Linux Standard Base Specification 1.3

Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1; with no Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".

Portions of the text were taken from other copyrighted documents in accordance with the respective licenses of those documents.

Linux is a trademark of Linus Torvalds.

UNIX a registered trademark of the Open Group in the United States and other countries.

LSB is a trademark of the Free Standards Group in the USA and other countries.

Intel386 and Itanium are trademarks of Intel Corporation.

OpenGL is a registered trademark of Silicon Graphics, Inc.


Table of Contents
I. Introduction
1. Introduction
Introduction
Purpose
Related Standards
Relevant Libraries
How to Use this Standard
Definitions
Terminology
II. Object Format
2. Object Files
3. Sections
Sections Types
4. Special Sections
Special Sections
5. Symbol Mapping
Symbol Mapping
6. EH Frame Header
DWARF Exception Header Encoding
7. Symbol Versioning
Symbol Version Table
Version Definitions
Version Requirements
Startup Sequence
Symbol Resolution
8. ABI note tag
III. Dynamic Linking
9. Program Loading and Dynamic Linking
10. Program Header
11. Dynamic Entries
Dynamic Entries
12. Program Interpreter
IV. Base Libraries
13. Libraries
Interfaces for libc
Data Definitions for libc
Interfaces Definitions for libc
Interfaces for libm
Data Definitions for libm
Interfaces for libpthread
Data Definitions for libpthread
Interfaces Definitions for libpthread
Interfaces for libgcc_s
Data Definitions for libgcc_s
Interfaces Definitions for libgcc_s
Interfaces for libdl
Data Definitions for libdl
Interfaces Definitions for libdl
Interfaces for libcrypt
Data Definitions for libcrypt
Interfaces for libpam
Data Definitions for libpam
Interfaces Definitions for libpam
V. Utility Libraries
14. Libraries
Interfaces for libz
Data Definitions for libz
Interfaces for libncurses
Data Definitions for libncurses
Interfaces for libutil
Interfaces Definitions for libutil
VI. Graphic Libraries
15. Libraries
Interfaces for libX11
Data Definitions for libX11
Interfaces for libXext
Data Definitions for libXext
Interfaces for libSM
Data Definitions for libSM
Interfaces for libICE
Data Definitions for libICE
Interfaces for libXt
Data Definitions for libXt
Interfaces Definitions for libXt
Interfaces for libGL
Data Definitions for libGL
VII. Package Format and Installation
16. Software Installation
Package File Format
Package Script Restrictions
Package Tools
Package Naming
Package Dependencies
Package Architecture Considerations
VIII. Commands and Utilities
17. Commands and Utilities
Commands and Utilities
Command Behavior
IX. Standard Shell
18. Standard Shell
Introduction
Standard Shell Exceptions
Standard Shell Rationale
X. Users & Groups
19. Users & Groups
User and Group Database
User & Group Names
UID Ranges
Rationale
XI. Execution Environment
20. File System Hierarchy
/dev
21. Additional Recommendations
Minimal granted Directory and File permissions
Recommendations for applications on ownership and permissions
22. Additional Behaviors
23. Localization
Regular Expressions
Filename Globbing
XII. System Initialization
24. System Initialization
Cron Jobs
Init Script Actions
Comment conventions for init scripts
Installation and removal of init.d files
Run Levels
Facility names
Script names
Init script Functions
A. Alphabetical Listing of Interfaces
libX11
libXt
libm
libGL
libXext
libICE
libSM
libdl
libcrypt
libz
libncurses
libutil
libc
libpthread
libpam
libgcc_s
B. GNU Free Documentation License
PREAMBLE
APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS
VERBATIM COPYING
COPYING IN QUANTITY
MODIFICATIONS
COMBINING DOCUMENTS
COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS
TRANSLATION
TERMINATION
FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE
How to use this License for your documents
List of Tables
1-1. Related Standards
1-2. Standard Libraries Names
1-3. Standard Library Names defined in the Architecture Specific Supplement
3-1. ELF Section Types
3-2. Additional Section Types
4-1. ELF Special Sections
4-2. Additional Special Sections
6-1. .eh_frame_hdr Section Format
6-2. DWARF Exception Header value format
6-3. DWARF Exception Header application
10-1. Linux Segment Types
13-1. libc Definition
13-2. libc - RPC Function Interfaces
13-3. libc - System Calls Function Interfaces
13-4. libc - System Calls Deprecated Function Interfaces
13-5. libc - Standard I/O Function Interfaces
13-6. libc - Standard I/O Deprecated Function Interfaces
13-7. libc - Standard I/O Data Interfaces
13-8. libc - Signal Handling Function Interfaces
13-9. libc - Signal Handling Data Interfaces
13-10. libc - Localization Functions Function Interfaces
13-11. libc - Localization Functions Deprecated Function Interfaces
13-12. libc - Localization Functions Data Interfaces
13-13. libc - Socket Interface Function Interfaces
13-14. libc - Wide Characters Function Interfaces
13-15. libc - String Functions Function Interfaces
13-16. libc - IPC Functions Function Interfaces
13-17. libc - Regular Expressions Function Interfaces
13-18. libc - Regular Expressions Data Interfaces
13-19. libc - Character Type Functions Function Interfaces
13-20. libc - Character Type Functions Data Interfaces
13-21. libc - Time Manipulation Function Interfaces
13-22. libc - Time Manipulation Data Interfaces
13-23. libc - Terminal Interface Functions Function Interfaces
13-24. libc - System Database Interface Function Interfaces
13-25. libc - System Database Interface Deprecated Function Interfaces
13-26. libc - Language Support Function Interfaces
13-27. libc - Large File Support Function Interfaces
13-28. libc - Large File Support Deprecated Function Interfaces
13-29. libc - Standard Library Function Interfaces
13-30. libc - Standard Library Data Interfaces
13-31. libm Definition
13-32. libm - Math Function Interfaces
13-33. libm - Math Data Interfaces
13-34. libpthread Definition
13-35. libpthread - Posix Threads Function Interfaces
13-36. libgcc_s Definition
13-37. libgcc_s - Unwind Library Function Interfaces
13-38. libdl Definition
13-39. libdl - Dynamic Loader Function Interfaces
13-40. libcrypt Definition
13-41. libcrypt - Encryption Function Interfaces
13-42. libpam Definition
13-43. libpam - Pluggable Authentication API Function Interfaces
14-1. libz Definition
14-2. libz - Compression Library Function Interfaces
14-3. libncurses Definition
14-4. libncurses - Curses Function Interfaces
14-5. libncurses - Curses Data Interfaces
14-6. libutil Definition
14-7. libutil - Utility Functions Function Interfaces
15-1. libX11 Definition
15-2. libX11 - X Windows System Interface Function Interfaces
15-3. libXext Definition
15-4. libXext - X Shape Extension Function Interfaces
15-5. libXext - X Display Power Management Signaling Extension Function Interfaces
15-6. libXext - X Shared Memory Extensions Function Interfaces
15-7. libXext - X Synchronization Extension Function Interfaces
15-8. libXext - X Security Extension Function Interfaces
15-9. libXext - X Double Buffer Extension Function Interfaces
15-10. libSM Definition
15-11. libSM - Session Management Functions Function Interfaces
15-12. libICE Definition
15-13. libICE - ICE Functions Function Interfaces
15-14. libXt Definition
15-15. libXt - X Toolkit Function Interfaces
15-16. libXt - X Toolkit Data Interfaces
15-17. libGL Definition
15-18. libGL - GL X interface Function Interfaces
15-19. libGL - OpenGL Function Interfaces
16-1. RPM File Format
16-2. Signature Format
16-3. Index Type values
16-4. Header Private Tag Values
16-5. Signature Tag Values
16-6. Signature Digest Tag Values
16-7. Signature Signing Tag Values
16-8. Package Info Tag Values
16-9. Installation Tag Values
16-10. File Info Tag Values
16-11. Package Dependency Tag Values
16-12. Index Type values
16-13. Package Dependency Attributes
16-14. Other Tag Values
16-15. CPIO File Format
17-1. Commands and Utilities
19-1. Required User & Group Names
19-2. Optional User & Group Names
A-1. libX11 Function Interfaces
A-2. libXt Function Interfaces
A-3. libXt Data Interfaces
A-4. libm Function Interfaces
A-5. libm Data Interfaces
A-6. libGL Function Interfaces
A-7. libXext Function Interfaces
A-8. libICE Function Interfaces
A-9. libSM Function Interfaces
A-10. libdl Function Interfaces
A-11. libcrypt Function Interfaces
A-12. libz Function Interfaces
A-13. libncurses Function Interfaces
A-14. libncurses Data Interfaces
A-15. libutil Function Interfaces
A-16. libc Function Interfaces
A-17. libc Data Interfaces
A-18. libpthread Function Interfaces
A-19. libpam Function Interfaces
A-20. libgcc_s Function Interfaces
List of Figures
7-1. Version Definition Entries
7-2. Version Definition Auxiliary Entries
7-3. Version Needed Entries
7-4. Version Needed Auxiliary Entries

I. Introduction

Table of Contents
1. Introduction

Chapter 1. Introduction

Introduction

This is version 1.3 of the Linux Standard Base Specification. An implementation of this version of the specification may not claim to be an implementation of the Linux Standard Base unless it has successfully completed the compliance process as defined by the Free Standards Group.


Purpose

The Linux Standard Base (LSB) defines a system interface for compiled applications and a minimal environment for support of installation scripts. Its purpose is to enable a uniform industry standard environment for high-volume applications conforming to the LSB.

The LSB defines a binary interface for application programs that are compiled and packaged for LSB-conforming implementations on many different hardware architectures. Since a binary specification must include information specific to the computer processor architecture for which it is intended, it is not possible for a single document to specify the interface for all possible LSB-conforming implementations. Therefore, the LSB is a family of specifications, rather than a single one.

The LSB is composed of two basic parts: A common specification ("generic LSB" or "gLSB") describing those parts of the interface that remain constant across all implementations of the LSB, and an architecture-specific specification ("archLSB") describing the parts of the interface that vary by processor architecture. Together, the generic LSB and the architecture-specific supplement for a single hardware architecture provide a complete interface specification for compiled application programs on systems that share a common hardware architecture.

This document is the generic LSB. It must be used in conjunction with an architecture-specific supplement. Whenever a section of this specification must be supplemented by architecture-specific information, this document includes a reference to the architecture supplement. Architecture supplements may also contain additional information that is not referenced here.

This document should be used in conjunction with the documents it references. This document enumerates the system components it includes, but descriptions of those components may be included entirely or partly in this document, partly in other documents, or entirely in other reference documents. For example, the section that describes system service routines includes a list of the system routines supported in this interface, formal declarations of the data structures they use that are visible to applications, and a pointer to the underlying referenced specification for information about the syntax and semantics of each call. Only those routines not described in standards referenced by this document, or extensions to those standards, are described in the detail. Information referenced in this way is as much a part of this document as is the information explicitly included here.


Related Standards

The specifications listed below are referenced in whole or in part by the Linux Standard Base. When a specification is referenced in a way that imposes a requirement (for example, "foo must behave as specified in the XyzzySpec"), then the relevant requirements of that specification apply as if they were part of the LSB itself. However, if the LSB refers to a specification without imposing a requirement, then it is merely a reference and does not add additional requirements. The LSB may refer to a portion of a specification (for example, to define a specific function or group of functions); in such cases, only the explicitly referenced portion of the specification applies.

Table 1-1. Related Standards

System V Application Binary Interface - DRAFT - 22 June 2000http://www.caldera.com/developers/gabi/2000-07-17/contents.html
DWARF Debugging Information Format, Revision 2.0.0 (July 27, 1993)
Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS) 2.2http://www.pathname.com/fhs/
IEEE Standard for Binary Floating-Point Arithmetichttp://www.ieee.org/
System V Application Binary Interface, Edition 4.1http://www.caldera.com/developers/devspecs/gabi41.pdf
ISO/IEC 9899: 1990, Programming Languages --C
ISO/IEC 9899: 1999, Programming Languages --C
ISO/IEC 14882: 1998(E) Programming languages --C++
Linux Assigned Names And Numbers Authorityhttp://www.lanana.org/
Large File Supporthttp://www.UNIX-systems.org/version2/whatsnew/lfs20mar.html
LI18NUX 2000 Globalization Specification, Version 1.0 with Amendment 4http://www.li18nux.org/docs/html/LI18NUX-2000-amd4.htm
Linux Standard Basehttp://www.linuxbase.org/spec/
OpenGL® Application Binary Interface for Linuxhttp://oss.sgi.com/projects/ogl-sample/ABI/
OSF-RFC 86.0http://www.opengroup.org/tech/rfc/mirror-rfc/rfc86.0.txt
IEEE Std POSIX 1003.2-1992 (ISO/IEC 9945-2:1993)http://www.ieee.org/
POSIX 1003.1chttp://www.ieee.org/
RFC 1952: GZIP file format specification version 4.3http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1952.txt
RFC 2440: OpenPGP Message Format
CAE Specification, May 1996, X/Open Curses, Issue 4, Version 2 (ISBN: 1-85912-171-3, C610), plus Corrigendum U018http://www.opengroup.org/publications/catalog/un.htm
CAE Specification, January 1997, System Interface Definitions (XBD),Issue 5 (ISBN: 1-85912-186-1, C605)http://www.opengroup.org/publications/catalog/un.htm
CAE Specification, January 1997, Commands and Utilities (XCU), Issue 5 (ISBN: 1-85912-191-8, C604)http://www.opengroup.org/publications/catalog/un.htm
CAE Specification, February 1997, Networking Services (XNS), Issue 5(ISBN: 1-85912-165-9, C523)http://www.opengroup.org/
CAE Specification, January 1997, System Interfaces and Headers (XSH),Issue 5 (ISBN: 1-85912-181-0, C606)http://www.opengroup.org/publications/catalog/un.htm
The Single UNIX® Specification(SUS) Version 1 (UNIX 95) System Interfaces & Headershttp://www.opengroup.org/publications/catalog/un.htm
The Single UNIX® Specification(SUS) Version 3http://www.unix.org/version3/
System V Interface Definition, Issue 3 (ISBN 0201566524)
System V Interface Definition,Fourth Edition
Double Buffer Extension Libraryhttp://www.x.org/
X Display Power Management Signaling (DPMS) Extension, Library Specificationhttp://www.x.org/
X Record Extension Libraryhttp://www.x.org/
Security Extension Specification, Version 7.1http://www.x.org/
X Nonrectangular Window Shape Extension Library Version 1.0http://www.x.org/
MIT-SHM--The MIT Shared Memory Extensionhttp://www.x.org/
X Synchronization Extension Libraryhttp://www.x.org/
XTEST Extension Libraryhttp://www.x.org/
X11R6.4 X Inter-Client Exchange (ICE) Protocolhttp://www.x.org/
X11R6.4 X11 Input Extension Libraryhttp://www.x.org/
X11R6.4 Xlib - C libraryhttp://www.x.org/
X/Open Portability Guide, Issue 4http://www.opengroup.org/
X11R6.4 X Session Management Libraryhttp://www.x.org/
X11R6.4 X Toolkit Intrinsicshttp://www.x.org/
zlib 1.1.3 Manualhttp://www.gzip.org/zlib/

Relevant Libraries

The libraries listed here shall be available on a Linux Standard Base system. This list may be supplemented or amended by the architecture-specific specifications.

Table 1-2. Standard Libraries Names

LibraryRuntime Name
libX11libX11.so.6
libXtlibXt.so.6
libGLlibGL.so.1
libXextlibXext.so.6
libICElibICE.so.6
libSMlibSM.so.6
libdllibdl.so.2
libcryptlibcrypt.so.1
libzlibz.so.1
libncurseslibncurses.so.5
libutillibutil.so.1
libpthreadlibpthread.so.0
libpamlibpam.so.0
libgcc_slibgcc_s.so.1

Table 1-3. Standard Library Names defined in the Architecture Specific Supplement

LibraryRuntime Name
libmSee archLSB
libcSee archLSB
proginterpSee archLSB

These libraries will be in an unspecified directory which the dynamic linker will search by default.


How to Use this Standard

The complete LSB specification is composed of this generic LSB specification and the supplemental processor-specific specification for a particular processor architecture. These two documents constitute a specification that should be used in conjunction with the publicly-available standards documents it references. The LSB enumerates the system components it includes, but descriptions of those components may be included entirely in the LSB, partly in the LSB and partly in other documents, or entirely in other reference documents.


Definitions

gLSB

The common part of the LSB Specification that describes those parts of the interface that remain constant across all hardware implementations of the LSB.

archLSB

The architectural part of the LSB Specification which describes the specific parts of the interface that are platform specific. The archLSB is complementary to the gLSB.

LSB Implementation Conformance

An implementation satisfying the following requirements:

  1. The implementation shall implement fully the architecture described in the hardware manual for the target processor architecture.

  2. The implementation shall be capable of executing compiled applications having the format and using the system interfaces described in this document.

  3. The implementation shall provide libraries containing the interfaces specified by this document, and shall provide a dynamic linking mechanism that allows these interfaces to be attached to applications at runtime. All the interfaces shall behave as specified in this document.

  4. The map of virtual memory provided by the implementation shall conform to the requirements of this document.

  5. The implementation's low-level behavior with respect to function call linkage, system traps, signals, and other such activities shall conform to the formats described in this document.

  6. The implementation shall provide all of the mandatory interfaces in their entirety.

  7. The implementation may provide one or more of the optional interfaces. Each optional interface that is provided shall be provided in its entirety. The product documentation shall state which optional interfaces are provided.

  8. The implementation shall provide all files and utilities specified as part of this document in the format defined here and in other referenced documents. All commands and utilities shall behave as required by this document. The implementation shall also provide all mandatory components of an application's runtime environment that are included or referenced in this document.

  9. The implementation, when provided with standard data formats and values at a named interface, shall provide the behavior defined for those values and data formats at that interface. However, a conforming implementation may consist of components which are separately packaged and/or sold. For example, a vendor of a conforming implementation might sell the hardware, operating system, and windowing system as separately packaged items.

  10. The implementation may provide additional interfaces with different names. It may also provide additional behavior corresponding to data values outside the standard ranges, for standard named interfaces.

LSB Application Conformance

An application with the following characteristics:

  1. Its executable files are either shell scripts or object files in the format defined for the Object File Format system interface.

  2. Its object files participate in dynamic linking as defined in the Program Loading and Linking System interface.

  3. It employs only the instructions, traps, and other low-level facilities defined in the Low-Level System interface as being for use by applications.

  4. If it requires any optional interface defined in this document in order to be installed or to execute successfully, the requirement for that optional interface is stated in the application's documentation.

  5. It does not use any interface or data format that is not required to be provided by a conforming implementation, unless:

    • If such an interface or data format is supplied by another application through direct invocation of that application during execution, that application is in turn an LSB conforming application.

    • The use of that interface or data format, as well as its source, is identified in the documentation of the application.

  6. It must not use any values for a named interface that are reserved for vendor extensions.

A strictly conforming application does not require or use any interface, facility, or implementation-defined extension that is not defined in this document in order to be installed or to execute successfully.

Rationale

An LSB conforming application is expected to have no dependencies on any vendor extensions to this document. The most common such extensions are additional function entry points and additional libraries other than the ones defined in this document. If an application requires such extensions, it is not portable, since other LSB conforming implementations may not provide those extensions.

An LSB conforming application is required to use system services on the implementation on which it is running, rather than importing system routines from some other implementation. Thus, it must link dynamically to any routines in the implementation that perform system traps to kernel services.

It is to be expected that some applications may be companion applications to other applications. For example, a query application may be a companion to a database application; a preprocessor may be an adjunct to one or more compilers; a data reformatter may convert data from one document manager to another. In such cases, the application may or may not be LSB conforming, regardless of whether the other application on which it is dependent is LSB conforming. If such an application merely uses data produced by another application, the application's compliance is independent of the other application's compliance. If such an application actually invokes another application during execution (as, for example, a third-party math library), the invoking application is LSB conforming only if it also constitutes a LSB conforming application in combination with the invoked application.

Shell Script

A file that is read by an interpreter (e.g., awk). The first line of the shell script includes a reference to its interpreter binary.


Terminology

can

Describes a permissible optional feature or behavior available to the user or application. The feature or behavior is mandatory for an implementation that conforms to this document. An application can rely on the existence of the feature or behavior.

implementation-defined

Describes a value or behavior that is not defined by this document but is selected by an implementor. The value or behavior may vary among implementations that conform to this document. An application should not rely on the existence of the value or behavior. An application that relies on such a value or behavior cannot be assured to be portable across conforming implementations. The implementor shall document such a value or behavior so that it can be used correctly by an application.

may

Describes a feature or behavior that is optional for an implementation that conforms to this document. An application should not rely on the existence of the feature or behavior. An application that relies on such a feature or behavior cannot be assured to be portable across conforming implementations.

To avoid ambiguity, the opposite of may is expressed as need not, instead of may not.

must

Describes a feature or behavior that is mandatory for an application or user. An implementation that conforms to this document shall support this feature or behavior.

shall

Describes a feature or behavior that is mandatory for an implementation that conforms to this document. An application can rely on the existence of the feature or behavior.

should

For an implementation that conforms to this document, describes a feature or behavior that is recommended but not mandatory. An application should not rely on the existence of the feature or behavior. An application that relies on such a feature or behavior cannot be assured to be portable across conforming implementations.

For an application, describes a feature or behavior that is recommended programming practice for optimum portability.

undefined

Describes the nature of a value or behavior not defined by this document which results from use of an invalid program construct or invalid data input. The value or behavior may vary among implementations that conform to this document. An application should not rely on the existence or validity of the value or behavior. An application that relies on any particular value or behavior cannot be assured to be portable across conforming implementations.

unspecified

Describes the nature of a value or behavior not specified by this document which results from use of a valid program construct or valid data input. The value or behavior may vary among implementations that conform to this document. An application should not rely on the existence or validity of the value or behavior. An application that relies on any particular value or behavior cannot be assured to be portable across conforming implementations.

will

Same meaning as shall; shall is the preferred term.


Chapter 2. Object Files

LSB-conforming implementations shall support the object file Executable and Linking Format (ELF), which is defined by the following documents:

  • System V Application Binary Interface, Edition 4.1

  • System V Application Binary Interface - DRAFT - April 29, 1998

  • this document

  • an architecture-specific LSB specification

Conforming implementations may also support other unspecified object file formats.


Chapter 3. Sections


Sections Types

A section header's sh_type member specifies the sections's semantics.


ELF Section Types

The following section types are defined in the System V Application Binary Interface, Edition 4.1.

Table 3-1. ELF Section Types

NameValueDescription
SHT_DYNAMIC0x6The section holds information for dynamic linking. Currently, an object file shall have only one dynamic section, but this restriction may be relaxed in the future. See `Dynamic Section' in Chapter 5 for details.
SHT_DYNSYM0xb 
SHT_FINI_ARRAY0xfThis section contains an array of pointers to termination functions, as described in `Initialization and Termination Functions' in Chapter 5. Each pointer in the array is taken as a parameterless procedure with a void return.
SHT_HASH0x5The section holds a symbol hash table. Currently, an object file shall have only one hash table, but this restriction may be relaxed in the future. See `Hash Table' in the Chapter 5 for details.
SHT_HIPROC0x7fffffffValues in this inclusive range are reserved for processor-specific semantics.
SHT_HIUSER0xffffffffThis value specifies the upper bound of the range of indexes reserved for application programs. Section types between SHT_LOUSER and SHT_HIUSER can be used by the application, without conflicting with current or future system-defined section types.
SHT_INIT_ARRAY0xeThis section contains an array of pointers to initialization functions, as described in `Initialization and Termination Functions' in Chapter 5. Each pointer in the array is taken as a parameterless procedure with a void return.
SHT_LOPROC0x70000000Values in this inclusive range are reserved for processor-specific semantics.
SHT_LOUSER0x80000000This value specifies the lower bound of the range of indexes reserved for application programs.
SHT_NOBITS0x8A section of this type occupies no space in the file but otherwise resembles SHT_PROGBITS. Although this section contains no bytes, the sh_offset member contains the conceptual file offset.
SHT_NOTE0x7The section holds information that marks the file in some way. See `Note Section' in Chapter 5 for details.
SHT_NULL0x0This value marks the section header as inactive; it does not have an associated section. Other members of the section header have undefined values.
SHT_PREINIT_ARRAY0x10This section contains an array of pointers to functions that are invoked before all other initialization functions, as described in `Initialization and Termination Functions' in Chapter 5. Each pointer in the array is taken as a parameterless proceure with a void return.
SHT_PROGBITS0x1The section holds information defined by the program, whose format and meaning are determined solely by the program.
SHT_REL0x9The section holds relocation entries without explicit addends, such as type Elf32_Rel for the 32-bit class of object files or type Elf64_Rel for the 64-bit class of object files. An object file may have multiple relocation sections. See "Relocation"
SHT_RELA0x4The section holds relocation entries with explicit addends, such as type Elf32_Rela for the 32-bit class of object files or type Elf64_Rela for the 64-bit class of object files. An object file may have multiple relocation sections. `Relocation' b
SHT_SHLIB0xaThis section type is reserved but has unspecified semantics.
SHT_STRTAB0x3The section holds a string table. An object file may have multiple string table sections. See `String Table' below for details.
SHT_SYMTAB0x2These sections hold a symbol table. Currently, an object file shall have only one section of each type, but this restriction may be relaxed in the future. Typically, SHT_SYMTAB provides symbols for link editing, though it may also be used for dynamic linking.


Additional Section Types

The following additional section types are defined here.

Table 3-2. Additional Section Types

NameValueDescription
SHT_GNU_verdef0x6ffffffdThis section contains the symbol versions that are provided.
SHT_GNU_verneed0x6ffffffeThis section contains the symbol versions that are required.
SHT_GNU_versym0x6fffffffThis section contains the Symbol Version Table.


Chapter 4. Special Sections

Special Sections

Various sections hold program and control information. Sections in the lists below are used by the system and have the indicated types and attributes.


ELF Special Sections

The following sections are defined in the System V Application Binary Interface, Edition 4.1.

Table 4-1. ELF Special Sections

NameTypeAttributes
.bssSHT_NOBITSSHF_ALLOC+SHF_WRITE
.commentSHT_PROGBITS0
.dataSHT_PROGBITSSHF_ALLOC+SHF_WRITE
.data1SHT_PROGBITSSHF_ALLOC+SHF_WRITE
.debugSHT_PROGBITS0
.dynamicSHT_DYNAMICSHF_ALLOC+SHF_WRITE
.dynstrSHT_STRTABSHF_ALLOC
.dynsymSHT_DYNSYMSHF_ALLOC
.finiSHT_PROGBITSSHF_ALLOC+SHF_EXECINSTR
.fini_arraySHT_FINI_ARRAYSHF_ALLOC+SHF_WRITE
.hashSHT_HASHSHF_ALLOC
.initSHT_PROGBITSSHF_ALLOC+SHF_EXECINSTR
.init_arraySHT_INIT_ARRAY SHF_ALLOC+SHF_WRITE
.interpSHT_PROGBITSSHF_ALLOC
.lineSHT_PROGBITS0
.noteSHT_NOTE0
.preinit_arraySHT_PREINIT_ARRAYSHF_ALLOC+SHF_WRITE
.rodataSHT_PROGBITSSHF_ALLOC
.rodata1SHT_PROGBITSSHF_ALLOC
.shstrtabSHT_STRTAB0
.strtabSHT_STRTABSHF_ALLOC
.symtabSHT_SYMTABSHF_ALLOC
.textSHT_PROGBITSSHF_ALLOC+SHF_EXECINSTR

.bss

This section holds uninitialized data that contribute to the program's memory image. By definition, the system initializes the data with zeros when the program begins to run. The section occupies no file space, as indicated by the section type, SHT_NOBITS

.comment

This section holds version control information.

.data

This section holds initialized data that contribute to the program's memory image.

.data1

This section holds initialized data that contribute to the program's memory image.

.debug

This section holds information for symbolic debugging. The contents are unspecified. All section names with the prefix .debug hold information for symbolic debugging. The contents of these sections are unspecified.

.dynamic

This section holds dynamic linking information. The section's attributes will include the SHF_ALLOC bit. Whether the SHF_WRITE bit is set is processor specific. See Chapter 5 for more information.

.dynstr

This section holds strings needed for dynamic linking, most commonly the strings that represent the names associated with symbol table entries. See Chapter 5 for more information.

.dynsym

This section holds the dynamic linking symbol table, as described in `Symbol Table'. See Chapter 5 for more information.

.fini

This section holds executable instructions that contribute to the process termination code. That is, when a program exits normally, the system arranges to execute the code in this section.

.fini_array

This section holds an array of function pointers that contributes to a single termination array for the executable or shared object containing the section.

.hash

This section holds a symbol hash table. See `Hash Table' in Chapter 5 for more information.

.init

This section holds executable instructions that contribute to the process initialization code. When a program starts to run, the system arranges to execute the code in this section before calling the main program entry point (called main for C programs)

.init_array

This section holds an array of function pointers that contributes to a single initialization array for the executable or shared object containing the section.

.interp

This section holds the path name of a program interpreter. If the file has a loadable segment that includes relocation, the sections' attributes will include the SHF_ALLOC bit; otherwise, that bit will be off. See Chapter 5 for more information.

.line

This section holds line number information for symbolic debugging, which describes the correspondence between the source program and the machine code. The contents are unspecified.

.note

This section holds information in the format that `Note Section' in Chapter 5 describes of the System V Application Binary Interface, Edition 4.1.

.preinit_array

This section holds an array of function pointers that contributes to a single pre-initialization array for the executable or shared object containing the section.

.rodata

This section holds read-only data that typically contribute to a non-writable segment in the process image. See `Program Header' in Chapter 5 for more information.

.rodata1

This section hold sread-only data that typically contribute to a non-writable segment in the process image. See `Program Header' in Chapter 5 for more information.

.shstrtab

This section holds section names.

.strtab

This section holds strings, most commonly the strings that represent the names associated with symbol table entries. If the file has a loadable segment that includes the symbol string table, the section's attributes will include the SHF_ALLOC bit; otherwi

.symtab

This section holds a symbol table, as `Symbol Table'. in this chapter describes. If the file has a loadable segment that includes the symbol table, the section's attributes will include the SHF_ALLOC bit; otherwise, that bit will be off.

.text

This section holds the `text,' or executable instructions, of a program.


Additional Special Sections

The following additional sections are defined here.

Table 4-2. Additional Special Sections

NameTypeAttributes
.ctorsSHT_PROGBITSSHF_ALLOC+SHF_WRITE
.dtorsSHT_PROGBITSSHF_ALLOC+SHF_WRITE
.eh_frameSHT_PROGBITSSHF_ALLOC+SHF_WRITE
.eh_frame_hdrSHT_PROGBITSSHF_ALLOC
.gnu.versionSHT_GNU_versymSHF_ALLOC
.gnu.version_dSHT_GNU_verdefSHF_ALLOC
.gnu.version_rSHT_GNU_verneedSHF_ALLOC
.jcrSHT_PROGBITSSHF_ALLOC+SHF_WRITE
.note.ABI-tagSHT_NOTESHF_ALLOC
.stabSHT_PROGBITS0
.stabstrSHT_STRTAB0

.ctors

This section contains a list of global constructor function pointers.

.dtors

This section contains a list of global destructor function pointers.

.eh_frame

This section contains information necessary for frame unwinding during exception handling. The format is the same as for .debug_frame as described by DWARF Debugging Information Format, Revision 2.0.0 (July 27, 1993).

.eh_frame_hdr

This section contains a pointer to the .eh_frame section which is accessible to the runtime support code of a C++ application. This section may also contain a binary search table which may be used by the runtime support code to more efficiently access records in the .eh_frame section.

.gnu.version

This section contains the Symbol Version Table.

.gnu.version_d

This section contains the Version Definitions.

.gnu.version_r

This section contains the Version Requirments.

.jcr

This section contains information necessary for registering compiled Java classes. The contents are compiler-specific and used by compiler initialization functions.

.note.ABI-tag

Specify ABI details.

.stab

This section contains debugging information. The contents are not specified as part of the LSB.

.stabstr

This section contains strings associated with the debugging infomation contained in the .stab section.


Chapter 5. Symbol Mapping

This chapter defines how names are mapped from the source symbol to the object symbol.


Symbol Mapping

Symbols in a source program are translated by the compilation system into symbols that exist in the object file. The rules for this translation are defined here.


C Language

External C symbols have the same names in C and object files' symbol tables.


C++ Language

Because of the immaturity of the C++ ABI (for name mangling, exception handling, and other such issues), we do not standardize any libraries for C++ in this version of the Linux Standard Base. [1]

In a future version of this specification, name mangling rules will be specified so that C++ symbols can be mapped into symbol names in the object file.


Chapter 6. EH Frame Header

The .eh_frame_hdr section contains additional information about the .eh_frame section. A pointer to the start of the .eh_frame data, and optionally, a binary search table of pointers to the .eh_frame records are found in this section.

Data in this section is encoded according to the DWARF Exception Header Encoding described below.

Table 6-1. .eh_frame_hdr Section Format

EncodingField
unsigned byteversion
unsigned byteeh_frame_ptr_enc
unsigned bytefde_count_enc
unsigned bytetable_enc
encodedeh_frame_ptr
encodedfde_count
 binary search table

version

Version of the .eh_frame_hdr format. This value must be 1.

eh_frame_ptr_enc

The encoding format of the eh_frame_ptr field.

fde_count_enc

The encoding format of the fde_count field. A value of DW_EH_PE_omit indicates the binary search table is not present.

table_enc

The encoding format of the entries in the binary search table. A value of DW_EH_PE_omit indicates the binary search table is not present.

eh_frame_ptr

The encoded value of the pointer to the start of the .eh_frame section.

fde_count

The encoded value of the count of entries in the binary search table.

binary search table

A binary search table containing fde_count entries. Each entry of the table consist of two encoded values, the initial location, and the address. The entries are sorted in an increasing order by the initial location value.


DWARF Exception Header Encoding

The DWARF Exception Header Encoding is used to describe the type of data used in the .eh_frame_hdr section. The upper 4 bits indicate how the value is to be applied. The lower 4 bits indicate the format of the data.

Table 6-2. DWARF Exception Header value format

NameValueMeaning
DW_EH_PE_omit0xffNo value is present.
DW_EH_PE_uleb1280x01Unsigned value is encoded using the Little Endian Base 128 (LEB128) as defined by DWARF Debugging Information Format, Revision 2.0.0 (July 27, 1993).
DW_EH_PE_udata20x02A 2 bytes unsigned value.
DW_EH_PE_udata40x03A 4 bytes unsigned value.
DW_EH_PE_udata80x04An 8 bytes unsigned value.
DW_EH_PE_sleb1280x09Signed value is encoded using the Little Endian Base 128 (LEB128) as defined by DWARF Debugging Information Format, Revision 2.0.0 (July 27, 1993).
DW_EH_PE_sdata20x0AA 2 bytes signed value.
DW_EH_PE_sdata40x0BA 4 bytes signed value.
DW_EH_PE_sdata80x0CAn 8 bytes signed value.

