To deal with this, agents will accept both \r\n and \n at the end of each line. When accepting \r\n, the \r before the \n is silently discarded.

-F fullname

explicitly sets the full name of the sender for incoming mail unless the message already contains a From: message header.

If the user running sendmail is not sufficiently trusted, then the actual sender may be indicated in the message, depending on the behavior of the agent.

-f name

explicitly sets the envelope sender address for incoming mail. If there is no From: header, the address specified in the From: header will also be set.

If the user running sendmail is not sufficiently trusted, then the actual sender will be indicated in the message.

-i

ignores dots alone on lines by themselves in incoming messages. This option is ignored when -bs is used.

-odb

delivers any mail in background, if supported; otherwise ignored.

-odf

delivers any mail in foreground, if supported; otherwise ignored.

-oem or -em

mails errors back to the sender. (default)

-oep or -ep

writes errors to the standard error output.

-oeq or -eq

does not send notification of errors to the sender. This only works for mail delivered locally.

-oi

is equivalent to -i.

-om

indicates that the sender of a message should receive a copy of the message if the sender appears in an alias expansion. Ignored if aliases are not supported.

-t

reads the message to obtain recipients from the To:, Cc:, and Bcc: headers in the message instead of from the command arguments. If a Bcc: header is present, it is removed from the message unless there is no To: or Cc: header, in which case a Bcc: header with no data is created, in accordance with RFC 2822.

If there are any arguments, they specify addresses to which the message is not to be delivered. That is, the argument addresses are removed from the recipients list obtained from the headers. Note: some agents implement this behavior in reverse, adding addresses instead of removing them. Others may disallow addresses in argument list. Therefore, applications should not put addresses in the argument list if -t is used.

This option is sometimes ignored when not in -bm mode (the default).

Exit status

0

successful completion on all addresses. This does not indicate successful delivery.

>0

there was an error.

LSB-deprecated Options

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

The use of -i together with -bs is LSB-deprecated.

-oew or -ew

writes errors to the sender's terminal using the write(1) command, if he is logged in. Otherwise, mails errors back to the sender. If not supported, reports errors in the same manner as -oem.

-v

is more verbose. Additional -v options may make the software increasingly verbose.

Notes/Rationale

This page is believed to reflect functionality provided by smail, exim and other implementations, not just the sendmail implementation.

shutdown

Name

shutdown -- bring the system down

Description

shutdown brings the system down in a secure way. All logged-in users are notified that the system is going down, and login(1) is blocked. It is possible to shut the system down immediately or after a specified delay. All processes are first notified that the system is going down by the signal SIGTERM. If neither the -h or the -r argument is used, then the default behavior is to take the system to runlevel one where administrative tasks can be run.

Standard Options

-a

uses /etc/shutdown.allow.

-t sec

tells init(8) to wait sec seconds between sending processes the warning and the kill signal, before changing to another runlevel.

-k

doesn't really shutdown; only sends the warning messages to everybody.

-r

reboots after shutdown.

-h

halts after shutdown. Powering off after halting is implementation-dependent.

-f

skips fsck on reboot.

-F

forces fsck on reboot.

-c

cancels an already running shutdown. With this option, it is of course not possible to give the time argument, but you can enter a explanatory message on the command line that will be sent to all users.

time

specifies when to shut down.

The time argument can have different formats. First, it can be an absolute time in the format hh:mm, in which hh is the hour (1 or 2 digits) and mm is the minute of the hour (in two digits). Second, it can be in the format +m, in which m is the number of minutes to wait. The word now is an alias for +0.

If shutdown is called with a delay, it creates the advisory file /etc/nologin which causes programs such as login(1) to not allow new user logins. shutdown only removes this file if it is stopped before it can signal init (i.e. it is cancelled or something goes wrong). Otherwise it is the responsibility of the system shutdown or startup scripts to remove this file so that users can login.

warning-message

specifies message to send all users.

sleep

Name

sleep -- delay for a specified amount of time

Description

The specification for sleep is as specified in the SUS but with the following differences.

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

The operand to sleep in the SUS is the number of seconds to sleep for. As an extension, the number may be followed by s to keep seconds, m for minutes, h for hours or d for days.

--help

displays help and exits.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

sort

Name

sort -- sort, merge or sequence check text files

Description

sort is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

-z

has implementation-dependent behavior. (Rationale: the SUSv2 -z option is supported in neither the SUSv3 nor existing Linux implementations).

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

-g

compares according to general numerical value, implies -b.

-M

compares (unknown) < JAN < ... < DEC, imply -b.

-s

stabilizes sort by disabling last resort comparison.

-T DIRECTORY

uses DIRECTORY for temporary files, not $TMPDIR or /tmp.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

split

Name

split -- split a file into pieces

Description

split is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

-a suffix_length

has implementation-dependent behavior. [44]

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

--bytes=SIZE

is equivalent to -b.

-C, --line-bytes

puts at most SIZE bytes of lines per output file.

--lines

is equivalent to -l.

--verbose

prints a diagnostic to standard error.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

strip

Name

strip -- remove unnecessary information from executable files

Description

strip is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

-F bdfname, --target=bfdname

treats the original objfile as a file with the object code format bfdname, and rewrites it in the same format.

-I bfdname, --input-target=bfdname

treats the original objfile as a file with the object code format bfdname.

-O bdfname, --output-target=bfdname

replaces objfile with a file in the output format bfdname.

-R sectionname, --remove-section=sectionname

removes the named section from the file. This option may be given more than once. Note that using this option inappropriately may make the object file unusable.

-s, --strip-all

removes all symbols.

-S, -g, --strip-debug

removes debugging symbols only.

--strip-unneeded

strips all symbols that are not needed for relocation processing.

-N symbolname, --strip-symbol=symbolname

removes symbol symbolname from the source file. This option may be given more than once, and may be combined with other strip options.

-o file

puts the stripped output in file, rather than replacing the existing file. When this argument is used, only one objfile argument may be specified.

-p, --preserve-dates

preserves the access and modification dates of the file.

-x, --discard-all

removes non-global symbols.

-X, --discard-locals

removes compiler-generated local symbols. (These usually start with `L' or `.'.)

-K symbolname, --keep-symbol=symbolname

copies only symbol symbolname from the source file. This option may be given more than once.

-N symbolname, --strip-symbol=symbolname

does not copy symbol symbolname from the source file. This option may be given more than once, and may be combined with strip options other than -K.

-v, --verbose

lists all object files modified. In the case of archives, lists all members of the archive.

--version

shows the version number for strip and exits.

su

Name

su -- change user ID or become super-user

Description

su is used to become another user during a login session. Invoked without a username, su defaults to becoming the super user. The optional argument - may be used to provide an environment similar to what the user would expect had the user logged in directly.

The user will be prompted for a password, if appropriate. Invalid passwords will produce an error message. All attempts, both valid and invalid, are logged to detect abuses of the system. Applications may not assume the format of prompts and anticipated input for user interaction, because they are implementation-dependent.

An optional command can be executed. This is done by the shell specified in /etc/passwd for the target user unless the -s or -m options are used. Any arguments supplied after the username will be passed to the invoked shell (shell must support the -c command line option in order for a command to be passed to it).

The current environment is passed to the new shell. The value of $PATH is reset to /bin:/usr/bin for normal users, or /sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin for the super user. This may be changed with the ENV_PATH and ENV_SUPATH definitions in /etc/login.defs. When using the -m or -p options, the user's environment is not changed.

A subsystem login is indicated by the presense of a "*" as the first character of the login shell. The given home directory will be used as the root of a new filesystem which the user is actually logged into.

Standard Options

-

makes this a login shell.

-c, --comand=command

passes command to the invoked shell. It is passed directly to the invoked shell (using the shell's -c option), so its syntax is whatever that shell will accept.

-m, -p, --preserve-environment

does not reset environment variables, and keeps the same shell if it is present in /etc/shells.

-s, --shell=shell

uses shell instead of the default in /etc/passwd. The shell specified must be present in /etc/shells.

sum

Name

sum -- print checksum and block count of a file (deprecated)

Description

The sum command is deprecated and is expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should use cksum or md5sum instead.

sum is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

-s, --sysv

uses System V sum algorithm, uses 512 bytes blocks.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

sync

Name

sync -- flush filesystem buffers

Description

Force changed blocks to disk, update the super block.

LSB Deprecated Options

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

--help

displays help and exits.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

tail

Name

tail -- output the last part of files

Description

tail is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

--retry

tries to open a file even if it is inaccessible when tail starts or if it becomes inaccessible later; useful only with -f.

--bytes=N

outputs the last N bytes.

--follow

is equivalent to -f.

--lines=N

is equivalent to -n.

--max-unchanged-stats=N

performs open/fstat of a file specified by name (if there have been N consecutive iterations for which the size has remained the same) to determine if that file name is still associated with the same device/inode-number pair as before.

--max-consecutive-size-changes=N

if a file has been specified by name, controls how long tail follows the descriptor of a file that continues growing at a rapid pace even after it is deleted or renamed. After detecting N consecutive size changes for a file, open/fstat the file to determine if that file name is still associated with the same device/inode-number pair as before.