Table 6-3. DWARF Exception Header application

NameValueMeaning
DW_EH_PE_absptr0x00Value is used with no modification.
DW_EH_PE_pcrel0x10Value is reletive to the current program counter.
DW_EH_PE_datarel0x30Value is reletive to the beginning of the .eh_frame_hdr section.
DW_EH_PE_omit0xffNo value is present.

Chapter 7. Symbol Versioning

This chapter describes the Symbol Versioning mechanism. All ELF objects may provide or depend on versioned symbols. Symbol Versioning is implemented by 3 section types: SHT_GNU_versym, SHT_GNU_verdef, and SHT_GNU_verneed.

The term "Elfxx" means "Elf32" or "Elf64" depending on the architecture.

Versions are described by strings. The structures that are used for symbol versions also contain a member that holds the ELF hashing values of the strings. This allows for more efficient processing.


Symbol Version Table

The Symbol Version Table is contained in the special section .gnu.version which has a section type of SHT_GNU_versym. This section has the same number of entries as the Dynamic Symbol Table.

This section contains an array of elements of type Elfxx_Half. Each entry specifies the version defined for or required by the corresponding symbol in the Dynamic Symbol Table.

The values in the Symbol Version Table are unique to the object in which they are located. These values are identifiers that are provided by the the vna_other member of the Elfxx_Vernaux structure or the vd_ndx member of the Elfxx_Verdef structure.

The values 0 and 1 are reserved.

0

The symbol is local, not available outside the object.

1

The symbol is defined in this object and is globally available.

All other values are used to identify version strings located in one of the other Symbol Version sections. The value itself is not the version associated with the symbol. The string identified by the value defines the version of the symbol.


Version Definitions

Symbol definitions are contained in the special section .gnu.version_d which has a section type of SHT_GNU_verdef. The number of entries in this section is contained in the DT_VERDEFNUM entry of the Dynamic Section. The sh_link member of the section header points to the section that contains the strings referenced by this section.

Figure 7-1. Version Definition Entries

typedef struct {
	Elfxx_Half    vd_version;
	Elfxx_Half    vd_flags;
	Elfxx_Half    vd_ndx;
	Elfxx_Half    vd_cnt;
	Elfxx_Word    vd_hash;
	Elfxx_Word    vd_aux;
	Elfxx_Word    vd_next;
} Elfxx_Verdef;

vd_version

Version revision. This value is currently set to 1, and will be reset if the versioning implementation is incompatibly altered.

vd_flags

Version information flag bitmask.

vd_ndx

Version index numeric value referencing the SHT_GNU_versym section.

vd_cnt

Number of associated verdaux array entries.

vd_hash

Version name hash value (ELF hash function).

vd_aux

Offset to a corresponding entry in the verdaux array, in bytes.

vd_next

Offset to the next verdef entry, in bytes.

Figure 7-2. Version Definition Auxiliary Entries

typedef struct {
	Elfxx_Word    vda_name;
	Elfxx_Word    vda_next;
} Elfxx_Verdaux;

vda_name

Offset to the version or dependency name string in the section header, in bytes.

vda_next

Offset to the next verdaux entry, in bytes.


Version Requirements

Symbol definitions are contained in the special section .gnu.version_r which has a section type of SHT_GNU_verneed. The number of entries in this section is contained in the DT_VERNEEDNUM entry of the Dynamic Section. The sh_link member of the section header points to the section that contains the strings referenced by this section.

Figure 7-3. Version Needed Entries

typedef struct {
	Elfxx_Half    vn_version;
	Elfxx_Half    vn_cnt;
	Elfxx_Word    vn_file;
	Elfxx_Word    vn_aux;
	Elfxx_Word    vn_next;
} Elfxx_Verneed;

vn_version

Version of structure. This value is currently set to 1, and will be reset if the versioning implementation is incompatibly altered.

vn_cnt

Number of associated verneed array entries.

vn_file

Offset to the file name string in the section header, in bytes.

vn_aux

Offset to a corresponding entry in the vernaux array, in bytes.

vn_next

Offset to the next verneed entry, in bytes.

Figure 7-4. Version Needed Auxiliary Entries

typedef struct {
	Elfxx_Word    vna_hash;
	Elfxx_Half    vna_flags;
	Elfxx_Half    vna_other;
	Elfxx_Word    vna_name;
	Elfxx_Word    vna_next;
} Elfxx_Vernaux;

vna_hash

Dependency name hash value (ELF hash function).

vna_flags

Dependency information flag bitmask.

vna_other

Object file version identifier used in the .gnu.version symbol version array. Bit number 15 controls whether or not the object is hidden; if this bit is set, the object cannot be used and the static linker will ignore the symbol's presence in the object.

vna_name

Offset to the dependency name string in the section header, in bytes.

vna_next

Offset to the next vernaux entry, in bytes.


Startup Sequence

When loading a sharable object, version definition data from the loaded object is analyzed to assure that it meets the version requirements of the calling object. The dynamic loader retrieves the entries in the caller's Elfxx_Verneed array and attempts to find matching definition information in the loaded Elfxx_Verdef table.

Each object and dependency is tested in turn. If a symbol definition is missing, the loader returns an error. A warning is issued instead of a hard error when the vna_flags bit for VER_FLG_WEAK is set in the Elfxx_Vernaux entry.

When the versions referenced by undefined symbols in the loaded object are found, version availability is certified. The test completes without error and the object is made available.


Symbol Resolution

When symbol versioning is used in an object, relocations extend the performance of definition testing beyond the simple match of symbol name strings: the version of the reference must also equal the name of the definition. The same index that is used in the symbol table can be referenced in the SHT_GNU_versym section, and the value of this index is then used to acquire name data. The corresponding requirement string is retrieved from the Elfxx_Verneed array, and likewise, the corresponding definition string from the Elfxx_Verdef table.

Bit number 15 of the version symbol controls whether or not the object is hidden; if this bit is set, the object cannot be used and the static linker will ignore the symbol's presence in the object.

Results differ in the interaction of objects that variously use symbol versioning.

  • The object with the reference and the object with the definitions may both use versioning. All described matching is processed in this case. A fatal error is triggered when no matching definition can be found in the object whose name is the one referenced by the vn_name element in the Elfxx_Verneed entry.

  • The object with the reference may not use versioning, while the object with the definitions does. In this instance, only the definition with index numbers 1 and 2 will be used in the reference match, the same identified by the static linker as the base definition. In infrequent cases where the static linker was not used, as in calls to dlopen(), a version that does not have the base definition index is acceptable as long as it is the only version for which the symbol is defined.

  • The object with the reference may use versioning, but the object with the definitions specifies none. A matching symbol is accepted in this case. A fatal error is triggered in the unlikely event that a corruption in the required symbols list obscured an outdated object file and caused a match on the object filename in the Elfxx_Verneed entry.

  • Finally, both the object with the reference and the object with the definitions may not use versioning. The behavior in this instance defaults to pre-existing symbol rules.


Chapter 8. ABI note tag

Every executable shall contain a section named .note.ABI-tag of type SHT_NOTE. This section is structured as a note section as documented in the ELF spec. The section must contain at least the following entry. The name field (namesz/name) contains the string "GNU". The type field shall be 1. The descsz field shall be at least 16, and the first 16 bytes of the desc field shall be as follows.

The first 32-bit word of the desc field must be 0 (this signifies a Linux executable). The second, third, and fourth 32-bit words of the desc field contain the earliest compatible kernel version. For example, if the 3 words are 2, 2, and 5, this signifies a 2.2.5 kernel.


Chapter 9. Program Loading and Dynamic Linking

LSB-conforming implementations shall support the object file information and system actions that create running programs as specified in the System V Application Binary Interface, Edition 4.1 and the System V Application Binary Interface - DRAFT - April 29, 1998 and as supplemented by this document and an architecture-specific LSB specification.

Any shared object that is loaded must contain sufficient DT_NEEDED records to satisfy the symbols on the shared library.


Chapter 10. Program Header

In addition to the Segment Types defined in the System V Application Binary Interface, Edition 4.1 and the System V Application Binary Interface - DRAFT - April 29, 1998 the following Segment Types shall also be supported.

Table 10-1. Linux Segment Types

NameValue
PT_GNU_EH_FRAME0x6474e550

PT_GNU_EH_FRAME

The array element specifies the location and size of the exception handling information as defined by the .eh_frame_hdr section.


Chapter 11. Dynamic Entries

A dynamic entry's d_tag member control the interpretation of d_un.


Dynamic Entries


ELF Dynamic Entries

The following dynamic entries are defined in the System V Application Binary Interface, Edition 4.1.

DT_BIND_NOW

Process relocations of object

DT_DEBUG

For debugging; unspecified

DT_FINI

Address of termination function

DT_HASH

Address of symbol hash table

DT_HIPROC

End of processor-specific

DT_INIT

Address of init function

DT_JMPREL

Address of PLT relocs

DT_LOPROC

Start of processor-specific

DT_NEEDED

Name of needed library

DT_NULL

Marks end of dynamic section

DT_PLTREL

Type of reloc in PLT

DT_PLTRELSZ

Size in bytes of PLT relocs

DT_REL

Address of Rel relocs

DT_RELA

Address of Rela relocs

DT_RELAENT

Size of one Rela reloc

DT_RELASZ

Total size of Rela relocs

DT_RELENT

Size of one Rel reloc

DT_RELSZ

Total size of Rel relocs

DT_RPATH

Library search path

DT_SONAME

Name of shared object

DT_STRSZ

Size of string table

DT_STRTAB

Address of string table

DT_SYMBOLIC

Start symbol search here

DT_SYMENT

Size of one symbol table entry

DT_SYMTAB

Address of symbol table

DT_TEXTREL

Reloc might modify .text


Additional Dynamic Entries

The following dynamic entries are defined here.

DT_ADDRRNGHI

Values from DT_ADDRRNGLO through DT_ADDRRNGHI are reserved for definition by an archLSB.

DT_ADDRRNGLO

Values from DT_ADDRRNGLO through DT_ADDRRNGHI are reserved for definition by an archLSB.

DT_AUXILIARY

Shared object to load before self

DT_FILTER

Shared object to get values from

DT_FINI_ARRAY

The address of an array of pointers to termination functions.

DT_FINI_ARRAYSZ

Size in bytes of DT_FINI_ARRAY

DT_FLAGS_1

State flags, see DF_1_* below

DT_HIOS

Values from DT_LOOS through DT_HIOS are reserved for definition by specific operating systems.

DT_INIT_ARRAY

The address of an array of pointers to initialization functions.

DT_INIT_ARRAYSZ

Size in bytes of DT_INIT_ARRAY

DT_LOOS

Values from DT_LOOS through DT_HIOS are reserved for definition by specific operating systems.

DT_NUM

Number of dynamic entry tags defined (excepting reserved ranges).

DT_POSFLAG_1

Flags for DT_* entries, effecting the following DT_* entry

DT_RELCOUNT

All Elf32_Rel R_*_RELATIVE relocations have been placed into a single block and this entry specifies the number of entries in that block. This permits ld.so.1 to streamline the processing of RELATIVE relocations.

DT_SYMINENT

Entry size of syminfo

DT_SYMINFO

Address of the Syminfo table.

DT_SYMINSZ

Size of syminfo table (in bytes)

DT_VALRNGHI

Entries which fall between DT_VALRNGHI & DT_VALRNGLO use the Dyn.d_un.d_val field of the Elf*_Dyn structure.

DT_VALRNGLO

Entries which fall between DT_VALRNGHI & DT_VALRNGLO use the Dyn.d_un.d_val field of the Elf*_Dyn structure.

DT_VERDEF

Address of version definition table

DT_VERDEFNUM

Number of version definitions

DT_VERNEED

Address of table with needed versions

DT_VERNEEDNUM

Number of needed versions

DT_VERSYM

Address of the table provided by the .gnu.version section.


Chapter 12. Program Interpreter


The Program Interpreter is specified in the appropriate architecture-specific LSB specification.

IV. Base Libraries

Table of Contents
13. Libraries

Chapter 13. Libraries

An LSB-conforming implementation shall support some base libraries which provide interfaces for accessing the operating system, processor and other hardware in the system.


Interfaces for libc

Table 13-1. libc Definition

Library:libc
SONAME:See archLSB.

The behavior of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following standards.

ISO/IEC 9899: 1999, Programming Languages --C[2]
Large File Support[3]
Linux Standard Base[4]
IEEE Std POSIX.1-1996 [ISO/IEC 9945-1:1996][5]
CAE Specification, February 1997, Networking Services (XNS), Issue 5(ISBN: 1-85912-165-9, C523)[6]
CAE Specification, January 1997, System Interfaces and Headers (XSH),Issue 5 (ISBN: 1-85912-181-0, C606)[7]
The Single UNIX® Specification(SUS) Version 3[8]
System V Interface Definition, Issue 3 (ISBN 0201566524)[9]
System V Interface Definition,Fourth Edition[10]


RPC

Table 13-2. libc - RPC Function Interfaces

authnone_create[10]svc_getreqset[9]xdr_bytes[9]xdr_opaque_auth[9]xdr_union[9]
clnt_create[10]svcerr_auth[9]xdr_callhdr[9]xdr_pointer[9]xdr_vector[9]
clnt_pcreateerror[10]svcerr_decode[9]xdr_callmsg[9]xdr_reference[9]xdr_void[9]
clnt_perrno[10]svcerr_noproc[9]xdr_char[9]xdr_rejected_reply[9]xdr_wrapstring[9]
clnt_perror[10]svcerr_noprog[9]xdr_double[9]xdr_replymsg[9]xdrmem_create[9]
clnt_spcreateerror[10]svcerr_progvers[9]xdr_enum[9]xdr_short[9]xdrrec_create[9]
clnt_sperrno[10]svcerr_systemerr[9]xdr_float[9]xdr_string[9]xdrrec_eof[9]
clnt_sperror[10]svcerr_weakauth[9]xdr_free[9]xdr_u_char[9] 
getdomainname[4]xdr_accepted_reply[9]xdr_int[9]xdr_u_int[4] 
key_decryptsession[9]xdr_array[9]xdr_long[9]xdr_u_long[9] 
setdomainname[4]xdr_bool[9]xdr_opaque[9]xdr_u_short[9] 

System Calls

Table 13-3. libc - System Calls Function Interfaces

__fxstat[4]fchown[7]initgroups[4]read[7]setrlimit64[3]
__getpgid[4]fcntl[4]ioctl[4]readdir[7]setsid[7]
__lxstat[4]fdatasync[7]kill[4]readdir_r[7]setuid[7]
__xmknod[4]flock[4]killpg[7]readlink[7]sleep[7]
__xstat[4]fork[7]lchown[7]readv[7]statfs[4]
access[7]fstatfs[4]link[7]rename[7]statvfs[7]
acct[4]fstatvfs[7]lockf[7]rmdir[7]stime[4]
alarm[7]fsync[7]lseek[7]sbrk[7]symlink[7]
brk[7]ftime[7]mkdir[7]sched_get_priority_max[7]sync[7]
chdir[7]ftruncate[7]mkfifo[7]sched_get_priority_min[7]sysconf[7]
chmod[7]getcontext[7]mlock[7]sched_getparam[7]time[7]
chown[7]getegid[7]mlockall[7]sched_getscheduler[7]times[7]
chroot[7]geteuid[7]mmap[7]sched_rr_get_interval[7]truncate[7]
clock[7]getgid[7]mprotect[7]sched_setparam[7]ulimit[7]
close[7]getgroups[7]msync[7]sched_setscheduler[7]umask[7]
closedir[7]getitimer[7]munlock[7]sched_yield[7]uname[7]
creat[7]getloadavg[4]munlockall[7]select[6]unlink[4]
dup[7]getpagesize[7]munmap[7]setcontext[7]utime[7]
dup2[7]getpgid[7]nanosleep[7]setegid[4]utimes[7]
execl[7]getpgrp[7]nice[4]seteuid[4]vfork[7]
execle[7]getpid[7]open[7]setgid[7]wait[7]
execlp[7]getppid[7]opendir[7]setitimer[7]wait3[4]
execv[7]getpriority[7]pathconf[7]setpgid[7]wait4[4]
execve[7]getrlimit[7]pause[7]setpgrp[7]waitid[4]
execvp[7]getrusage[7]pipe[7]setpriority[7]waitpid[4]
exit[7]getsid[7]poll[7]setregid[7]write[7]
fchdir[7]getuid[7]pread[7]setreuid[7]writev[7]
fchmod[7]getwd[7]pwrite[7]setrlimit[7] 

Table 13-4. libc - System Calls Deprecated Function Interfaces

fstatfs[4]statfs[4]waitid[4]  

Standard I/O

Table 13-5. libc - Standard I/O Function Interfaces

_IO_feof[4]fgetc[7]fseeko[7]putc[7]snprintf[7]
_IO_getc[4]fgetpos[7]fsetpos[7]putc_unlocked[7]sprintf[7]
_IO_putc[4]fgets[7]ftell[7]putchar[7]sscanf[7]
_IO_puts[4]fgetwc_unlocked[7]ftello[7]putchar_unlocked[7]telldir[7]
alphasort[4]fileno[7]fwrite[7]puts[7]tempnam[7]
asprintf[4]flockfile[7]getc[7]putw[7]ungetc[7]
clearerr[7]fopen[7]getc_unlocked[7]remove[7]vasprintf[4]
ctermid[7]fprintf[7]getchar[7]rewind[7]vdprintf[4]
fclose[7]fputc[7]getchar_unlocked[7]rewinddir[7]vfprintf[7]
fdopen[7]fputs[7]gets[4]scanf[7]vprintf[7]
feof[7]fread[7]getw[7]seekdir[7]vsnprintf[7]
ferror[7]freopen[7]pclose[7]setbuf[7]vsprintf[7]
fflush[7]fscanf[7]popen[7]setbuffer[4] 
fflush_unlocked[7]fseek[7]printf[7]setvbuf[7] 

Table 13-6. libc - Standard I/O Deprecated Function Interfaces

alphasort[4]    

Table 13-7. libc - Standard I/O Data Interfaces

stderr[7]stdin[7]stdout[7]  

Signal Handling

Table 13-8. libc - Signal Handling Function Interfaces

__libc_current_sigrtmax[4]sigaddset[7]sighold[7]sigpause[7]sigsuspend[7]
__libc_current_sigrtmin[4]sigaltstack[7]sigignore[7]sigpending[7]sigtimedwait[7]
__sigsetjmp[4]sigandset[4]siginterrupt[7]sigprocmask[7]sigwait[7]
__sysv_signal[4]sigblock[4]sigisemptyset[4]sigqueue[7]sigwaitinfo[7]
bsd_signal[7]sigdelset[7]sigismember[7]sigrelse[7] 
psignal[4]sigemptyset[7]siglongjmp[7]sigreturn[4] 
raise[7]sigfillset[7]signal[7]sigset[7] 
sigaction[7]siggetmask[4]sigorset[4]sigstack[7] 

Table 13-9. libc - Signal Handling Data Interfaces

_sys_siglist[4]    

Localization Functions

Table 13-10. libc - Localization Functions Function Interfaces

__dcgettext[4]catgets[7]dgettext[4]iconv_close[7]nl_langinfo[7]
bind_textdomain_codeset[4]catopen[7]dngettext[4]iconv_open[7]setlocale[7]
bindtextdomain[4]dcgettext[4]gettext[4]localeconv[7]textdomain[4]
catclose[7]dcngettext[4]iconv[7]ngettext[4] 

Table 13-11. libc - Localization Functions Deprecated Function Interfaces

__dcgettext[4]    

Table 13-12. libc - Localization Functions Data Interfaces

_nl_msg_cat_cntr[4]    

Socket Interface

Table 13-13. libc - Socket Interface Function Interfaces

__h_errno_location[4]gethostbyname_r[4]getsockopt[6]send[6]socket[6]
accept[6]gethostid[7]listen[6]sendmsg[6]socketpair[6]
bind[6]gethostname[6]recv[6]sendto[6] 
bindresvport[4]getpeername[6]recvfrom[6]setsockopt[6] 
connect[6]getsockname[6]recvmsg[6]shutdown[6] 

Wide Characters

Table 13-14. libc - Wide Characters Function Interfaces

__wcstod_internal[4]mbsinit[7]vwscanf[2]wcsnlen[4]wcstoumax[2]
__wcstof_internal[4]mbsnrtowcs[4]wcpcpy[4]wcsnrtombs[4]wcstouq[4]
__wcstol_internal[4]mbsrtowcs[7]wcpncpy[4]wcspbrk[2]wcswcs[7]
__wcstold_internal[4]mbstowcs[7]wcrtomb[7]wcsrchr[7]wcswidth[7]
__wcstoul_internal[4]mbtowc[7]wcscasecmp[4]wcsrtombs[7]wcsxfrm[7]
btowc[7]putwc[2]wcscat[7]wcsspn[7]wctob[7]
fgetwc[7]putwchar[2]wcschr[7]wcsstr[7]wctomb[7]
fgetws[2]swprintf[7]wcscmp[7]wcstod[7]wctrans[7]
fputwc[2]swscanf[2]wcscoll[7]wcstof[2]wctype[7]
fputws[2]towctrans[7]wcscpy[7]wcstoimax[2]wcwidth[7]
fwide[2]towlower[2]wcscspn[7]wcstok[7]wmemchr[7]
fwprintf[7]towupper[7]wcsdup[4]wcstol[7]wmemcmp[7]
fwscanf[2]ungetwc[2]wcsftime[2]wcstold[2]wmemcpy[7]
getwc[2]vfwprintf[2]wcslen[7]wcstoll[2]wmemmove[7]
getwchar[7]vfwscanf[2]wcsncasecmp[4]wcstombs[7]wmemset[7]
mblen[7]vswprintf[2]wcsncat[7]wcstoq[4]wprintf[2]
mbrlen[7]vswscanf[2]wcsncmp[7]wcstoul[7]wscanf[2]
mbrtowc[7]vwprintf[2]wcsncpy[7]wcstoull[2] 

String Functions

Table 13-15. libc - String Functions Function Interfaces

__mempcpy[4]bzero[7]strcasestr[4]strncasecmp[7]strtoimax[2]
__rawmemchr[4]ffs[7]strcat[7]strncat[7]strtok[7]
__stpcpy[4]index[7]strchr[7]strncmp[7]strtok_r[4]
__strdup[4]memccpy[7]strcmp[7]strncpy[7]strtold[2]
__strtod_internal[4]memchr[7]strcoll[7]strndup[4]strtoll[2]
__strtof_internal[4]memcmp[7]strcpy[7]strnlen[4]strtoq[4]
__strtok_r[4]memcpy[7]strcspn[7]strpbrk[7]strtoull[2]
__strtol_internal[4]memmove[7]strdup[7]strptime[4]strtoumax[2]
__strtold_internal[4]memrchr[4]strerror[7]strrchr[7]strtouq[4]
__strtoll_internal[4]memset[7]strerror_r[4]strsep[4]strverscmp[4]
__strtoul_internal[4]rindex[7]strfmon[7]strsignal[4]strxfrm[7]
__strtoull_internal[4]stpcpy[4]strfry[4]strspn[7]swab[7]
bcmp[7]stpncpy[4]strftime[7]strstr[7] 
bcopy[7]strcasecmp[7]strlen[7]strtof[2] 

IPC Functions

Table 13-16. libc - IPC Functions Function Interfaces

ftok[7]msgrcv[7]semget[7]shmctl[7] 
msgctl[7]msgsnd[7]semop[7]shmdt[7] 
msgget[7]semctl[7]shmat[7]shmget[7] 

Regular Expressions

Table 13-17. libc - Regular Expressions Function Interfaces

advance[7]re_exec[7]regerror[7]regfree[7] 
re_comp[7]regcomp[7]regexec[7]step[7] 

Table 13-18. libc - Regular Expressions Data Interfaces

loc1[7]loc2[7]locs[7]  

Character Type Functions

Table 13-19. libc - Character Type Functions Function Interfaces

__ctype_get_mb_cur_max[4]isdigit[7]iswalnum[7]iswlower[7]toascii[7]
_tolower[7]isgraph[7]iswalpha[7]iswprint[7]tolower[7]
_toupper[7]islower[7]iswblank[8]iswpunct[7]toupper[7]
isalnum[7]isprint[7]iswcntrl[7]iswspace[7] 
isalpha[7]ispunct[7]iswctype[4]iswupper[7] 
isascii[7]isspace[7]iswdigit[7]iswxdigit[7] 
iscntrl[7]isupper[7]iswgraph[7]isxdigit[7] 

Table 13-20. libc - Character Type Functions Data Interfaces

__ctype_b[4]__ctype_tolower[4]__ctype_toupper[4]  

Time Manipulation

Table 13-21. libc - Time Manipulation Function Interfaces

adjtime[4]asctime_r[7]difftime[7]localtime[7]tzset[7]
adjtimex[4]ctime[7]gmtime[7]localtime_r[7]ualarm[7]
asctime[7]ctime_r[7]gmtime_r[7]mktime[7] 

Table 13-22. libc - Time Manipulation Data Interfaces

__daylight[4]__tzname[4]timezone[7]  
__timezone[4]daylight[7]tzname[7]  

Terminal Interface Functions

Table 13-23. libc - Terminal Interface Functions Function Interfaces

cfgetispeed[7]cfsetispeed[7]tcdrain[7]tcgetattr[7]tcsendbreak[7]
cfgetospeed[7]cfsetospeed[7]tcflow[7]tcgetpgrp[7]tcsetattr[7]
cfmakeraw[4]cfsetspeed[4]tcflush[7]tcgetsid[7]tcsetpgrp[7]

System Database Interface

Table 13-24. libc - System Database Interface Function Interfaces

endgrent[7]getgrgid[7]getprotoent[7]getutent[4]setmntent[4]
endhostent[6]getgrgid_r[7]getpwent[7]getutent_r[4]setnetent[6]
endnetent[6]getgrnam[7]getpwnam[7]getutxent[7]setprotoent[6]
endprotoent[6]getgrnam_r[7]getpwnam_r[4]getutxid[7]setpwent[7]
endpwent[7]gethostbyaddr[6]getpwuid[7]getutxline[7]setservent[6]
endservent[6]gethostbyname[4]getpwuid_r[7]pututxline[7]setutent[4]
endutent[7]getnetbyaddr[6]getservbyname[4]setgrent[7]setutxent[7]
endutxent[7]getprotobyname[7]getservbyport[6]setgroups[4] 
getgrent[7]getprotobynumber[6]getservent[4]sethostent[6] 

Table 13-25. libc - System Database Interface Deprecated Function Interfaces

endhostent[6]sethostent[6]setmntent[4]  

Language Support

Table 13-26. libc - Language Support Function Interfaces

__libc_start_main[4]_obstack_begin[4]_obstack_newchunk[4]obstack_free[4] 

Large File Support

Table 13-27. libc - Large File Support Function Interfaces

__fxstat64[4]fopen64[3]ftello64[3]mkstemp64[3]readdir64[3]
__lxstat64[4]freopen64[3]ftruncate64[3]mmap64[3]statfs64[4]
__xstat64[4]fseeko64[3]ftw64[3]nftw64[3]statvfs64[3]
alphasort64[4]fsetpos64[3]getrlimit64[3]open64[3]tmpfile64[3]
creat64[3]fstatfs64[4]lockf64[3]pread64[3]truncate64[3]
fgetpos64[3]fstatvfs64[3]lseek64[3]pwrite64[3] 

Table 13-28. libc - Large File Support Deprecated Function Interfaces

alphasort64[4]fstatfs64[4]statfs64[4]  

Standard Library

Table 13-29. libc - Standard Library Function Interfaces

_Exit[2]div[7]globfree64[4]longjmp[7]srand[7]
__assert_fail[4]drand48[7]grantpt[7]lrand48[7]srand48[7]
__cxa_atexit[4]ecvt[7]hcreate[7]lsearch[7]srandom[7]
__errno_location[4]erand48[7]hdestroy[7]makecontext[7]strtod[7]
__fpending[4]err[4]hsearch[7]malloc[7]strtol[7]
__getpagesize[4]error[4]htonl[6]memmem[4]strtoul[7]
__isinf[4]errx[4]htons[6]mkstemp[7]swapcontext[7]
__isinff[4]fcvt[7]imaxabs[2]mktemp[7]syslog[7]
__isinfl[4]fmtmsg[7]imaxdiv[2]mrand48[7]system[4]
__isnan[4]fnmatch[7]inet_addr[6]nftw[7]tdelete[7]
__isnanf[4]fpathconf[7]inet_aton[6]nrand48[7]tfind[7]
__isnanl[4]free[7]inet_ntoa[6]ntohl[6]tmpfile[7]
__sysconf[4]freeaddrinfo[8]inet_ntop[8]ntohs[6]tmpnam[7]
_exit[7]ftrylockfile[7]inet_pton[8]openlog[7]tsearch[7]
_longjmp[7]ftw[7]initstate[7]perror[7]ttyname[7]
_setjmp[7]funlockfile[7]insque[7]posix_memalign[5]ttyname_r[7]
a64l[7]gai_strerror[8]isatty[7]ptsname[7]twalk[7]
abort[7]gcvt[7]isblank[8]putenv[7]unlockpt[7]
abs[7]getaddrinfo[8]isinf[2]qsort[7]unsetenv[4]
atexit[7]getcwd[7]isinffrand[7]usleep[7]
atof[7]getdate[7]isinfl[2]rand_r[7]verrx[4]
atoi[7]getenv[7]isnan[2]random[7]vfscanf[2]
atol[7]getlogin[7]isnanf[2]random_r[4]vscanf[2]
atoll[2]getnameinfo[8]isnanl[2]realloc[7]vsscanf[2]
basename[7]getopt[4]jrand48[7]realpath[7]vsyslog[4]
bsearch[7]getopt_long[4]l64a[7]remque[7]warn[4]
calloc[7]getopt_long_only[4]labs[7]seed48[7]warnx[4]
closelog[7]getsubopt[7]lcong48[7]setenv[4]wordexp[7]
confstr[7]gettimeofday[7]ldiv[7]sethostid[4]wordfree[7]
cuserid[7]glob[7]lfind[7]sethostname[4] 
daemon[4]glob64[4]llabs[2]setlogmask[7] 
dirname[7]globfree[7]lldiv[2]setstate[7] 

Table 13-30. libc - Standard Library Data Interfaces

__environ[4]_sys_errlist[4]getdate_err[7]opterr[4]optopt[4]
_environ[4]environ[7]optarg[7]optind[4] 

Data Definitions for libc

This section contains standard data definitions that describe system data. These definitions are organized into groups that correspond to system headers. This convention is used as a convenience for the reader, and does not imply the existence of these headers, or their content.

ISO C serves as the LSB reference programming language, and data definitions are specified in ISO C format. The C language is used here as a convenient notation. Using a C language description of these data objects does not preclude their use by other programming languages.


assert.h


#define assert(expr)	((void)0)

ctype.h






enum
{
  _ISupper, _ISlower, _ISalpha, _ISdigit, _ISxdigit, _ISspace, _ISprint,
    _ISgraph, _ISblank, _IScntrl, _ISpunct, _ISalnum
}
 ;

dirent.h






typedef struct __dirstream DIR;





struct dirent
{
  long d_ino;
  off_t d_off;
  unsigned short d_reclen;
  unsigned char d_type;
  char d_name[256];
}
 ;
struct dirent64
{
  uint64_t d_ino;
  int64_t d_off;
  unsigned short d_reclen;
  unsigned char d_type;
  char d_name[256];
}
 ;

errno.h


#define errno	(*__errno_location())



#define EPERM	1
#define ECHILD	10
#define ENETDOWN	100
#define ENETUNREACH	101
#define ENETRESET	102
#define ECONNABORTED	103
#define ECONNRESET	104
#define ENOBUFS	105
#define EISCONN	106
#define ENOTCONN	107
#define ESHUTDOWN	108
#define ETOOMANYREFS	109
#define EAGAIN	11
#define ETIMEDOUT	110
#define ECONNREFUSED	111
#define EHOSTDOWN	112
#define EHOSTUNREACH	113
#define EALREADY	114
#define EINPROGRESS	115
#define ESTALE	116
#define EUCLEAN	117
#define ENOTNAM	118
#define ENAVAIL	119
#define ENOMEM	12
#define EISNAM	120
#define EREMOTEIO	121
#define EDQUOT	122
#define ENOMEDIUM	123
#define EMEDIUMTYPE	124
#define ECANCELED	125
#define EACCES	13
#define EFAULT	14
#define ENOTBLK	15
#define EBUSY	16
#define EEXIST	17
#define EXDEV	18
#define ENODEV	19
#define ENOENT	2
#define ENOTDIR	20
#define EISDIR	21
#define EINVAL	22
#define ENFILE	23
#define EMFILE	24
#define ENOTTY	25
#define ETXTBSY	26
#define EFBIG	27
#define ENOSPC	28
#define ESPIPE	29
#define ESRCH	3
#define EROFS	30
#define EMLINK	31
#define EPIPE	32
#define EDOM	33
#define ERANGE	34
#define EDEADLK	35
#define ENAMETOOLONG	36
#define ENOLCK	37
#define ENOSYS	38
#define ENOTEMPTY	39
#define EINTR	4
#define ELOOP	40
#define ENOMSG	42
#define EIDRM	43
#define ECHRNG	44
#define EL2NSYNC	45
#define EL3HLT	46
#define EL3RST	47
#define ELNRNG	48
#define EUNATCH	49
#define EIO	5
#define ENOANO	55
#define EBADRQC	56
#define EBADSLT	57
#define EBFONT	59
#define ENXIO	6
#define ENOSTR	60
#define ENODATA	61
#define ETIME	62
#define ENOSR	63
#define ENONET	64
#define ENOPKG	65
#define EREMOTE	66
#define ENOLINK	67
#define EADV	68
#define ESRMNT	69
#define E2BIG	7
#define ECOMM	70
#define EPROTO	71
#define EMULTIHOP	72
#define EDOTDOT	73
#define EBADMSG	74
#define EOVERFLOW	75
#define ENOTUNIQ	76
#define EBADFD	77
#define EREMCHG	78
#define ELIBACC	79
#define ENOEXEC	8
#define ELIBBAD	80
#define ELIBSCN	81
#define ELIBMAX	82
#define ELIBEXEC	83
#define EILSEQ	84
#define ERESTART	85
#define ESTRPIPE	86
#define EUSERS	87
#define ENOTSOCK	88
#define EDESTADDRREQ	89
#define EBADF	9
#define EMSGSIZE	90
#define EPROTOTYPE	91
#define ENOPROTOOPT	92
#define EPROTONOSUPPORT	93
#define ESOCKTNOSUPPORT	94
#define EOPNOTSUPP	95
#define EPFNOSUPPORT	96
#define EAFNOSUPPORT	97
#define EADDRINUSE	98
#define EADDRNOTAVAIL	99
#define EWOULDBLOCK	EAGAIN
#define ENOTSUP	EOPNOTSUPP

fcntl.h


#define O_RDONLY	00
#define O_ACCMODE	0003
#define O_WRONLY	01
#define O_CREAT	0100
#define O_TRUNC	01000
#define O_SYNC	010000
#define O_RDWR	02
#define O_EXCL	0200
#define O_APPEND	02000
#define O_ASYNC	020000
#define O_NOCTTY	0400
#define O_NDELAY	04000
#define O_NONBLOCK	04000
#define FD_CLOEXEC	1


struct flock
{
  short l_type;
  short l_whence;
  off_t l_start;
  off_t l_len;
  pid_t l_pid;
}
 ;
struct flock64
{
  short l_type;
  short l_whence;
  loff_t l_start;
  loff_t l_len;
  pid_t l_pid;
}
 ;






#define F_DUPFD	0
#define F_RDLCK	0
#define F_GETFD	1
#define F_WRLCK	1
#define F_SETFD	2
#define F_UNLCK	2
#define F_GETFL	3
#define F_SETFL	4
#define F_GETLK	5
#define F_SETLK	6
#define F_SETLKW	7
#define F_SETOWN	8
#define F_GETOWN	9

fmtmsg.h




#define MM_HARD	1
#define MM_NRECOV	128
#define MM_UTIL	16
#define MM_SOFT	2
#define MM_OPSYS	32
#define MM_FIRM	4
#define MM_RECOVER	64
#define MM_APPL	8



#define MM_NOSEV	0
#define MM_HALT	1
#define MM_ERROR	2



#define MM_NULLLBL	((char *) 0)

fnmatch.h




#define FNM_PATHNAME	(1<<0)
#define FNM_NOESCAPE	(1<<1)
#define FNM_PERIOD	(1<<2)
#define FNM_NOMATCH	1

ftw.h




#define FTW_D	FTW_D
#define FTW_DNR	FTW_DNR
#define FTW_DP	FTW_DP
#define FTW_F	FTW_F
#define FTW_NS	FTW_NS
#define FTW_SL	FTW_SL
#define FTW_SLN	FTW_SLN


enum
{
  FTW_F, FTW_D, FTW_DNR, FTW_NS, FTW_SL, FTW_DP, FTW_SLN
}
 ;


enum
{
  FTW_PHYS, FTW_MOUNT, FTW_CHDIR, FTW_DEPTH
}
 ;


struct FTW
{
  int base;
  int level;
}
 ;


typedef int (*__ftw_func_t) (char *__filename, struct stat * __status,
			     int __flag);
typedef int (*__ftw64_func_t) (char *__filename, struct stat64 * __status,
			       int __flag);
typedef int (*__nftw_func_t) (char *__filename, struct stat * __status,
			      int __flag, struct FTW * __info);
typedef int (*__nftw64_func_t) (char *__filename, struct stat64 * __status,
				int __flag, struct FTW * __info);

getopt.h



struct option
{
  char *name;
  int has_arg;
  int *flag;
  int val;
}
 ;

glob.h






typedef struct
{
  size_t gl_pathc;
  char **gl_pathv;
  size_t gl_offs;
  int gl_flags;
  void (*gl_closedir) (void);
  struct dirent *(*gl_readdir) (void);
  void *(*gl_opendir) (void);
  int (*gl_lstat) (void);
  int (*gl_stat) (void);
}
glob_t;


typedef struct
{
  size_t gl_pathc;
  char **gl_pathv;
  size_t gl_offs;
  int gl_flags;
  void (*gl_closedir) (void);
  struct dirent *(*gl_readdir) (void);
  void *(*gl_opendir) (void);
  int (*gl_lstat) (void);
  int (*gl_stat) (void);
}
glob64_t;
#define GLOB_ERR	(1<<0)
#define GLOB_MARK	(1<<1)
#define GLOB_BRACE	(1<<10)
#define GLOB_NOMAGIC	(1<<11)
#define GLOB_TILDE	(1<<12)
#define GLOB_ONLYDIR	(1<<13)
#define GLOB_TILDE_CHECK	(1<<14)
#define GLOB_NOSORT	(1<<2)
#define GLOB_DOOFFS	(1<<3)
#define GLOB_NOCHECK	(1<<4)
#define GLOB_APPEND	(1<<5)
#define GLOB_NOESCAPE	(1<<6)
#define GLOB_PERIOD	(1<<7)
#define GLOB_MAGCHAR	(1<<8)
#define GLOB_ALTDIRFUNC	(1<<9)



#define GLOB_NOSPACE	1
#define GLOB_ABORTED	2
#define GLOB_NOMATCH	3
#define GLOB_NOSYS	4

grp.h



struct group
{
  char *gr_name;
  char *gr_passwd;
  gid_t gr_gid;
  char **gr_mem;
}
 ;

iconv.h






typedef void *iconv_t;

inttypes.h






typedef lldiv_t imaxdiv_t;
typedef unsigned int u_int;
typedef unsigned int uint;
typedef unsigned char uint8_t;
typedef unsigned short uint16_t;
typedef unsigned int uint32_t;
typedef unsigned long long uint64_t;

langinfo.h







#define ABDAY_1	0x20000
#define ABDAY_2	0x20001
#define ABDAY_3	0x20002
#define ABDAY_4	0x20003
#define ABDAY_5	0x20004
#define ABDAY_6	0x20005
#define ABDAY_7	0x20006



#define DAY_1	0x20007
#define DAY_2	0x20008
#define DAY_3	0x20009
#define DAY_4	0x2000A
#define DAY_5	0x2000B
#define DAY_6	0x2000C
#define DAY_7	0x2000D



#define ABMON_1	0x2000E
#define ABMON_2	0x2000F
#define ABMON_3	0x20010
#define ABMON_4	0x20011
#define ABMON_5	0x20012
#define ABMON_6	0x20013
#define ABMON_7	0x20014
#define ABMON_8	0x20015
#define ABMON_9	0x20016
#define ABMON_10	0x20017
#define ABMON_11	0x20018
#define ABMON_12	0x20019



#define MON_1	0x2001A
#define MON_2	0x2001B
#define MON_3	0x2001C
#define MON_4	0x2001D
#define MON_5	0x2001E
#define MON_6	0x2001F
#define MON_7	0x20020
#define MON_8	0x20021
#define MON_9	0x20022
#define MON_10	0x20023
#define MON_11	0x20024
#define MON_12	0x20025



#define AM_STR	0x20026
#define PM_STR	0x20027



#define D_T_FMT	0x20028
#define D_FMT	0x20029
#define T_FMT	0x2002A
#define T_FMT_AMPM	0x2002B



#define ERA	0x2002C
#define ERA_D_FMT	0x2002E
#define ALT_DIGITS	0x2002F
#define ERA_D_T_FMT	0x20030
#define ERA_T_FMT	0x20031






#define CODESET	14



#define CRNCYSTR	0x4000F



#define RADIXCHAR	0x10000
#define THOUSEP	0x10001
#define YESEXPR	0x50000
#define NOEXPR	0x50001
#define YESSTR	0x50002
#define NOSTR	0x50003

limits.h


#define OPEN_MAX	256
#define PATH_MAX	4096



#define MB_LEN_MAX	16



#define SCHAR_MIN	(-128)
#define SCHAR_MAX	127
#define UCHAR_MAX	255
#define CHAR_BIT	8



#define SHRT_MIN	(-32768)
#define SHRT_MAX	32767
#define USHRT_MAX	65535



#define INT_MIN	(-INT_MAX-1)
#define INT_MAX	2147483647
#define __INT_MAX__	2147483647
#define UINT_MAX	4294967295U



#define LONG_MIN	(-LONG_MAX-1L)

locale.h


#define LC_CTYPE	0
#define LC_NUMERIC	1
#define LC_TELEPHONE	10
#define LC_MEASUREMENT	11
#define LC_IDENTIFICATION	12
#define LC_TIME	2
#define LC_COLLATE	3
#define LC_MONETARY	4
#define LC_MESSAGES	5
#define LC_ALL	6
#define LC_PAPER	7
#define LC_NAME	8
#define LC_ADDRESS	9





struct lconv
{
  char *decimal_point;
  char *thousands_sep;
  char *grouping;
  char *int_curr_symbol;
  char *currency_symbol;
  char *mon_decimal_point;
  char *mon_thousands_sep;
  char *mon_grouping;
  char *positive_sign;
  char *negative_sign;
  char int_frac_digits;
  char frac_digits;
  char p_cs_precedes;
  char p_sep_by_space;
  char n_cs_precedes;
  char n_sep_by_space;
  char p_sign_posn;
  char n_sign_posn;
  char int_p_cs_precedes;
  char int_p_sep_by_space;
  char int_n_cs_precedes;
  char int_n_sep_by_space;
  char int_p_sign_posn;
  char int_n_sign_posn;
}
 ;





typedef struct __locale_struct
{
  struct locale_data *__locales[13];
  const unsigned short *__ctype_b;
  const int *__ctype_tolower;
  const int *__ctype_toupper;
  const char *__names[13];
}
 *__locale_t;





typedef __locale_t locale_t;

net/if.h


#define IF_NAMESIZE	16



#define IFF_UP	0x01
#define IFF_BROADCAST	0x02
#define IFF_DEBUG	0x04
#define IFF_LOOPBACK	0x08
#define IFF_POINTOPOINT	0x10
#define IFF_PROMISC	0x100
#define IFF_MULTICAST	0x1000
#define IFF_NOTRAILERS	0x20
#define IFF_RUNNING	0x40
#define IFF_NOARP	0x80








struct ifaddr
{
  struct sockaddr ifa_addr;
  union
  {
    struct sockaddr ifu_broadaddr;
    struct sockaddr ifu_dstaddr;
  }
  ifa_ifu;
  void *ifa_ifp;
  void *ifa_next;
}
 ;
#define IFNAMSIZ	IF_NAMESIZE


struct ifreq
{
  union
  {
    char ifrn_name[IFNAMSIZ];
  }
  ifr_ifrn;
  union
  {
    struct sockaddr ifru_addr;
    struct sockaddr ifru_dstaddr;
    struct sockaddr ifru_broadaddr;
    struct sockaddr ifru_netmask;
    struct sockaddr ifru_hwaddr;
    short ifru_flags;
    int ifru_ivalue;
    int ifru_mtu;
    char ifru_slave[IFNAMSIZ];
    char ifru_newname[IFNAMSIZ];
    caddr_t ifru_data;
    struct ifmap ifru_map;
  }
  ifr_ifru;
}
 ;


struct ifconf
{
  int ifc_len;
  union
  {
    caddr_t ifcu_buf;
    struct ifreq *ifcu_req;
  }
  ifc_ifcu;
}
 ;

netdb.h


#define h_errno	(*__h_errno_location ())
#define NETDB_INTERNAL	-1
#define NETDB_SUCCESS	0
#define HOST_NOT_FOUND	1
#define NI_MAXHOST	1025
#define TRY_AGAIN	2
#define NO_RECOVERY	3
#define NI_MAXSERV	32
#define NO_DATA	4
#define h_addr	h_addr_list[0]
#define NO_ADDRESS	NO_DATA


struct servent
{
  char *s_name;
  char **s_aliases;
  int s_port;
  char *s_proto;
}
 ;
struct hostent
{
  char *h_name;
  char **h_aliases;
  int h_addrtype;
  int h_length;
  char **h_addr_list;
}
 ;
struct protoent
{
  char *p_name;
  char **p_aliases;
  int p_proto;
}
 ;
struct netent
{
  char *n_name;
  char **n_aliases;
  int n_addrtype;
  unsigned int n_net;
}
 ;
#define AI_PASSIVE	0x0001
#define AI_CANONNAME	0x0002
#define AI_NUMERICHOST	0x0004


struct addrinfo
{
  int ai_flags;
  int ai_family;
  int ai_socktype;
  int ai_protocol;
  socklen_t ai_addrlen;
  struct sockaddr *ai_addr;
  char *ai_canonname;
  struct addrinfo *ai_next;
}
 ;
#define NI_NUMERICHOST	1
#define NI_DGRAM	16
#define NI_NUMERICSERV	2
#define NI_NOFQDN	4
#define NI_NAMEREQD	8



#define EAI_BADFLAGS	-1
#define EAI_MEMORY	-10
#define EAI_SYSTEM	-11
#define EAI_NONAME	-2
#define EAI_AGAIN	-3
#define EAI_FAIL	-4
#define EAI_NODATA	-5
#define EAI_FAMILY	-6
#define EAI_SOCKTYPE	-7
#define EAI_SERVICE	-8
#define EAI_ADDRFAMILY	-9

netinet/in.h


#define INADDR_NONE	((unsigned long int) 0xffffffff)
#define INADDR_BROADCAST	(0xffffffff)
#define INADDR_ANY	0
#define IPPROTO_IP	0
#define SOL_IP	0
#define IPPROTO_ICMP	1
#define IP_TOS	1
#define IPPROTO_UDP	17
#define IPPROTO_IGMP	2
#define IPPROTO_RAW	255
#define IPPROTO_TCP	6





struct in_addr
{
  uint32_t s_addr;
}
 ;
typedef uint32_t in_addr_t;


struct sockaddr_in
{
  sa_family_t sin_family;
  unsigned short sin_port;
  struct in_addr sin_addr;
  unsigned char sin_zero[8];
}
 ;

netinet/tcp.h


#define TCP_NODELAY	1
#define SOL_TCP	6

netinet/udp.h


#define SOL_UDP	17

nl_types.h


#define NL_CAT_LOCALE	1
#define NL_SETD	1





typedef void *nl_catd;


typedef int nl_item;

pwd.h






struct passwd
{
  char *pw_name;
  char *pw_passwd;
  uid_t pw_uid;
  gid_t pw_gid;
  char *pw_gecos;
  char *pw_dir;
  char *pw_shell;
}
 ;

regex.h




#define RE_BACKSLASH_ESCAPE_IN_LISTS	((unsigned long int)1)
#define RE_BK_PLUS_QM	(RE_BACKSLASH_ESCAPE_IN_LISTS<<1)
#define RE_SYNTAX_AWK	(RE_BACKSLASH_ESCAPE_IN_LISTS|RE_DOT_NOT_NULL|RE_NO_BK_PARENS| RE_NO_BK_REFS| RE_NO_BK_VBAR| RE_NO_EMPTY_RANGES| RE_DOT_NEWLINE| RE_CONTEXT_INDEP_ANCHORS| RE_UNMATCHED_RIGHT_PAREN_ORD | RE_NO_GNU_OPS)
#define RE_CHAR_CLASSES	(RE_BK_PLUS_QM<<1)
#define RE_SYNTAX_GREP	(RE_BK_PLUS_QM|RE_CHAR_CLASSES|RE_HAT_LISTS_NOT_NEWLINE|RE_INTERVALS|RE_NEWLINE_ALT)
#define RE_CONTEXT_INDEP_ANCHORS	(RE_CHAR_CLASSES<<1)
#define RE_SYNTAX_EGREP	(RE_CHAR_CLASSES|RE_CONTEXT_INDEP_ANCHORS| RE_CONTEXT_INDEP_OPS|RE_HAT_LISTS_NOT_NEWLINE|RE_NEWLINE_ALT|RE_NO_BK_PARENS|RE_NO_BK_VBAR)
#define _RE_SYNTAX_POSIX_COMMON	(RE_CHAR_CLASSES|RE_DOT_NEWLINE|RE_DOT_NOT_NULL|RE_INTERVALS|RE_NO_EMPTY_RANGES)
#define RE_CONTEXT_INDEP_OPS	(RE_CONTEXT_INDEP_ANCHORS<<1)
#define RE_CONTEXT_INVALID_OPS	(RE_CONTEXT_INDEP_OPS<<1)
#define RE_DOT_NEWLINE	(RE_CONTEXT_INVALID_OPS<<1)
#define RE_INVALID_INTERVAL_ORD	(RE_DEBUG<<1)
#define RE_DOT_NOT_NULL	(RE_DOT_NEWLINE<<1)
#define RE_HAT_LISTS_NOT_NEWLINE	(RE_DOT_NOT_NULL<<1)
#define RE_INTERVALS	(RE_HAT_LISTS_NOT_NEWLINE<<1)
#define RE_LIMITED_OPS	(RE_INTERVALS<<1)
#define RE_NEWLINE_ALT	(RE_LIMITED_OPS<<1)
#define RE_NO_BK_BRACES	(RE_NEWLINE_ALT<<1)
#define RE_NO_BK_PARENS	(RE_NO_BK_BRACES<<1)
#define RE_NO_BK_REFS	(RE_NO_BK_PARENS<<1)
#define RE_NO_BK_VBAR	(RE_NO_BK_REFS<<1)
#define RE_NO_EMPTY_RANGES	(RE_NO_BK_VBAR<<1)
#define RE_UNMATCHED_RIGHT_PAREN_ORD	(RE_NO_EMPTY_RANGES<<1)
#define RE_DEBUG	(RE_NO_GNU_OPS<<1)
#define RE_NO_GNU_OPS	(RE_NO_POSIX_BACKTRACKING<<1)
#define RE_SYNTAX_POSIX_EGREP	(RE_SYNTAX_EGREP|RE_INTERVALS|RE_NO_BK_BRACES|RE_INVALID_INTERVAL_ORD)
#define RE_SYNTAX_POSIX_AWK	(RE_SYNTAX_POSIX_EXTENDED|RE_BACKSLASH_ESCAPE_IN_LISTS|RE_INTERVALS|RE_NO_GNU_OPS)
#define RE_NO_POSIX_BACKTRACKING	(RE_UNMATCHED_RIGHT_PAREN_ORD<<1)
#define RE_SYNTAX_POSIX_BASIC	(_RE_SYNTAX_POSIX_COMMON|RE_BK_PLUS_QM)
#define RE_SYNTAX_POSIX_EXTENDED	(_RE_SYNTAX_POSIX_COMMON|RE_CONTEXT_INDEP_ANCHORS|RE_CONTEXT_INDEP_OPS|RE_NO_BK_BRACES|RE_NO_BK_PARENS|RE_NO_BK_VBAR|RE_CONTEXT_INVALID_OPS|RE_UNMATCHED_RIGHT_PAREN_ORD)
#define RE_SYNTAX_POSIX_MINIMAL_EXTENDED	(_RE_SYNTAX_POSIX_COMMON|RE_CONTEXT_INDEP_ANCHORS|RE_CONTEXT_INVALID_OPS|RE_NO_BK_BRACES|RE_NO_BK_PARENS|RE_NO_BK_REFS|RE_NO_BK_VBAR|RE_UNMATCHED_RIGHT_PAREN_ORD)
#define RE_SYNTAX_POSIX_MINIMAL_BASIC	(_RE_SYNTAX_POSIX_COMMON|RE_LIMITED_OPS)
#define RE_SYNTAX_ED	RE_SYNTAX_POSIX_BASIC
#define RE_SYNTAX_SED	RE_SYNTAX_POSIX_BASIC


typedef unsigned long reg_syntax_t;





typedef struct re_pattern_buffer
{
  unsigned char *buffer;
  unsigned long allocated;
  unsigned long used;
  reg_syntax_t syntax;
  char *fastmap;
  char *translate;
  size_t re_nsub;
  unsigned int can_be_null:1;
  unsigned int regs_allocated:2;
  unsigned int fastmap_accurate:1;
  unsigned int no_sub:1;
  unsigned int not_bol:1;
  unsigned int not_eol:1;
  unsigned int newline_anchor:1;
}
regex_t;
typedef int regoff_t;
typedef struct
{
  regoff_t rm_so;
  regoff_t rm_eo;
}
regmatch_t;
#define REG_NOTEOL	(1<<1)
#define REG_ICASE	(REG_EXTENDED<<1)
#define REG_NEWLINE	(REG_ICASE<<1)
#define REG_NOSUB	(REG_NEWLINE<<1)
#define REG_NOMATCH	-1
#define REG_EXTENDED	1
#define REG_NOTBOL	1

rpc/auth.h






enum auth_stat
{
  AUTH_OK, AUTH_BADCRED = 1, AUTH_REJECTEDCRED = 2, AUTH_BADVERF =
    3, AUTH_REJECTEDVERF = 4, AUTH_TOOWEAK = 5, AUTH_INVALIDRESP =
    6, AUTH_FAILED = 7
}
 ;


union des_block
{
  struct
  {
    u_int32_t high;
    u_int32_t low;
  }
  key;
  char c[8];
}
 ;


struct opaque_auth
{
  enum_t oa_flavor;
  caddr_t oa_base;
  u_int oa_length;
}
 ;


typedef struct AUTH
{
  struct opaque_auth ah_cred;
  struct opaque_auth ah_verf;
  union des_block ah_key;
  struct auth_ops *ah_ops;
  caddr_t ah_private;
}
AUTH;


struct auth_ops
{
  void (*ah_nextverf) (struct AUTH *);
  int (*ah_marshal) (struct AUTH *, struct XDR *);
  int (*ah_validate) (struct AUTH *, struct opaque_auth *);
  int (*ah_refresh) (struct AUTH *);
  void (*ah_destroy) (struct AUTH *);
}
 ;

rpc/clnt.h


#define NULLPROC	((u_long)0)
#define CLSET_TIMEOUT	1
#define CLGET_XID	10
#define CLSET_XID	11
#define CLGET_VERS	12
#define CLSET_VERS	13
#define CLGET_PROG	14
#define CLSET_PROG	15
#define CLGET_TIMEOUT	2
#define CLGET_SERVER_ADDR	3
#define CLSET_RETRY_TIMEOUT	4
#define CLGET_RETRY_TIMEOUT	5
#define CLGET_FD	6
#define CLGET_SVC_ADDR	7
#define CLSET_FD_CLOSE	8
#define CLSET_FD_NCLOSE	9


enum clnt_stat
{
  RPC_SUCCESS, RPC_CANTENCODEARGS = 1, RPC_CANTDECODERES = 2, RPC_CANTSEND =
    3, RPC_CANTRECV = 4, RPC_TIMEDOUT = 5, RPC_VERSMISMATCH =
    6, RPC_AUTHERROR = 7, RPC_PROGUNAVAIL = 8, RPC_PROGVERSMISMATCH =
    9, RPC_PROCUNAVAIL = 10, RPC_CANTDECODEARGS = 11, RPC_SYSTEMERROR =
    12, RPC_NOBROADCAST = 21, RPC_UNKNOWNHOST = 13, RPC_UNKNOWNPROTO =
    17, RPC_UNKNOWNADDR = 19, RPC_RPCBFAILURE = 14, RPC_PROGNOTREGISTERED =
    15, RPC_N2AXLATEFAILURE = 22, RPC_FAILED = 16, RPC_INTR =
    18, RPC_TLIERROR = 20, RPC_UDERROR = 23, RPC_INPROGRESS =
    24, RPC_STALERACHANDLE = 25
}
 ;
struct rpc_err
{
  enum clnt_stat re_status;
  union
  {
    int RE_errno;
    enum auth_stat RE_why;
    struct
    {
      u_long low;
      u_long high;
    }
    RE_vers;
    struct
    {
      long s1;
      long s2;
    }
    RE_lb;
  }
  ru;
}
 ;





typedef struct CLIENT
{
  struct AUTH *cl_auth;
  struct clnt_ops *cl_ops;
  caddr_t cl_private;
}
CLIENT;


struct clnt_ops
{
  enum clnt_stat (*cl_call) (struct CLIENT *, u_long, xdrproc_t, caddr_t,
			     xdrproc_t, caddr_t, struct timeval);
  void (*cl_abort) (void);
  void (*cl_geterr) (struct CLIENT *, struct rpc_err *);
    bool_t (*cl_freeres) (struct CLIENT *, xdrproc_t, caddr_t);
  void (*cl_destroy) (struct CLIENT *);
    bool_t (*cl_control) (struct CLIENT *, int, char *);
}
 ;

rpc/rpc_msg.h






enum msg_type
{
  CALL, REPLY = 1
}
 ;
enum reply_stat
{
  MSG_ACCEPTED, MSG_DENIED = 1
}
 ;
enum accept_stat
{
  SUCCESS, PROG_UNAVAIL = 1, PROG_MISMATCH = 2, PROC_UNAVAIL =
    3, GARBAGE_ARGS = 4, SYSTEM_ERR = 5
}
 ;
enum reject_stat
{
  RPC_MISMATCH, AUTH_ERROR = 1
}
 ;


struct accepted_reply
{
  struct opaque_auth ar_verf;
  enum accept_stat ar_stat;
  union
  {
    struct
    {
      unsigned long low;
      unsigned long high;
    }
    AR_versions;
    struct
    {
      caddr_t where;
      xdrproc_t proc;
    }
    AR_results;
  }
  ru;
}
 ;


struct rejected_reply
{
  enum reject_stat rj_stat;
  union
  {
    struct
    {
      unsigned long low;
      unsigned long high;
    }
    RJ_versions;
    enum auth_stat RJ_why;
  }
  ru;
}
 ;


struct reply_body
{
  enum reply_stat rp_stat;
  union
  {
    struct accepted_reply RP_ar;
    struct rejected_reply RP_dr;
  }
  ru;
}
 ;


struct call_body
{
  unsigned long cb_rpcvers;
  unsigned long cb_prog;
  unsigned long cb_vers;
  unsigned long cb_proc;
  struct opaque_auth cb_cred;
  struct opaque_auth cb_verf;
}
 ;


struct rpc_msg
{
  unsigned long rm_xid;
  enum msg_type rm_direction;
  union
  {
    struct call_body RM_cmb;
    struct reply_body RM_rmb;
  }
  ru;
}
 ;

rpc/svc.h






typedef struct SVCXPRT
{
  int xp_sock;
  u_short xp_port;
  struct xp_ops *xp_ops;
  int xp_addrlen;
  struct sockaddr_in xp_raddr;
  struct opaque_auth xp_verf;
  caddr_t xp_p1;
  caddr_t xp_p2;
  char xp_pad[256];
}
SVCXPRT;


struct xp_ops
{
  bool_t (*xp_recv) (struct SVCXPRT * __xprt, struct rpc_msg * __msg);
  enum xprt_stat (*xp_stat) (struct SVCXPRT * __xprt);
    bool_t (*xp_getargs) (struct SVCXPRT * __xprt, xdrproc_t __xdr_args,
			  caddr_t args_ptr);
    bool_t (*xp_reply) (struct SVCXPRT * __xprt, struct rpc_msg * __msg);
    bool_t (*xp_freeargs) (struct SVCXPRT * __xprt, xdrproc_t __xdr_args,
			   caddr_t args_ptr);
  void (*xp_destroy) (struct SVCXPRT * __xprt);
}
 ;

rpc/types.h



typedef int bool_t;
typedef int enum_t;
typedef unsigned long rpcvers_t;

rpc/xdr.h



enum xdr_op
{
  XDR_ENCODE, XDR_DECODE, XDR_FREE
}
 ;
typedef struct XDR
{
  enum xdr_op x_op;
  struct xdr_ops *x_ops;
  caddr_t x_public;
  caddr_t x_private;
  caddr_t x_base;
  int x_handy;
}
XDR;





struct xdr_ops
{
  bool_t (*x_getlong) (struct XDR * __xdrs, long *__lp);
  bool_t (*x_putlong) (struct XDR * __xdrs, long *__lp);
  bool_t (*x_getbytes) (struct XDR * __xdrs, caddr_t __addr, u_int __len);
  bool_t (*x_putbytes) (struct XDR * __xdrs, char *__addr, u_int __len);
  u_int (*x_getpostn) (struct XDR * __xdrs);
  bool_t (*x_setpostn) (struct XDR * __xdrs, u_int __pos);
  int32_t *(*x_inline) (struct XDR * __xdrs, int __len);
  void (*x_destroy) (struct XDR * __xdrs);
    bool_t (*x_getint32) (struct XDR * __xdrs, int32_t * __ip);
    bool_t (*x_putint32) (struct XDR * __xdrs, int32_t * __ip);
}
 ;


typedef bool_t (*xdrproc_t) (struct XDR *, void *, ...);


struct xdr_discrim
{
  int value;
  xdrproc_t proc;
}
 ;

sched.h


#define SCHED_OTHER	0
#define SCHED_FIFO	1
#define SCHED_RR	2


struct sched_param
{
  int sched_priority;
}
 ;

search.h






typedef struct entry
{
  char *key;
  void *data;
}
ENTRY;
typedef enum
{
  FIND, ENTER
}
ACTION;
typedef enum
{
  preorder, postorder, endorder, leaf
}
VISIT;


typedef void (*__action_fn_t) (void *__nodep, VISIT __value, int __level);

setjmp.h


#define setjmp(env)	_setjmp(env)
#define sigsetjmp(a,b)	__sigsetjmp(a,b)








struct __jmp_buf_tag
{
  __jmp_buf __jmpbuf;
  int __mask_was_saved;
  sigset_t __saved_mask;
}
 ;


typedef struct __jmp_buf_tag jmp_buf[1];
typedef jmp_buf sigjmp_buf;

signal.h


#define SIGRTMAX	(__libc_current_sigrtmax ())
#define SIGRTMIN	(__libc_current_sigrtmin ())
#define SIG_BLOCK	0
#define SIG_UNBLOCK	1
#define SIG_SETMASK	2
#define NSIG	64


typedef int sig_atomic_t;
struct sigstack
{
  void *ss_sp;
  int ss_onstack;
}
 ;
#define SIG_ERR	((__sighandler_t)-1)
#define SIG_DFL	((__sighandler_t)0)
#define SIG_IGN	((__sighandler_t)1)
#define SIGHUP	1
#define SIGUSR1	10
#define SIGSEGV	11
#define SIGUSR2	12
#define SIGPIPE	13
#define SIGALRM	14
#define SIGTERM	15
#define SIGSTKFLT	16
#define SIGCHLD	17
#define SIGCONT	18
#define SIGSTOP	19
#define SIGINT	2
#define SIGTSTP	20
#define SIGTTIN	21
#define SIGTTOU	22
#define SIGURG	23
#define SIGXCPU	24
#define SIGXFSZ	25
#define SIGVTALRM	26
#define SIGPROF	27
#define SIGWINCH	28
#define SIGIO	29
#define SIGQUIT	3
#define SIGPWR	30
#define SIGSYS	31
#define SIGUNUSED	31
#define SIGILL	4
#define SIGTRAP	5
#define SIGABRT	6
#define SIGIOT	6
#define SIGBUS	7
#define SIGFPE	8
#define SIGKILL	9
#define SIGCLD	SIGCHLD
#define SIGPOLL	SIGIO





typedef void (*__sighandler_t) (int);
#define SV_ONSTACK	(1<<0)
#define SV_INTERRUPT	(1<<1)
#define SV_RESETHAND	(1<<2)


typedef union sigval
{
  int sival_int;
  void *sival_ptr;
}
sigval_t;
#define SIGEV_SIGNAL	0
#define SIGEV_NONE	1
#define SIGEV_THREAD	2


typedef struct sigevent
{
  sigval_t sigev_value;
  int sigev_signo;
  int sigev_notify;
  union
  {
    int _pad[SIGEV_PAD_SIZE];
    struct
    {
      void (*sigev_thread_func) (void);
      void *_attribute;
    }
    _sigev_thread;
  }
  _sigev_un;
}
sigevent_t;
#define SI_QUEUE	-1
#define SI_TIMER	-2
#define SI_MESGQ	-3
#define SI_ASYNCIO	-4
#define SI_USER	0
#define si_pid	_sifields._kill._pid
#define si_uid	_sifields._kill._uid
#define si_value	_sifields._rt._sigval
#define si_int	_sifields._rt._sigval.sival_int
#define si_ptr	_sifields._rt._sigval.sival_ptr
#define si_status	_sifields._sigchld._status
#define si_stime	_sifields._sigchld._stime
#define si_utime	_sifields._sigchld._utime
#define si_addr	_sifields._sigfault._addr
#define si_band	_sifields._sigpoll._band
#define si_fd	_sifields._sigpoll._fd
#define si_timer1	_sifields._timer._timer1
#define si_timer2	_sifields._timer._timer2


typedef struct siginfo
{
  int si_signo;
  int si_errno;
  int si_code;
  union
  {
    int _pad[SI_PAD_SIZE];
    struct
    {
      pid_t _pid;
      uid_t _uid;
    }
    _kill;
    struct
    {
      unsigned int _timer1;
      unsigned int _timer2;
    }
    _timer;
    struct
    {
      pid_t _pid;
      uid_t _uid;
      sigval_t _sigval;
    }
    _rt;
    struct
    {
      pid_t _pid;
      uid_t _uid;
      int _status;
      clock_t _utime;
      clock_t _stime;
    }
    _sigchld;
    struct
    {
      void *_addr;
    }
    _sigfault;
    struct
    {
      int _band;
      int _fd;
    }
    _sigpoll;
  }
  _sifields;
}
siginfo_t;


typedef struct
{
  unsigned long sig[_SIGSET_NWORDS];
}
sigset_t;
#define SA_NOCLDSTOP	0x00000001
#define SA_SIGINFO	0x00000004
#define SA_ONSTACK	0x08000000
#define SA_RESTART	0x10000000
#define SA_INTERRUPT	0x20000000
#define SA_NODEFER	0x40000000
#define SA_RESETHAND	0x80000000
#define SA_NOMASK	SA_NODEFER
#define SA_ONESHOT	SA_RESETHAND





typedef struct sigaltstack
{
  void *ss_sp;
  int ss_flags;
  size_t ss_size;
}
stack_t;

stddef.h


#define offsetof(TYPE,MEMBER)	((size_t)& ((TYPE*)0)->MEMBER)
#define NULL	(0)


typedef int wchar_t;

stdio.h


#define EOF	(-1)
#define P_tmpdir	"/tmp"
#define FOPEN_MAX	16
#define L_tmpnam	20
#define FILENAME_MAX	4096
#define BUFSIZ	8192
#define L_ctermid	9
#define L_cuserid	9


typedef struct
{
  off_t __pos;
  mbstate_t __state;
}
fpos_t;
typedef struct
{
  off64_t __pos;
  mbstate_t __state;
}
fpos64_t;