--pid=PID

terminates after process ID PID dies (only may be specified if -f is).

-q, --quiet, --silent

does not outputs headers giving file names.

-s, --sleep-interval=S

sleeps S seconds between iterations (only may be specified if -f is).

-v, --verbose

outputs headers giving file names.

+NUMBER, -NUMBER

supports b, k and m as suffixes (referring to multipliers 512, 1024 and 1048576, respectively), as opposed to the c or l suffixes as stated in the SUS.

tar

Name

tar -- file archiver

Description

tar is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

-A, --catenate, --concatenate

appends tar files to an archive.

--create

is equivalent to -c.

-d, --diff, --compare

finds differences between archive and file system.

--delete

deletes from the archive. (Not for use on mag tapes!)

--apend

is equivalent to -r.

--list

is equivalent to -t.

--update

is equivalent to -u.

--extract, --get

extracts files from an archive.

--atime-preserve

does not change access times on dumped files.

--block-size N

is equivalent to -b.

-B, --read-full-blocks

reblocks as we read; for reading 4.2BSD pipes.

-C, --directory DIR

changes to directory DIR.

--checkpoint

prints directory names while reading the archive.

-f, --file [HOSTNAME:]F

uses archive file or device F. The default is "-", meaning stdin/stdout.

--force-local

specifies that archive file is local even if has a colon.

-F, --info-script F, --new-volume-script F

runs script at end of each tape; implies -M.

-G, --incremental

creates/lists/extracts old GNU-format incremental backup.

-g, --listed-incremental F

creates/lists/extracts new GNU-format incremental backup.

-h, --dereference

doesn't dump symlinks; dumps the files they point to.

-i, --ignore-zeros

ignores blocks of zeros in archive that normally mean EOF.

--bzip2

filters archive through bzip2; used to decompress .bz2 files.

--ignore-failed-read

doesn't exit with non-zero status on unreadable files.

-k, --keep-old-files

keeps existing files; doesn't overwrite them from archive.

-K, --starting-file F

begins at file F in the archive.

-l, --one-file-system

stays in local file system when creating an archive.

-L, --tape-length N

changes tapes after writing N*1024 bytes.

--modification-time

is equivalent to -m.

-M, --multi-volume

creates/lists/extracts multi-volume archive.

-N, --after-date DATE, --newer DATE

stores only files newer than DATE.

-o, --old-archive, --portability

writes a V7 format archive, rather than ANSI format. Note that for -o the behavior is different than what is specified in the SUSv2.

-O, --to-stdout

extracts files to standard output.

-p, --same-permissions, --preserve-permissions

extracts all protection information.

-P, --absolute-paths

does not strip leading /s from file names.

--preserve

is equivalent to -p -s.

-R, --record-number

shows record number within archive with each message.

--remove-files

removes files after adding them to the archive.

-s, --same-order, --preserve-order

sorts list of names to extract to match archive.

--same-owner

creates extracted files with the same ownership.

-S, --sparse

handles sparse files efficiently.

-T, --files-from F

gets names to extract or create from file F.

--null

causes -T to read null-terminated names; disables -C.

--totals

prints total bytes written with --create.

--verbose

is equivalent to -v.

-V, --label NAME

creates archive with volume name NAME.

--version

prints tar program version number.

-w, --interactive, --confirmation

asks for confirmation for every action.

-W, --verify

attempts to verify the archive after writing it.

--exclude FILE

excludes file FILE.

-X, --exclude-from FILE

excludes files listed in FILE.

-Z, --compress, --uncompress

filters the archive through compress.

-z, --gzip, --ungzip

filters the archive through gzip.

--use-compress-program PROG

filters the archive through PROG (which must accept -d)

--block-compress

blocks the output of compression program for tapes.

-[0-7][lmh]

specifies drive and density.

tee

Name

tee -- read from standard input and write to standard output and files

Description

tee is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

--append

is equivalent to -a.

--ignore-interrupts

is equivalent to -i.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

test

Name

test -- check file types and compare values

Description

test is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

-G FILE

FILE exists and is owned by the effective group ID.

-k FILE

FILE exists and has its sticky bit set.

-L FILE

FILE exists and is a symbolic link.

-O FILE

FILE exists and is owned by the effective user ID.

-S

FILE exists and is a socket.

time

Name

time -- run programs and summarize system resource usage

Description

time is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

-o FILE, --output=FILE

writes the resource use statistics to FILE instead of to the standard error stream. By default, this overwrites the file, destroying the file's previous contents.

-a, --append

appends the resource use information to the output file instead of overwriting it.

-f FORMAT, --format=FORMAT

uses FORMAT as the format string that controls the output of time. See "Formatting the Output" below more information.

--portability

is equivalent to -p.

-v, --verbose

displays each available piece of information on the program's resource use on its own line, with an English description of its meaning.

-V, --version

prints the version number of time and exits.

Formatting the Output (LSB Deprecated)

The format string FORMAT controls the contents of the time output. The format string can be set using the -f or --format, -v or --verbose, or -p or --portability options. If they are not given, but the TIME environment variable is set, its value is used as the format string. Otherwise, a built-in default format is used.

The default format is:

%Uuser %Ssystem %Eelapsed %PCPU (%Xtext+%Ddata %Mmax)k
%Iinputs+%Ooutputs (%Fmajor+%Rminor)pagefaults %Wswaps

The format string usually consists of resource specifiers interspersed with plain text. A percent sign (%) in the format string causes the following character to be interpreted as a resource specifier, which is similar to the formatting characters in the printf(3) function.

A backslash (\) introduces a backslash escape, which is translated into a single printing character upon output. \t outputs a tab character, \n outputs a newline, and \\ outputs a backslash. A backslash followed by any other character outputs a question mark (?) followed by a backslash, to indicate that an invalid backslash escape was given.

Other text in the format string is copied verbatim to the output. time always prints a newline after printing the resource use information, so normally format strings do not end with a newline character (or 0).

There are many resource specifications. Not all resources are measured by all versions of UNIX, so some of the values might be reported as zero. Any character following a percent sign that is not listed in the table below causes a question mark (`?') to be output, followed by that character, to indicate that an invalid resource listed in the table below causes a question mark (`?') to be output, followed by that character, to indicate that an invalid resource specifier was given.

The resource specifiers, which are a superset of those recognized by the tcsh(1) builtin `time' command, are:

%

literal `%'.

C

name and command line arguments of the command being timed.

D

average size of the processs unshared data area, in units of 1024 bytes.

E

elapsed real (wall clock) time used by the process, in [hours:]minutes:seconds.

F

number of major, or I/O-requiring, page faults that occurred while the process was running. These are faults where the page has actually migrated out of primary memory.

I

number of file system inputs by the process.

K

average total (data+stack+text) memory use of the process, in units of 1024 bytes.

M

maximum resident set size of the process during its lifetime, in units of 1024 bytes.

O

number of file system outputs by the process.

P

percentage of the CPU that this job got. This is just user + system times divided by the total running time.

R

number of minor, or recoverable, page faults. These are pages that are not valid (so they fault) but which have not yet been claimed by other virtual pages. Thus the data in the page is still valid but the system tables must be updated.

S

total number of CPU-seconds used by the system on behalf of the process (in kernel mode), in seconds.

U

total number of CPU-seconds that the process used directly (in user mode), in seconds.

W

number of times the process was swapped out of main memory.

X

average amount of shared text in the process, in units of 1024 bytes.

Z

system's page size, in bytes. This is a per-system constant, but varies between systems.

c

number of times the process was context-switched involuntarily (because the time slice expired).

e

elapsed real (wall clock) time used by the process, in seconds.

k

number of signals delivered to the process.

p

average unshared stack size of the process, in units of 1024 bytes.

r

number of socket messages received by the process.

s

number of socket messages sent by the process.

t

average resident set size of the process, in units of 1024 bytes.

w

number of times that the program was context-switched voluntarily, for instance while waiting for an I/O operation to complete.

x

exit status of the command.

touch

Name

touch -- change file access and modification times

Description

touch is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

--no-create

is equivalent to -c.

-d, --date=STRING

parses STRING and uses it instead of current time.

--reference=FILE

is equivalent to -r.

--time=WORD

sets time given by WORD: access atime use (same as -a) modify mtime (same as -m).

--version

outputs version information and exits.

tr

Name

tr -- translate or delete characters

Description

tr is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

--complement

is equivalent to -c.

--delete

is equivalent to -d.

--squeeze-repeats

is equivalent to -s.

-t, --truncate-set1

first truncates SET1 to length of SET2.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

tty

Name

tty -- print the file name of the terminal connected to standard input

Description

tty is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

--silent, --quiet

is equivalent to -s.

--delete

is equivalent to -d.

--squeeze-repeats

is equivalent to -s.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

umount

Name

umount -- unmount file systems

Description

umount detaches the file system(s) mentioned from the file hierarchy. A file system is specified by giving the directory where it has been mounted.

Standard Options

-V

print version and exits.

-v

invokes verbose mode.