typedef struct _IO_FILE FILE;
#define _IOFBF	0
#define _IOLBF	1
#define _IONBF	2

stdlib.h


#define MB_CUR_MAX	(__ctype_get_mb_cur_max())
#define EXIT_SUCCESS	0
#define EXIT_FAILURE	1
#define RAND_MAX	2147483647


typedef int (*__compar_fn_t) (const void *, const void *);
struct random_data
{
  int32_t *fptr;
  int32_t *rptr;
  int32_t *state;
  int rand_type;
  int rand_deg;
  int rand_sep;
  int32_t *end_ptr;
}
 ;


typedef struct
{
  int quot;
  int rem;
}
div_t;


typedef struct
{
  long quot;
  long rem;
}
ldiv_t;


typedef struct
{
  long long quot;
  long long rem;
}
lldiv_t;

sys/file.h


#define LOCK_SH	1
#define LOCK_EX	2
#define LOCK_NB	4
#define LOCK_UN	8

sys/ipc.h


#define IPC_PRIVATE	((key_t)0)
#define IPC_RMID	0
#define IPC_CREAT	00001000
#define IPC_EXCL	00002000
#define IPC_NOWAIT	00004000
#define IPC_SET	1
#define IPC_STAT	2

sys/mman.h


#define MAP_FAILED	((void*)-1)
#define PROT_NONE	0x0
#define MAP_SHARED	0x01
#define MAP_PRIVATE	0x02
#define PROT_READ	0x1
#define MAP_FIXED	0x10
#define PROT_WRITE	0x2
#define MAP_ANONYMOUS	0x20
#define PROT_EXEC	0x4
#define MS_ASYNC	1
#define MS_INVALIDATE	2
#define MS_SYNC	4
#define MAP_ANON	MAP_ANONYMOUS

sys/msg.h


#define MSG_NOERROR	010000

sys/param.h


#define NOFILE	256
#define MAXPATHLEN	4096

sys/poll.h


#define POLLIN	0x0001
#define POLLPRI	0x0002
#define POLLOUT	0x0004
#define POLLERR	0x0008
#define POLLHUP	0x0010
#define POLLNVAL	0x0020


struct pollfd
{
  int fd;
  short events;
  short revents;
}
 ;

sys/resource.h


#define RLIM_INFINITY	(~0UL)
#define RLIM_SAVED_CUR	-1
#define RLIM_SAVED_MAX	-1
#define PRIO_PROCESS	0
#define RLIMIT_CPU	0
#define RUSAGE_SELF	0
#define PRIO_PGRP	1
#define RLIMIT_FSIZE	1
#define PRIO_USER	2
#define RLIMIT_DATA	2
#define RLIMIT_STACK	3
#define RLIMIT_CORE	4
#define RLIMIT_NOFILE	7
#define RLIMIT_AS	9





typedef unsigned long rlim_t;
typedef unsigned long long rlim64_t;


struct rlimit
{
  rlim_t rlim_cur;
  rlim_t rlim_max;
}
 ;
struct rlimit64
{
  rlim64_t rlim_cur;
  rlim64_t rlim_max;
}
 ;


struct rusage
{
  struct timeval ru_utime;
  struct timeval ru_stime;
  long ru_maxrss;
  long ru_ixrss;
  long ru_idrss;
  long ru_isrss;
  long ru_minflt;
  long ru_majflt;
  long ru_nswap;
  long ru_inblock;
  long ru_oublock;
  long ru_msgsnd;
  long ru_msgrcv;
  long ru_nsignals;
  long ru_nvcsw;
  long ru_nivcsw;
}
 ;

sys/sem.h


#define SEM_UNDO	0x1000
#define GETPID	11
#define GETVAL	12
#define GETALL	13
#define GETNCNT	14
#define GETZCNT	15
#define SETVAL	16
#define SETALL	17


struct sembuf
{
  short sem_num;
  short sem_op;
  short sem_flg;
}
 ;

sys/shm.h


#define SHM_RDONLY	010000
#define SHM_W	0200
#define SHM_RND	020000
#define SHM_R	0400
#define SHM_REMAP	040000
#define SHM_LOCK	11
#define SHM_UNLOCK	12

sys/socket.h


#define SHUT_RD	0
#define MSG_WAITALL	0x100
#define MSG_TRUNC	0x20
#define MSG_EOR	0x80
#define SIOCGIFCONF	0x8912
#define SIOCGIFFLAGS	0x8913
#define SIOCGIFADDR	0x8915
#define SIOCGIFNETMASK	0x891b
#define MSG_OOB	1
#define SHUT_WR	1
#define MSG_PEEK	2
#define SHUT_RDWR	2
#define MSG_DONTROUTE	4
#define MSG_CTRUNC	8
#define PF_LOCAL	AF_LOCAL
#define PF_UNSPEC	AF_UNSPEC


struct linger
{
  int l_onoff;
  int l_linger;
}
 ;
struct cmsghdr
{
  size_t cmsg_len;
  int cmsg_level;
  int cmsg_type;
}
 ;
struct iovec
{
  void *iov_base;
  size_t iov_len;
}
 ;


typedef unsigned short sa_family_t;
typedef unsigned int socklen_t;


struct sockaddr
{
  sa_family_t sa_family;
  char sa_data[14];
}
 ;


struct msghdr
{
  void *msg_name;
  int msg_namelen;
  struct iovec *msg_iov;
  size_t msg_iovlen;
  void *msg_control;
  size_t msg_controllen;
  unsigned int msg_flags;
}
 ;
#define AF_UNSPEC	0
#define AF_LOCAL	1
#define AF_UNIX	1
#define AF_INET6	10
#define AF_INET	2
#define AF_AX25	3
#define AF_IPX	4
#define AF_APPLETALK	5
#define AF_NETROM	6
#define AF_BRIDGE	7
#define AF_ATMPVC	8
#define AF_X25	9



#define PF_INET	AF_INET
#define PF_INET6	AF_INET6
#define PF_UNIX	AF_UNIX



#define SOCK_STREAM	1
#define SOCK_PACKET	10
#define SOCK_DGRAM	2
#define SOCK_RAW	3
#define SOCK_RDM	4
#define SOCK_SEQPACKET	5



#define SOL_SOCKET	1
#define SO_DEBUG	1
#define SO_OOBINLINE	10
#define SO_NO_CHECK	11
#define SO_PRIORITY	12
#define SO_LINGER	13
#define SO_REUSEADDR	2
#define SOL_RAW	255
#define SO_TYPE	3
#define SO_ERROR	4
#define SO_DONTROUTE	5
#define SO_BROADCAST	6
#define SO_SNDBUF	7
#define SO_RCVBUF	8
#define SO_KEEPALIVE	9

sys/stat.h


#define S_ISBLK(m)	(((m)& S_IFMT)==S_IFBLK)
#define S_ISCHR(m)	(((m)& S_IFMT)==S_IFCHR)
#define S_ISDIR(m)	(((m)& S_IFMT)==S_IFDIR)
#define S_ISFIFO(m)	(((m)& S_IFMT)==S_IFIFO)
#define S_ISLNK(m)	(((m)& S_IFMT)==S_IFLNK)
#define S_ISREG(m)	(((m)& S_IFMT)==S_IFREG)
#define S_ISSOCK(m)	(((m)& S_IFMT)==S_IFSOCK)
#define S_TYPEISMQ(buf)	((buf)->st_mode - (buf)->st_mode)
#define S_TYPEISSEM(buf)	((buf)->st_mode - (buf)->st_mode)
#define S_TYPEISSHM(buf)	((buf)->st_mode - (buf)->st_mode)
#define S_IRWXU	(S_IREAD|S_IWRITE|S_IEXEC)
#define S_IROTH	(S_IRGRP>>3)
#define S_IRGRP	(S_IRUSR>>3)
#define S_IRWXO	(S_IRWXG>>3)
#define S_IRWXG	(S_IRWXU>>3)
#define S_IWOTH	(S_IWGRP>>3)
#define S_IWGRP	(S_IWUSR>>3)
#define S_IXOTH	(S_IXGRP>>3)
#define S_IXGRP	(S_IXUSR>>3)
#define S_ISVTX	01000
#define S_IXUSR	0x0040
#define S_IWUSR	0x0080
#define S_IRUSR	0x0100
#define S_ISGID	0x0400
#define S_ISUID	0x0800
#define S_IFIFO	0x1000
#define S_IFCHR	0x2000
#define S_IFDIR	0x4000
#define S_IFBLK	0x6000
#define S_IFREG	0x8000
#define S_IFLNK	0xa000
#define S_IFSOCK	0xc000
#define S_IFMT	0xf000
#define S_IREAD	S_IRUSR
#define S_IWRITE	S_IWUSR
#define S_IEXEC	S_IXUSR

sys/time.h


#define ITIMER_REAL	0
#define ITIMER_VIRTUAL	1
#define ITIMER_PROF	2


struct timezone
{
  int tz_minuteswest;
  int tz_dsttime;
}
 ;








struct timespec
{
  time_t tv_sec;
  long tv_nsec;
}
 ;





struct timeval
{
  time_t tv_sec;
  suseconds_t tv_usec;
}
 ;


struct itimerval
{
  struct timeval it_interval;
  struct timeval it_value;
}
 ;

sys/timeb.h



struct timeb
{
  time_t time;
  unsigned short millitm;
  short timezone;
  short dstflag;
}
 ;

sys/times.h



struct tms
{
  clock_t tms_utime;
  clock_t tms_stime;
  clock_t tms_cutime;
  clock_t tms_cstime;
}
 ;

sys/types.h


#define FD_ISSET(d,set)	((set)->fds_bits[0]& (1<<d))
#define FD_CLR(d,set)	((set)->fds_bits[0]& =~(1<<d))
#define FD_SET(d,set)	((set)->fds_bits[0]|=(1<<d))
#define FD_SETSIZE	1024
#define FD_ZERO(fdsetp)	bzero(fdsetp, sizeof(*(fdsetp)))


typedef signed char int8_t;
typedef short int16_t;
typedef int int32_t;
typedef long long int64_t;
typedef unsigned char u_int8_t;
typedef unsigned short u_int16_t;
typedef unsigned int u_int32_t;
typedef unsigned int uid_t;
typedef int pid_t;
typedef unsigned long off_t;
typedef int key_t;
typedef unsigned int id_t;
typedef long suseconds_t;
typedef struct
{
  int __val[2];
}
fsid_t;
typedef unsigned long blksize_t;
typedef long fd_mask;
typedef int timer_t;
typedef int clockid_t;





typedef unsigned long long ino64_t;
typedef long long loff_t;
typedef unsigned long blkcnt_t;
typedef unsigned long fsblkcnt_t;
typedef unsigned long fsfilcnt_t;
typedef unsigned long long blkcnt64_t;
typedef unsigned long long fsblkcnt64_t;
typedef unsigned long long fsfilcnt64_t;
typedef unsigned char u_char;
typedef unsigned short u_short;
typedef unsigned long u_long;


typedef unsigned long ino_t;
typedef unsigned int gid_t;
typedef unsigned long long dev_t;
typedef unsigned int mode_t;
typedef unsigned long nlink_t;
typedef char *caddr_t;
typedef unsigned short ushort;


typedef struct
{
  unsigned long fds_bits[__FDSET_LONGS];
}
fd_set;


typedef long clock_t;
typedef long time_t;

sys/un.h


#define UNIX_PATH_MAX	108


struct sockaddr_un
{
  sa_family_t sun_family;
  char sun_path[UNIX_PATH_MAX];
}
 ;

sys/utsname.h



struct utsname
{
  char sysname[65];
  char nodename[65];
  char release[65];
  char version[65];
  char machine[65];
  char domainname[65];
}
 ;

sys/wait.h


#define WIFSIGNALED(status)	(!WIFSTOPPED(status) & & !WIFEXITED(status))
#define WIFSTOPPED(status)	(((status) &  0xff) == 0x7f)
#define WEXITSTATUS(status)	(((status) &  0xff00) >> 8)
#define WTERMSIG(status)	((status) &  0x7f)
#define WCOREDUMP(status)	((status) &  0x80)
#define WIFEXITED(status)	(WTERMSIG(status) == 0)
#define WNOHANG	0x00000001
#define WUNTRACED	0x00000002
#define WCOREFLAG	0x80
#define WSTOPSIG(status)	WEXITSTATUS(status)


typedef enum
{
  P_ALL, P_PID, P_PGID
}
idtype_t;

syslog.h




#define LOG_EMERG	0
#define LOG_ALERT	1
#define LOG_CRIT	2
#define LOG_ERR	3
#define LOG_WARNING	4
#define LOG_NOTICE	5
#define LOG_INFO	6
#define LOG_DEBUG	7



#define LOG_KERN	(0<<3)
#define LOG_AUTHPRIV	(10<<3)
#define LOG_FTP	(11<<3)
#define LOG_USER	(1<<3)
#define LOG_MAIL	(2<<3)
#define LOG_DAEMON	(3<<3)
#define LOG_AUTH	(4<<3)
#define LOG_SYSLOG	(5<<3)
#define LOG_LPR	(6<<3)
#define LOG_NEWS	(7<<3)
#define LOG_UUCP	(8<<3)
#define LOG_CRON	(9<<3)



#define LOG_LOCAL0	(16<<3)
#define LOG_LOCAL1	(17<<3)
#define LOG_LOCAL2	(18<<3)
#define LOG_LOCAL3	(19<<3)
#define LOG_LOCAL4	(20<<3)
#define LOG_LOCAL5	(21<<3)
#define LOG_LOCAL6	(22<<3)
#define LOG_LOCAL7	(23<<3)



#define LOG_UPTO(pri)	((1 << ((pri)+1)) - 1)
#define LOG_MASK(pri)	(1 << (pri))



#define LOG_PID	0x01
#define LOG_CONS	0x02
#define LOG_ODELAY	0x04
#define LOG_NDELAY	0x08
#define LOG_NOWAIT	0x10
#define LOG_PERROR	0x20

termios.h


#define TCIFLUSH	0
#define TCOOFF	0
#define TCSANOW	0
#define BS0	0000000
#define CR0	0000000
#define FF0	0000000
#define NL0	0000000
#define TAB0	0000000
#define VT0	0000000
#define OPOST	0000001
#define OCRNL	0000010
#define ONOCR	0000020
#define ONLRET	0000040
#define OFILL	0000100
#define OFDEL	0000200
#define NL1	0000400
#define TCOFLUSH	1
#define TCOON	1
#define TCSADRAIN	1
#define TCIOFF	2
#define TCIOFLUSH	2
#define TCSAFLUSH	2
#define TCION	3


struct winsize
{
  unsigned short ws_row;
  unsigned short ws_col;
  unsigned short ws_xpixel;
  unsigned short ws_ypixel;
}
 ;


typedef unsigned int speed_t;
typedef unsigned char cc_t;
typedef unsigned int tcflag_t;
#define NCCS	32


struct termios
{
  tcflag_t c_iflag;
  tcflag_t c_oflag;
  tcflag_t c_cflag;
  tcflag_t c_lflag;
  cc_t c_line;
  cc_t c_cc[NCCS];
  speed_t c_ispeed;
  speed_t c_ospeed;
}
 ;
#define VINTR	0
#define VQUIT	1
#define VLNEXT	15
#define VERASE	2
#define VKILL	3
#define VEOF	4



#define IGNBRK	0000001
#define BRKINT	0000002
#define IGNPAR	0000004
#define PARMRK	0000010
#define INPCK	0000020
#define ISTRIP	0000040
#define INLCR	0000100
#define IGNCR	0000200
#define ICRNL	0000400
#define IXANY	0004000
#define IMAXBEL	0020000






#define CS5	0000000



#define ECHO	0000010



#define B0	0000000
#define B50	0000001
#define B75	0000002
#define B110	0000003
#define B134	0000004
#define B150	0000005
#define B200	0000006
#define B300	0000007
#define B600	0000010
#define B1200	0000011
#define B1800	0000012
#define B2400	0000013
#define B4800	0000014
#define B9600	0000015
#define B19200	0000016
#define B38400	0000017

time.h


#define CLOCK_REALTIME	0
#define TIMER_ABSTIME	1
#define CLOCKS_PER_SEC	1000000l


struct tm
{
  int tm_sec;
  int tm_min;
  int tm_hour;
  int tm_mday;
  int tm_mon;
  int tm_year;
  int tm_wday;
  int tm_yday;
  int tm_isdst;
  long tm_gmtoff;
  char *tm_zone;
}
 ;
struct itimerspec
{
  struct timespec it_interval;
  struct timespec it_value;
}
 ;

ulimit.h


#define UL_GETFSIZE	1
#define UL_SETFSIZE	2

unistd.h


#define SEEK_SET	0
#define STDIN_FILENO	0
#define SEEK_CUR	1
#define STDOUT_FILENO	1
#define SEEK_END	2
#define STDERR_FILENO	2


typedef long long off64_t;
#define F_OK	0
#define X_OK	1
#define W_OK	2
#define R_OK	4



#define _POSIX_VDISABLE	'\0'
#define _POSIX_ASYNCHRONOUS_IO	1
#define _POSIX_CHOWN_RESTRICTED	1
#define _POSIX_FSYNC	1
#define _POSIX_MAPPED_FILES	1
#define _POSIX_MEMLOCK	1
#define _POSIX_MEMLOCK_RANGE	1
#define _POSIX_MEMORY_PROTECTION	1
#define _POSIX_NO_TRUNC	1
#define _POSIX_PRIORITY_SCHEDULING	1
#define _POSIX_REALTIME_SIGNALS	1
#define _POSIX_SEMAPHORES	1
#define _POSIX_SHARED_MEMORY_OBJECTS	1
#define _POSIX_SYNCHRONIZED_IO	1
#define _POSIX_TIMERS	1
#define _POSIX2_C_VERSION	199209L
#define _POSIX2_VERSION	199209L
#define _POSIX_VERSION	199506L



#define _PC_LINK_MAX	0
#define _PC_MAX_CANON	1
#define _PC_ASYNC_IO	10
#define _PC_PRIO_IO	11
#define _PC_FILESIZEBITS	13
#define _PC_MAX_INPUT	2
#define _PC_NAME_MAX	3
#define _PC_PATH_MAX	4
#define _PC_PIPE_BUF	5
#define _PC_CHOWN_RESTRICTED	6
#define _PC_NO_TRUNC	7
#define _PC_VDISABLE	8
#define _PC_SYNC_IO	9



#define _SC_ARG_MAX	0
#define _SC_CHILD_MAX	1
#define _SC_PRIORITY_SCHEDULING	10
#define _SC_TIMERS	11
#define _SC_ASYNCHRONOUS_IO	12
#define _SC_XBS5_ILP32_OFF32	125
#define _SC_XBS5_ILP32_OFFBIG	126
#define _SC_XBS5_LP64_OFF64	127
#define _SC_XBS5_LPBIG_OFFBIG	128
#define _SC_XOPEN_LEGACY	129
#define _SC_PRIORITIZED_IO	13
#define _SC_XOPEN_REALTIME	130
#define _SC_SYNCHRONIZED_IO	14
#define _SC_MAPPED_FILES	16
#define _SC_MEMLOCK	17
#define _SC_MEMLOCK_RANGE	18
#define _SC_MEMORY_PROTECTION	19
#define _SC_CLK_TCK	2
#define _SC_MESSAGE_PASSING	20
#define _SC_SEMAPHORES	21
#define _SC_SHARED_MEMORY_OBJECTS	22
#define _SC_AIO_LISTIO_MAX	23
#define _SC_AIO_MAX	24
#define _SC_AIO_PRIO_DELTA_MAX	25
#define _SC_DELAYTIMER_MAX	26
#define _SC_MQ_OPEN_MAX	27
#define _SC_MQ_PRIO_MAX	28
#define _SC_VERSION	29
#define _SC_NGROUPS_MAX	3
#define _SC_PAGESIZE	30
#define _SC_RTSIG_MAX	31
#define _SC_SEM_NSEMS_MAX	32
#define _SC_SEM_VALUE_MAX	33
#define _SC_SIGQUEUE_MAX	34
#define _SC_TIMER_MAX	35
#define _SC_BC_BASE_MAX	36
#define _SC_BC_DIM_MAX	37
#define _SC_BC_SCALE_MAX	38
#define _SC_BC_STRING_MAX	39
#define _SC_OPEN_MAX	4
#define _SC_COLL_WEIGHTS_MAX	40
#define _SC_EXPR_NEST_MAX	42
#define _SC_LINE_MAX	43
#define _SC_RE_DUP_MAX	44
#define _SC_2_VERSION	46
#define _SC_2_C_BIND	47
#define _SC_2_C_DEV	48
#define _SC_2_FORT_DEV	49
#define _SC_STREAM_MAX	5
#define _SC_2_FORT_RUN	50
#define _SC_2_SW_DEV	51
#define _SC_2_LOCALEDEF	52
#define _SC_TZNAME_MAX	6
#define _SC_THREADS	67
#define _SC_THREAD_SAFE_FUNCTIONS	68
#define _SC_JOB_CONTROL	7
#define _SC_THREAD_DESTRUCTOR_ITERATIONS	73
#define _SC_THREAD_KEYS_MAX	74
#define _SC_THREAD_STACK_MIN	75
#define _SC_THREAD_THREADS_MAX	76
#define _SC_THREAD_ATTR_STACKADDR	77
#define _SC_THREAD_ATTR_STACKSIZE	78
#define _SC_THREAD_PRIORITY_SCHEDULING	79
#define _SC_SAVED_IDS	8
#define _SC_THREAD_PRIO_INHERIT	80
#define _SC_THREAD_PRIO_PROTECT	81
#define _SC_THREAD_PROCESS_SHARED	82
#define _SC_PASS_MAX	88
#define _SC_XOPEN_VERSION	89
#define _SC_REALTIME_SIGNALS	9
#define _SC_XOPEN_CRYPT	92
#define _SC_XOPEN_ENH_I18N	93
#define _SC_XOPEN_SHM	94
#define _SC_2_C_VERSION	96
#define _SC_2_UPE	97



#define _CS_PATH	0
#define _CS_XBS5_ILP32_OFF32_CFLAGS	1100
#define _CS_XBS5_ILP32_OFF32_LDFLAGS	1101
#define _CS_XBS5_ILP32_OFF32_LIBS	1102
#define _CS_XBS5_ILP32_OFF32_LINTFLAGS	1103
#define _CS_XBS5_ILP32_OFFBIG_CFLAGS	1104
#define _CS_XBS5_ILP32_OFFBIG_LDFLAGS	1105
#define _CS_XBS5_ILP32_OFFBIG_LIBS	1106
#define _CS_XBS5_ILP32_OFFBIG_LINTFLAGS	1107
#define _CS_XBS5_LP64_OFF64_CFLAGS	1108
#define _CS_XBS5_LP64_OFF64_LDFLAGS	1109
#define _CS_XBS5_LP64_OFF64_LIBS	1110
#define _CS_XBS5_LP64_OFF64_LINTFLAGS	1111
#define _CS_XBS5_LPBIG_OFFBIG_CFLAGS	1112
#define _CS_XBS5_LPBIG_OFFBIG_LDFLAGS	1113
#define _CS_XBS5_LPBIG_OFFBIG_LIBS	1114
#define _CS_XBS5_LPBIG_OFFBIG_LINTFLAGS	1115



#define _XOPEN_REALTIME	1
#define _XOPEN_XPG4	1
#define _XOPEN_XCU_VERSION	4
#define _XOPEN_VERSION	500

utime.h



struct utimbuf
{
  time_t actime;
  time_t modtime;
}
 ;

utmp.h


#define UT_HOSTSIZE	256
#define UT_LINESIZE	32
#define UT_NAMESIZE	32


struct exit_status
{
  short e_termination;
  short e_exit;
}
 ;
struct lastlog
{
  time_t ll_time;
  char ll_line[UT_LINESIZE];
  char ll_host[UT_HOSTSIZE];
}
 ;


struct utmp
{
  short ut_type;
  pid_t ut_pid;
  char ut_line[UT_LINESIZE];
  char ut_id[4];
  char ut_user[UT_NAMESIZE];
  char ut_host[UT_HOSTSIZE];
  struct exit_status ut_exit;
  long ut_session;
  struct timeval ut_tv;
  int32_t ut_addr_v6[4];
  char __unused[20];
}
 ;
#define EMPTY	0
#define RUN_LVL	1
#define BOOT_TIME	2
#define NEW_TIME	3
#define OLD_TIME	4
#define INIT_PROCESS	5
#define LOGIN_PROCESS	6
#define USER_PROCESS	7
#define DEAD_PROCESS	8
#define ACCOUNTING	9

wchar.h


#define WEOF	(0xffffffffu)
#define WCHAR_MAX	0x7FFFFFFF
#define WCHAR_MIN	0x80000000

wctype.h



typedef unsigned long wctype_t;
typedef unsigned int wint_t;
typedef const int32_t *wctrans_t;
typedef struct
{
  int count;
  wint_t value;
}
__mbstate_t;


typedef __mbstate_t mbstate_t;

wordexp.h






enum
{
  WRDE_DOOFFS, WRDE_APPEND, WRDE_NOCMD, WRDE_REUSE, WRDE_SHOWERR, WRDE_UNDEF,
    __WRDE_FLAGS
}
 ;


typedef struct
{
  int we_wordc;
  char **we_wordv;
  int we_offs;
}
wordexp_t;


enum
{
  WRDE_NOSYS, WRDE_NOSPACE, WRDE_BADCHAR, WRDE_BADVAL, WRDE_CMDSUB,
    WRDE_SYNTAX
}
 ;

Interfaces Definitions for libc

Table of Contents
_IO_feof -- alias for feof
_IO_getc -- alias for getc
_IO_putc -- alias for putc
_IO_puts -- alias for puts
__assert_fail -- abort the program after false assertion
__ctype_b -- array index for ctype functions
__ctype_get_mb_cur_max -- maximum length of a multibyte character in the current locale
__ctype_tolower -- convert uppercase letter to lowercase letter
__ctype_toupper -- convert lowercase letter to uppercase letter
__cxa_atexit -- register a function to be called by exit or when a shared library is unloaded
__daylight -- global variable containing daylight
__dcgettext -- (deprecated)
__environ -- alias for environ - user environment
__errno_location -- address of errno variable
__fpending -- returns in bytes the amount of output pending on a stream
__getpagesize -- alias for getpagesize - get current page size
__getpgid -- get the process group id
__h_errno_location -- address of h_errno variable
__isinf -- test for infinity
__isinff -- test for infinity
__isinfl -- test for infinity
__isnan -- test for infinity
__isnanf -- test for infinity
__isnanl -- test for infinity
__libc_current_sigrtmax -- return number of available real-time signal with lowest priority
__libc_current_sigrtmin -- return number of available real-time signal with highest priority
__libc_start_main -- initialization routine
__lxstat -- inline wrapper around call to lxstat
__mempcpy -- copy given number of bytes of source to destination
__rawmemchr -- scan memory
__sigsetjmp -- save stack context for non-local goto
__stpcpy -- copy a string returning a pointer to its end
__strdup -- alias for strdup
__strtod_internal -- underlying function for strtod
__strtof_internal -- underlying function for strtof
__strtok_r -- alias for strtok_r
__strtol_internal -- alias for strtol
__strtold_internal -- underlying function for strtold
__strtoll_internal -- underlying function for strtoll
__strtoul_internal -- underlying function for strtoul
__strtoull_internal -- underlying function for strtoull
__sysconf -- get configuration information at runtime
__sysv_signal -- signal handling
__timezone -- global variable containing timezone
__tzname -- global variable containing the timezone
__wcstod_internal -- underlying function for wcstod
__wcstof_internal -- underlying function for wcstof
__wcstol_internal -- underlying function for wcstol
__wcstold_internal -- underlying function for wcstold
__wcstoul_internal -- underlying function for wcstoul
__xmknod -- make block or character special file
__xstat -- provide inode information
__xstat64 -- provide inode information
_environ -- alias for environ - user environment
_nl_msg_cat_cntr -- new catalog load counter
_obstack_begin -- initialize an obstack for use
_obstack_newchunk -- allocate a new current chunk of memory for the obstack
_sys_errlist -- array containing the "C" locale strings used by strerror()
_sys_siglist -- array containing the names of the signal names
acct -- switch process accounting on or off
adjtime -- correct the time to allow synchronization of the system clock
adjtimex -- tune kernel clock
alphasort -- compare two directory entries alphabetically (LSB deprecated)
alphasort64 -- compare two directory entries alphabetically (LSB deprecated)
asprintf -- write formatted output to a string dynamically allocated with malloc and store the address of the string
bind_textdomain_codeset -- specify encoding for message retrieval from message catalog for domain DOMAINNAME
bindresvport -- bind socket to privileged IP port
bindtextdomain -- specify the locale of a message catalog
cfmakeraw -- get and set terminal attributes
cfsetspeed -- manipulate the termios structure
daemon -- run in the background
dcgettext -- perform lookup in message catalog for the current LC_MESSAGES locale
dcngettext -- perform lookup in message catalog for the current LC_MESSAGES locale
dgettext -- perform lookup in message catalog for the current LC_MESSAGES locale
dngettext -- perform lookup in message catalog for the current LC_MESSAGES locale
err -- display formatted error messages
error -- print error message
errx -- format error messages
fcntl -- file control
flock -- apply or remove an advisory lock on an open file
fstatfs -- (deprecated)
fstatfs64 -- (deprecated)
getdomainname -- get NIS domain name.
gethostbyname -- get network host entry
gethostbyname_r -- find network host database entry matching host name
getloadavg -- get system load averages
getopt -- parse command line options
getopt_long -- parse command line options
getopt_long_only -- parse command line options
getpwnam_r -- reentrant version of getpwnam
gets -- get a line of input (deprecated)
getservbyname -- get service entry by name
getservent -- get service entry
gettext -- perform lookup in message catalog for the current LC_MESSAGES locale
getutent -- access utmp file entries
getutent_r -- access utmp file entries
glob64 -- find pathnames matching a pattern (Large File Support)
globfree64 -- free memory from glob64() (Large File Support)
initgroups -- initialize the supplementary group access list
ioctl -- control device
sockio -- socket ioctl commands
iswctype -- wide character classification
kill -- send a signal
mbsnrtowcs -- convert a multibyte string to a wide character string
memmem -- locate a substring
memrchr -- scan memory for a character
ngettext -- perform lookup in message catalog for the current LC_MESSAGES locale
nice -- set nice value
obstack_free -- free an object in the obstack
opterr -- external variable used in getopt()
optind -- external variable used in getopt()
optopt -- external variable used in getopt()
psignal -- print signal message
random_r -- generate random number
setbuffer -- stream buffering operation
setdomainname -- set NIS domain name.
setegid -- set effective group ID
setenv -- change or add an environment variable
seteuid -- set effective user ID
setgroups -- set list of supplementary group IDs
sethostid -- set the unique identifier of the current host
sethostname -- set host name
setmntent -- (deprecated)
setutent -- access utmp file entries
sigandset -- build a new signal set by combining the two input sets using logical AND
sigblock -- manipulate the signal mask
siggetmask -- manipulate the signal mask
sigisemptyset -- check for empty signal set
sigorset -- build a new signal set by combining the two input sets using logical OR
sigreturn -- return from signal handler and cleanup stack frame
statfs -- (deprecated)
statfs64 -- (deprecated)
stime -- set time
stpcpy -- copy a string returning a pointer to its end
stpncpy -- copy a fixed-size string, returning a pointer to its end
strcasestr -- locate a substring - ignores the case of both strings
strerror_r -- reentrant version of strerror
strfry -- randomize a string
strndup -- return a malloc'd copy of at most the specified number of bytes of a string
strnlen -- determine the length of a fixed-size string
strptime -- parse a time string
strsep -- extract token from string
strsignal -- return string describing signal
strtok_r -- extract tokens from strings
strtoq -- convert string value to a long or quad_t integer
strtouq -- convert a string to an uquad_t
strverscmp -- compare strings holding name and indices/version numbers
system -- execute a shell command
textdomain -- set the current default message catalog
unlink -- remove a directory entry
unsetenv -- delete an environment variable
vasprintf -- write formatted output to a string dynamically allocated with malloc and store the address of the string
vdprintf -- write formatted output to a file descriptor
verrx -- display formatted error messages
vsyslog -- log to system log
wait3 -- wait for child process
wait4 -- wait for process termination, BSD style
waitid -- (deprecated)
waitpid -- wait for child process
warn -- formatted error messages
warnx -- formatted error messages
wcpcpy -- copy a wide character string, returning a pointer to its end
wcpncpy -- copy a fixed-size string of wide characters, returning a pointer to its end
wcscasecmp -- compare two wide-character strings, ignoring case
wcsdup -- duplicate a wide-character string
wcsncasecmp -- compare two fixed-size wide-character strings, ignoring case
wcsnlen -- determine the length of a fixed-size wide-character string
wcsnrtombs -- convert a wide character string to a multi-byte string
wcstoq -- convert initial portion of wide string NPTR to long int representation
wcstouq -- convert initial portion of wide string NPTR to unsigned long long int representation
xdr_u_int -- library routines for external data representation

_IO_feof

Name

_IO_feof -- alias for feof

Synopsis

int _IO_feof(_IO_FILE *__fp);

Description

_IO_feof tests the end-of-file indicator for the stream pointed to by __fp, returning a non-zero value if it is set.

_IO_feof is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

_IO_getc

Name

_IO_getc -- alias for getc

Synopsis

int _IO_getc(_IO_FILE *__fp);

Description

_IO_getc reads the next character from __fp and returns it as an unsigned char cast to an int, or EOF on end-of-file or error.

_IO_getc is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

_IO_putc

Name

_IO_putc -- alias for putc

Synopsis

int _IO_putc(int __c, _IO_FILE *__fp);

Description

_IO_putc writes the character __c, cast to an unsigned char, to __fp.

_IO_putc is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

_IO_puts

Name

_IO_puts -- alias for puts

Synopsis

int _IO_puts(const char *__c);

Description

_IO_puts writes the string __s and a trailing newline to stdout.

_IO_puts is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__assert_fail

Name

__assert_fail -- abort the program after false assertion

Synopsis

void __assert_fail(const char *assertion, const char *file, unsigned int line, const char *function);

Description

__assert_fail receives a string containing the expression assertion, the filename file, and the line number line, and prints a message on the standard error stream. For example:

a.c:10: foobar: Assertion a == b failed.

__assert_fail then aborts program execution via a call to abort. The exact form of the message is up to the implementation.

If function is NULL, then omit information about the function.

assertion, file, and line must be non-NULL.