-n

unmounts without writing in /etc/mtab.

-r

tries to remount read-only if unmounting fails.

-a

unmounts all of the file systems described in /etc/mtab except for the proc filesystem.

-t vfstype

indicates that the actions should only be taken on file systems of the specified type. More than one type may be specified in a comma separated list. The list of file system types can be prefixed with no to specify the file system types on which no action should be taken.

-f

forces unmount (in case of an unreachable NFS system).

uname

Name

uname -- return system name

Description

uname is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

-a

prints all information (not just the options specified in the SUS).

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

--all

is equivalent to -a.

--machine

is equivalent to -m.

--nodename

is equivalent to -n.

--release

is equivalent to -r.

-p, --processor

prints the host processor type.

--sysname

is equivalent to -s.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

unexpand

Name

unexpand -- convert spaces to tabs

Description

unexpand is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

--tabs=NUMBER, -NUMBER

is equivalent to -t NUMBER.

--tabs=LIST, -LIST

is equivalent to -t LIST.

uniq

Name

uniq -- remove duplicate lines from a sorted file

Description

uniq is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

--count

is equivalent to -c.

--repeated

is equivalent to -d.

-D, --all-repeated

prints all duplicate lines.

--skip-fields=N

is equivalent to -f fields.

-i, --ignore-case

ignores differences in case when comparing.

--skip-chars=N

is equivalent to -s.

--unique

is equivalent to -u.

-w, --check-chars=N

compares no more than N characters in lines.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

useradd

Name

useradd -- create a new user or update default new user information

Description

When invoked without the -D option, useradd creates a new user account using the values specified on the command line and the default values from the system. The new user account will be entered into the system files as needed, the home directory will be created, and initial files copied, depending on the command line options.

When invoked with the -D option, useradd will either display the current default values, or update the default values from the command line. If no options are specified, useradd displays the current default values.

Standard Options

-c comment

specifies the new user's password file comment field value.

-d home_dir

creates the new user using home_dir as the value for the user's login directory. The default is to append the login name to default_home and use that as the login directory name.

-g initial_group

specifies the group name or number of the user's initial login group. The group name must exist. A group number must refer to an already existing group. If -g is not specified, the implementation will follow the normal user default for that system. This may create a new group or choose a default group that normal users are placed in. Applications which require control of the groups into which a user is placed should specify -g.

-G group,[...]

specifies a list of supplementary groups which the user is also a member of. Each group is separated from the next by a comma, with no intervening whitespace. The groups are subject to the same restrictions as the group given with the -g option. The default is for the user to belong only to the initial group.

-m [-k skeleton_dir]

specifies the user's home directory will be created if it does not exist. The files contained in skeleton_dir will be copied to the home directory if the -k option is used, otherwise the files contained in /etc/skel will be used instead. Any directories contained in skeleton_dir or /etc/skel will be created in the user's home directory as well. The -k option is only valid in conjunction with the -m option. The default is to not create the directory and to not copy any files.

-p passwd

is the encrypted password, as returned by crypt(3). The default is to disable the account.

-r

creates a system account, that is, a user with a UID in the range reserved for system account users. If there is not a UID free in the reserved range the command will fail.

-s shell

specifies the name of the user's login shell. The default is to leave this field blank, which causes the system to select the default login shell.

-u uid [-o]

specifies the numerical value of the user's ID. This value must be unique, unless the -o option is used. The value must be non-negative. The default is the smallest ID value greater than 499 which is not yet used.

Change Default Options

-b default_home

specifies the initial path prefix for a new user's home directory. The user's name will be affixed to the end of default_home to create the new directory name if the -d option is not used when creating a new account.

-g default_group

specifies the group name or ID for a new user's initial group. The named group must exist, and a numerical group ID must have an existing entry.

-s default_shell

specifies the name of the new user's login shell. The named program will be used for all future new user accounts.

-c comment

specifies the new user's password file comment field value.

Application Usage

The -D option will typically be used by system administration packages. Most applications should not change defaults which will affect other applications and users.

userdel

Name

userdel -- delete a user account and related files

Description

Delete the user account named login. If there is also a group named login, this command may delete the group as well, or may leave it alone.

Options

-r

removes files in the user's home directory along with the home directory itself. Files located in other file system will have to be searched for and deleted manually.

usermod

Name

usermod -- modify a user account

Options

-c comment

specifies the new value of the user's password file comment field.

-d home_dir

specifies the user's new login directory. If the -m option is given the contents of the current home directory will be moved to the new home directory, which is created if it does not already exist.

-g initial_group

specifies the group name or number of the user's new initial login group. The group name must exist. A group number must refer to an already existing group.

-G group,[...]

specifies a list of supplementary groups which the user is also a member of. Each group is separated from the next by a comma, with no intervening whitespace. The groups are subject to the same restrictions as the group given with the -g option. If the user is currently a member of a group which is not listed, the user will be removed from the group.

-l login_name

changes the name of the user from login to login_name. Nothing else is changed. In particular, the user's home directory name should probably be changed to reflect the new login name.

-p passwd

is the encrypted password, as returned by crypt(3).

-s shell

specifies the name of the user's new login shell. Setting this field to blank causes the system to select the default login shell.

-u uid [-o]

specifies the numerical value of the user's ID. This value must be unique, unless the -o option is used. The value must be non-negative. Any files which the user owns and which are located in the directory tree rooted at the user's home directory will have the file user ID changed automatically. Files outside of the user's home directory must be altered manually.

wc

Name

wc -- print the number of bytes, words, and lines in files

Description

wc is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

Differences

-m

has implementation-dependent behavior.[45]

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

--bytes, --chars

is equivalent to -c.

--lines

is equivalent to -l.

-L, --max-line-length

prints the length of the longest line.

--words

is equivalent to -w.

--version

outputs version information and exits.

xargs

Name

xargs -- build and execute command lines from standard input

Description

xargs is as specified in the SUS but with differences as listed below.

LSB Deprecated Differences

The behaviors specified in this section are expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should only use the non-LSB-deprecated behaviors.

--null, -0

terminates input filenames by a null character instead of by whitespace, and the quotes and backslash are not special (every character is taken literally). Disables the end of file string, which is treated like any other argument. Useful when arguments might contain white space, quote marks, or backslashes. The GNU find -print0 option produces input suitable for this mode.

--eof[=eof-str]

is equivalent to -e.

-E

has implementation-dependent behavior.

--replace[=replace-str]

uses FORMAT as the format string that controls the output of time.

-I

has implementation-dependent behavior.

--max-lines[=max-lines]

is equivalent to -l.

-L

has implementation-dependent behavior.

--max-args=max-args

is equivalent to -n.

--interactive

is equivalent to -p.

--no-run-if-empty, -r

does not run this command if the standard input does not contain any nonblanks. Normally, the command is run once even if there is no input.

--max-chars

is equivalent to -s.

--verbose

is equivalent to -t.

--version

Prints the version number of xargs and exits.

--exit

is equivalent to -x.

--max-procs=max-procs, -P max-procs

runs up to max-procs processes at a time; the default is 1. If max-procs is 0, xargs will run as many processes as possible at a time. Use the -n option with -P; otherwise chances are that only one exec will be done.


Chapter 16. Standard Shell


Chapter 17. Users & Groups

A "user name" is a string that is used to identify a user. A "login name" is a user name that is associated with a system login. A "user id" is a non negative integer, which can be contained in an object of type uid_t, that is used to identify a system user.

When the identity of a user is associated with a process, a user ID value is referred to as a real user ID, or an effective user ID. [POSIX 1003.1-1996]

A "group name" is a string that is used to identify a set of users. A "group id" is a non negative integer, which can be contained in a object of type gid_t, that is used to identify a group of system users. Each system user is a member of at least one group. When the identity of a group is associated with a process, a group ID value is referred to as a real group ID, or an effective group ID. [POSIX 1003.1-1996]


User & Group Names

Below is a table of required mnemonic user and group names. This specification makes no attempt to numerically assign uid or gid numbers. The exception is the uid and gid for "root" which are equal to 0.

Below is a table of optional mnemonic user and group names. This specification makes no attempt to numerically assign uid or gid numbers. If the username exists on a system, then they should be in the suggested corresponding group. These user and group names are for use by distributions, not by applications.

The differences in numeric values of the uids and gids between systems on a network can be reconciled via NIS, rdist(1), rsync(1), or ugidd(8). Only a minimum working set of "user names" and their corresponding "user groups" are required. Applications cannot assume non system user or group names will be defined.

Applications cannot assume any policy for the default umask or the default directory permissions a user may have. Applications should enforce user only file permissions on private files such as mailboxes. The location of the users home directory is also not defined by policy other than the recommendations of the FHS and must be obtained by the *pwnam(3) calls.


Chapter 18. File System Hierarchy

An LSB conforming implementation must adhere to the FHS 2.2.

An LSB conforming application is recommended to follow the FHS 2.2. If it does not follow the FHS 2.2 it should include documentation of the differences.

The FHS allows many components or subsystems to be optional. An application must check for the existence of an optional component before using it, and should behave in a reasonable manner if the optional component is not present.