__assert_fail is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__ctype_b

Name

__ctype_b -- array index for ctype functions

Synopsis

#include <ctype.h>

extern const unsigned short int *ctype_b;

Description

__ctype_b is an array index for ctype functions.

__ctype_b is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__ctype_get_mb_cur_max

Name

__ctype_get_mb_cur_max -- maximum length of a multibyte character in the current locale

Synopsis

size_t __ctype_get_mb_cur_max(void);

Description

__ctype_get_mb_cur_max returns the maximum length of a multibyte character in the current locale.

__ctype_get_mb_cur_max is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__ctype_tolower

Name

__ctype_tolower -- convert uppercase letter to lowercase letter

Synopsis

#include <ctype.h>

int __ctype_tolower(int c);

Description

__ctype_tolower converts an uppercase letter to the corresponding lowercase letter. If the argument is an uppercase letter, __ctype_tolower returns the corresponding lowercase letter if there is one; otherwise, the argument is returned unchanged.

__ctype_tolower is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__ctype_toupper

Name

__ctype_toupper -- convert lowercase letter to uppercase letter

Synopsis

#include <ctype.h>

int __ctype_toupper(int c);

Description

__ctype_toupper converts a lowercase letter to the corresponding uppercase letter. If the argument is a lowercase letter, __ctype_toupper returns the corresponding uppercase letter if there is one; otherwise, the argument is returned unchanged.

__ctype_toupper is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__cxa_atexit

Name

__cxa_atexit -- register a function to be called by exit or when a shared library is unloaded

Synopsis

int __cxa_atexit(void (*func) (void *), void *arg, void *d);

Description

__cxa_atexit registers a function to be called by exit or when a shared library is unloaded. This function is only called from code generated by the C++ compiler.

__cxa_atexit has the same specification as atexit.

__cxa_atexit is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__daylight

Name

 -- global variable containing daylight

Synopsis

int __daylight;

Description

__daylight is as specified in the Single UNIX Specification, Version 2.

__dcgettext

Name

__dcgettext -- (deprecated)

Synopsis

#include <libintl.h>

extern char *__dcgettext(const char *domainname, const char *msgid, int category);

Description

__dcgettext has been deprecated from the LSB because it is no longer used by dcgettext. Originally, it was intended only for the binary standard.

__environ

Name

__environ -- alias for environ - user environment

Synopsis

extern char **__environ;

Description

__environ is an alias for environ - user environment.

__environ has the same specification as environ.

__environ is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__errno_location

Name

__errno_location -- address of errno variable

Synopsis

int *__errno_location(void);

Description

__errno_location is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__fpending

Name

__fpending -- returns in bytes the amount of output pending on a stream

Synopsis

#include <stdio_ext.h>

size_t __fpending(FILE *stream);

Description

__fpending returns the amount of output in bytes pending on a stream.

__fpending is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__getpagesize

Name

__getpagesize -- alias for getpagesize - get current page size

Synopsis

extern int __getpagesize(void);

Description

__getpagesize is an alias for getpagesize - get current page size.

__getpagesize has the same specification as getpagesize.

__getpagesize is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__getpgid

Name

__getpgid -- get the process group id

Synopsis

pid_t __getpgid(pid_t pid);

Description

__getpgid has the same specification as getpgid.

__getpgid is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__h_errno_location

Name

__h_errno_location -- address of h_errno variable

Synopsis

int *__h_errno_location(void);

Description

__h_errno_location returns the address of the h_errno variable, where h_errno is as specified in the Single Unix Specification.

__h_errno_location is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard. Note that h_errno itself is only in the source standard; it is not in the binary standard.

__isinf

Name

__isinf -- test for infinity

Synopsis

int __isinf(double arg);

Description

__isinf has the same specification as isinf in the Single UNIX Specification, Version 3, except that the argument type for __isinf is known to be double.

__isinf is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__isinff

Name

__isinff -- test for infinity

Synopsis

int __isinff(float arg);

Description

__isinff has the same specification as isinf in the Single UNIX Specification, Version 3, except that the argument type for __isinff is known to be float.

__isinff is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__isinfl

Name

__isinfl -- test for infinity

Synopsis

int __isinfl(long double arg);

Description

__isinfl has the same specification as isinf in the Single UNIX Specification, Version 3, except that the argument type for __isinfl is known to be long double.

__isinfl is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__isnan

Name

__isnan -- test for infinity

Synopsis

int __isnan(double arg);

Description

__isnan has the same specification as isnan in the Single UNIX Specification, Version 3, except that the argument type for __isnan is known to be double.

__isnan is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__isnanf

Name

__isnanf -- test for infinity

Synopsis

int __isnanf(float arg);

Description

__isnanf has the same specification as isnan in the Single UNIX Specification, Version 3, except that the argument type for __isnanf is known to be float.

__isnanf is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__isnanl

Name

__isnanl -- test for infinity

Synopsis

int __isnanl(long double arg);

Description

__isnanl has the same specification as isnan in the Single UNIX Specification, Version 3, except that the argument type for __isnanl is known to be long double.

__isnanl is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__libc_current_sigrtmax

Name

__libc_current_sigrtmax -- return number of available real-time signal with lowest priority

Synopsis

int __libc_current_sigrtmax(void);

Description

__libc_current_sigrtmax returns the number of an available real-time signal with the lowest priority.

__libc_current_sigrtmax is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__libc_current_sigrtmin

Name

__libc_current_sigrtmin -- return number of available real-time signal with highest priority

Synopsis

int __libc_current_sigrtmin(void);

Description

__libc_current_sigrtmin returns the number of an available real-time signal with the highest priority.

__libc_current_sigrtmin is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__libc_start_main

Name

__libc_start_main -- initialization routine

Synopsis

BP_SYM __libc_start_main(int (*main) (int, char**, char**), int argc, char *__unbounded *__unbounded ubp_av, void (*init) (void), void (*fini) (void), void (*rtld_fini) (void), void (*__unbounded stack_end));

Description

__libc_start_main initializes glibc.

__libc_start_main is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__lxstat

Name

__lxstat -- inline wrapper around call to lxstat

Synopsis

#include <ctype.h>

int __lxstat(int version, char *__path, (struct stat *__statbuf));

Description

__lxstat is an inline wrapper around call to lxstat.

__lxstat is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__mempcpy

Name

__mempcpy -- copy given number of bytes of source to destination

Synopsis

#include <string.h>

extern ptr_t __mempcpy(ptr_t restrict dest, const ptr_t restrict src, size_t n);

Description

__mempcpy copies n bytes of source to destination, returning pointer to bytes after the last written byte.

__mempcpy is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__rawmemchr

Name

__rawmemchr -- scan memory

Synopsis

#include <string.h>

extern ptr_t __rawmemchr(const ptr_t s, int c);

Description

__rawmemchr searches in s for c.

__rawmemchr is a weak alias to rawmemchr. It is similar to memchr, but it has no length limit.

__rawmemchr is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__sigsetjmp

Name

__sigsetjmp -- save stack context for non-local goto

Synopsis

int __sigsetjmp(jmp_buf env, int savemask);

Description

__sigsetjmp has the same behavior as sigsetjmp as specified by the Single UNIX Specification, Version 2.

__sigsetjmp is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__stpcpy

Name

__stpcpy -- copy a string returning a pointer to its end

Synopsis

#include <string.h>

char *__stpcpy(char *dest, const char *src);

Description

__stpcpy copies the string src (including the terminating /0 character) to the array dest. The strings may not overlap, and dest must be large enough to receive the copy.

Return Value

__stpcpy returns a pointer to the end of the string dest (that is, the address of the terminating NULL character) rather than the beginning.

__stpcpy has the same specification as stpcpy.

__stpcpy is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__strdup

Name

__strdup -- alias for strdup

Synopsis

char *__strdup(const char string);

Description

__strdup has the same specification as strdup.

__strdup is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__strtod_internal

Name

__strtod_internal -- underlying function for strtod

Synopsis

double __strtod_internal(const char *__nptr, char **__endptr, int __group);

Description

__group must be 0 or the behavior of __strtod_internal is undefined.

__strtod_internal(__nptr, __endptr, 0) has the same specification as strtod(__nptr, __endptr).

__strtod_internal is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__strtof_internal

Name

__strtof_internal -- underlying function for strtof

Synopsis

float __strtof_internal(const char *__nptr, char **__endptr, int __group);

Description

__group must be 0 or the behavior of __strtof_internal is undefined.

__strtof_internal(__nptr, __endptr, 0) has the same specification as strtof(__nptr, __endptr).

__strtof_internal is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__strtok_r

Name

__strtok_r -- alias for strtok_r

Synopsis

char *__strtok_r(char *__restrict s, __const char *__restrict delim, char **__restrict save_ptr);

Description

__strtok_r has the same specification as strtok_r.

__strtok_r is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__strtol_internal

Name

__strtol_internal -- alias for strtol

Synopsis

long int __strtol_internal(const char *__nptr, char **__endptr, int __base, int __group);

Description

__group must be 0 or the behavior of __strtol_internal is undefined.

__strtol_internal(__nptr, __endptr, __base, 0) has the same specification as strtol(__nptr, __endptr, __base).

__strtol_internal is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__strtold_internal

Name

__strtold_internal -- underlying function for strtold

Synopsis

long double __strtold_internal(const char *__nptr, char **__endptr, int __group);

Description

__group must be 0 or the behavior of __strtold_internal is undefined.

__strtold_internal(__nptr, __endptr, 0) has the same specification as strtold(__nptr, __endptr).

__strtold_internal is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__strtoll_internal

Name

__strtoll_internal -- underlying function for strtoll

Synopsis

long long __strtoll_internal(const char *__nptr, char **__endptr, int __base, int __group);

Description

__group must be 0 or the behavior of __strtoll_internal is undefined.

__strtoll_internal(__nptr, __endptr, __base, 0) has the same specification as strtoll(__nptr, __endptr, __base).

__strtoll_internal is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__strtoul_internal

Name

__strtoul_internal -- underlying function for strtoul

Synopsis

unsigned long int __strtoul_internal(const char *__nptr, char **__endptr, int __base, int __group);

Description

__group must be 0 or the behavior of __strtoul_internal is undefined.

__strtoul_internal(__nptr, __endptr, __base, 0) has the same specification as strtoul(__nptr, __endptr, __base).

__strtoul_internal is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__strtoull_internal

Name

__strtoull_internal -- underlying function for strtoull

Synopsis

unsigned long long __strtoull_internal(const char *__nptr, char **__endptr, int __base, int __group);

Description

__group must be 0 or the behavior of __strtoull_internal is undefined.

__strtoull_internal(__nptr, __endptr, __base, 0) has the same specification as strtoull(__nptr, __endptr, __base).

__strtoull_internal is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__sysconf

Name

__sysconf -- get configuration information at runtime

Synopsis

#include <unistd.h>

long __sysconf(int name);

Description

__sysconf gets configuration information at runtime.

__sysconf is weak alias to sysconf.

__sysconf has the same specification as sysconf.

__sysconf is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__sysv_signal

Name

__sysv_signal -- signal handling

Synopsis

__sighandler_t __sysv_signal(int sig, __sighandler_t handler);

Description

__sysv_signal has the same behavior as signal as specified by X/Open.

__sysv_signal is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__timezone

Name

 -- global variable containing timezone

Synopsis

long int __timezone;

Description

__timezone has the same specification as timezone in the Single UNIX Specification.

__tzname

Name

 -- global variable containing the timezone

Synopsis

char *__tzname[2];

Description

__tzname has the same specification as tzname in the Single UNIX Specification.

Note that the array size of 2 is explicit in the Single UNIX Specification, Version 3, but not in the Single UNIX Specification, Version 2.

__wcstod_internal

Name

__wcstod_internal -- underlying function for wcstod

Synopsis

double __wcstod_internal(const wchar_t *nptr, wchar_t **endptr, int group);

Description

group must be 0 or the behavior of __wcstod_internal is undefined.

__wcstod_internal(nptr, endptr, 0) has the same specification as wcstod(nptr, endptr).

__wcstod_internal is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__wcstof_internal

Name

__wcstof_internal -- underlying function for wcstof

Synopsis

float __wcstof_internal(const wchar_t *nptr, wchar_t **endptr, int group);

Description

group must be 0 or the behavior of __wcstof_internal is undefined.

__wcstof_internal(nptr, endptr, 0) has the same specification as wcstof(nptr, endptr).

__wcstof_internal is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__wcstol_internal

Name

__wcstol_internal -- underlying function for wcstol

Synopsis

long __wcstol_internal(const wchar_t *nptr, wchar_t **endptr, int base, int group);

Description

group must be 0 or the behavior of __wcstol_internal is undefined.

__wcstol_internal(nptr, endptr, base, 0) has the same specification as wcstol(nptr, endptr, base).

__wcstol_internal is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__wcstold_internal

Name

__wcstold_internal -- underlying function for wcstold

Synopsis

long double __wcstold_internal(const wchar_t *nptr, wchar_t **endptr, int group);

Description

group must be 0 or the behavior of __wcstold_internal is undefined.

__wcstold_internal(nptr, endptr, 0) has the same specification as wcstold(nptr, endptr).

__wcstold_internal is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__wcstoul_internal

Name

__wcstoul_internal -- underlying function for wcstoul

Synopsis

unsigned long __wcstoul_internal(const wchar_t *restrict nptr, wchar_t **restrict endptr, int base, int group);

Description

group must be 0 or the behavior of __wcstoul_internal is undefined.

__wcstoul_internal(nptr, endptr, base, 0) has the same specification as wcstoul(nptr, endptr, base).

__wcstoul_internal is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__xmknod

Name

__xmknod -- make block or character special file

Synopsis

int __xmknod(int ver, __const char *path, __mode_t mode, __dev_t *dev);

Description

ver must be 1 or the behavior of __xmknod is undefined.

__xmknod(1, path, mode, dev) has the same specification as mknod(path, mode, dev).

Note that the format of dev_t is not the same as the argument that the kernel syscall uses.

__xmknod is not in the source standard; it is only in the binary standard.

__xstat

Name

__xstat -- provide inode information

Synopsis

#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <unistd.h>

int __xstat(int __ver, const char *__filename, (struct stat *__stat_buf));

int __lxstat(int __ver, const char *__filename, (struct stat *__stat_buf));

int __fxstat(int __ver, int __filedesc, (struct stat *__stat_buf));

Description

__ver must be 3 or the behavior of these functions is undefined.

__filename is as specified in POSIX.

__filedesc is as specified in POSIX.

__stat_buf is as specified in POSIX.

__xstat(3, __filename, __stat_buf) has the same specification as stat(__filename, __stat_buf) as specified by POSIX.

__lxstat(3, __filename, __stat_buf) has the same specification as lstat(__filename, __stat_buf) as specified by POSIX.

__fxstat(3, __filedesc, __stat_buf) has the same specification as fstat(__filedesc, __stat_buf) as specified by POSIX.

Note that the struct stat used by these functions is not the one that the kernel uses.

__xstat, __lxstat, and __fxstat are not in the source standard; they are only in the binary standard.

stat, lstat, and fstat are not in the binary standard; they are only in the source standard.

__xstat64

Name

__xstat64 -- provide inode information

Synopsis

#define _LARGEFILE_SOURCE 1
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <unistd.h>

int __xstat64(int __ver, const char *__filename, (struct stat64 *__stat_buf));

int __lxstat64(int __ver, const char *__filename, (struct stat64 *__stat_buf));

int __fxstat64(int __ver, int __filedesc, (struct stat64 *__stat_buf));

Description

__ver must be 3 or the behavior of these functions is undefined.

__filename is as specified by the Large File Summit.

__filedesc is as specified by the Large File Summit.

__stat_buf is as specified by the Large File Summit.

__xstat64(3, __filename, __stat_buf) has the same specification as stat64(__filename, __stat_buf) as specified by the Large File Summit.

__lxstat64(3, __filename, __stat_buf) has the same specification as lstat64(__filename, __stat_buf) as specified by the Large File Summit.

__fxstat64(3, __filedesc, __stat_buf) has the same specification as fstat64(__filedesc, __stat_buf) as specified by the Large File Summit.

__xstat64, __lxstat64, and __fxstat64 are not in the source standard; they are only in the binary standard.

stat64, lstat64, and fstat64 are not in the binary standard; they are only in the source standard.

_environ

Name

_environ -- alias for environ - user environment

Synopsis

extern char **_environ;

Description

_environ is an alias for environ - user environment.

_nl_msg_cat_cntr

Name

_nl_msg_cat_cntr -- new catalog load counter

Synopsis

#include <libintl.h>

extern int _nl_msg_cat_cntr;

Description

_nl_msg_cat_cntr is incremented each time a new catalong is loaded. It is a variable defined in loadmsgcat.c and is used by Message catalogs for internationalization.

_obstack_begin

Name

_obstack_begin -- initialize an obstack for use

Synopsis

#include <obstack.h>

extern int _obstack_begin(struct obstack *, int, int, void *(*) (long), void (*) (void *));

Description

_obstack_begin initializes an obstack for use.

_obstack_newchunk

Name

_obstack_newchunk -- allocate a new current chunk of memory for the obstack

Synopsis

#include <obstack.h>

extern void _obstack_newchunk(struct obstack *, int);

Description

_obstack_newchunk allocates a new current chunk of memory for the obstack.

_sys_errlist

Name

_sys_errlist -- array containing the "C" locale strings used by strerror()

Synopsis

#include <stdio.h>

extern const char *const _sys_errlist[];

Description

_sys_errlist is an array containing the "C" locale strings used by strerror. This normally should not be used directly. strerror provides all of the needed functionality.

_sys_siglist

Name

_sys_siglist -- array containing the names of the signal names

Synopsis

#include <signal.h>

extern const char *const _sys_siglist[NSIG];

Description

_sys_siglist is an array containing the names of the signal names.

_sys_siglist exists only for compatibility; use strsignal instead. (See string.h).

acct

Name

acct -- switch process accounting on or off

Synopsis

#include <dirent.h>

int acct(const char *filename);

Description

When filename is the name of an existing file, acct turns accounting on and appends a record to filename for each terminating process. When filename is NULL, acct turns accounting off.

Return Value

On success, 0 is returned. On error, -1 is returned and the global variable errno is set appropriately.

Errors

ENOSYS

BSD process accounting has not been enabled when the operating system kernel was compiled. The kernel configuration parameter controlling this feature is CONFIG_BSD_PROCESS_ACCT.

ENOMEM

Out of memory.

EPERM

The calling process has no permission to enable process accounting.

EACCES

filename is not a regular file.

EIO

Error writing to the filename.

EUSERS

There are no more free file structures or we run out of memory.

adjtime

Name

adjtime -- correct the time to allow synchronization of the system clock

Synopsis

#include <time.h>

int adjtime((const struct timeval *delta), (struct timeval *olddelta));

Description

adjtime makes small adjustments to the system time as returned by gettimeofday(2), advancing or retarding it by the time specified by the timeval delta. If delta is negative, the clock is slowed down by incrementing it more slowly than normal until the correction is complete. If delta is positive, a larger increment than normal is used. The skew used to perform the correction is generally a fraction of one percent. Thus, the time is always a monotonically increasing function. A time correction from an earlier call to adjtime may not be finished when adjtime is called again. If olddelta is non-NULL, the structure pointed to will contain, upon return, the number of microseconds still to be corrected from the earlier call.

adjtime may be used by time servers that synchronize the clocks of computers in a local area network. Such time servers would slow down the clocks of some machines and speed up the clocks of others to bring them to the average network time.

The adjtime is restricted to the super-user.

Return Value

On success, 0 is returned. On error, -1 is returned and the global variable errno is set appropriately.

Errors

EFAULT

An argument points outside the process's allocated address space.

EPERM

The process's effective user ID is not that of the super-user.

adjtimex

Name

adjtimex -- tune kernel clock

Synopsis

#include <sys/timex.h>

int adjtimex((struct timex *buf));

Description

Linux uses David L. Mills' clock adjustment algorithm (see RFC 1305). adjtimex reads and optionally sets adjustment parameters for this algorithm. adjtimex takes a pointer to a timex structure, updates kernel parameters from field values, and returns the same structure with current kernel values. This structure is declared as follows:
  struct timex {
            int  modes;          /* mode selector */
            long offset;         /* time offset (usec) */
            long freq;           /* frequency offset (scaled ppm) */
            long maxerror;       /* maximum error (usec) */
            long esterror;       /* estimated error (usec) */
            int  status;         /* clock command/status */
            long constant;       /* pll time constant */
            long precision;      /* clock precision (usec) (read only) */
            long tolerance;      /* clock frequency tolerance (ppm)
                                          (read only) */
            struct timeval time; /* current time (read only) */
            long tick;           /* usecs between clock ticks */
  };

modes determines which parameters, if any, to set. modes may contain a bitwise-or combination of zero or more of the following bits:
  #define ADJ_OFFSET            0x0001  /* time offset */
  #define ADJ_FREQUENCY         0x0002  /* frequency offset */
  #define ADJ_MAXERROR          0x0004  /* maximum time error */
  #define ADJ_ESTERROR          0x0008  /* estimated time error */
  #define ADJ_STATUS            0x0010  /* clock status */
  #define ADJ_TIMECONST         0x0020  /* pll time constant */
  #define ADJ_TICK              0x4000  /* tick value */
  #define ADJ_OFFSET_SINGLESHOT 0x8001  /* old-fashioned adjtime */

Ordinary users are restricted to a 0 value for modes. Only the superuser may set any parameters.

Return Value

On success, adjtimex returns the clock state:
  #define TIME_OK   0  /* clock synchronized */
  #define TIME_INS  1  /* insert leap second */
  #define TIME_DEL  2  /* delete leap second */
  #define TIME_OOP  3  /* leap second in progress */
  #define TIME_WAIT 4  /* leap second has occurred */
  #define TIME_BAD  5  /* clock not synchronized */

On error, the global variable errno is set to -1.

Errors

EFAULT

buf does not point to writable memory.

EPERM

buf.mode is non-ZERO and the user is not super-user.

EINVAL

An attempt is made to set buf.offset to a value outside of the range -131071 to +131071, or to set buf.status to a value other than those listed above, or to set buf.tick to a value outside of the range 900000/HZ to 1100000/HZ, where HZ is the system timer interrupt frequency.

alphasort

Name

alphasort -- compare two directory entries alphabetically (LSB deprecated)

Synopsis

#include <dirent.h>

int alphasort((const struct dirent **a), (const struct dirent **b));

Description

alphasort is expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should provide their own routine to sort filenames. [11]

alphasort can be used as the comparison function for the scandir function to sort directory entries into alphabetical order. Its parameters are the two directory entries, a and b, to compare.

Return Value

alphasort returns an integer less than, equal to, or greater than 0, where a is considered to be less than, equal to, or greater than b, respectively.

Errors

ENOMEM

Insufficient memory to complete the operation.

alphasort64

Name

alphasort64 -- compare two directory entries alphabetically (LSB deprecated)

Synopsis

#include <dirent.h>

int alphasort64((const struct dirent64 **a), (const struct dirent64 **b));

Description

alphasort64 is expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should provide their own routine to sort filenames. [12]

alphasort compares two struct dirent64s alphabetically. This function is like alphasort but it uses the 64-bit dirent structure.

asprintf

Name

asprintf -- write formatted output to a string dynamically allocated with malloc and store the address of the string

Synopsis

#include <stdio.h>

extern int asprintf(char **restrict ptr, const char *restrict format ...);

Description

asprintf has the same behavior as sprintf, but calls malloc to dynamically allocate space for the output, and then puts the output string in that space.

asprintf stores the address of the string in ptr.

bind_textdomain_codeset

Name

bind_textdomain_codeset -- specify encoding for message retrieval from message catalog for domain DOMAINNAME

Synopsis

#include <libintl.h>

extern char *bind_textdomain_codeset(const char *domainname, const char *codeset);

Description

The bind_textdomain_codeset function can be used to specify the output codeset for message catalogs for domain domainname. The codeset aregument must be a valid codeset name which can be used tor the iconv_open() funtion, or a null pointer. If the codeset argument is the null pointer, then function returns the currently selected codeset for the domain with the name domainname. It returns null pointer if no codeset has yet been selected

The bind_textdomain_codeset function can be used several times. If used multiple times, with the same domainname argument, the later call overrrides the settings made by the earlier one.

The bind_textdomain_codeset function returns a pointer to a string containing the name of the selected codeset. The string is allocated internally in the function and must not be changed by the user.

Parameters

domainname

The domainname argument is applied to the currenlty active LC_MESSAGE locale. It is equivalent in syntax and meaning to the domainname argument to textdomain(), except that the selection of the domain is valid only for the duration of the call.

Return

Returns the currently selected codeset name. It returns null pointer if no codeset has yet been selected.

Errors

The function is not required to set the external errno variable.

See Also

gettext, dgettext, ngettext, dngettext, dcgettext, dcngettext, textdomain, bindtextdomain, bind_textdomain_codeset

bindresvport

Name

bindresvport -- bind socket to privileged IP port

Synopsis

#include <sys/types.h>
#include <rpc.rpc.h>

int bindresvport(int sd, struct sockaddr_in *sin);

Description

bindresvport binds a socket to a privileged IP port. This function can be used only by root.

Return Value

On success, 0 is returned. On error, -1 is returned and the global variable errno is set appropriately.

Errors

EPFNOSUPPORT

Address of sin did not match address family of sd.

bindtextdomain

Name

bindtextdomain -- specify the locale of a message catalog

Synopsis

#include <libintl.h>

extern char *bindtextdomain(const char *domainname, const char *dirname);

Description

bindtextdomain specifies that the domainname message catalog will be found in the dirname directory hierarchy, rather than in the system locale data base.

bindtextdomain applies domainname to the currently active LC_MESSAGE locale. This usage is equivalent in syntax and meaning to the textdomain function's application of domainname, except that the selection of the domain in bind_textdomain_codeset is valid only for the duration of the call.

dirname can be an absolute or relative pathname.

On success, bindtextdomain returns the directory pathname currently bound to the domain. On failure, a NULL pointer is returned.

See Also

gettext, dgettext, ngettext, dngettext, dcgettext, dcngettext, textdomain, bindtextdomain, bind_textdomain_codeset

cfmakeraw

Name

cfmakeraw -- get and set terminal attributes

Synopsis

#include <termios.h>

int cfmakeraw(struct termios *termios_p);

Description

cfmakeraw sets the terminal attributes as follows:
  termios_p->c_iflag &= ~(IGNBRK|BRKINT|PARMRK|ISTRIP
                          |INLCR|IGNCR|ICRNL|IXON);

  termios_p->c_oflag &= ~OPOST;

  termios_p->c_lflag &= ~(ECHO|ECHONL|ICANON|ISIG|IEXTEN);

  termios_p->c_cflag &= ~(CSIZE|PARENB);

  termios_p->c_cflag |= CS8;

termios_p points to a termios structure that contains the following members:
  tcflag_t c_iflag;      /* input modes */
  tcflag_t c_oflag;      /* output modes */
  tcflag_t c_cflag;      /* control modes */
  tcflag_t c_lflag;      /* local modes */
  cc_t c_cc[NCCS];       /* control chars */

Return Value

On success, 0 is returned. On error, -1 is returned and the global variable errno is set appropriately.

cfsetspeed

Name

cfsetspeed -- manipulate the termios structure

Synopsis

#include <termios.h>

int cfsetspeed(struct termios *t, speedt speed);

Description

cfsetspeed sets the baud rate values in the termios structure. The effects of the function on the terminal as described below do not become effective, nor are all errors detected, until the tcsetattr function is called. Certain values for baud rates set in termios and passed to tcsetattr have special meanings.

Getting and Setting the Baud Rate

Input and output baud rates are found in the termios structure. The unsigned integer speed_t is typdef'd in the include file termios.h. The value of the integer corresponds directly to the baud rate being represented; however, the following symbolic values are defined.
  #define B0      0
  #define B50     50
  #define B75     75
  #define B110    110
  #define B134    134
  #define B150    150
  #define B200    200
  #define B300    300
  #define B600    600
  #define B1200   1200
  #define B1800   1800
  #define B2400   2400
  #define B4800   4800
  #define B9600   9600
  #define B19200  19200
  #define B38400  38400
  #ifndef _POSIX_SOURCE
  #define EXTA    19200
  #define EXTB    38400
  #endif  /*_POSIX_SOURCE */

cfsetspeed sets both the input and output baud rates in the termios structure referenced by t to speed.

Return Value

On success, 0 is returned. On error, -1 is returned and the global variable errno is set appropriately.

daemon

Name

daemon -- run in the background

Synopsis

#include <unistd.h>

int daemon(int nochdir, int noclose);

Description

daemon allows programs to detach from the controlling terminal and run in the background as system daemons. Unless nochdir is non-ZERO, daemon changes the current working directory to the root (`/'). Unless noclose is non-zero, daemon will redirect standard input, standard output and standard error to /dev/null.

Return Value

On error, -1 is returned, and the global variable errno is set to any of the errors specified for the library functions fork(2) and setsid(2).

dcgettext

Name

dcgettext -- perform lookup in message catalog for the current LC_MESSAGES locale

Synopsis

#include <libintl.h>
#include <locale.h>

extern char *dcgettext(const char *domainname, const char *msgid, int category);

Description

dcgettext is a domain specified version of gettext.

Parameters

domainname

dcgettext applies domainname to the currently active LC_MESSAGE locale. This usage is equivalent in syntax and meaning to the textdomain function's application of domainname, except that the selection of the domain in dcgettext is valid only for the duration of the call.

msgid

a NULL-terminated string to be matched in the catalogue with respect to a specific domain and the current locale.

category

category is used for retrieving messages string for other than LC_MESSAGES category. Available value for category are LC_CTYPE, LC_COLLATE, LC_MESSAGES, LC_MONETARY,LC_NUMERIC, and LC_TIME.

dcgettext(domainname, msgid, LC_MESSAGES) has the same specification as dgettext(domainname, msgid). Note that LC_ALL must not be used.

Return Value

On success, the translated NULL-terminated string is returned. On error, msgid is returned.

Errors

dcgettext will not modify the errno global variable.

See Also

gettext, dgettext, ngettext, dngettext, dcgettext, dcngettext, textdomain, bindtextdomain, bind_textdomain_codeset

dcngettext

Name

dcngettext -- perform lookup in message catalog for the current LC_MESSAGES locale

Synopsis

#include <libintl.h>
#include <locale.h>

extern char *dcngettext(const char *domainname, const char *msgid1, const char *msgid2, unsigned long int n, int category);

Description

dcngettext is a plural version of dcgettext. (See dcgettext for more information.)

Parameters

domainname

dcngettext applies domainname to the currently active LC_MESSAGE locale. This usage is equivalent in syntax and meaning to the textdomain function's application of domainname, except that the selection of the domain in dcngettext is valid only for the duration of the call.

msgid1

a NULL-terminated string to be matched in the catalogue with respect to a specific domain and the current locale. If the value of n is 1 and no message catalogs containing a translation for msgid1 are found, msgid1 is returned.

msgid2

a NULL-terminated string to be returned if the value of n is not 1 and no message catalogs are found.

n

determines which plural form is returned, in a language and message catalog dependent way.

category

category is used for retrieving messages string for other than LC_MESSAGES category. Available value for category are LC_CTYPE, LC_COLLATE, LC_MESSAGES, LC_MONETARY,LC_NUMERIC, and LC_TIME.

dcngettext(domainname, msgid1, msgid2, n, LC_MESSAGES) has the same specification as dngettext(domainname, msgid1, msgid2, n). Note that LC_ALL must not be used.

Return Value

On success of a msgid1 query, the translated NULL-terminated string is returned. On error, the original msgid1 or msgid2 is returned, according to n.

Errors

dcngettext will not modify the errno global variable.

See Also

gettext, dgettext, ngettext, dngettext, dcgettext, dcngettext, textdomain, bindtextdomain, bind_textdomain_codeset

dgettext

Name

dgettext -- perform lookup in message catalog for the current LC_MESSAGES locale

Synopsis

#include <libintl.h>

extern char *dgettext(const char *domainname, const char *msgid);

Description

dgettext is a domain specified version of gettext.

Parameters

domainname

dgettext applies domainname to the currently active LC_MESSAGE locale. This usage is equivalent in syntax and meaning to the textdomain function's application of domainname, except that the selection of the domain in dgettext is valid only for the duration of the call.

msgid

a NULL-terminated string to be matched in the catalogue with respect to a specific domain and the current locale.

Return Value

On success of a msgid query, the translated NULL-terminated string is returned. On error, the original msgid is returned. The length of the string returned is undetermined until dgettext is called.

Errors

dgettext will not modify the errno global variable.

See Also

gettext, dgettext, ngettext, dngettext, dcgettext, dcngettext, textdomain, bindtextdomain, bind_textdomain_codeset

dngettext

Name

dngettext -- perform lookup in message catalog for the current LC_MESSAGES locale

Synopsis

#include <libintl.h>

extern char *dngettext(const char *domainname, const char *msgid1, const char *msgid2, unsigned long int n);

Description

dngettext is a plural version of dgettext. (See dgettext for more information.)

Parameters

domainname

dngettext applies domainname to the currently active LC_MESSAGE locale. This usage is equivalent in syntax and meaning to the textdomain function's application of domainname, except that the selection of the domain in dngettext is valid only for the duration of the call.

msgid1

a NULL-terminated string to be matched in the catalogue with respect to a specific domain and the current locale. If the value of n is 1 and no message catalogs containing a translation for msgid1 are found, msgid1 is returned.

msgid2

a NULL-terminated string to be returned if the value of n is not 1 and no message catalogs are found.

n

determines which plural form is returned, in a language and message catalog dependent way.

Return Value

On success of a msgid1 query, the translated NULL-terminated string is returned. On error, the original msgid1 or msgid2 is returned, according to n.

Errors

dcngettext will not modify the errno global variable.

See Also

gettext, dgettext, ngettext, dngettext, dcgettext, dcngettext, textdomain, bindtextdomain, bind_textdomain_codeset

err

Name

err -- display formatted error messages

Synopsis

#include <err.h>

void err(int eval, const char *fmt ...);

Description

err displays a formatted error message on the standard error output. The last component of the program name, a colon character, and a space are output. If fmt is non-NULL, the formatted error message, a colon character, and a space are output. The error message string affiliated with the current value of the global variable errno is output. The output is followed by a newline character.

err does not return, but exits with the value of eval.

error

Name

error -- print error message

Synopsis

void error(int exitstatus, int errnum, const char *format ...);

Description

error prints a message to standard error.

error builds the message from the following elements in their specified order:

  1. the program name. If the application has provided a function named error_print_progname, error calls this to supply the program name; otherwise, error uses the content of the global variable program_name.

  2. the COLON and SPACE characters, then the result of using the printf-style format and the optional arguments.

  3. if errnum is non-ZERO, error adds the COLON and SPACE characters, then the result of strerror(errnum).