The FHS requirement to locate the operating system kernel in either / or /boot does not apply if the operating system kernel does not exist as a file in the filesystem.

The FHS specifies certain behaviors for a variety of commands if they are present (for example, ping or python). However, LSB applications must not rely on any commands beyond those specified by the LSB. The mere existence of a command must not be used as an indication that the command behaves in any particular way.


Chapter 19. Additional Recommendations


Recommendations for applications on ownership and permissions


Chapter 20. Additional Behaviors

This section specifies behaviors in which there is optional behavior in one of the standards on which the LSB relies, and where the LSB requires a specific behavior. [48]

The fcntl() function shall detect EDEADLK, as described as optional behavior in the SUS.

The fcntl() function shall treat the "cmd" value -1 as invalid.

The "whence" value -1 shall be an invalid value for the lseek(), fseek() and fcntl() functions.

The value "-5" shall be an invalid signal number.

The opendir() function shall detect EMFILE and ENFILE, as described as optional behavior in the SUS.

The readdir() and closedir() functions shall detect EBADF, as described as optional behavior in the SUS.

If the sigaddset() or sigdelset() functions are passed an invalid signal number, they shall return with EINVAL. Implementations are only required to enforce this requirement for signal numbers which are specified to be invalid by this specification (such as the -5 mentioned above).

The START and STOP termios characters shall be changeable, as described as optional behavior in the "General Terminal Interface" section of the SUS.

The mode value "-1" to the access() function shall be treated as invalid.

A value of -1 shall be an invalid "_PC_..." value for pathconf().

A value of -1 shall be an invalid "_SC..." value for sysconf().

The link() function shall require access to the existing file in order to succeed, as described as optional behavior in the SUS.

Calling unlink() on a directory shall fail. Calling link() specifying a directory as the first argument shall fail. See also unlink>.

The link() function shall not work across file systems, and shall return with EXDEV as described as optional behavior in the SUS.

The nl_item value "-1" shall be invalid for nl_langinfo.

The value -1 shall be an invalid "_CS_..." value for confstr().

The value "z" shall be an invalid mode argument to popen().

[49]


Chapter 22. System Initialization

Cron Jobs

Packages may not touch the configuration file /etc/crontab, nor may they modify the files in /var/spool/cron/crontabs.

If a package wants to install a job that has to be executed via cron, it shall place a file with the name of the package in one of the following directories:

/etc/cron.daily
/etc/cron.weekly
/etc/cron.monthly

As these directory names say, the files within them are executed on a daily, weekly, or monthly basis, respectively.

If a certain job has to be executed more frequently than daily, the package shall install a file /etc/cron.d/package-name tagged as configuration file. This file uses the same syntax as /etc/crontab and is processed by cron automatically.

It is recommended that files installed in any of these directories be scripts (shell scripts, Perl scripts, etc.) so that they may be modified by the local system administrator. In addition, they must be registered as configuration file.

The scripts in these directories have to check, if all necessary programs are installed before they try to execute them. Otherwise, problems will arise when a package was removed (but not purged), since the configuration files are kept on the system in this situation.

To avoid namespace conflicts in the /etc/cron.* directories, the filenames used by LSB-compliant packages in /etc/cron.daily, /etc/cron.weekly, /etc/cron.monthly, or /etc/cron.d must come from a managed namespace. These filenames may be assigned using one of the following methods:


Init Script Actions

Init files provided by LSB applications shall accept one argument, saying what to do:

startstart the service
stopstop the service
restartstop and restart the service if the service is already running, otherwise start the service
reloadcause the configuration of the service to be reloaded without actually stopping and restarting the service
force-reloadcause the configuration to be reloaded if the service supports this, otherwise restart the service
statusprint the current status of the service

The start, stop, restart, force-reload, and status commands must be supported by all init files; the reload option is optional. Other init script actions may be defined by the init script.

Init files must ensure that they will behave sensibly if invoked with start when the service is already running, or with stop when it isn't, and that they don't kill unfortunately-named user processes. The best way to achieve this is to use the init-script functions provided by /lib/lsb/init-functions.

If a service reloads its configuration automatically (as in the case of cron, for example), the reload option of the init file must behave as if the configuration has been reloaded successfully.

These executable files must not fail obscurely when the configuration files remain but the package has been removed, as the default in [the packaging system] is to leave configuration files on the system after the package has been removed. Only when it is executed with the [purge] option will [the packaging system] remove configuration files. Therefore, you should include a test statement at the top of the file, like this:
test -f program-executed-later-in-file || exit 5
or take the equivalent action if the init file is not a shell script.

If the status command is given, the init script will return the following exit status codes.

0program is running or service is OK
1program is dead and /var/run pid file exists
2program is dead and /var/lock lock file exists
3program is stopped
4program or service status is unknown
5-99reserved for future LSB use
100-149reserved for distribution use
150-199reserved for application use
200-254reserved

In the case of init script commands other than "status" (i.e., "start", "stop", "restart", "reload", and "force-reload"), the init script must return an exit status of zero if the action described by the argument has been successful. Otherwise, the exit status shall be non-zero, as defined below. In addition to straightforward success, the following situations are also to be considered successful:

In case of an error, while processing any init script action except for "status", the init script must print an error message and return one of the following non-zero exit status codes.

1generic or unspecified error (current practice)
2invalid or excess argument(s)
3unimplemented feature (for example, "reload")
4user had insufficient privilege
5program is not installed
6program is not configured
7program is not running
8-99reserved for future LSB use
100-149reserved for distribution use
150-199reserved for application use
200-254reserved

All error messages must be printed on standard error. All status messages must be printed on standard output. (This does not prevent scripts from calling the logging functions such as log_failure_msg).

Since init files may be run manually by a system administrator with non-standard environment variable values for PATH, USER, LOGNAME, etc. init files must not depend on the values of these environment variables. They should set them to some known/default values if they are needed.


Comment conventions for init scripts

LSB applications which need to execute script(s) at bootup and/or shutdown may provide one or more init.d files. These files are installed by the install_initd program described below, which copies it into a standard directory and makes whatever other adjustments (creation of symlinks, creation of entries in a database, etc.) are necessary so that the script can be run at boot-time. [50]

In the init.d file, information about the shell script shall be delimited by the lines "### BEGIN INIT INFO" and "### END INIT INFO". These delimiter lines may containg trailing whitespace, which shall be ignored. Inside this block there shall be lines of the form "# {keyword}: [arg1] [arg2] ...". (All lines inside this block start with a hash ('#') character in the first column, so that shell treats them as comments.) The following keywords, with their arguments are defined in this specification:

	# Provides: boot_facility_1 [ boot_facility_2 ...]
	# Required-Start: boot_facility_1 [ boot_facility_2 ...]
	# Required-Stop: boot_facility_1 [ boot_facility_2 ...]
	# Default-Start: run_level_1 [ run_level_2 ...]
	# Default-Stop: run_level_1 [ run_level_2 ...]
	# Short-Description: short_description
	# Description: multiline_description

Additional keywords may be defined in future LSB specifications. Distributions may define local extensions by using the prefix "X-[distribution name]" --- for example, "X-RedHat-foobardecl", or "X-Debian-xyzzydecl".

An init.d shell script may declare using the "Required-Start: " header that it must not be run until certain boot facilities are provided. This information is used by the installation tool or the boot-time boot-script execution facility to assure that init scripts are run in the correct order. When an init script is run with a "start" argument, the boot facility or facilities specified in the "Provides" header shall be considered present, and hence init scripts which require those boot facilities would then be eligble to be run. When an init script is run with a "stop" argument, the boot facilities specified in the "Provides" header are considered no longer present. There are naming conventions for boot facilities and system facilities, as described in a following section.

Similarly, the "Required-Stop:" header defines which facilities must still be available during the shutdown of that service. Hence, the init script system should avoid stopping shell scripts which provide those facilities until this shell script is stopped.

The "Default-Start" and "Default-Stop" headers define which run levels should by default run the script with a start or stop argument, respectively, to start or stop the services controlled by the init script.

The "Short-Description" and "Description" header fields are used to provide text which describes the actions of the init script. The "short_description" shall be a relatively short, pithy description of the init script, where as the "multiline_description" can be a much longer piece of text that may span mulitple lines. In a multiline description, each continuation line must begin with a '#' followed by tab character or a '#' followed by at least two space characters. The multiline description is terminated by the first line that does not match this criteria.

The comment conventions described in this session are only required for use by LSB-compliant applications; system init scripts as provided by LSB-compliant run-time environments are not required to use the scheme outlined here. [51]


Run Levels

The following run levels are specified for use by the "Default-Start:" and "Default-Stop:" specifiers as defined by the section Comment conventions for init scripts>. Many LSB run-time environments commonly use these run level definitions, and in the absence of other considerations, providers of run-time environments are strongly encouraged to follow this convention to provide consistency for system administrators who need to work with multiple distributions. However, it is not required that LSB-compliant run-time environments use these run levels; the distribution-provided install_initd script may map the run levels specified below to whatever distribution-specified run levels are most appropriate.

0halt
1single user mode
2multiuser with no network services exported
3normal/full multiuser
4reserved for local use, default is normal/full multiuser
5multiuser with xdm or equivalent
6reboot


Script names

Since the init.d scripts must live in a single directory, they must come from a single namespace. Three means of assigning names from this namespace are available:

In general, if a package or some system function is likely to be used on multiple systems, the package developers or the distribution SHOULD get a registered name through LANANA, and distributions should strive to use the same name whenever possible. For applications which may not be "core" or may not be commonly installed, the hierarchical namespace may be more appropriate. An advantage to the hierarchical namespace is that there is no need to consult with the LANANA before obtaining an assigned name.

Short names are highly desirable, since many system administrators like to use them to manually start and stop services. Given this, they should be standardized on a per-package basis. This is the rationale behind having a LANANA organization to assign these names. The LANANA may be called upon to handle other namespace issues, such as package/prerequisites naming (which is essential to making prerequisites to work correctly).

This specification shall pre-define the following script names as being reserved to the LANANA. They reflect names which are commonly in use today by distributions to start up various system programs/daemons. The behavior of these scripts are not specified here, and not all distributions may use all of these script names. [55]

  • autofs

  • apmd

  • atd

  • crond

  • dhclient

  • dhcpcd

  • gpm

  • exim

  • halt

  • hotplug

  • identd

  • inet

  • httpd

  • kudzu

  • klogd

  • lpd

  • mcserv

  • named

  • nfs

  • nfslock

  • pcmcia

  • portmap

  • postfix

  • random

  • routed

  • rstatd

  • rusersd

  • rwhod

  • sendmail

  • samba

  • smb

  • snmpd

  • sshd

  • syslog

  • xfs

  • xntpd

  • ypbind


Init script Functions

Each LSB-compliant init.d script must source the file /lib/lsb/init-functions. This file must cause the following shell script commands to be defined. This can be done either by adding a directory to the PATH variable which defines these commands, or by defining sh aliases. While the distribution-provided aliases may choose to use bash extensions (at the distribution's option), the LSB init.d files themselves should only depend in /bin/sh features as defined by POSIX.2.

start_daemon [-f] [-n nicelevel] pathname [args]This runs the specified program as a daemon. start_daemon will check to see if there is a program named "daemon" already running. If so, it will not start another copy of the daemon unless the -f option is given. The -n option specifies a nice level. See nice(1).
killproc basename [signal]This stops the specified program. The program is found using the algorithm given by pidofproc. If a signal is specified, the program is sent that signal. Otherwise, a SIGTERM followed by a SIGKILL after some number of seconds is sent.
pidofproc basenameThis function returns one or more pid(s) for a particular daemon. If an entry is found in /var/run/basename.pid, then that value is returned. Compliant implementations of the LSB may attempt other mechanisms for determining the pid(s), although this is not required (and not recommended, since a user can trick startup scripts by creating processes that appear to be system programs in the process list thus creating a potential security exposure). Hence, LSB-complaint applications who wish to use the pidofproc function in their init scripts must store the pid in /var/run/basename.pid.
log_success_msg "message"This requests the distribution to print a success message. The message should be relatively short; no more than 60 characters is highly desirable.
log_failure_msg "message"This requests the distribution to print a failure message. The message should be relatively short; no more than 60 characters is highly desirable.
log_warning_msg "message"This requests the distribution to print a warning message. The message should be relatively short; no more than 60 characters is highly desirable.


Appendix A. Alphabetical Listing of Interfaces


libX11

The behaviour of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following Standards.