  4. a newline.

If exitstatus is non-ZERO, error calls exit(exitstatus).

errx

Name

errx -- format error messages

Synopsis

#include <err.h>

void errx(int eval, const char *fmt ...);

Description

errx displays a formatted error message on the standard error output. The last component of the program name, a colon character, and a space are output. If fmt is non-NULL, the formatted error message, a colon character, and a space are output. The output is followed by a newline character.

errx does not return, but exits with the value of eval.

fcntl

Name

fcntl -- file control

Description

fcntl is as specified in the Single UNIX Specification, Version 3, but with differences as listed below.

Implementation may set O_LARGEFILE

According to the Single UNIX Specification, only an application sets fcntl flags, for example O_LARGEFILE. However, this specification also allows implementations to set O_LARGEFILE in a case in which the default behavior matches the O_LARGEFILE behavior. [13] Or in other words, calling fcntl with the F_GETFL command may return O_LARGEFILE as well as flags explicitly set by the application.

flock

Name

flock -- apply or remove an advisory lock on an open file

Synopsis

int flock(int fd, int operation);

Description

flock applies or removes an advisory lock on the open file fd. Valid operation types are:

LOCK_SH

Shared lock. More than one process may hold a shared lock for a given file at a given time.

LOCK_EX

Exclusive lock. Only one process may hold an exclusive lock for a given file at a given time.

LOCK_UN

Unlock.

LOCK_NB

Don't block when locking. May be specified (by oring) along with one of the other operations.

A single file may not simultaneously have both shared and exclusive locks.

Return Value

On success, 0 is returned. On error, -1 is returned and the global variable errno is set appropriately.

Errors

EWOULDBLOCK

The file is locked and the LOCK_NB flag was selected.

fstatfs

Name

fstatfs -- (deprecated)

Synopsis

#include <sys/vfs.h>

int fstatfs(int fd, struct statfs *buf);

Description

fstatfs is expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should call the fstatvfs interface.

fstatfs returns information about a mounted file system. fd is the open file descriptor of any file within the mounted filesystem. buf is a pointer to a statfs structure defined as follows:
  struct statfs {
             long   f_type;      /* type of filesystem (see below) */
             long   f_bsize;     /* optimal transfer block size */
             long   f_blocks;    /* total data blocks in file system */
             long   f_bfree;     /* free blocks in fs */
             long   f_bavail;    /* free blocks avail to non-superuser */
             long   f_files;     /* total file nodes in file system */
             long   f_ffree;     /* free file nodes in fs */
             fsid_t f_fsid;      /* file system id */
             long   f_namelen;   /* maximum length of filenames */
             long   f_spare[6];  /* spare for later */
  };

Fields that are undefined for a particular file system are set to 0.

Return Value

On success, 0 is returned. On error, -1 is returned and the global variable errno is set appropriately.

Errors

EBADF

fd is not a valid open file descriptor.

EFAULT

buf points to an invalid address.

EIO

An I/O error occurred while reading from or writing to the file system.

ENOSYS

The filesystem fd is open on does not support statfs.

fstatfs64

Name

fstatfs64 -- (deprecated)

Synopsis

#include <errno.h>
#include <sys/statfs.h>

int fstatfs64(int fd, struct statfs64 *buf);

Description

fstatfs64 is expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should call the fstatvfs64 interface.

fstatfs64 returns information about a mounted file system. fd is the open file descriptor of any file within the mounted filesystem.

fstatfs64 is the 64-bit version of fstatfs.

Return Value

On success, 0 is returned. On error, -1 is returned and the global variable errno is set appropriately.

getdomainname

Name

getdomainname -- get NIS domain name.

Synopsis

#include <unistd.h>

extern int getdomainname(char *name, size_t namelen);

Description

If NIS is in use, provide the NIS domain name. Note that this is not the same as the domain name which provides the domain portion of a fully qualified domain name (for example, in DNS). If NIS is not in use, provide the string "(none)".

If the string which is provided is strictly less than namelen characters in length, getdomainname places it in the array pointed to by name followed by a terminating null character. If not, getdomainname may either truncate it to namelen characters and place it in name (without a terminating null character), or may fail with EINVAL.

Return Value

getdomainname returns 0 if successful; -1 if not (in which case errno is set to indicate the error).

gethostbyname

Name

gethostbyname -- get network host entry

Synopsis

#include <netdb.h>

struct hostent *gethostbyname(const char name);

Description

gethostbyname returns a hostent structure for the given host name. Here, name is either a host name, or an IPv4 address in standard dot notation, or an IPv6 address in colon (and possibly dot) notation. (See RFC 1884 for the description of IPv6 addresses.) If name is an IPv4 or IPv6 address, no lookup is performed and gethostbyname simply copies name into the h_name field and its struct in_addr equivalent into the h_addr_list[0] field of the returned hostent structure. If name doesn't end in a dot and the environment variable HOSTALIASES is set, the alias file pointed to by HOSTALIASES will first be searched for name (see hostname(7) for the file format). The current domain and its parents are searched unless name ends in a dot.

The domain name queries carried out by gethostbyname use a combination of any or all of the name server named(8), a broken out line from /etc/hosts, and the Network Information Service (NIS or YP), depending upon the contents of the order line in /etc/host.conf. (See resolv+(8)). The default action is to query named(8), followed by /etc/hosts.

The hostent structure is defined in netdb.h as follows:
  struct hostent {
              char  *h_name;        /* official name of host */
              char  **h_aliases;    /* alias list */
              int   h_addrtype;     /* host address type */
              int   h_length;       /* length of address */
              char  **h_addr_list;  /* list of addresses */
  }

  #define  h_addr  h_addr_list[0]   /* for backward compatibility */

Return Value

gethostbyname returns the hostent structure or a NULL pointer if an error occurs. On error, the h_errno variable holds an error number.

Errors

ENOMEM

Insufficient memory to complete the operation.

gethostbyname_r

Name

gethostbyname_r -- find network host database entry matching host name

Synopsis

extern int gethostbyname_r(__const char *__restrict __name, (struct hostent *__restrict __result_buf), char *__restrict __buf, size_t __buflen, (struct hostent **__restrict __result), int *__restrict __h_errnop);

Description

gethostbyname_r is a reentrant version of gethostbyname that searches the network host database for a host name match.

getloadavg

Name

getloadavg -- get system load averages

Synopsis

#include <stdlib.h>

int getloadavg(double loadavg[], int nelem);

Description

getloadavg returns the number of processes in the system run queue averaged over various periods of time. Up to nelem samples are retrieved and assigned to successive elements of loadavg[]. The system imposes a maximum of 3 samples, representing averages over the last 1, 5, and 15 minutes, respectively.

getopt

Name

getopt -- parse command line options

Synopsis

int getopt(int argc, char * const argv[], const char *opstring);

extern char *optarg;
extern int optind, opterr, optopt;

GNU supports the following extensions of getopt:

int getopt_long(int argc, char * const argv[], const char *opstring, (const struct option *longopts), int *longindex);

int getopt_long_only(int argc, char * const argv[], const char *opstring, (const struct option *longopts), int *longindex);

Description

getopt parses command line arguments. GNU and POSIX specifications for this function vary in the following areas.

Option Characteristics

GNU specifies that:

  • an element of argv that starts with "-" (and is not exactly "-" or "--") is an option element.

  • characters of an option element, aside from the initial "-", are option characters.

POSIX specifies that:

  • applications using getopt must obey the following syntax guidelines:

    • option name is a single alphanumeric character from the portable character set

    • option is preceded by the "-" delimiter character

    • options without option-arguments should be accepted when grouped behind one "-" delimiter

    • each option and option-argument is a separate argument

    • option-arguments are not optional

    • all options should precede operands on the command line

    • the argument "--" is accepted as a delimiter indicating the end of options and the consideration of subsequent arguments, if any, as operands

  • historical implementations of getopt support other characters as options as an allowed extension, but applications that use extensions are not maximally portable.

  • support for multi-byte option characters is only possible when such characters can be represented as type int.

  • applications that call any utility with a first operand starting with "-" should usually specify "--" to mark the end of the options. Standard utilities that do not support this guideline indicate that fact in the OPTIONS section of the utility description.

Extensions

GNU specifies that:

  • if a character is followed by two colons, the option takes an optional arg; if there is text in the current argv element, it is returned in optarg, otherwise optarg is set to 0.

  • if optstring contains W followed by a ;, then -W foo is treated as the long option --foo. (Not available with libraries before GNU libc 2.)

  • getopt_long works like getopt except that getopt_long also accepts "long options", or, options that are prefaced with two dashes instead of one.

  • long option names may be abbreviated if the abbreviation is unique or an exact match for some defined option.

  • a long option may take a parameter, of the form --arg=param or --arg param.

  • getopt_long_only works like getopt_long, except that both "-" and "--" indicate long option. If an option that starts with "-" (not "--") doesn't match a long option, but does match a short option, it is parsed instead as a short option.

POSIX specifies that:

  • the -W option is reserved for implementation extensions.

Return Values

GNU specifies the following getopt return values:

  • the next option character is returned, if found successfully.

  • ":" is returned if a parameter is missing for one of the options.

  • "?" is returned if an unknown option character is encountered.

  • -1 is returned for the end of the option list.

GNU specifies the following getopt_long and getopt_long_only return values:

  • when short option is recognized, the option character is returned.

  • when long option is recognized, val is returned if flag is NULL, otherwise, 0 is returned.

  • error and -1 returns are the same as for getopt.

  • "?" is returned for an ambiguous match or an extraneous parameter.

POSIX specifies the following getopt return values:

  • the next option character is returned, if found successfully.

  • ":" is returned if a parameter is missing for one of the options and the first character of opstring is ":".

  • "?" is returned if an unknown option character not in optstring is encountered, or if getopt detects a missing argument and the first character of optstring is not ":".

  • -1 is returned for the end of the option list.

Environmental Variables

GNU specifies that:

  • if the variable POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, option processing stops as soon as a non-option argument is encountered.

  • if POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, GNU getopt conforms to POSIX.2.

  • the variable _[PID]_GNU_nonoption_argv_flags_ was used by bash 2.0 to communicate to GNU libc which arguments resulted from wildcard expansion and so should not be considered as options. This behavior was removed in bash version 2.01, but the support remains in GNU libc.

Environmental Variables

POSIX.2 Interpretation 150 reports a technical error in the function of getopt. GNU implements the correct behavior of getopt.

getopt_long

Name

getopt_long -- parse command line options

Synopsis

#define _GNU_SOURCE
#include <getopt.h>

int getopt_long(int argc, char * const argv[], const char *opstring, (const struct option *longopts), int *longindex);

Description

getopt_long works like getopt except that it also accepts long options, started out by two dashes. Long option names may be abbreviated if the abbreviation is unique or is an exact match for some defined option. A long option may take a parameter, of the form --arg=param or --arg param.

longopts is a pointer to the first element of an array of struct option declared in getopt.h as:
  struct option {
             const char *name;
             int *flag;
             int has_arg;
             int val;
  };

Return Value

getopt_long returns the option character if the option was found successfully, or ":" if there was a missing parameter for one of the options, or "?" for an unknown option character, or -1 for the end of the option list.

getopt_long also returns the option character when a short option is recognized. For a long option, they return val if flag is NULL, and 0 otherwise. Error and -1 returns are the same as for getopt, plus "?" for an ambiguous match or an extraneous parameter.

getopt_long_only

Name

getopt_long_only -- parse command line options

Synopsis

#define _GNU_SOURCE
#include <getopt.h>

int getopt_long_only(int argc, char * const argv[], const char *opstring, (const struct option *longopts), int *longindex);

Description

getopt_long_only is like getopt_long, but "-" as well as "--" can indicate a long option. If an option that starts with "-" (not "--") doesn't match a long option, but does match a short option, it is parsed as a short option instead.

Return Value

getopt_long_only returns the option character if the option was found successfully, or ":" if there was a missing parameter for one of the options, or "?" for an unknown option character, or -1 for the end of the option list.

getopt_long_only also returns the option character when a short option is recognized. For a long option, they return val if flag is NULL, and 0 otherwise. Error and -1 returns are the same as for getopt, plus "?" for an ambiguous match or an extraneous parameter.

getpwnam_r

Name

getpwnam_r -- reentrant version of getpwnam

Synopsis

#include <string.h>

extern int getpwnam_r(const char *name, (struct passwd *resultbuf), char *buffer, size_t buflen, (struct passwd **result));

Description

getpwnam_ris a reentrant version of getpwnam. The additional arguments resultsbuf and buffer are for internal storage, buflen the size of the buffer, and result is the password structure used to return the requested information.

gets

Name

gets -- get a line of input (deprecated)

Description

gets is expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should call the fgets interface. [14]

gets is as specified in the Single UNIX Specification.

getservbyname

Name

getservbyname -- get service entry by name

Synopsis

#include <netdb.h>

struct servent *getservbyname(const char *name, const char *proto);

Description

getservbyname returns a servent structure for the line from /etc/services that matches the service name using protocol proto.

The servent structure is defined in netdb.h as follows:
  struct servent {
              char  *s_name;      /* official service name */
              char  **s_aliases;  /* alias list */
              int   s_port;       /* port number */
              char  *s_proto;     /* protocol to use */
  }

Return Value

getservbyname returns the servent structure, or a NULL pointer if an error occurs or the end of the file is reached.

Files

/etc/services services database file

getservent

Name

getservent -- get service entry

Synopsis

#include <netdb.h>

struct servent *getservent(void);

Description

getservent reads the next line from the file /etc/services and returns a structure servent containing the broken out fields from the line. The /etc/services file is opened if necessary.

The servent structure is defined in netdb.h as follows:
  struct servent {
              char  *s_name;      /* official service name */
              char  **s_aliases;  /* alias list */
              int   s_port;       /* port number */
              char  *s_proto;     /* protocol to use */
  }

Return Value

getservent returns the servent structure, or a NULL pointer if an error occurs or the end of the file is reached.

Files

/etc/services services database file

gettext

Name

gettext -- perform lookup in message catalog for the current LC_MESSAGES locale

Synopsis

#include <libintl.h>

extern char *gettext(const char *msgid);

Description

gettext attempts to retrieve a target string based on the specified key from msgid within the context of a specific domain and the current locale.

The LANGUAGE environment variable is examined first to determine the message catalogs to be used. LANGUAGE is a list of locale names separated by ":" character. If LANGUAGE is defined, each locale name is tried in the specified order and if a message catalog containing the requested message is found, the message is returned. If LANGUAGE is defined but failed to locate a message catalog, the msgid string is returned. If LANGUAGE is not defined, the LC_ALL, LC_xxx, and LANG environment variables are examined to locate the message catalog, following the convention used by the setlocale function.

The pathname used to locate the message catalog is dirname/locale/category/domainname.mo, where dirname is the directory specified by the bindtextdomain function, locale is a locale name determined by the definition of environment variables, and category is LC_MESSAGES.

If the LC_MESSAGES locale category of the current locale is the standard C locale or the standard POSIX locale, gettext returns msgid without looking in any message catalog.

Parameters

msgid

A NULL-terminated string to be matched in the catalogue with respect to a specific domain and the current locale.

Return Value

If the function query above succeeds with msgid, then a translated NULL-terminated string is returned. If the search fails, then the original msgid is returned. The length of the string returned is undetermined until the function is called.

Errors

gettext does not modify the global variable errno.

See Also

gettext, dgettext, ngettext, dngettext, dcgettext, dcngettext, textdomain, bindtextdomain, bind_textdomain_codeset

getutent

Name

getutent -- access utmp file entries

Synopsis

#include <utmp.h>

struct utmp *getutent(void);

Description

getutent reads a line from the current file position in the utmp file. It returns a pointer to a structure containing the fields of the line.

Return Value

getutent returns a pointer to a static struct utmp.

Errors

On error, (struct utmp*)0 is returned.

Files

/var/run/utmp database of currently logged-in users

/var/log/wtmp database of past user logins

getutent_r

Name

getutent_r -- access utmp file entries

Synopsis

extern int getutent_r((struct utmp *__buffer), (struct utmp **__result));

Description

getutent_r is a reentrant version of the getutent utmp file handler.

glob64

Name

glob64 -- find pathnames matching a pattern (Large File Support)

Synopsis

#include <glob.h>

int glob64(const char *pattern, int flags, int (*errfunc) (const char *, int), glob64_t *pglob);

Description

glob64 searches for all the pathnames matching pattern according to the rules used by the shell. (See glob(7).) No tilde expansion or parameter substitution is done; if you want these, use wordexp(3).

The results of a glob64 call are stored in the structure pointed to by pglob, which is a glob64_t declared in glob.h and includes the following elements defined by POSIX.2 (more may be present as an extension):

glob64 is a 64-bit version of glob.

Return Value

On success, 0 is returned. Other possible returns are:

GLOB_NOSPACE

out of memory

GLOB_ABORTED

read error

GLOB_NOMATCH

no match found

globfree64

Name

globfree64 -- free memory from glob64() (Large File Support)

Synopsis

#include <glob.h>

void globfree64(glob64_t *pglob);

Description

globfree64 frees the dynamically allocated storage from an earlier call to glob64.

globfree64 is a 64-bit version of globfree.

initgroups

Name

initgroups -- initialize the supplementary group access list

Synopsis

#include <grp.h>
#include <sys/types.h>

int initgroups(const char *user, gid_t group);

Description

initgroups initializes the group access list by reading the group database and using all groups of which user is a member. The additional group group is also added to the list.

Return Value

On success, 0 is returned. On error, -1 is returned and the global variable errno is set appropriately.

Errors

EPERM

The calling process does not have sufficient privileges.

ENOMEM

Insufficient memory to allocate group information structure.

ioctl

Name

ioctl -- control device

Synopsis

#include <sys/ioctl.h>

int ioctl(int d, int request ...);

Description

ioctl manipulates the underlying device parameters of special files. d must be an open file descriptor. The type and value of the third parameter is dependent on the device and request.

An application may not call ioctl except for situations explicitly stated in this specification.

Return Value

On success, 0 is returned. An ioctl may use the return value as an output parameter and return a non-negative value on success. On error, -1 is returned and the global variable errno is set appropriately.

Errors

EBADF

d is not a valid descriptor.

EFAULT

The third parameter references an inaccessible memory area.

ENOTTY

d is not associated with a character special device.

ENOTTY

The specified request does not apply to the kind of object that d references.

EINVAL

request or the third parameter is not valid.

sockio

Name

sockio -- socket ioctl commands

Synopsis

#include <sys/socket.h>
#include <net/if.h>

int ioctl(int sockfd, int request, char *argp);

Description

Socket ioctl commands are a subset of the ioctl calls, which can perform a variety of functions on sockets. sockfd must contain the value of a file descriptor that was created with the socket or accept calls.

Socket ioctl commands apply to the underlying network interfaces, and affect the entire system, not just the file descriptor used to issue the ioctl.

The following ioctls are provided:

SIOCGIFCONF

Gets the interface configuration list for the system. [15] argp is a pointer to a ifconf structure. Before calling, the caller must allocate the ifc_ifcu.ifcu_req field to point to an array of ifreq structures, and set if_len to the size of this allocated array (in bytes). Upon return, if_len will contain the amount of the array which was actually used (again, in bytes). If it is the same as the length upon calling, the caller should assume that the array was too small and try again with a larger array.

On success, SIOCGIFCONF can return any nonnegative value. [16]

SIOCGIFFLAGS

Gets the interface flags for the indicated interface. argp is a pointer to a ifreq structure. Before calling, the caller should fill in the ifr_name field with the interface name, and upon return, the ifr_ifru.ifru_flags field is set with the interface flags.

SIOCGIFADDR

Gets the interface address list for the system. argp is a pointer to a ifreq structure. Before calling, the caller should fill in the ifr_name field with the interface name, and upon return, the ifr_ifru.ifru_addr field is set with the interface address.

SIOCGIFNETMASK

Gets the network mask for the indicated interface. argp is a pointer to a ifreq structure. Before calling, the caller should fill in the ifr_name field with the interface name, and upon return, the ifr_ifru.ifru_netmask field is set with the network mask.

The sockaddr structure is as specified in the Single UNIX Specification.

Return Value

On success, 0 is returned. On error, -1 is returned and the global variable errno is set appropriately.

Errors

EBADF

sockfd is not a valid descriptor.

EFAULT

argp references an inaccessible memory area.

ENOTTY

sockfd is not associated with a character special device.

ENOTTY

The specified request does not apply to the kind of object that the descriptor sockfd references.

EINVAL

request and argp are not valid.

iswctype

Name

iswctype -- wide character classification

Synopsis

#include <wctype.h>

int iswctype(wint_t wc, wctype_t desc);

Description

iswctype tests wc to determine if it is a wide character whose property is designated by the character class desc.

desc must be a character property descriptor returned by the wctype function.

Return Value

If wc belongs to the character class desc, a non-ZERO value is returned. Otherwise, 0 is returned.

Note that if wc is WEOF, 0 is returned.

Notes

The behavior of iswctype depends on the LC_CTYPE category of the current locale.

kill

Name

kill -- send a signal

Synopsis

int kill(pid_t pid, int sig);

Description

kill is as specified in the Single UNIX Specification, Version 2, but with differences as listed below.

Process ID -1 doesn't affect calling process

If pid is specified as -1, sig shall not be sent to the calling process. [17] Other than this, the rules in the Single UNIX Specification, Version 2 apply.

mbsnrtowcs

Name

mbsnrtowcs -- convert a multibyte string to a wide character string

Synopsis

#include <wchar.h>

size_t mbsnrtowcs(wchar_t *dest, const char **src, size_t nms, size_t len, mbstate_t *ps);

Description

mbsnrtowcs is like mbsrtowcs, except that the number of bytes to be converted, starting at src, is limited to nms.

If dest is not a NULL pointer, mbsnrtowcs converts at most nms bytes from the multibyte string src to a wide-character string starting at dest. At most, len wide characters are written to dest. The state ps is updated.

The conversion is effectively performed by repeatedly calling:
 
mbrtowc(dest, *src, n, ps)
where n is some positive number, as long as this call succeeds, and then incrementing dest by one and src by the number of bytes consumed.

The conversion can stop for three reasons:

  • An invalid multibyte sequence has been encountered. In this case src is left pointing to the invalid multibyte sequence, (size_t)(-1) is returned, and errno is set to EILSEQ.

  • The nms limit forces a stop, or len non-L'\0' wide characters have been stored at dest. In this case, src is left pointing to the next multibyte sequence to be converted, and the number of wide characters written to dest is returned.

  • The multibyte string has been completely converted, including the terminating '\0' (which has the side effect of bringing back ps to the initial state). In this case, src is set to NULL, and the number of wide characters written to dest, excluding the terminating L'\0' character, is returned.

If dest is NULL, len is ignored, and the conversion proceeds as above, except that the converted wide characters are not written out to memory, and that no destination length limit exists.

In both of the above cases, if ps is a NULL pointer, a static anonymous state only known to mbsnrtowcs is used instead.

The programmer must ensure that there is room for at least len wide characters at dest.

Return Value

mbsnrtowcs returns the number of wide characters that make up the converted part of the wide character string, not including the terminating null wide character. If an invalid multibyte sequence was encountered, (size_t)(-1) is returned, and the global variable errno is set to EILSEQ.

Notes

The behavior of mbsnrtowcs depends on the LC_CTYPE category of the current locale.

Passing NULL as ps is not multi-thread safe.

memmem

Name

memmem -- locate a substring

Synopsis

#define _GNU_SOURCE
#include <string.h>

void *memmem(const void *haystack, size_t haystacklen, const void *needle, size_t needlelen);

Description

memmem finds the start of the first occurrence of the substring needle of length needlelen in the memory area haystack of length haystacklen.

Return Value

memmem returns a pointer to the beginning of the substring, or NULL if the substring is not found.

Notes

memmem was broken in Linux libraries up to and including libc 5.0.9; there the needle and haystack arguments were interchanged, and a pointer to the end of the first occurrence of needle was returned. Since libc 5.0.9 is still widely used, this is a dangerous function to use.

Both old and new libc's have the bug that if needle is empty, haystack-1 is returned (instead of haystack). And glibc 2.0 makes it worse, returning a pointer to the last byte of haystack. This is fixed in glibc 2.1.

memrchr

Name

memrchr -- scan memory for a character

Synopsis

#include <string.h>

void *memrchr(const void *s, int c, size_t n);

Description

memrchr returns a pointer to the last occurrence of c in the first n characters of the string represented by s.

ngettext

Name

ngettext -- perform lookup in message catalog for the current LC_MESSAGES locale

Synopsis

#include <libintl.h>

extern char *ngettext(const char *msgid1, const char *msgid2, unsigned long int n);

Description

ngettext is the plural version of gettext, which searches for the message string using the msgid1 arguments as the key, using the argument n to determine the plural form. If no message catalogs containing a translation for msgid1 are found, msgid1 is returned if n == 1, otherwise, msgid2 is returned. (See gettext for more details.)

Parameters

msgid1

A NULL-terminated string to be matched in the catalogue with respect to a specific domain and the current locale. If no message catalogs are found, msgid1 is returned if n == 1.

msgid2

A NULL-terminated string to be returned if no message catalogs are found and n != 1.

n

Determines in which plural form a message string is returned, in a language and message catalog dependent way.

Return

If the function query above succeeds with msgid1, then a translated NULL-terminated string is returned. If the search fails, then the original msgid1 or msgid2 is returned, according to n.

Errors

ngettext will not modify the errno global variable.

See Also

gettext, dgettext, ngettext, dngettext, dcgettext, dcngettext, textdomain, bindtextdomain, bind_textdomain_codeset

nice

Name

nice -- set nice value

Description

nice is as specified in the Single UNIX Specification, but with differences as listed below.

As deprecated behavior, the return value of a successful call to nice may be 0 (rather than the new nice value). A future version of the LSB is expected to require the new nice value, as specified in the Single UNIX Specification. But until then, applications need to call the getpriority, rather than rely on the return value from nice.

obstack_free

Name

obstack_free -- free an object in the obstack

Synopsis

#include <obstack.h>

void obstack_free((struct obstack *obstack), void *block);

Description

obstack_free frees an object in the obstack.

opterr

Name

opterr -- external variable used in getopt()

Synopsis

extern int opterr;

Description

opterr is used as a flag to suppress an error message generated by getopt. When opterr is set to 0, it suppresses the error message generated by getopt when that function does not recognize an option character.

optind

Name

optind -- external variable used in getopt()

Synopsis

extern int optind;

Description

optind holds the current index of the array argr[], which contains the command line options being parsed by getopt.

optopt

Name

optopt -- external variable used in getopt()

Synopsis

extern int optopt;

Description

optopt holds the unknown option character when that option character is not recognized by getopt.

psignal

Name

psignal -- print signal message

Synopsis

#include <signal.h>

void psignal(int sig, const char *s);

extern const char *const sys_siglist[]

Description

psignal displays a message on stderr consisting of the string s, a colon, a space, and a string describing the signal number sig. If sig is invalid, the message displayed will indicate an unknown signal.

The array sys_siglist holds the signal description strings indexed by signal number.

Return Value

psignal returns no value.

random_r

Name

random_r -- generate random number

Synopsis

extern int random_r((struct random_data *__restrict __buf), int32_t *__restrict __result);

Description

random_r is a reentrant version of random, which generates a pseudorandom number.

setbuffer

Name

setbuffer -- stream buffering operation

Synopsis

#include <stdio.h>

void setbuffer(FILE *stream, char *buf, size_t size);

Description

setbuffer is an alias for the call to setvbuf. It works the same, except that the size of the buffer in setbuffer is up to the caller, rather than being determined by the default BUFSIZ.

setdomainname

Name

setdomainname -- set NIS domain name.

Synopsis

#include <unistd.h>

extern int setdomainname(char *name, size_t namelen);

Description

If NIS is in use, set the NIS domain name. Note that this is not the same as the domain name which provides the domain portion of a fully qualified domain name (for example, in DNS). If NIS is not in use, this function may set the domain name anyway, or it may fail.

This call shall fail unless the caller has appropriate privileges.

namelen shall be the length of the string pointed to by name.

Return Value

setdomainname returns 0 if successful; -1 if not (in which case errno is set to indicate the error).

setegid

Name

setegid -- set effective group ID

Description

setegid is as specified in the Single UNIX Specification, Version 3.

setenv

Name

setenv -- change or add an environment variable

Synopsis

#include <stdlib.h>

int setenv(const char *name, const char *value, int overwrite);

Description

setenv is as specified in the Single UNIX Specification, Version 3.

seteuid

Name

seteuid -- set effective user ID

Description

seteuid is as specified in the Single UNIX Specification, Version 3.

setgroups

Name

setgroups -- set list of supplementary group IDs

Synopsis

#include <grp.h>

int setgroups(size_t size, const gid_t *list);

Description

setgroups sets the supplementary groups for the process. Only the super-user may use this function.

Return Value

On success, 0 is returned. On error, -1 is returned and the global variable errno is set appropriately.

Errors

EFAULT

list has an invalid address.

EPERM

The user is not the super-user.

EINVA

size is greater than NGROUPS (32 for Linux 2.0.32).

sethostid

Name

sethostid -- set the unique identifier of the current host

Synopsis

#include <unistd.h>

int sethostid(long int hostid);

Description

sethostid sets a unique 32-bit identifier for the current machine. The 32-bit identifier is intended to be unique among all UNIX systems in existence. This normally resembles the Internet address for the local machine as returned by gethostbyname(3), and thus usually never needs to be set.

The sethostid call is restricted to the superuser.

hostid is stored in the file /etc/hostid.

Return Value

gethostid returns the 32-bit identifier for the current host as set by sethostid(2).

Files

/etc/hostid

sethostname

Name

sethostname -- set host name

Synopsis

#include <unistd.h>

int sethostname(const char *name, size_t len);

Description

sethostname changes the host name of the current processor.

Return Value

On success, 0 is returned. On error, -1 is returned and the global variable errno is set appropriately.

Errors

EINVAL

len is negative or larger than the maximum allowed size.

EPERM

the caller was not the superuser.

EFAULT

name is an invalid address.

Notes

The Single UNIX Specification, Version 2 guarantees that:

Host names are limited to 255 bytes.

setmntent

Name

setmntent -- (deprecated)

Synopsis

#include <stdio.h>
#include <mntent.hgrt;

FILE *setmntent(const char *filename, const char *type);

Description

setmntent is expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should avoid its use. [18]

setnmtent accesses the file system description file /etc/fstab and the mounted file system description file /etc/mtab.

setmntent opens the file system description file filep and returns a file pointer that can be used by getmntent. type is the type of access required and can take the same values as the mode argument of fopen(3).

The mntent structure is defined in mntent.h as follows:
  struct mntent {
             char  *mnt_fsname;  /* name of mounted file system */
             char  *mnt_dir;     /* file system path prefix */
             char  *mnt_type;    /* mount type (see mntent.h) */
             char  *mnt_opts;    /* mount options (see mntent.h) */
             int   mnt_freq;     /* dump frequency in days */
             int   mnt_passno;   /* pass number on parallel fsck */
  };

Files

/etc/fstab file system description file /etc/mtab mounted file system description file

setutent

Name

setutent -- access utmp file entries

Synopsis

#include <utmp.h>

void setutent(void);

Description

setutent rewinds the file pointer to the beginning of the utmp file. It is generally a Good Idea to call it before any of the other functions.

Errors

On error, (struct utmp*)0 will be returned.

Files

/var/run/utmp database of currently logged-in users /var/log/wtmp database of past user logins

sigandset

Name

sigandset -- build a new signal set by combining the two input sets using logical AND

Synopsis

#include <signal.h>

extern int sigandset(sigset_t *set, const sigset_t *left, const sigset_t *right);

Description

sigandset is a signal function that builds a new signal set by combining the two input sets using logical AND.

sigblock

Name

sigblock -- manipulate the signal mask

Synopsis

#include <signal.h>

int sigblock(int mask);

Description

sigblock is made obsolete by sigprocmask(2).

sigblock adds the signals specified in mask to the set of signals currently being blocked from delivery.

Notes

Prototype for sigblock is only available if _BSD_SOURCE is defined before the inclusion of any system.

siggetmask

Name

siggetmask -- manipulate the signal mask

Synopsis

#include <signal.h>

int siggetmask(void);

Description

siggetmask is made obsolete by sigprocmask(2).

siggetmask returns the current set of masked signals.

Notes

Prototype for siggetmask is only available if _BSD_SOURCE is defined before the inclusion of any system header file.

sigisemptyset

Name

sigisemptyset -- check for empty signal set

Synopsis

#include <signal.h>

extern int sigisemptyset(const sigset_t *set);

Description

sigisemptyset checks for empty signal set. It returns a non-empty value if set is not empty.

sigorset

Name

sigorset -- build a new signal set by combining the two input sets using logical OR

Synopsis

#include <signal.h>

extern int sigorset(sigset_t *set, const sigset_t *left, const sigset_t *right);

Description

sigorset is a signal function that builds a new signal set by combining the two input sets using logical OR.

sigreturn

Name

sigreturn -- return from signal handler and cleanup stack frame

Synopsis

int sigreturn(unsigned long __unused);

Description

When the Linux kernel creates the stack frame for a signal handler, a call to sigreturn is inserted into the stack frame so that the the signal handler will call sigreturn upon return. This inserted call to sigreturn cleans up the stack so that the process can restart from where it was interrupted by the signal.

Return Value

sigreturn never returns.

Warning

sigreturn is used by the kernel to implement signal handlers. It should never be called directly. Better yet, the specific use of __unused varies depending on the architecture.

Files

/usr/src/linux/arch/i386/kernel/signal.c

/usr/src/linux/arch/alpha/kernel/entry.s

statfs

Name

statfs -- (deprecated)

Synopsis

#include <sys/vfs.h>

int statfs(const char *path, (struct statfs *buf));

Description

statfs is expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should call the statvfs interface.

statfs returns information about a mounted file system. path is the path name of any file within the mounted filesystem.

buf is a pointer to a statfs structure defined as follow:
  struct statfs {
             long    f_type;      /* type of filesystem (see below) */
             long    f_bsize;     /* optimal transfer block size */
             long    f_blocks;    /* total data blocks in file system */
             long    f_bfree;     /* free blocks in fs */
             long    f_bavail;    /* free blocks avail to non-superuser */
             long    f_files;     /* total file nodes in file system */
             long    f_ffree;     /* free file nodes in fs */
             long    f_ffree;     /* free file nodes in fs */
             fsid_t  f_fsid;      /* file system id */
             long    f_namelen;   /* maximum length of filenames */
             long    f_spare[6];  /* spare for later */
  };

Fields that are undefined for a particular file system are set to 0.