X11R6.4 Xlib - C library

Table A-1. libX11 Function Interfaces

XActivateScreenSaver[25]XIfEvent[25]XcmsCIELabQueryMinL[25]
XAddConnectionWatch[25]XImageByteOrder[25]XcmsCIELabToCIEXYZ[25]
XAddExtension[25]XInitExtension[25]XcmsCIELabWhiteShiftColors[25]
XAddHost[25]XInitImage[25]XcmsCIELuvClipL[25]
XAddHosts[25]XInitThreads[25]XcmsCIELuvClipLuv[25]
XAddPixel[25]XInsertModifiermapEntry[25]XcmsCIELuvClipuv[25]
XAddToExtensionList[25]XInstallColormap[25]XcmsCIELuvQueryMaxC[25]
XAddToSaveSet[25]XInternAtom[25]XcmsCIELuvQueryMaxL[25]
XAllPlanes[25]XInternAtoms[25]XcmsCIELuvQueryMaxLC[25]
XAllocClassHint[25]XInternalConnectionNumbers[25]XcmsCIELuvQueryMinL[25]
XAllocColor[25]XIntersectRegion[25]XcmsCIELuvToCIEuvY[25]
XAllocColorCells[25]XKeycodeToKeysym[25]XcmsCIELuvWhiteShiftColors[25]
XAllocColorPlanes[25]XKeysymToKeycode[25]XcmsCIEXYZToCIELab[25]
XAllocIconSize[25]XKeysymToString[25]XcmsCIEXYZToCIEuvY[25]
XAllocNamedColor[25]XKillClient[25]XcmsCIEXYZToCIExyY[25]
XAllocSizeHints[25]XLastKnownRequestProcessed[25]XcmsCIEXYZToRGBi[25]
XAllocStandardColormap[25]XListDepths[25]XcmsCIEuvYToCIELuv[25]
XAllocWMHints[25]XListExtensions[25]XcmsCIEuvYToCIEXYZ[25]
XAllowEvents[25]XListFonts[25]XcmsCIEuvYToTekHVC[25]
XAutoRepeatOff[25]XListFontsWithInfo[25]XcmsCIExyYToCIEXYZ[25]
XAutoRepeatOn[25]XListHosts[25]XcmsClientWhitePointOfCCC[25]
XBaseFontNameListOfFontSet[25]XListInstalledColormaps[25]XcmsConvertColors[25]
XBell[25]XListPixmapFormats[25]XcmsCreateCCC[25]
XBitmapBitOrder[25]XListProperties[25]XcmsDefaultCCC[25]
XBitmapPad[25]XLoadFont[25]XcmsDisplayOfCCC[25]
XBitmapUnit[25]XLoadQueryFont[25]XcmsFormatOfPrefix[25]
XBlackPixel[25]XLocaleOfFontSet[25]XcmsFreeCCC[25]
XBlackPixelOfScreen[25]XLocaleOfIM[25]XcmsLookupColor[25]
XCellsOfScreen[25]XLocaleOfOM[25]XcmsPrefixOfFormat[25]
XChangeActivePointerGrab[25]XLockDisplay[25]XcmsQueryBlack[25]
XChangeGC[25]XLookupColor[25]XcmsQueryBlue[25]
XChangeKeyboardControl[25]XLookupKeysym[25]XcmsQueryColor[25]
XChangeKeyboardMapping[25]XLookupString[25]XcmsQueryColors[25]
XChangePointerControl[25]XLowerWindow[25]XcmsQueryGreen[25]
XChangeProperty[25]XMapRaised[25]XcmsQueryRed[25]
XChangeSaveSet[25]XMapSubwindows[25]XcmsQueryWhite[25]
XChangeWindowAttributes[25]XMapWindow[25]XcmsRGBToRGBi[25]
XCheckIfEvent[25]XMaskEvent[25]XcmsRGBiToCIEXYZ[25]
XCheckMaskEvent[25]XMatchVisualInfo[25]XcmsRGBiToRGB[25]
XCheckTypedEvent[25]XMaxCmapsOfScreen[25]XcmsScreenNumberOfCCC[25]
XCheckTypedWindowEvent[25]XMaxRequestSize[25]XcmsScreenWhitePointOfCCC[25]
XCheckWindowEvent[25]XMinCmapsOfScreen[25]XcmsSetCCCOfColormap[25]
XCirculateSubwindows[25]XMoveResizeWindow[25]XcmsSetCompressionProc[25]
XCirculateSubwindowsDown[25]XMoveWindow[25]XcmsSetWhiteAdjustProc[25]
XCirculateSubwindowsUp[25]XNewModifiermap[25]XcmsSetWhitePoint[25]
XClearArea[25]XNextEvent[25]XcmsStoreColor[25]
XClearWindow[25]XNextRequest[25]XcmsStoreColors[25]
XClipBox[25]XNoOp[25]XcmsTekHVCClipC[25]
XCloseDisplay[25]XOMOfOC[25]XcmsTekHVCClipV[25]
XCloseIM[25]XOffsetRegion[25]XcmsTekHVCClipVC[25]
XCloseOM[25]XOpenDisplay[25]XcmsTekHVCQueryMaxC[25]
XConfigureWindow[25]XOpenIM[25]XcmsTekHVCQueryMaxV[25]
XConnectionNumber[25]XOpenOM[25]XcmsTekHVCQueryMaxVC[25]
XContextDependentDrawing[25]XParseColor[25]XcmsTekHVCQueryMaxVSamples[25]
XContextualDrawing[25]XParseGeometry[25]XcmsTekHVCQueryMinV[25]
XConvertCase[25]XPeekEvent[25]XcmsTekHVCToCIEuvY[25]
XConvertSelection[25]XPeekIfEvent[25]XcmsTekHVCWhiteShiftColors[25]
XCopyArea[25]XPending[25]XcmsVisualOfCCC[25]
XCopyColormapAndFree[25]XPlanesOfScreen[25]XkbAllocClientMap[25]
XCopyGC[25]XPointInRegion[25]XkbAllocCompatMap[25]
XCopyPlane[25]XPolygonRegion[25]XkbAllocControls[25]
XCreateBitmapFromData[25]XProcessInternalConnection[25]XkbAllocGeomColors[25]
XCreateColormap[25]XProtocolRevision[25]XkbAllocGeomDoodads[25]
XCreateFontCursor[25]XProtocolVersion[25]XkbAllocGeomKeyAliases[25]
XCreateFontSet[25]XPutBackEvent[25]XkbAllocGeomKeys[25]
XCreateGC[25]XPutImage[25]XkbAllocGeomOutlines[25]
XCreateGlyphCursor[25]XPutPixel[25]XkbAllocGeomOverlayKeys[25]
XCreateIC[25]XQLength[25]XkbAllocGeomOverlayRows[25]
XCreateImage[25]XQueryBestCursor[25]XkbAllocGeomOverlays[25]
XCreateOC[25]XQueryBestSize[25]XkbAllocGeomPoints[25]
XCreatePixmap[25]XQueryBestStipple[25]XkbAllocGeomProps[25]
XCreatePixmapCursor[25]XQueryBestTile[25]XkbAllocGeomRows[25]
XCreatePixmapFromBitmapData[25]XQueryColor[25]XkbAllocGeomSectionDoodads[25]
XCreateRegion[25]XQueryColors[25]XkbAllocGeomSections[25]
XCreateSimpleWindow[25]XQueryExtension[25]XkbAllocGeomShapes[25]
XCreateWindow[25]XQueryFont[25]XkbAllocGeometry[25]
XDefaultColormap[25]XQueryKeymap[25]XkbAllocIndicatorMaps[25]
XDefaultColormapOfScreen[25]XQueryPointer[25]XkbAllocKeyboard[25]
XDefaultDepth[25]XQueryTextExtents[25]XkbAllocNames[25]
XDefaultDepthOfScreen[25]XQueryTextExtents16[25]XkbAllocServerMap[25]
XDefaultGC[25]XQueryTree[25]XkbApplyCompatMapToKey[25]
XDefaultGCOfScreen[25]XRaiseWindow[25]XkbBell[25]
XDefaultRootWindow[25]XReadBitmapFile[25]XkbBellEvent[25]
XDefaultScreen[25]XReadBitmapFileData[25]XkbChangeEnabledControls[25]
XDefaultScreenOfDisplay[25]XRebindKeysym[25]XkbChangeMap[25]
XDefaultString[25]XRecolorCursor[25]XkbChangeNames[25]
XDefaultVisual[25]XReconfigureWMWindow[25]XkbChangeTypesOfKey[25]
XDefaultVisualOfScreen[25]XRectInRegion[25]XkbComputeEffectiveMap[25]
XDefineCursor[25]XRefreshKeyboardMapping[25]XkbComputeRowBounds[25]
XDeleteContext[25]XRegisterIMInstantiateCallback[25]XkbComputeSectionBounds[25]
XDeleteModifiermapEntry[25]XRemoveConnectionWatch[25]XkbComputeShapeBounds[25]
XDeleteProperty[25]XRemoveFromSaveSet[25]XkbComputeShapeTop[25]
XDestroyIC[25]XRemoveHost[25]XkbCopyKeyType[25]
XDestroyImage[25]XRemoveHosts[25]XkbCopyKeyTypes[25]
XDestroyOC[25]XReparentWindow[25]XkbFindOverlayForKey[25]
XDestroyRegion[25]XResetScreenSaver[25]XkbForceBell[25]
XDestroySubwindows[25]XResizeWindow[25]XkbFreeClientMap[25]
XDestroyWindow[25]XResourceManagerString[25]XkbFreeCompatMap[25]
XDirectionalDependentDrawing[25]XRestackWindows[25]XkbFreeComponentList[25]
XDisableAccessControl[25]XRootWindow[25]XkbFreeControls[25]
XDisplayCells[25]XRootWindowOfScreen[25]XkbFreeGeomColors[25]
XDisplayHeight[25]XRotateBuffers[25]XkbFreeGeomDoodads[25]
XDisplayHeightMM[25]XRotateWindowProperties[25]XkbFreeGeomKeyAliases[25]
XDisplayKeycodes[25]XSaveContext[25]XkbFreeGeomKeys[25]
XDisplayMotionBufferSize[25]XScreenCount[25]XkbFreeGeomOutlines[25]
XDisplayName[25]XScreenNumberOfScreen[25]XkbFreeGeomOverlayKeys[25]
XDisplayOfIM[25]XScreenOfDisplay[25]XkbFreeGeomOverlayRows[25]
XDisplayOfOM[25]XScreenResourceString[25]XkbFreeGeomOverlays[25]
XDisplayOfScreen[25]XSelectInput[25]XkbFreeGeomPoints[25]
XDisplayPlanes[25]XSendEvent[25]XkbFreeGeomProperties[25]
XDisplayString[25]XServerVendor[25]XkbFreeGeomRows[25]
XDisplayWidth[25]XSetAccessControl[25]XkbFreeGeomSections[25]
XDisplayWidthMM[25]XSetAfterFunction[25]XkbFreeGeomShapes[25]
XDoesBackingStore[25]XSetArcMode[25]XkbFreeGeometry[25]
XDoesSaveUnders[25]XSetAuthorization[25]XkbFreeIndicatorMaps[25]
XDrawArc[25]XSetBackground[25]XkbFreeKeyboard[25]
XDrawArcs[25]XSetClassHint[25]XkbFreeNames[25]
XDrawImageString[25]XSetClipMask[25]XkbFreeServerMap[25]