Return Value

On success, 0 is returned. On error, -1 is returned and the global variable errno is set appropriately.

Errors

ENOTDIR

A component of the path prefix of path is not a directory.

ENAMETOOLONG

path is too long.

ENOENT

The file referred to by path does not exist.

EACCES

Search permission is denied for a component of the path prefix of path.

ELOOP

Too many symbolic links were encountered in translating path.

EFAULT

buf or path points to an invalid address.

EIO

An I/O error occurred while reading from or writing to the file system.

ENOMEM

Insufficient kernel memory was available.

ENOSYS

The filesystem path is on does not support statfs.

statfs64

Name

statfs64 -- (deprecated)

Synopsis

#include <sys/statfs.h>

int statfs64(__const char *__file, (struct statfs64 *__buf));

Description

statfs64 is expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should call the statvfs64 interface.

statfs64 returns information about a mounted file system.

statfs64 is the 64-bit version of statfs.

Return Value

On success, 0 is returned. On error, -1 is returned and the global variable errno is set appropriately.

stime

Name

stime -- set time

Synopsis

#define _SVID_SOURCE  /* glibc needs this */
#include <time.h>

int stime(time_t *t);

Description

stime sets the system's idea of the time and date. Time, pointed to by t, is measured in seconds from 00:00:00 GMT January 1, 1970. stime may only be executed by the super user.

Return Value

On success, 0 is returned. On error, -1 is returned and the global variable errno is set appropriately.

Errors

EPERM

The caller is not the super-user.

Notes

Under glibc2, time.h only provides a prototype when _SVID_SOURCE is defined.

stpcpy

Name

stpcpy -- copy a string returning a pointer to its end

Synopsis

#include <string.h>

char *stpcpy(char *dest, const char *src);

Description

stpcpy copies the string pointed to by src (including the terminating \0 character) to the array pointed to by dest. The strings may not overlap, and the destination string dest must be large enough to receive the copy.

Return Value

stpcpy returns a pointer to the end of the string dest (that is, the address of the terminating NULL character) rather than the beginning.

Example

This program uses stpcpy to concatenate foo and bar to produce foobar, which it then prints.
  #include <string.h>

  int
  main (void)
  {
    char *to = buffer;
    to = stpcpy (to, "foo");
    to = stpcpy (to, "bar");
    printf ("%s\n", buffer);
  }

stpncpy

Name

stpncpy -- copy a fixed-size string, returning a pointer to its end

Synopsis

#include <string.h>

char *stpncpy(char *dest, const char *src, size_t n);

Description

stpncpy copies at most n characters from the string pointed to by src, including the terminating \0 character, to the array pointed to by dest. Exactly n characters are written at dest. If the length strlen(src) is smaller than n, the remaining characters in dest are filled with \0 characters. If the length strlen(src) is greater than or equal to n, dest will not be \0 terminated.

The strings may not overlap.

The programmer must ensure that there is room for at least n characters at dest.

Return Value

stpncpy returns a pointer to the terminating NULL in dest, or, if dest is not NULL-terminated, dest + n.

strcasestr

Name

strcasestr -- locate a substring - ignores the case of both strings

Synopsis

#include <string.h>

char *strcasestr(const char *haystack, const char *needle);

Description

strcasestr is similar to strstr, but ignores the case of both strings.

strerror_r

Name

strerror_r -- reentrant version of strerror

Synopsis

#include <string.h>

extern char *strerror_r(int errnum, char *buf, size_t buflen);

Description

strerror_r is a reentrant version of strerror. strerror_r returns a pointer to an error message corresponding to error number errnum. The returned pointer may point within the buffer buf (at most buflen bytes). [19]

strfry

Name

strfry -- randomize a string

Synopsis

#include <string.h>

char *strfry(char *string);

Description

strfry randomizes the contents of string by using rand(3) to randomly swap characters in the string. The result is an anagram of string.

Return Value

strfry returns a pointer to the randomized string.

strndup

Name

strndup -- return a malloc'd copy of at most the specified number of bytes of a string

Synopsis

#include <string.h>

extern char *strndup(const char *string, size_t n);

Description

strndup returns a malloc'd copy of at most n bytes of string. The resultant string is terminated even if no NULL terminator appears before STRING[N].

strnlen

Name

strnlen -- determine the length of a fixed-size string

Synopsis

#include <string.h>

size_t strnlen(const char *s, size_t maxlen);

Description

strnlen returns the number of characters in the string s, not including the terminating \0 character, but at most maxlen. In doing this, strnlen looks only at the first maxlen characters at s and never beyond s + maxlen.

Return Value

strnlen returns strlen(s), if that is less than maxlen, or maxlen if there is no \0 character among the first maxlen characters pointed to by s.

strptime

Name

strptime -- parse a time string

Description

strptime is as specified in the Single UNIX Specification, Version 2 with differences as listed below.

Number of leading zeroes limited

The Single UNIX Specification, Version 2 specifies fields for which "leading zeros are permitted but not required"; however, applications must not expect to be able to supply more leading zeroes for these fields than would be implied by the range of the field. Implementations may choose to either match an input with excess leading zeroes, or treat this as a non-matching input. For example, %j has a range of 001 to 366, so 0, 00, 000, 001, and 045 are acceptable inputs, but inputs such as 0000, 0366 and the like are not.

Rationale

glibc developers consider it appropriate behavior to forbid excess leading zeroes. When trying to parse a given input against several format strings, forbidding excess leading zeroes could be helpful. For example, if one matches 0011-12-26 against %m-%d-%Y and then against %Y-%m-%d, it seems useful for the first match to fail, as it would be perverse to parse that date as November 12, year 26. The second pattern parses it as December 26, year 11.

The Single UNIX Specification is not explicit that an unlimited number of leading zeroes are required, although it may imply this. The LSB explicitly allows implementations to have either behavior. Future versions of this standard may require implementations to forbid excess leading zeroes.

strsep

Name

strsep -- extract token from string

Synopsis

#include <string.h>

char *strsep(char **stringp, const char *delim);

Description

If stringp is NULL, strsep returns NULL and does nothing else.

If stringp is non-NULL, strsep finds the first token in the stringp, where tokens are delimited by symbols in the string delim. This token is terminated with a \0 character (by overwriting the delimiter) and stringp is updated to point past the token. In case no delimiter was found, the token is taken to be the entire string stringp, and stringp is made NULL.

Return Value

strsep returns a pointer to the token, that is, it returns the original value of stringp.

Notes

strsep was introduced as a replacement for strtok, since the latter cannot handle empty fields. However, strtok conforms to ANSI-C and hence is more portable.

Bugs

strsep suffers from the same problems as strtok. In particular, strsep modifies the original string. Avoid it.

strsignal

Name

strsignal -- return string describing signal

Synopsis

#define _GNU_SOURCE
#include <string.h>

char *strsignal(int sig);

extern const char * const sys_siglist[];

Description

strsignal returns a string describing the signal number sig. The string can only be used until the next call to strsignal.

The array sys_siglist holds the signal description strings indexed by signal number. strsignal should be used if possible instead of this array.

Return Value

strsignal returns the appropriate description string, or an unknown signal message if the signal number is invalid. On some systems (but not on Linux), a NULL pointer may be returned instead for an invalid signal number.

strtok_r

Name

strtok_r -- extract tokens from strings

Synopsis

#include <string.h>

char *strtok_r(char *s, const char *delim, char **ptrptr);

Description

strtok_r parses the string s into tokens. [20] The first call to strtok_r should have s as its first argument. Subsequent calls should have the first argument set to NULL. Each call returns a pointer to the next token, or NULL when no more tokens are found.

If a token ends with a delimiter, this delimiting character is overwritten with a \0 and a pointer to the next character is saved for the next call to strtok_r. The delimiter string delim may be different for each call.

ptrptr is a user allocated char* pointer. It must be the same while parsing the same string.

Bugs

Never use this function. Note that:

  • It modifies its first argument.

  • The identity of the delimiting character is lost.

  • It cannot be used on constant strings.

Return Value

strtok_r returns a pointer to the next token, or NULL if there are no more tokens.

strtoq

Name

strtoq -- convert string value to a long or quad_t integer

Synopsis

#include <sys/types.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <limits.h>

quadt strtoq(const char *nptr, char **endptr, int base);

Description

strtoq converts the string nptr to a quadt value. The conversion is done according to the given base, which must be between 2 and 36 inclusive, or be the special value 0.

nptr may begin with an arbitrary amount of white space (as determined by isspace(3)), followed by a single optional + or - sign character. If base is 0 or 16, the string may then include a 0x prefix, and the number will be read in base 16; otherwise, a 0 base is taken as 10 (decimal), unless the next character is 0, in which case it is taken as 8 (octal).

The remainder of the string is converted to a long value in the obvious manner, stopping at the first character which is not a valid digit in the given base. (In bases above 10, the letter A in either upper or lower case represents 10, B represents 11, and so forth, with Z representing 35.)

Return Value

strtoq returns the result of the conversion, unless the value would underflow or overflow. If an underflow occurs, strtoq returns QUAD_MIN. If an overflow occurs, strtoq returns QUAD_MAX. In both cases, the global variable errno is set to ERANGE.

Errors

ERANGE

The given string was out of range; the value converted has been clamped.

strtouq

Name

strtouq -- convert a string to an uquad_t

Synopsis

#include <sys/types.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <limits.h>

uquadt strtouq(const char *nptr, char **endptr, int base);

Description

strtouq converts the string nptr to a uquadt value. The conversion is done according to the given base, which must be between 2 and 36 inclusive, or be the special value 0.

nptr may begin with an arbitrary amount of white space (as determined by isspace(3)), followed by a single optional + or - sign character. If base is 0 or 16, the string may then include a 0x prefix, and the number will be read in base 16; otherwise, a 0 base is taken as 10 (decimal), unless the next character is 0, in which case it is taken as 8 (octal).

The remainder of the string is converted to an unsigned long value in the obvious manner, stopping at the end of the string or at the first character that does not produce a valid digit in the given base. (In bases above 10, the letter A in either upper or lower case represents 10, B represents 11, and so forth, with Z representing 35.)

Return Value

On success, strtouq returns either the result of the conversion or, if there was a leading minus sign, the negation of the result of the conversion, unless the original (non-negated) value would overflow. In the case of an overflow the function returns UQUAD_MAX and the global variable errno is set to ERANGE.

Errors

ERANGE

The given string was out of range; the value converted has been clamped.

strverscmp

Name

strverscmp -- compare strings holding name and indices/version numbers

Synopsis

#include <string.h>

extern int strverscmp(const char *s1, const char *s2);

Description

strverscmp compares s1 and s2 as strings holding name and indices/version numbers.

system

Name

system -- execute a shell command

Synopsis

#include <stdlib.h>

int system(const char *string);

Description

system executes a command specified in string by calling /bin/sh -c string, and returns after the command has been completed. During execution of the command, SIGCHLD will be blocked, and SIGINT and SIGQUIT will be ignored.

Return Value

The value 127 returned if the execve call for /bin/sh fails, -1 if there was another error and the return code of the command otherwise.

If the value of string is NULL, system returns a non-ZERO value if the shell is available, and ZERO if not.

system does not affect the wait status of any other children.

Notes

The fact that system ignores interrupts is often not what a program wants. The Single UNIX Specification describes some of the consequences; an additional consequence is that a program calling system from a loop cannot be reliably interrupted. Many programs will want to use the exec(3) family of functions instead.

Do not use system from a program with suid or sgid privileges, because strange values for some environment variables might be used to subvert system integrity. Use the exec(3) family of functions instead, but not execlp(3) or execvp(3). system will not, in fact, work properly from programs with suid or sgid privileges on systems on which /bin/sh is bash version 2, since bash 2 drops privileges on startup. (Debian uses a modified bash which does not do this when invoked as sh.)

The check for the availability of /bin/sh is not actually performed; it is always assumed to be available. ISO C specifies the check, but POSIX.2 specifies that the return shall always be non-ZERO, since a system without the shell is not conforming, and it is this that is implemented.

It is possible for the shell command to return 127, so that code is not a sure indication that the execve call failed; check the global variable errno to make sure.

textdomain

Name

textdomain -- set the current default message catalog

Synopsis

#include <libintl.h>

extern char *textdomain(const char *domainname);

Description

textdomain sets the current default message catalog to domainname, which remains valid across subsequent calls to setlocale, and gettext.

Return

On success, textdomain returns the currently selected domain. On error, a NULL pointer is returned.

If domainname is NULL, textdomain returns the current default.

If domainname is "", reset to the default of "messages".

Errors

ENOMEM

The function may have failed if there was "insufficent memory available."

unlink

Name

unlink -- remove a directory entry

Synopsis

int unlink(const char *path);

Description

unlink is as specified in the Single UNIX Specification, Version 2, but with differences as listed below.

See also Additional behaviors: unlink/link on directory>.

May return EISDIR on directories

If path specifies a directory, the implementation may return EISDIR instead of EPERM as specified by Single UNIX Specification, Version 2. [21]

unsetenv

Name

unsetenv -- delete an environment variable

Synopsis

#include <stdlib.h>

void unsetenv(const char *name);

Description

unsetenv is as specified in the Single UNIX Specification, Version 3.

vasprintf

Name

vasprintf -- write formatted output to a string dynamically allocated with malloc and store the address of the string

Synopsis

#include <stdio.h>

extern int vasprintf(char **restrict ptr, const char *restrict f, G_va_list arg);

Description

vasprintf writes formatted output to a string dynamically allocated with malloc, and stores the address of the string in ptr.

vdprintf

Name

vdprintf -- write formatted output to a file descriptor

Synopsis

#include <stdio.h>

extern int vdprintf(int fd, const char *restrict fmt, G_va_list arg);

Description

vdprintf writes formatted output to a file descriptor.

verrx

Name

verrx -- display formatted error messages

Synopsis

#include <err.h>

void verrx(int eval, const char *fmt, valist args);

Description

verrx displays a formatted error message on the standard error output. The last component of the program name, a COLON character, and a SPACE are output. If fmt is not NULL, the formatted error message, a COLON, and a SPACE are output. The output is followed by a newline character.

verrx does not return, but exits with the value of eval.

vsyslog

Name

vsyslog -- log to system log

Synopsis

void vsyslog(int priority, char *message, va_list arglist);

Description

vsyslog is identical to syslog as specified in the Single UNIX Specification, except that arglist (as defined by stdarg.h) replaces the variable number of arguments.

The caller is responsible for running va_end after calling vsyslog.

wait3

Name

wait3 -- wait for child process

Description

wait3 is as specified in the Single UNIX Specification, Version 2, but with differences as listed below.

Notes

Implementations need not support the functionality of WCONTINUED or WIFCONTINUED.

wait4

Name

wait4 -- wait for process termination, BSD style

Synopsis

#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/resource.h>
#include <sys/wait.h>

pid_t wait4(pid_t pid, int *status, int options, (struct rusage *rusage));

Description

wait4 suspends execution of the current process until a child (as specified by pid) has exited, or until a signal is delivered whose action is to terminate the current process or to call a signal handling function. If a child (as requested by pid) has already exited by the time of the call (a so-called "zombie" process), the function returns immediately. Any system resources used by the child are freed.

The value of pid can be one of:

< -1

wait for any child process whose process group ID is equal to the absolute value of pid.

-1

wait for any child process; this is equivalent to calling wait3.

0

wait for any child process whose process group ID is equal to that of the calling process.

> 0

wait for the child whose process ID is equal to the value of pid.

The value of options is a bitwise OR of zero or more of the following constants:

WNOHANG

return immediately if no child is there to be waited for.

WUNTRACED

return for children that are stopped, and whose status has not been reported.

If status is not NULL, wait4 stores status information in the location status. This status can be evaluated with the following macros: [22]

WIFEXITED(status)

is non-ZERO if the child exited normally.

WEXITSTATUS(status)

evaluates to the least significant eight bits of the return code of the child that terminated, which may have been set as the argument to a call to exit or as the argument for a return statement in the main program. This macro can only be evaluated if WIFEXITED returned non-ZERO.

WIFSIGNALED(status)

returns true if the child process exited because of a signal that was not caught.

WTERMSIG(status)

returns the number of the signal that caused the child process to terminate. This macro can only be evaluated if WIFSIGNALED returned non-ZERO.

WIFSTOPPED(status)

returns true if the child process that caused the return is currently stopped; this is only possible if the call was done using WUNTRACED.

WSTOPSIG(status)

returns the number of the signal that caused the child to stop. This macro can only be evaluated if WIFSTOPPED returned non-ZERO.

If rusage is not NULL, the struct rusage (as defined in sys/resource.h) that it points to will be filled with accounting information. (See getrusage(2) for details.

Return Value

On success, the process ID of the child that exited is returned. On error, -1 is returned (in particular, when no unwaited-for child processes of the specified kind exist), or 0 if WNOHANG was used and no child was available yet. In the latter two cases, the global variable errno is set appropriately.

Errors

ECHILD

No unwaited-for child process as specified does exist.

ERESTARTSYS

A WNOHANG was not set and an unblocked signal or a SIGCHILD was caught. This error is returned by the system call. The library interface is not allowed to return ERESTARTSYS, but will return EINTR.

waitid

Name

waitid -- (deprecated)

Description

waitid is expected to disappear from a future version of the LSB; applications should call the waitpid interface.

waitid is as specified in the Single UNIX Specification, Version 2.

waitpid

Name

waitpid -- wait for child process

Description

waitpid is as specified in the Single UNIX Specification, but with differences as listed below.

Need not support WCONTINUED

Implementations need not support the functionality of WCONTINUED or WIFCONTINUED.

warn

Name

warn -- formatted error messages

Synopsis

#include <err.h>

void warn(const char *fmt ...);

Description

warn displays a formatted error message on the standard error output. The last component of the program name, a COLON character, and a SPACE are output. If fmt is not NULL, the formatted error message, a COLON, and SPACE are output. The error message string affiliated with the current value of the global variable errno is output. The output is followed by a newline character.

warnx

Name

warnx -- formatted error messages

Synopsis

#include <err.h>

void warnx(const char *fmt ...);

Description

warnx displays a formatted error message on the standard error output. The last component of the program name, a COLON character, and a SPACE are output. If fmt is not NULL, the formatted error message, a COLON, and SPACE are output. The output is followed by a newline character.

wcpcpy

Name

wcpcpy -- copy a wide character string, returning a pointer to its end

Synopsis

#include <wchar.h>

wchar_t *wcpcpy(wchar_t *dest, const wchar_t *src);

Description

wcpcpy is the wide-character equivalent of stpcpy. It copies the wide character string src, including the terminating L'\0' character, to the array dest.

The strings may not overlap.

The programmer must ensure that there is room for at least wcslen(src)+1 wide characters at dest.

Return Value

wcpcpy returns a pointer to the end of the wide-character string dest, that is, a pointer to the terminating L'\0' character.

wcpncpy

Name

wcpncpy -- copy a fixed-size string of wide characters, returning a pointer to its end

Synopsis

#include <wchar.h>

wchar_t *wcpncpy(wchar_t *dest, const wchar_t *src, size_t n);

Description

wcpncpy is the wide-character equivalent of stpncpy. It copies at most n wide characters from the wide-character string src, including the terminating L'\0' character, to the array dest. Exactly n wide characters are written at dest. If the length wcslen(src) is smaller than n, the remaining wide characters in the array dest are filled with L'\0' characters. If the length wcslen(src) is greater than or equal to n, the string dest will not be L'\0' terminated.

The strings may not overlap.

The programmer must ensure that there is room for at least n wide characters at dest.

Return Value

wcpncpy returns a pointer to the last wide character written, i.e., dest + n - 1.

wcscasecmp

Name

wcscasecmp -- compare two wide-character strings, ignoring case

Synopsis

#include <wchar.h>

int wcscasecmp(const wchar_t *s1, const wchar_t *s2);

Description

wcscasecmp is the wide-character equivalent of strcasecmp. It compares the wide-character string s1 and the wide-character string s2, ignoring case differences (towupper, towlower).

Return Value

wcscasecmp returns 0 if the wide-character strings s1 and s2 are equal except for case distinctions. It returns a positive integer if s1 is greater than s2, ignoring case. It returns a negative integer if s1 is smaller than s2, ignoring case.

Notes

The behavior of wcscasecmp depends upon the LC_CTYPE category of the current locale.

wcsdup

Name

wcsdup -- duplicate a wide-character string

Synopsis

#include <wchar.h>

wchar_t *wcsdup(const wchar_t *s);

Description

wcsdup is the wide-character equivalent of strdup. It allocates and returns a new wide-character string whose initial contents is a duplicate of the wide-character string s.

Memory for the new wide-character string is obtained with malloc(3), and can be freed with free(3).

Return Value

wcsdup returns a pointer to the new wide-character string, or NULL if sufficient memory was not available.

wcsncasecmp

Name

wcsncasecmp -- compare two fixed-size wide-character strings, ignoring case

Synopsis

#include <wchar.h>

int wcsncasecmp(const wchar_t *s1, const wchar_t *s2, size_t n);

Description

wcsncasecmp is the wide-character equivalent of strncasecmp. It compares the wide-character string s1 and the wide-character string s2, but at most n wide characters from each string, ignoring case differences (towupper, towlower).

Return Value

wcscasecmp returns 0 if the wide-character strings s1 and s2, truncated to at most length n, are equal except for case distinctions. It returns a positive integer if truncated s1 is greater than truncated s2, ignoring case. It returns a negative integer if truncated s1 is smaller than truncated s2, ignoring case.

Notes

The behavior of wcsncasecmp depends upon the LC_CTYPE category of the current locale.

wcsnlen

Name

wcsnlen -- determine the length of a fixed-size wide-character string

Synopsis

#include <wchar.h>

size_t wcsnlen(const wchar_t *s, size_t maxlen);

Description

wcsnlen is the wide-character equivalent of strnlen. It returns the number of wide-characters in the string s, not including the terminating L'\0' character, but at most maxlen. In doing this, wcsnlen looks only at the first maxlen wide-characters at s and never beyond s + maxlen.

Return Value

wcsnlen returns wcslen(s) if that is less than maxlen, or maxlen if there is no L'\0' character among the first maxlen wide characters pointed to by s.

Notes

The behavior of wcsncasecmp depends on the LC_CTYPE category of the current locale.

wcsnrtombs

Name

wcsnrtombs -- convert a wide character string to a multi-byte string

Synopsis

#include <wchar.h>

size_t wcsnrtombs(char *dest, const wchar_t **src, size_t nwc, size_t len, mbstate_t *ps);

Description

wcsnrtombs is like wcsrtombs, except that the number of wide characters to be converted, starting at src, is limited to nwc.

If dest is not a NULL pointer, wcsnrtombs converts at most nwc wide characters from the wide-character string src to a multibyte string starting at dest. At most len bytes are written to dest. The state ps is updated.

The conversion is effectively performed by repeatedly calling:
wcrtomb(dest, *src, ps)
as long as this call succeeds, and then incrementing dest by the number of bytes written and src by 1.

The conversion can stop for three reasons:

  • A wide character has been encountered that cannot be represented as a multibyte sequence (according to the current locale). In this case src is left pointing to the invalid wide character, (size_t)(-1) is returned, and errno is set to EILSEQ.

  • nws wide characters have been converted without encountering a L'\0', or the length limit forces a stop. In this case, src is left pointing to the next wide character to be converted, and the number bytes written to dest is returned.

  • The wide-character string has been completely converted, including the terminating L'\0' (which has the side effect of bringing back ps to the initial state). In this case, src is set to NULL, and the number of bytes written to dest, excluding the terminating '\0' byte, is returned.

If dest is NULL, len is ignored, and the conversion proceeds as above, except that the converted bytes are not written out to memory, and that no destination length limit exists.

In both of the above cases, if ps is a NULL pointer, a static anonymous state only known to wcsnrtombs is used instead.

The programmer must ensure that there is room for at least len bytes at dest.

Return Value

wcsnrtombs returns the number of bytes that make up the converted part of multibyte sequence, not including the terminating NULL byte. If a wide character was encountered which could not be converted, (size_t)(-1) is returned, and the global variable errno set to EILSEQ.

Notes

The behavior of wcsnrtombs depends on the LC_CTYPE category of the current locale.

Passing NULL as ps is not multi-thread safe.

wcstoq

Name

wcstoq -- convert initial portion of wide string NPTR to long int representation

Synopsis

#include <wchar.h>

extern long long int wcstoq(const wchar_t *restrict nptr, wchar_t **restrict endptr, int base);

Description

wcstoq converts the initial portion of the wide string nptr to long int representation.

wcstouq

Name

wcstouq -- convert initial portion of wide string NPTR to unsigned long long int representation

Synopsis

#include <wchar.h>

extern unsigned long long int wcstouq(const wchar_t *restrict nptr, wchar_t **restrict endptr, int base);

Description

wcstouq converts the initial portion of the wide string nptr to unsigned long long int representation.

xdr_u_int

Name

xdr_u_int -- library routines for external data representation

Synopsis

int xdr_u_int(XDR * xdrs, unsigned int * up);

Description

xdr_u_int is a filter primitive that translates between C unsigned integers and their external representations.

Return Value

On success, 1 is returned. On error, 0 is returned.


Interfaces for libm

Table 13-31. libm Definition

Library:libm
SONAME:See archLSB.

The behavior of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following standards.

ISO/IEC 9899: 1999, Programming Languages --C[23]
CAE Specification, January 1997, System Interfaces and Headers (XSH),Issue 5 (ISBN: 1-85912-181-0, C606)[24]


Math

Table 13-32. libm - Math Function Interfaces

acos[24]cexp[23]expf[23]jnf[23]remquof[23]
acosf[23]cexpf[23]expl[23]jnl[23]remquol[23]
acosh[24]cexpl[23]expm1[24]ldexp[24]rint[24]
acoshf[23]cimag[23]fabs[24]ldexpf[23]rintf[23]
acoshl[23]cimagf[23]fabsf[23]ldexpl[23]rintl[23]
acosl[23]cimagl[23]fabsl[23]lgamma[24]round[23]
asin[24]clog[23]fdim[23]lgamma_r[23]roundf[23]
asinf[23]clog10[23]fdimf[23]lgammaf[23]roundl[23]
asinh[24]clog10f[23]fdiml[23]lgammaf_r[23]scalb[24]
asinhf[23]clog10l[23]feclearexcept[23]lgammal[23]scalbf[23]
asinhl[23]clogf[23]fegetenv[23]lgammal_r[23]scalbl[23]
asinl[23]clogl[23]fegetexceptflag[23]llrint[23]scalbln[23]
atan[24]conj[23]fegetround[23]llrintf[23]scalblnf[23]
atan2[24]conjf[23]feholdexcept[23]llrintl[23]scalblnl[23]
atan2f[23]conjl[23]feraiseexcept[23]llround[23]scalbn[23]
atan2l[23]copysign[23]fesetenv[23]llroundf[23]scalbnf[23]
atanf[23]copysignf[23]fesetexceptflag[23]llroundl[23]scalbnl[23]
atanh[24]copysignl[23]fesetround[23]log[24]significand[23]
atanhf[23]cos[24]fetestexcept[23]log10[24]significandf[23]
atanhl[23]cosf[23]feupdateenv[23]log10f[23]significandl[23]
atanl[23]cosh[24]finite[24]log10l[23]sin[24]
cabs[24]coshf[23]finitef[23]log1p[24]sincos[23]
cabsf[23]coshl[23]finitel[23]logb[24]sincosf[23]
cabsl[23]cosl[23]floor[24]logf[23]sincosl[23]
cacos[23]cpow[23]floorf[23]logl[23]sinf[23]
cacosf[23]cpowf[23]floorl[23]lrint[23]sinh[24]
cacosh[23]cpowl[23]fma[23]lrintf[23]sinhf[23]
cacoshf[23]cproj[23]fmaf[23]lrintl[23]sinhl[23]
cacoshl[23]cprojf[23]fmal[23]lround[23]sinl[23]
cacosl[23]cprojl[23]fmax[23]lroundf[23]sqrt[24]
carg[23]creal[23]fmaxf[23]lroundl[23]sqrtf[23]
cargf[23]crealf[23]fmaxl[23]matherr[23]sqrtl[23]
cargl[23]creall[23]fmin[23]modf[24]tan[24]
casin[23]csin[23]fminf[23]modff[23]tanf[23]
casinf[23]csinf[23]fminl[23]modfl[23]tanh[24]
casinh[23]csinh[23]fmod[24]nan[23]tanhf[23]
casinhf[23]csinhf[23]fmodf[23]nanf[23]tanhl[23]
casinhl[23]csinhl[23]fmodl[23]nanl[23]tanl[23]
casinl[23]csinl[23]frexp[24]nearbyint[23]tgamma[23]
catan[23]csqrt[23]frexpf[23]nearbyintf[23]tgammaf[23]
catanf[23]csqrtf[23]frexpl[23]nearbyintl[23]tgammal[23]
catanh[23]csqrtl[23]gamma[24]nextafter[24]trunc[23]
catanhf[23]ctan[23]gammaf[23]nextafterf[23]truncf[23]
catanhl[23]ctanf[23]gammal[23]nextafterl[23]truncl[23]
catanl[23]ctanh[23]hypot[24]nexttoward[23]y0[24]
cbrt[24]ctanhf[23]hypotf[23]nexttowardf[23]y0f[23]
cbrtf[23]ctanhl[23]hypotl[23]nexttowardl[23]y0l[23]
cbrtl[23]ctanl[23]ilogb[24]pow[23]y1[24]
ccos[23]dremf[23]ilogbf[23]pow10[23]y1f[23]
ccosf[23]dreml[23]ilogbl[23]pow10f[23]y1l[23]
ccosh[23]erf[24]j0[24]pow10l[23]yn[24]
ccoshf[23]erfc[24]j0f[23]powf[23]ynf[23]
ccoshl[23]erfcf[23]j0l[23]powl[23]ynl[23]
ccosl[23]erfcl[23]j1[24]remainder[24] 
ceil[24]erff[23]j1f[23]remainderf[23] 
ceilf[23]erfl[23]j1l[23]remainderl[23] 
ceill[23]exp[24]jn[24]remquo[23] 

Table 13-33. libm - Math Data Interfaces

signgam[24]    

Data Definitions for libm

This section contains standard data definitions that describe system data. These definitions are organized into groups that correspond to system headers. This convention is used as a convenience for the reader, and does not imply the existence of these headers, or their content.

ISO C serves as the LSB reference programming language, and data definitions are specified in ISO C format. The C language is used here as a convenient notation. Using a C language description of these data objects does not preclude their use by other programming languages.


math.h


#define HUGE_VAL	0x7FF00000UL
#define DOMAIN	1
#define SING	2


struct exception
{
  int type;
  char *name;
  double arg1;
  double arg2;
  double retval;
}
 ;
#define M_1_PI	0.31830988618379067154
#define M_LOG10E	0.43429448190325182765
#define M_2_PI	0.63661977236758134308
#define M_LN2	0.69314718055994530942
#define M_SQRT1_2	0.70710678118654752440
#define M_PI_4	0.78539816339744830962
#define M_2_SQRTPI	1.12837916709551257390
#define M_SQRT2	1.41421356237309504880
#define M_LOG2E	1.4426950408889634074
#define M_PI_2	1.57079632679489661923
#define M_LN10	2.30258509299404568402
#define M_E	2.7182818284590452354
#define M_PI	3.14159265358979323846

Interfaces for libpthread

Table 13-34. libpthread Definition

Library:libpthread
SONAME:libpthread.so.0

LSB systems support POSIX threads with the following exceptions. This list is intended to match the behavior of historical Linux implementations. Applications should be written to deal with either POSIX threads or the thread behaviors described here.

  • POSIX specifies a concept of per-process rather than per-thread signals. The LSB does not require this behavior; traditional Linux implementations have had per-thread signals only. A related issue is that applications cannot rely on getpid() returning the same value in different threads.

  • Note: one implication of per-thread signals is that a core dump (for example) may not stop all threads in a given process. This may be an issue when designing ways to stop/start applications.

  • Applications which create child processes (using fork() and the like) must then wait for them (using waitpid() family of functions) in the same thread as they created them. Note that coding applications this way will work both with full POSIX threads and legacy Linux thread implementations.

  • POSIX specifies that changing the user or group id instantly affects the behavior of all threads. This behavior is not specified; applications must use their own lock if they need this behavior. Rationale: it seems unnecessary and it is a performance hit (an SMP kernel must lock the user id).

  • Although this standard doesn't have a way to list processes (/proc or "ps" command line isn't in, right?), it is our intention to not specify one way or the other whether multiple threads appear as separate processes or as a single process.

  • Applications cannot rely on resource limits (getrusage and setrusage) being maintained per-process rather than per-thread.

  • Applications must disconnect from the controlling tty before calling pthread_create.

  • times() doesn't account for all threads, just the caller.

  • Applications must not call pthread_cancel if they call any system libraries (most notably X Window System libraries), as system libraries are not guaranteed to be thread safe. Likewise, for such libraries, only one thread per process may call them.

  • Applications cannot rely on fcntl/lockf locks being visible per-process rather than per-thread. Likewise for mandatory file locks.

  • Threaded applications cannot use SIGUSR1 or SIGUSR2.

The behavior of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following standards.

Linux Standard Base[25]
CAE Specification, January 1997, System Interfaces and Headers (XSH),Issue 5 (ISBN: 1-85912-181-0, C606)[26]


Posix Threads

Table 13-35. libpthread - Posix Threads Function Interfaces

pthread_attr_destroy[26]pthread_attr_setstackaddr[26]pthread_getspecific[26]pthread_once[26]pthread_setcanceltype[26]
pthread_attr_getdetachstate[26]pthread_attr_setstacksize[26]pthread_join[26]pthread_rwlock_destroy[26]pthread_setconcurrency[26]
pthread_attr_getguardsize[26]pthread_cancel[26]pthread_key_create[26]pthread_rwlock_init[26]pthread_setschedparam[26]
pthread_attr_getinheritsched[26]pthread_cond_broadcast[26]pthread_key_delete[26]pthread_rwlock_rdlock[26]pthread_setspecific[26]
pthread_attr_getschedparam[26]pthread_cond_destroy[26]pthread_kill[26]pthread_rwlock_timedrdlock[26]pthread_sigmask[26]
pthread_attr_getschedpolicy[26]pthread_cond_init[26]pthread_mutex_destroy[26]pthread_rwlock_timedwrlock[26]pthread_testcancel[26]
pthread_attr_getscope[26]pthread_cond_signal[26]pthread_mutex_init[26]pthread_rwlock_tryrdlock[26]sem_close[26]
pthread_attr_getstackaddr[26]pthread_cond_timedwait[26]pthread_mutex_lock[26]pthread_rwlock_trywrlock[26]sem_destroy[26]
pthread_attr_getstacksize[26]pthread_cond_wait[26]pthread_mutex_trylock[26]pthread_rwlock_unlock[26]sem_getvalue[26]
pthread_attr_init[26]pthread_condattr_destroy[26]pthread_mutex_unlock[26]pthread_rwlock_wrlock[26]sem_init[26]
pthread_attr_setdetachstate[26]pthread_condattr_init[26]pthread_mutexattr_destroy[26]pthread_rwlockattr_destroy[26]sem_open[26]
pthread_attr_setguardsize[26]pthread_create[26]pthread_mutexattr_getpshared[26]pthread_rwlockattr_getpshared[26]sem_post[26]
pthread_attr_setinheritsched[26]pthread_detach[26]pthread_mutexattr_gettype[26]pthread_rwlockattr_init[26]sem_timedwait[25]
pthread_attr_setschedparam[26]pthread_equal[26]pthread_mutexattr_init[26]pthread_rwlockattr_setpshared[26]sem_trywait[26]
pthread_attr_setschedpolicy[26]pthread_exit[26]pthread_mutexattr_setpshared[26]pthread_self[26]sem_unlink[26]
pthread_attr_setscope[26]pthread_getschedparam[26]pthread_mutexattr_settype[26]pthread_setcancelstate[26]sem_wait[26]

Data Definitions for libpthread

This section contains standard data definitions that describe system data. These definitions are organized into groups that correspond to system headers. This convention is used as a convenience for the reader, and does not imply the existence of these headers, or their content.