XDrawImageString16[25]XSetClipOrigin[25]XkbGetAutoRepeatRate[25]
XDrawLine[25]XSetClipRectangles[25]XkbGetCompatMap[25]
XDrawLines[25]XSetCloseDownMode[25]XkbGetControls[25]
XDrawPoint[25]XSetCommand[25]XkbGetGeometry[25]
XDrawPoints[25]XSetDashes[25]XkbGetIndicatorMap[25]
XDrawRectangle[25]XSetErrorHandler[25]XkbGetIndicatorState[25]
XDrawRectangles[25]XSetFillRule[25]XkbGetKeyActions[25]
XDrawSegments[25]XSetFillStyle[25]XkbGetKeyBehaviors[25]
XDrawString[25]XSetFont[25]XkbGetKeyExplicitComponents[25]
XDrawString16[25]XSetFontPath[25]XkbGetKeyModifierMap[25]
XDrawText[25]XSetForeground[25]XkbGetKeySyms[25]
XDrawText16[25]XSetFunction[25]XkbGetKeyTypes[25]
XEHeadOfExtensionList[25]XSetGraphicsExposures[25]XkbGetKeyboard[25]
XESetBeforeFlush[25]XSetICFocus[25]XkbGetKeyboardByName[25]
XESetCloseDisplay[25]XSetICValues[25]XkbGetMap[25]
XESetCopyGC[25]XSetIMValues[25]XkbGetMapChanges[25]
XESetCreateFont[25]XSetIOErrorHandler[25]XkbGetNamedGeometry[25]
XESetCreateGC[25]XSetIconName[25]XkbGetNamedIndicator[25]
XESetError[25]XSetIconSizes[25]XkbGetNames[25]
XESetErrorString[25]XSetInputFocus[25]XkbGetState[25]
XESetEventToWire[25]XSetLineAttributes[25]XkbGetUpdatedMap[25]
XESetFlushGC[25]XSetLocaleModifiers[25]XkbGetVirtualMods[25]
XESetFreeFont[25]XSetModifierMapping[25]XkbGetXlibControls[25]
XESetFreeGC[25]XSetNormalHints[25]XkbIgnoreExtension[25]
XESetPrintErrorValues[25]XSetOCValues[25]XkbInitCanonicalKeyTypes[25]
XESetWireToError[25]XSetOMValues[25]XkbKeyTypesForCoreSymbols[25]
XESetWireToEvent[25]XSetPlaneMask[25]XkbKeycodeToKeysym[25]
XEmptyRegion[25]XSetPointerMapping[25]XkbKeysymToModifiers[25]
XEnableAccessControl[25]XSetRGBColormaps[25]XkbLatchGroup[25]
XEqualRegion[25]XSetRegion[25]XkbLatchModifiers[25]
XEventMaskOfScreen[25]XSetScreenSaver[25]XkbLibraryVersion[25]
XEventsQueued[25]XSetSelectionOwner[25]XkbListComponents[25]
XExtendedMaxRequestSize[25]XSetSizeHints[25]XkbLockGroup[25]
XExtentsOfFontSet[25]XSetStandardColormap[25]XkbLockModifiers[25]
XFetchBuffer[25]XSetStandardProperties[25]XkbLookupKeyBinding[25]
XFetchBytes[25]XSetState[25]XkbLookupKeySym[25]
XFetchName[25]XSetStipple[25]XkbNoteControlsChanges[25]
XFillArc[25]XSetSubwindowMode[25]XkbNoteMapChanges[25]
XFillArcs[25]XSetTSOrigin[25]XkbNoteNameChanges[25]
XFillPolygon[25]XSetTextProperty[25]XkbOpenDisplay[25]
XFillRectangle[25]XSetTile[25]XkbQueryExtension[25]
XFillRectangles[25]XSetTransientForHint[25]XkbRefreshKeyboardMapping[25]
XFilterEvent[25]XSetWMClientMachine[25]XkbResizeKeyActions[25]
XFindContext[25]XSetWMColormapWindows[25]XkbResizeKeySyms[25]
XFindOnExtensionList[25]XSetWMHints[25]XkbResizeKeyType[25]
XFlush[25]XSetWMIconName[25]XkbSelectEventDetails[25]
XFlushGC[25]XSetWMName[25]XkbSelectEvents[25]
XFontsOfFontSet[25]XSetWMNormalHints[25]XkbSetAtomFuncs[25]
XForceScreenSaver[25]XSetWMProperties[25]XkbSetAutoRepeatRate[25]
XFree[25]XSetWMProtocols[25]XkbSetAutoResetControls[25]
XFreeColormap[25]XSetWMSizeHints[25]XkbSetCompatMap[25]
XFreeColors[25]XSetWindowBackground[25]XkbSetControls[25]
XFreeCursor[25]XSetWindowBackgroundPixmap[25]XkbSetDebuggingFlags[25]
XFreeExtensionList[25]XSetWindowBorder[25]XkbSetDetectableAutoRepeat[25]
XFreeFont[25]XSetWindowBorderPixmap[25]XkbSetGeometry[25]
XFreeFontInfo[25]XSetWindowBorderWidth[25]XkbSetIgnoreLockMods[25]
XFreeFontNames[25]XSetWindowColormap[25]XkbSetIndicatorMap[25]
XFreeFontPath[25]XSetZoomHints[25]XkbSetMap[25]
XFreeFontSet[25]XShrinkRegion[25]XkbSetNamedIndicator[25]
XFreeGC[25]XStoreBuffer[25]XkbSetNames[25]
XFreeModifiermap[25]XStoreBytes[25]XkbSetServerInternalMods[25]
XFreePixmap[25]XStoreColor[25]XkbSetXlibControls[25]
XFreeStringList[25]XStoreColors[25]XkbToControl[25]
XGContextFromGC[25]XStoreName[25]XkbTranslateKeyCode[25]
XGeometry[25]XStoreNamedColor[25]XkbTranslateKeySym[25]
XGetAtomName[25]XStringListToTextProperty[25]XkbUpdateMapFromCore[25]
XGetAtomNames[25]XStringToKeysym[25]XkbUseExtension[25]
XGetClassHint[25]XSubImage[25]XkbVirtualModsToReal[25]
XGetCommand[25]XSubtractRegion[25]XmbDrawImageString[25]
XGetDefault[25]XSupportsLocale[25]XmbDrawString[25]
XGetErrorDatabaseText[25]XSync[25]XmbDrawText[25]
XGetErrorText[25]XSynchronize[25]XmbLookupString[25]
XGetFontPath[25]XTextExtents[25]XmbResetIC[25]
XGetFontProperty[25]XTextExtents16[25]XmbSetWMProperties[25]
XGetGCValues[25]XTextPropertyToStringList[25]XmbTextEscapement[25]
XGetGeometry[25]XTextWidth[25]XmbTextExtents[25]
XGetICValues[25]XTextWidth16[25]XmbTextListToTextProperty[25]
XGetIMValues[25]XTranslateCoordinates[25]XmbTextPerCharExtents[25]
XGetIconName[25]XUndefineCursor[25]XmbTextPropertyToTextList[25]
XGetIconSizes[25]XUngrabButton[25]XrmCombineDatabase[25]
XGetImage[25]XUngrabKey[25]XrmCombineFileDatabase[25]
XGetInputFocus[25]XUngrabKeyboard[25]XrmDestroyDatabase[25]
XGetKeyboardControl[25]XUngrabPointer[25]XrmEnumerateDatabase[25]
XGetKeyboardMapping[25]XUngrabServer[25]XrmGetDatabase[25]
XGetModifierMapping[25]XUninstallColormap[25]XrmGetFileDatabase[25]
XGetMotionEvents[25]XUnionRectWithRegion[25]XrmGetResource[25]
XGetNormalHints[25]XUnionRegion[25]XrmGetStringDatabase[25]
XGetOCValues[25]XUnloadFont[25]XrmInitialize[25]
XGetOMValues[25]XUnlockDisplay[25]XrmLocaleOfDatabase[25]
XGetPixel[25]XUnmapSubwindows[25]XrmMergeDatabases[25]
XGetPointerControl[25]XUnmapWindow[25]XrmParseCommand[25]
XGetPointerMapping[25]XUnregisterIMInstantiateCallback[25]XrmPermStringToQuark[25]
XGetRGBColormaps[25]XUnsetICFocus[25]XrmPutFileDatabase[25]
XGetScreenSaver[25]XVaCreateNestedList[25]XrmPutLineResource[25]
XGetSelectionOwner[25]XVendorRelease[25]XrmPutResource[25]
XGetSizeHints[25]XVisualIDFromVisual[25]XrmPutStringResource[25]
XGetStandardColormap[25]XWMGeometry[25]XrmQGetResource[25]
XGetSubImage[25]XWarpPointer[25]XrmQGetSearchList[25]
XGetTextProperty[25]XWhitePixel[25]XrmQGetSearchResource[25]
XGetTransientForHint[25]XWhitePixelOfScreen[25]XrmQPutResource[25]
XGetVisualInfo[25]XWidthMMOfScreen[25]XrmQPutStringResource[25]
XGetWMClientMachine[25]XWidthOfScreen[25]XrmQuarkToString[25]
XGetWMColormapWindows[25]XWindowEvent[25]XrmSetDatabase[25]
XGetWMHints[25]XWithdrawWindow[25]XrmStringToBindingQuarkList[25]
XGetWMIconName[25]XWriteBitmapFile[25]XrmStringToQuark[25]
XGetWMName[25]XXorRegion[25]XrmStringToQuarkList[25]
XGetWMNormalHints[25]XauDisposeAuth[25]XrmUniqueQuark[25]
XGetWMProtocols[25]XauFileName[25]Xutf8TextListToTextProperty
XGetWMSizeHints[25]XauGetBestAuthByAddr[25]Xutf8TextPropertyToTextList
XGetWindowAttributes[25]XauReadAuth[25]XwcDrawImageString[25]
XGetWindowProperty[25]XcmsAddColorSpace[25]XwcDrawString[25]
XGetZoomHints[25]XcmsAddFunctionSet[25]XwcDrawText[25]
XGrabButton[25]XcmsAllocColor[25]XwcFreeStringList[25]
XGrabKey[25]XcmsAllocNamedColor[25]XwcLookupString[25]
XGrabKeyboard[25]XcmsCCCOfColormap[25]XwcResetIC[25]
XGrabPointer[25]XcmsCIELabClipL[25]XwcTextEscapement[25]
XGrabServer[25]XcmsCIELabClipLab[25]XwcTextExtents[25]
XHeightMMOfScreen[25]XcmsCIELabClipab[25]XwcTextListToTextProperty[25]
XHeightOfScreen[25]XcmsCIELabQueryMaxC[25]XwcTextPerCharExtents[25]
XIMOfIC[25]XcmsCIELabQueryMaxL[25]XwcTextPropertyToTextList[25]
XIconifyWindow[25]XcmsCIELabQueryMaxLC[25] 

libXt

The behaviour of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following Standards.

Linux Standard Base
X11R6.4 X Toolkit Intrinsics

Table A-2. libXt Function Interfaces

XtAddActions[35]XtCvtStringToInitialState[35]XtOwnSelectionIncremental[35]
XtAddCallback[35]XtCvtStringToInt[35]XtParent[35]
XtAddCallbacks[35]XtCvtStringToPixel[35]XtParseAcceleratorTable[35]
XtAddConverter[35]XtCvtStringToRestartStyle[35]XtParseTranslationTable[35]
XtAddEventHandler[35]XtCvtStringToShort[35]XtPeekEvent[35]
XtAddExposureToRegion[35]XtCvtStringToTranslationTable[35]XtPending[35]
XtAddGrab[35]XtCvtStringToUnsignedChar[35]XtPopdown[35]
XtAddInput[35]XtCvtStringToVisual[35]XtPopup[35]
XtAddRawEventHandler[35]XtDatabase[35]XtPopupSpringLoaded[35]
XtAddSignal[35]XtDestroyApplicationContext[35]XtProcessEvent[35]
XtAddTimeOut[35]XtDestroyGC[35]XtProcessLock[35]
XtAddWorkProc[35]XtDestroyWidget[35]XtProcessUnlock[35]
XtAllocateGC[35]XtDirectConvert[35]XtQueryGeometry[35]
XtAppAddActionHook[35]XtDisownSelection[35]XtRealizeWidget[35]
XtAppAddActions[35]XtDispatchEvent[35]XtRealloc[35]
XtAppAddBlockHook[35]XtDispatchEventToWidget[35]XtRegisterCaseConverter[35]
XtAppAddConverter[35]XtDisplay[35]XtRegisterDrawable[35]
XtAppAddInput[35]XtDisplayInitialize[35]XtRegisterExtensionSelector[35]
XtAppAddSignal[35]XtDisplayOfObject[35]XtRegisterGrabAction[35]
XtAppAddTimeOut[35]XtDisplayStringConversionWarning[35]XtReleaseGC[35]
XtAppAddWorkProc[35]XtDisplayToApplicationContext[35]XtReleasePropertyAtom[35]
XtAppCreateShell[35]XtError[35]XtRemoveActionHook[35]
XtAppError[35]XtErrorMsg[35]XtRemoveAllCallbacks[35]
XtAppErrorMsg[35]XtFindFile[35]XtRemoveBlockHook[35]
XtAppGetErrorDatabase[35]XtFree[35]XtRemoveCallback[35]
XtAppGetErrorDatabaseText[35]XtGetActionKeysym[35]XtRemoveCallbacks[35]
XtAppGetExitFlag[35]XtGetActionList[35]XtRemoveEventHandler[35]
XtAppGetSelectionTimeout[35]XtGetApplicationNameAndClass[35]XtRemoveEventTypeHandler[35]
XtAppInitialize[35]XtGetApplicationResources[35]XtRemoveGrab[35]
XtAppLock[35]XtGetClassExtension[35]XtRemoveInput[35]
XtAppMainLoop[35]XtGetConstraintResourceList[35]XtRemoveRawEventHandler[35]
XtAppNextEvent[35]XtGetDisplays[35]XtRemoveSignal[35]
XtAppPeekEvent[35]XtGetErrorDatabase[35]XtRemoveTimeOut[35]
XtAppPending[35]XtGetErrorDatabaseText[35]XtRemoveWorkProc[35]
XtAppProcessEvent[35]XtGetGC[35]XtReservePropertyAtom[35]
XtAppReleaseCacheRefs[35]XtGetKeyboardFocusWidget[35]XtResizeWidget[35]
XtAppSetErrorHandler[35]XtGetKeysymTable[35]XtResizeWindow[35]
XtAppSetErrorMsgHandler[35]XtGetMultiClickTime[35]XtResolvePathname[35]
XtAppSetExitFlag[35]XtGetResourceList[35]XtScreen[35]
XtAppSetFallbackResources[35]XtGetSelectionParameters[35]XtScreenDatabase[35]
XtAppSetSelectionTimeout[35]XtGetSelectionRequest[35]XtScreenOfObject[35]
XtAppSetTypeConverter[35]XtGetSelectionTimeout[35]XtSendSelectionRequest[35]
XtAppSetWarningHandler[35]XtGetSelectionValue[35]XtSessionGetToken[35]
XtAppSetWarningMsgHandler[35]XtGetSelectionValueIncremental[35]XtSessionReturnToken[35]
XtAppUnlock[35]XtGetSelectionValues[35]XtSetErrorHandler[35]
XtAppWarning[35]XtGetSelectionValuesIncremental[35]XtSetErrorMsgHandler[35]
XtAppWarningMsg[35]XtGetSubresources[35]XtSetEventDispatcher[35]
XtAugmentTranslations[35]XtGetSubvalues[35]XtSetKeyTranslator[35]
XtBuildEventMask[35]XtGetValues[35]XtSetKeyboardFocus[35]
XtCallAcceptFocus[35]XtGrabButton[35]XtSetLanguageProc[35]
XtCallActionProc[35]XtGrabKey[35]XtSetMappedWhenManaged[35]
XtCallCallbackList[35]XtGrabKeyboard[35]XtSetMultiClickTime[35]
XtCallCallbacks[35]XtGrabPointer[35]XtSetSelectionParameters[35]
XtCallConverter[35]XtHasCallbacks[35]XtSetSelectionTimeout[35]
XtCallbackExclusive[35]XtHooksOfDisplay[35]XtSetSensitive[35]
XtCallbackNone[35]XtInitialize[35]XtSetSubvalues[35]
XtCallbackNonexclusive[35]XtInitializeWidgetClass[35]XtSetTypeConverter[35]
XtCallbackPopdown[35]XtInsertEventHandler[35]XtSetValues[35]
XtCallbackReleaseCacheRef[35]XtInsertEventTypeHandler[35]XtSetWMColormapWindows[35]
XtCallbackReleaseCacheRefList[35]XtInsertRawEventHandler[35]XtSetWarningHandler[35]
XtCalloc[35]XtInstallAccelerators[35]XtSetWarningMsgHandler[35]
XtCancelSelectionRequest[35]XtInstallAllAccelerators[35]XtStringConversionWarning[35]
XtChangeManagedSet[35]XtIsApplicationShell[35]XtSuperclass[35]
XtClass[35]XtIsComposite[35]XtToolkitInitialize[35]
XtCloseDisplay[35]XtIsConstraint[35]XtToolkitThreadInitialize[35]
XtConfigureWidget[35]XtIsManaged[35]XtTranslateCoords[35]
XtConvert[35]XtIsObject[35]XtTranslateKey[35]
XtConvertAndStore[35]XtIsOverrideShell[35]XtTranslateKeycode[35]
XtConvertCase[35]XtIsRealized[35]XtUngrabButton[35]
XtCreateApplicationContext[35]XtIsRectObj[35]XtUngrabKey[35]
XtCreateApplicationShell[35]XtIsSensitive[35]XtUngrabKeyboard[35]
XtCreateManagedWidget[35]XtIsSessionShell[35]XtUngrabPointer[35]
XtCreatePopupShell[35]XtIsShell[35]XtUninstallTranslations[35]
XtCreateSelectionRequest[35]XtIsSubclass[35]XtUnmanageChild[35]
XtCreateWidget[35]XtIsTopLevelShell[35]XtUnmanageChildren[35]
XtCreateWindow[35]XtIsTransientShell[35]XtUnmapWidget[35]
XtCvtColorToPixel[35]XtIsVendorShell[35]XtUnrealizeWidget[35]
XtCvtIntToBool[35]XtIsWMShell[35]XtUnregisterDrawable[35]
XtCvtIntToBoolean[35]XtIsWidget[35]XtVaAppCreateShell[35]
XtCvtIntToColor[35]XtKeysymToKeycodeList[35]XtVaAppInitialize[35]
XtCvtIntToFloat[35]XtLastEventProcessed[35]XtVaCreateArgsList[35]
XtCvtIntToFont[35]XtLastTimestampProcessed[35]XtVaCreateManagedWidget[35]
XtCvtIntToPixel[35]XtMainLoop[35]XtVaCreatePopupShell[35]
XtCvtIntToPixmap[35]XtMakeGeometryRequest[35]XtVaCreateWidget[35]
XtCvtIntToShort[35]XtMakeResizeRequest[35]XtVaGetApplicationResources[35]
XtCvtIntToUnsignedChar[35]XtMalloc[35]XtVaGetSubresources[35]
XtCvtStringToAcceleratorTable[35]XtManageChild[35]XtVaGetSubvalues[35]
XtCvtStringToAtom[35]XtManageChildren[35]XtVaGetValues[35]
XtCvtStringToBool[35]XtMapWidget[35]XtVaOpenApplication[35]
XtCvtStringToBoolean[35]XtMenuPopupAction[35]XtVaSetSubvalues[35]
XtCvtStringToCommandArgArray[35]XtMergeArgLists[35]XtVaSetValues[35]
XtCvtStringToCursor[35]XtMoveWidget[35]XtWarning[35]
XtCvtStringToDimension[35]XtName[35]XtWarningMsg[35]
XtCvtStringToDirectoryString[35]XtNameToWidget[35]XtWidgetToApplicationContext[35]
XtCvtStringToDisplay[35]XtNewString[35]XtWindow[35]
XtCvtStringToFile[35]XtNextEvent[35]XtWindowOfObject[35]
XtCvtStringToFloat[35]XtNoticeSignal[35]XtWindowToWidget[35]
XtCvtStringToFont[35]XtOpenApplication[35]_XtCheckSubclassFlag[35]
XtCvtStringToFontSet[35]XtOpenDisplay[35]_XtCopyFromArg[34]
XtCvtStringToFontStruct[35]XtOverrideTranslations[35]_XtInherit[34]
XtCvtStringToGravity[35]XtOwnSelection[35]_XtIsSubclassOf[34]

libm

The behaviour of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following Standards.

ISO/IEC 9899: 1999, Programming Languages --C
CAE Specification, January 1997, System Interfaces and Headers (XSH), Issue 5 (ISBN: 1-85912-181-0, C606)