ISO C serves as the LSB reference programming language, and data definitions are specified in ISO C format. The C language is used here as a convenient notation. Using a C language description of these data objects does not preclude their use by other programming languages.


pthread.h


#define PTHREAD_MUTEX_DEFAULT	1
#define PTHREAD_MUTEX_NORMAL	1
#define PTHREAD_MUTEX_TIMED_NP	1
#define PTHREAD_MUTEX_RECURSIVE	2
#define PTHREAD_RWLOCK_DEFAULT_NP	2
#define PTHREAD_MUTEX_ERRORCHECK	3
#define __LOCK_INITIALIZER	{ 0, 0 }
#define PTHREAD_RWLOCK_INITIALIZER	{ __LOCK_INITIALIZER, 0, NULL, NULL, NULL,PTHREAD_RWLOCK_DEFAULT_NP, PTHREAD_PROCESS_PRIVATE }
#define PTHREAD_MUTEX_INITIALIZER	{0,0,0,PTHREAD_MUTEX_TIMED_NP,__LOCK_INITIALIZER}
#define PTHREAD_COND_INITIALIZER	{__LOCK_INITIALIZER,0}


typedef unsigned int pthread_key_t;
typedef int pthread_once_t;


typedef unsigned long pthread_t;
struct _pthread_fastlock
{
  long __status;
  int __spinlock;
}
 ;


typedef struct _pthread_descr_struct *_pthread_descr;


typedef struct
{
  int __m_reserved;
  int __m_count;
  _pthread_descr __m_owner;
  int __m_kind;
  struct _pthread_fastlock __m_lock;
}
pthread_mutex_t;
typedef struct
{
  int __mutexkind;
}
pthread_mutexattr_t;


typedef struct
{
  int __detachstate;
  int __schedpolicy;
  struct sched_param __schedparam;
  int __inheritsched;
  int __scope;
  size_t __guardsize;
  int __stackaddr_set;
  void *__stackaddr;
  unsigned long __stacksize;
}
pthread_attr_t;


typedef struct
{
  struct _pthread_fastlock lock;
  _pthread_descr wait_chain;
}
pthread_cond_t;
typedef struct
{
  int __dummy;
}
pthread_condattr_t;


typedef struct _pthread_rwlock_t
{
  struct _pthread_fastlock __rw_lock;
  int __rw_readers;
  _pthread_descr __rw_writer;
  _pthread_descr __rw_read_waiting;
  _pthread_descr __rw_write_waiting;
  int __rw_kind;
  int __rw_pshared;
}
pthread_rwlock_t;
typedef struct
{
  int __lockkind;
  int __pshared;
}
pthread_rwlockattr_t;



#define PTHREAD_CREATE_JOINABLE	0
#define PTHREAD_INHERIT_SCHED	0
#define PTHREAD_ONCE_INIT	0
#define PTHREAD_PROCESS_PRIVATE	0
#define PTHREAD_SCOPE_SYSTEM	0
#define PTHREAD_CREATE_DETACHED	1
#define PTHREAD_EXPLICIT_SCHED	1
#define PTHREAD_PROCESS_SHARED	1
#define PTHREAD_SCOPE_PROCESS	1



#define PTHREAD_CANCELED	((void*)-1)
#define PTHREAD_CANCEL_DEFERRED	0
#define PTHREAD_CANCEL_ENABLE	0
#define PTHREAD_CANCEL_ASYNCHRONOUS	1
#define PTHREAD_CANCEL_DISABLE	1

semaphore.h






typedef struct
{
  struct _pthread_fastlock __sem_lock;
  int __sem_value;
  _pthread_descr __sem_waiting;
}
sem_t;
#define SEM_FAILED	((sem_t*)0)



#define SEM_VALUE_MAX	((int)((~0u)>>1))

Interfaces Definitions for libpthread

Table of Contents
sem_timedwait -- operation on semaphore

sem_timedwait

Name

sem_timedwait -- operation on semaphore

Synopsis

#include <semaphore.h>

int sem_timedwait(sem_t *__restrict __sem, (__const struct timespec *__restrict __abstime));

Description

sem_timedwait waits for semaphore object SEM being posted. It is a new function from IEEE Std. 1003.1-200x that is similar to sem_wait but waits only until ABSTIME.


Interfaces for libgcc_s

Table 13-36. libgcc_s Definition

Library:libgcc_s
SONAME:libgcc_s.so.1

The behavior of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following standards.

Linux Standard Base[27]


Unwind Library

Table 13-37. libgcc_s - Unwind Library Function Interfaces

_Unwind_DeleteException(GCC_3.0)[27]_Unwind_GetDataRelBase(GCC_3.0)[27]_Unwind_GetLanguageSpecificData(GCC_3.0)[27]_Unwind_RaiseException(GCC_3.0)[27]_Unwind_SetIP(GCC_3.0)[27]
_Unwind_Find_FDE(GCC_3.0)[27]_Unwind_GetGR(GCC_3.0)[27]_Unwind_GetRegionStart(GCC_3.0)[27]_Unwind_Resume(GCC_3.0)[27] 
_Unwind_ForcedUnwind(GCC_3.0)[27]_Unwind_GetIP(GCC_3.0)[27]_Unwind_GetTextRelBase(GCC_3.0)[27]_Unwind_SetGR(GCC_3.0)[27] 

Data Definitions for libgcc_s

This section contains standard data definitions that describe system data. These definitions are organized into groups that correspond to system headers. This convention is used as a convenience for the reader, and does not imply the existence of these headers, or their content.

ISO C serves as the LSB reference programming language, and data definitions are specified in ISO C format. The C language is used here as a convenient notation. Using a C language description of these data objects does not preclude their use by other programming languages.


unwind.h



struct dwarf_eh_base
{
  void *tbase;
  void *dbase;
  void *func;
}
 ;
struct _Unwind_Context;


typedef unsigned int _Unwind_Ptr;
typedef unsigned int _Unwind_Word;


typedef enum
{
  _URC_NO_REASON, _URC_FOREIGN_EXCEPTION_CAUGHT = 1, _URC_FATAL_PHASE2_ERROR =
    2, _URC_FATAL_PHASE1_ERROR = 3, _URC_NORMAL_STOP = 4, _URC_END_OF_STACK =
    5, _URC_HANDLER_FOUND = 6, _URC_INSTALL_CONTEXT =
    7, _URC_CONTINUE_UNWIND = 8
}
_Unwind_Reason_Code;





struct _Unwind_Exception
{
  _Unwind_Exception_Class;
  _Unwind_Exception_Cleanup_Fn;
  _Unwind_Word;
  _Unwind_Word;
}
 ;
#define _UA_SEARCH_PHASE	1
#define _UA_END_OF_STACK	16
#define _UA_CLEANUP_PHASE	2
#define _UA_HANDLER_FRAME	4
#define _UA_FORCE_UNWIND	8

Interfaces Definitions for libgcc_s

Table of Contents
_Unwind_DeleteException -- private C++ error handling method
_Unwind_Find_FDE -- private C++ error handling method
_Unwind_ForcedUnwind -- private C++ error handling method
_Unwind_GetDataRelBase -- private IA64 C++ error handling method
_Unwind_GetGR -- private C++ error handling method
_Unwind_GetIP -- private C++ error handling method
_Unwind_GetLanguageSpecificData -- private C++ error handling method
_Unwind_GetRegionStart -- private C++ error handling method
_Unwind_GetTextRelBase -- private IA64 C++ error handling method
_Unwind_RaiseException -- private C++ error handling method
_Unwind_Resume -- private C++ error handling method
_Unwind_SetGR -- private C++ error handling method
_Unwind_SetIP -- private C++ error handling method

_Unwind_DeleteException

Name

_Unwind_DeleteException -- private C++ error handling method

Synopsis

void _Unwind_DeleteException((struct _Unwind_Exception *object));

Description

_Unwind_DeleteException deletes the given exception object. If a given runtime resumes normal execution after catching a foreign exception, it will not know how to delete that exception. Such an exception will be deleted by calling _Unwind_DeleteException. This is a convenience function that calls the function pointed to by the exception_cleanup field of the exception header.

_Unwind_Find_FDE

Name

_Unwind_Find_FDE -- private C++ error handling method

Synopsis

fde * _Unwind_Find_FDE(void *pc, (struct dwarf_eh_bases *bases));

Description

_Unwind_Find_FDE looks for the object containing pc, then inserts into bases.

_Unwind_ForcedUnwind

Name

_Unwind_ForcedUnwind -- private C++ error handling method

Synopsis

_Unwind_Reason_Code _Unwind_ForcedUnwind((struct _Unwind_Exception *object), _Unwind_Stop_Fn stop, void *stop_parameter);

Description

_Unwind_ForcedUnwind raises an exception for forced unwinding, passing along the given exception object, which should have its exception_class and exception_cleanup fields set. The exception object has been allocated by the language-specific runtime, and has a language-specific format, except that it must contain an _Unwind_Exception struct.

Forced unwinding is a single-phase process. stop and stop_parameter control the termination of the unwind process instead of the usual personality routine query. stop is called for each unwind frame, with the parameteres described for the usual personality routine below, plus an additional stop_parameter.

Return Value

When stop identifies the destination frame, it transfers control to the user code as appropriate without returning, normally after calling _Unwind_DeleteException. If not, then it should return an _Unwind_Reason_Code value.

If stop returns any reason code other than _URC_NO_REASON, then the stack state is indeterminate from the point of view of the caller of _Unwind_ForcedUnwind. Rather than attempt to return, therefore, the unwind library should use the exception_cleanup entry in the exception, and then call abort.

_URC_NO_REASON

This is not the destination from. The unwind runtime will call frame's personality routine with the _UA_FORCE_UNWIND and _UA_CLEANUP_PHASE flag set in actions, and then unwind to the next frame and call the stop function again.

_URC_END_OF_STACK

In order to allow _Unwind_ForcedUnwind to perform special processing when it reaches the end of the stack, the unwind runtime will call it after the last frame is rejected, with a NULL stack pointer in the context, and the stop function must catch this condition. It may return this code if it cannot handle end-of-stack.

_URC_FATAL_PHASE2_ERROR

The stop function may return this code for other fatal conditions like stack corruption.

_Unwind_GetDataRelBase

Name

_Unwind_GetDataRelBase -- private IA64 C++ error handling method

Synopsis

_Unwind_Ptr _Unwind_GetDataRelBase((struct _Unwind_Context *context));

Description

_Unwind_GetDataRelBase returns the global pointer in register one for context.

_Unwind_GetGR

Name

_Unwind_GetGR -- private C++ error handling method

Synopsis

_Unwind_Word _Unwind_GetGR((struct _Unwind_Context *context), int index);

Description

_Unwind_GetGR returns data at index found in context. The register is identified by its index: 0 to 31 are for the fixed registers, and 32 to 127 are for the stacked registers.

During the two phases of unwinding, only GR1 has a guaranteed value, which is the global pointer of the frame referenced by the unwind context. If the register has its NAT bit set, the behavior is unspecified.

_Unwind_GetIP

Name

_Unwind_GetIP -- private C++ error handling method

Synopsis

_Unwind_Ptr _Unwind_GetIP((struct _Unwind_Context *context));

Description

_Unwind_GetIP returns the instruction pointer value for the routine identified by the unwind context.

_Unwind_GetLanguageSpecificData

Name

_Unwind_GetLanguageSpecificData -- private C++ error handling method

Synopsis

_Unwind_Ptr _Unwind_GetLanguageSpecificData((struct _Unwind_Context *context), uint value);

Description

_Unwind_GetLanguageSpecificData returns the address of the language specific data area for the current stack frame.

_Unwind_GetRegionStart

Name

_Unwind_GetRegionStart -- private C++ error handling method

Synopsis

_Unwind_Ptr _Unwind_GetRegionStart((struct _Unwind_Context *context));

Description

_Unwind_GetRegionStart routine returns the address (i.e., 0) of the beginning of the procedure or code fragment described by the current unwind descriptor block.

_Unwind_GetTextRelBase

Name

_Unwind_GetTextRelBase -- private IA64 C++ error handling method

Synopsis

_Unwind_Ptr _Unwind_GetTextRelBase((struct _Unwind_Context *context));

Description

_Unwind_GetTextRelBase calls the abort method, then returns.

_Unwind_RaiseException

Name

_Unwind_RaiseException -- private C++ error handling method

Synopsis

_Unwind_Reason_Code _Unwind_RaiseException((struct _Unwind_Exception *object));

Description

_Unwind_RaiseException raises an exception, passing along the given exception object, which should have its exception_class and exception_cleanup fields set. The exception object has been allocated by the language-specific runtime, and has a language-specific format, exception that it must contain an _Unwind_Exception.

Return Value

_Unwind_RaiseException does not return unless an error condition is found. If an error condition occurs, an _Unwind_Reason_Code is returnd:

_URC_END_OF_STACK

The unwinder encountered the end of the stack during phase one without finding a handler. The unwind runtime will not have modified the stack. The C++ runtime will normally call uncaught_exception in this case.

_URC_FATAL_PHASE1_ERROR

The unwinder encountered an unexpected error during phase one, because of something like stack corruption. The unwind runtime will not have modified the stack. The C++ runtime will normally call terminate in this case.

_URC_FATAL_PHASE2_ERROR

The unwinder encountered an unexpected error during phase two. This is usually a throw, which will call terminate.

_Unwind_Resume

Name

_Unwind_Resume -- private C++ error handling method

Synopsis

void _Unwind_Resume((struct _Unwind_Exception *object));

Description

_Unwind_Resume resumes propagation of an existing exception object. A call to this routine is inserted as the end of a landing pad that performs cleanup, but does not resume normal execution. It causes unwinding to proceed further.

_Unwind_SetGR

Name

_Unwind_SetGR -- private C++ error handling method

Synopsis

void _Unwind_SetGR((struct _Unwind_Context *context), int index, uint value);

Description

_Unwind_SetGR sets the value of the register indexed for the routine identified by the unwind context.

_Unwind_SetIP

Name

_Unwind_SetIP -- private C++ error handling method

Synopsis

void _Unwind_SetIP((struct _Unwind_Context *context), uint value);

Description

_Unwind_SetIP sets the value of the instruction pointer for the routine identified by the unwind context


Interfaces for libdl

Table 13-38. libdl Definition

Library:libdl
SONAME:libdl.so.2

The behavior of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following standards.

Linux Standard Base[28]
CAE Specification, January 1997, System Interfaces and Headers (XSH),Issue 5 (ISBN: 1-85912-181-0, C606)[29]


Dynamic Loader

Table 13-39. libdl - Dynamic Loader Function Interfaces

dladdr(GLIBC_2.0)[28]dlclose(GLIBC_2.0)[29]dlerror(GLIBC_2.0)[29]dlopen(GLIBC_2.0)[29]dlsym(GLIBC_2.0)[29]

Data Definitions for libdl

This section contains standard data definitions that describe system data. These definitions are organized into groups that correspond to system headers. This convention is used as a convenience for the reader, and does not imply the existence of these headers, or their content.

ISO C serves as the LSB reference programming language, and data definitions are specified in ISO C format. The C language is used here as a convenient notation. Using a C language description of these data objects does not preclude their use by other programming languages.


dlfcn.h


#define RTLD_LOCAL	0
#define RTLD_LAZY	0x00001
#define RTLD_NOW	0x00002
#define RTLD_GLOBAL	0x00100


typedef struct
{
  char *dli_fname;
  void *dli_fbase;
  char *dli_sname;
  void *dli_saddr;
}
Dl_info;

Interfaces Definitions for libdl

Table of Contents
dladdr -- library routine for dynamic linking of object files

dladdr

Name

dladdr -- library routine for dynamic linking of object files

Synopsis

cc ... -ldl ...

#include <dlfcn.h>

typedef struct {
             const char  *dli_fname;
             void        *dli_fbase;
             const char  *dli_sname;
             void        *dli_saddr;
} Dl_info;

int dladdr(void *address, Dlinfo *dlip);

Description

dladdr implements the System V dynamic linking routines.

Return Value

dladdr is the inverse of dlsym. If address is successfully located inside a module, dladdr returns a non-ZERO value, otherwise, it returns a 0. On success, dladdr fills in the fields of dlip as follows:

dli_fname

the pathname of the module

dli_fbase

the base address of the module

dli_sname

the name of the highest addressed symbol whose address precedes the given address

dli_saddr

the address of that symbol

Shared objects must be linked using the -shared option to the linker ld(1). The linker flag -rpath may be used to add a directory to the default search path for shared objects and shared libraries. The linker flag -E or the C compiler flag -rdynamic should be used to cause the application to export its symbols to the shared objects.

Environment

LD_LIBRARY_PATH

directory search-path for object files


Interfaces for libcrypt

Table 13-40. libcrypt Definition

Library:libcrypt
SONAME:libcrypt.so.1

The behavior of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following standards.

CAE Specification, January 1997, System Interfaces and Headers (XSH),Issue 5 (ISBN: 1-85912-181-0, C606)[30]


Encryption

Table 13-41. libcrypt - Encryption Function Interfaces

crypt(GLIBC_2.0)[30]encrypt(GLIBC_2.0)[30]setkey(GLIBC_2.0)[30]  

Data Definitions for libcrypt

This section contains standard data definitions that describe system data. These definitions are organized into groups that correspond to system headers. This convention is used as a convenience for the reader, and does not imply the existence of these headers, or their content.

ISO C serves as the LSB reference programming language, and data definitions are specified in ISO C format. The C language is used here as a convenient notation. Using a C language description of these data objects does not preclude their use by other programming languages.


Interfaces for libpam

Table 13-42. libpam Definition

Library:libpam
SONAME:libpam.so.0

A single service name, other, must always be present. The behavior of this service shall be determined by the system administrator. Additional service names may also exist. [31]

The behavior of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following standards.

Linux Standard Base[32]


Pluggable Authentication API

Table 13-43. libpam - Pluggable Authentication API Function Interfaces

pam_acct_mgmt[32]pam_close_session[32]pam_get_item[32]pam_set_item[32]pam_strerror[32]
pam_authenticate[32]pam_end[32]pam_getenvlist[32]pam_setcred[32] 
pam_chauthtok[32]pam_fail_delay[32]pam_open_session[32]pam_start[32] 

Data Definitions for libpam

This section contains standard data definitions that describe system data. These definitions are organized into groups that correspond to system headers. This convention is used as a convenience for the reader, and does not imply the existence of these headers, or their content.

ISO C serves as the LSB reference programming language, and data definitions are specified in ISO C format. The C language is used here as a convenient notation. Using a C language description of these data objects does not preclude their use by other programming languages.


security/pam_appl.h






typedef struct pam_handle pam_handle_t;
struct pam_message
{
  int msg_style;
  const char *msg;
}
 ;
struct pam_response
{
  char *resp;
  int resp_retcode;
}
 ;


struct pam_conv
{
  int (*conv) (int num_msg, const struct pam_message * *msg,
	       struct pam_response * *resp, void *appdata_ptr);
  void *appdata_ptr;
}
 ;
#define PAM_PROMPT_ECHO_OFF	1
#define PAM_PROMPT_ECHO_ON	2
#define PAM_ERROR_MSG	3
#define PAM_TEXT_INFO	4



#define PAM_SERVICE	1
#define PAM_USER	2
#define PAM_TTY	3
#define PAM_RHOST	4
#define PAM_CONV	5
#define PAM_RUSER	8
#define PAM_USER_PROMPT	9



#define PAM_SUCCESS	0
#define PAM_OPEN_ERR	1
#define PAM_USER_UNKNOWN	10
#define PAM_MAXTRIES	11
#define PAM_NEW_AUTHTOK_REQD	12
#define PAM_ACCT_EXPIRED	13
#define PAM_SESSION_ERR	14
#define PAM_CRED_UNAVAIL	15
#define PAM_CRED_EXPIRED	16
#define PAM_CRED_ERR	17
#define PAM_CONV_ERR	19
#define PAM_SYMBOL_ERR	2
#define PAM_AUTHTOK_ERR	20
#define PAM_AUTHTOK_RECOVER_ERR	21
#define PAM_AUTHTOK_LOCK_BUSY	22
#define PAM_AUTHTOK_DISABLE_AGING	23
#define PAM_TRY_AGAIN	24
#define PAM_ABORT	26
#define PAM_AUTHTOK_EXPIRED	27
#define PAM_BAD_ITEM	29
#define PAM_SERVICE_ERR	3
#define PAM_SYSTEM_ERR	4
#define PAM_BUF_ERR	5
#define PAM_PERM_DENIED	6
#define PAM_AUTH_ERR	7
#define PAM_CRED_INSUFFICIENT	8
#define PAM_AUTHINFO_UNAVAIL	9



#define PAM_DISALLOW_NULL_AUTHTOK	0x0001U
#define PAM_ESTABLISH_CRED	0x0002U
#define PAM_DELETE_CRED	0x0004U
#define PAM_REINITIALIZE_CRED	0x0008U
#define PAM_REFRESH_CRED	0x0010U
#define PAM_CHANGE_EXPIRED_AUTHTOK	0x0020U
#define PAM_SILENT	0x8000U

Interfaces Definitions for libpam

Table of Contents
pam_acct_mgmt -- establish the status of a user's account
pam_authenticate -- authenticate the user
pam_chauthtok -- change the authentication token for a given user
pam_close_session -- indicate that an authenticated session has ended
pam_end -- terminate the use of the PAM library
pam_fail_delay -- specify delay time to use on authentication error
pam_get_item -- obtain the value of the indicated item.
pam_getenvlist -- returns a pointer to the complete PAM environment.
pam_open_session -- used to indicate that an authenticated session has been initiated
pam_set_item -- (re)set the value of an item.
pam_setcred -- set the module-specific credentials of the user
pam_start -- initialize the PAM library
pam_strerror -- returns a string describing the PAM error

pam_acct_mgmt

Name

pam_acct_mgmt -- establish the status of a user's account

Synopsis

#include <security/pam_appl.h>

extern int pam_acct_mgmt(pam_handle_t *pamh, int flags);

Description

pam_acct_mgmt establishes the account's usability and the user's accessibility to the system. It is typically called after the user has been authenticated.

flags may be specified as any valid flag (namely, one of those applicable to the flags argument of pam_authenticate). Additionally, the value of flags may be logically OR'd with PAM_SILENT.

Return Value

PAM_SUCCESS

Success.

PAM_AUTHTOKEN_REQD

User is valid, but user's authentication token has expired. The correct response to this return-value is to require that the user satisfy the pam_chauthtok function before obtaining service. It may not be possible for an application to do this. In such a case, the user should be denied access until the account password is updated.

PAM_ACCT_EXPIRED

User is no longer permitted access to the system.

PAM_AUTH_ERR

Authentication error.

PAM_PERM_DENIED

User is not permitted to gain access at this time.

PAM_USER_UNKNOWN

User is not known to a module's account management component.

Errors

May be translated to text with pam_strerror.

pam_authenticate

Name

pam_authenticate -- authenticate the user

Synopsis

#include <security/pam_appl.h>

extern int pam_authenticate(pam_handle_t *pamh, int flags);

Description

pam_authenticate serves as an interface to the authentication mechanisms of the loaded modules.

flags is an optional parameter that may be specified by the following value:

PAM_DISALLOW_NULL_AUTHTOK

Instruct the authentication modules to return PAM_AUTH_ERR if the user does not have a registered authorization token.

Additionally, the value of flags may be logically OR'd with PAM_SILENT.

Return Value

PAM_SUCCESS

Success.

PAM_AUTH_ERR

User was not authenticated.

PAM_CRED_INSUFFICIENT

Application does not have sufficient credentials to authenticate the user.

PAM_AUTHINFO_UNAVAIL

Modules were not able to access the authentication information. This might be due to a network or hardware failure, etc.

PAM_USER_UNKNOWN

Supplied username is not known to the authentication service.

PAM_MAXTRIES

One or more authentication modules has reached its limit of tries authenticating the user. Do not try again.

PAM_ABORT

One or more authentication modules failed to load.

Errors

May be translated to text with pam_strerror.

pam_chauthtok

Name

pam_chauthtok -- change the authentication token for a given user

Synopsis

#include <security/pam_appl.h>

extern int pam_chauthtok(pam_handle_t *pamh, const int flags);

Description

pam_chauthtok is used to change the authentication token for a given user as indicated by the state associated with the handle pamh.

flags is an optional parameter that may be specified by the following value:

PAM_CHANGE_EXPIRED_AUTHTOK

User's authentication token should only be changed if it has expired.

Additionally, the value of flags may be logically OR'd with PAM_SILENT.

RETURN VALUE

PAM_SUCCESS

Success.

PAM_AUTHTOK_ERR

A module was unable to obtain the new authentication token.

PAM_AUTHTOK_RECOVER_ERR

A module was unable to obtain the old authentication token.

PAM_AUTHTOK_LOCK_BUSY

One or more modules were unable to change the authentication token since it is currently locked.

PAM_AUTHTOK_DISABLE_AGING

Authentication token aging has been disabled for at least one of the modules.

PAM_PERM_DENIED

Permission denied.

PAM_TRY_AGAIN

Not all modules were in a position to update the authentication token(s). In such a case, none of the user's authentication tokens are updated.

PAM_USER_UNKNOWN

User is not known to the authentication token changing service.

ERRORS

May be translated to text with pam_strerror.

pam_close_session

Name

pam_close_session -- indicate that an authenticated session has ended

Synopsis

#include <security/pam_appl.h>

extern int pam_close_session(pam_handle_t *pamh, int flags);

Description

pam_close_session is used to indicate that an authenticated session has ended. It is used to inform the module that the user is exiting a session. It should be possible for the PAM library to open a session and close the same session from different applications.

flags may have the value PAM_SILENT to indicate that no output should be generated as a result of this function call.

Return Value

PAM_SUCCESS

Success.

PAM_SESSION_ERR

One of the required loaded modules was unable to close a session for the user.

Errors

May be translated to text with pam_strerror.

pam_end

Name

pam_end -- terminate the use of the PAM library

Synopsis

#include <security/pam_appl.h>

extern int pam_end(pam_handle_t *pamh, int pam_status);

Description

pam_end terminates use of the PAM library. On success, the contents of *pamh are no longer valid, and all memory associated with it is invalid.

Normally, pam_status is passed the value PAM_SUCCESS, but in the event of an unsuccessful service application, the appropriate PAM error return value should be used.

Return Value

PAM_SUCCESS

Success.

Errors

May be translated to text with pam_strerror.

pam_fail_delay

Name

pam_fail_delay -- specify delay time to use on authentication error

Synopsis

#include <security/pam_appl.h>

extern int pam_fail_delay(pam_handle_t *pamh, unsigned int micro_sec);

Description

pam_fail_delay specifies the minimum delay for the PAM library to use when an authentication error occurs. The actual delay will vary by as much at 25%. If this function is called multiple times, the longest time specified by any of the call will be used.

The delay is invoked if an authentication error occurs during the pam_authenticate or pam_chauthtok function calls.

Independent of the success of pam_authenticate or pam_chauthtok, the delay time is reset to its default value of 0 when the PAM library returns control to the application from these two functions.

Return Value

PAM_SUCCESS

Success.

Errors

May be translated to text with pam_strerror.

pam_get_item

Name

pam_get_item -- obtain the value of the indicated item.

Synopsis

#include <security/pam_appl.h>

extern int pam_get_item(const pam_handle_t *pamh, int item_type, const void **item);

Description

pam_get_item obtains the value of the indicated item_type. The possible values of item_type are the same as listed for pam_set_item.

On success, item contains a pointer to the value of the corresponding item. Note that this is a pointer to the actual data and should not be free'd or over-written.

Return Value

PAM_SUCCESS

Success.

PAM_PERM_DENIED

Application passed a NULL pointer for item.

PAM_BAD_ITEM

Application attempted to get an undefined item.

Errors

May be translated to text with pam_strerror.

pam_getenvlist

Name

pam_getenvlist -- returns a pointer to the complete PAM environment.

Synopsis

#include <security/pam_appl.h>

extern char * const *pam_getenvlist(pam_handle_t *pamh);

Description

pam_getenvlist returns a pointer to the complete PAM environment. This pointer points to an array of pointers to NUL-terminated strings and must be terminated by a NULL pointer. Each string has the form "name=value".

The PAM library module allocates memory for the returned value and the associated strings. The calling application is responsible for freeing this memory.

Return Value

pam_getenvlist returns an array of string pointers containing the PAM environment. On error, NULL is returned.

pam_open_session

Name

pam_open_session -- used to indicate that an authenticated session has been initiated

Synopsis

#include <security/pam_appl.h>

extern int pam_open_session(pam_handle_t *pamh, int flags);

Description

pam_handle_t is used to indicate that an authenticated session has begun. It is used to inform the module that the user is currently in a session. It should be possible for the PAM library to open a session and close the same session from different applications.

flags may have the value PAM_SILENT to indicate that no output be generated as a rsult of this function call.

Return Value

PAM_SUCCESS

Success.

PAM_SESSION_ERR

One of the loaded modules was unable to open a session for the user.

ERRORS

May be translated to text with pam_strerror.

pam_set_item

Name

pam_set_item -- (re)set the value of an item.

Synopsis

#include <security/pam_appl.h>

extern int pam_set_item(pam_handle_t *pamh, int item_type, const void *item);

Description

pam_set_item (re)sets the value of one of the following item_types:

PAM_SERVICE

service name

PAM_USER

user name

PAM_TTY

terminal name

The value for a device file should include the /dev/ prefix. The value for graphical, X-based, applications should be the $DISPLAY variable.

PAM_RHOST

remote host name

PAM_CONV

conversation structure

PAM_RUSER

remote user name

PAM_USER_PROMPT

string to be used when prompting for a user's name

The default value for this string is Please enter username: .

For all item_types other than PAM_CONV, item is a pointer to a NULL-terminated character string. In the case of PAM_CONV, item points to an initialized pam_conv structure.

Return Value

PAM_SUCCESS

Success.

PAM_PERM_DENIED

An attempt was made to replace the conversation structure with a NULL value.

PAM_BUF_ERR

Function ran out of memory making a copy of the item.

PAM_BAD_ITEM

Application attempted to set an undefined item.

Errors

May be translated to text with pam_strerror.

pam_setcred

Name

pam_setcred -- set the module-specific credentials of the user

Synopsis

#include <security/pam_appl.h>

extern int pam_setcred(pam_handle_t *pamh, int flags);

Description

pam_setcred sets the module-specific credentials of the user. It is usually called after the user has been authenticated, after the account management function has been called and after a session has been opened for the user.

flags maybe specified from among the following values:

PAM_ESTABLISH_CRED

set credentials for the authentication service

PAM_DELETE_CRED

delete credentials associated with the authentication service

PAM_REINITIALIZE_CRED

reinitialize the user credentials

PAM_REFRESH_CRED

extend lifetime of the user credentials

Additionally, the value of flags may be logically OR'd with PAM_SILENT.

Return Value

PAM_SUCCESS

Success.

PAM_CRED_UNAVAIL

Module cannot retrieve the user's credentials.

PAM_CRED_EXPIRED

User's credentials have expired.

PAM_USER_UNKNOWN

User is not known to an authentication module.

PAM_CRED_ERR

Module was unable to set the credentials of the user.

Errors

May be translated to text with pam_strerror.

pam_start

Name

pam_start -- initialize the PAM library

Synopsis

#include <security/pam_appl.h>

extern int pam_start(const char *service_name, const char *user, const (struct pam_conv *pam_conversation), pam_handle_t **pamh);

Description

pam_start is used to initialize the PAM library. It must be called prior to any other usage of the PAM library. On success, *pamh becomes a handle that provides continuity for successive calls to the PAM library. pam_start expects arguments as follows: the service_name of the program, the username of the individual to be authenticated, a pointer to an application-supplied pam_conv structure, and a pointer to a pam_handle_t pointer.

An application must provide the conversation function used for direct communication between a loaded module and the application. The application also typically provides a means for the module to prompt the user for a password, etc.

The structure, pam_conv, is defined to be,
  struct pam_conv {
               int (*conv) (int num_msg,
                            const struct pam_message * *msg,
                            struct pam_response * *resp,
                            void *appdata_ptr);
               void *appdata_ptr;
  };
It is initialized by the application before it is passed to the library. The contents of this structure are attached to the *pamh handle. The point of this argument is to provide a mechanism for any loaded module to interact directly with the application program; this is why it is called a conversation structure.

When a module calls the referenced conv function, appdata_ptr is set to the second element of this structure.

The other arguments of a call to conv concern the information exchanged by module and application. num_msg holds the length of the array of pointers passed via msg. On success, the pointer resp points to an array of num_msg pam_response structures, holding the application-supplied text. Note that resp is a struct pam_response array and not an array of pointers.

Return Value

PAM_SUCCESS

Success.

PAM_BUF_ERR

Memory allocation error.

PAM_ABORT

Internal failure.

ERRORS

May be translated to text with pam_strerror.

pam_strerror

Name

pam_strerror -- returns a string describing the PAM error

Synopsis

#include <security/pam_appl.h>

extern int pam_strerror(pam_handle_t *pamh, int errnum);

Description

pam_strerror returns a string describing the PAM error associated with errnum.

Return Value

On success, this function returns a description of the indicated error. If the error is not recognized, a string beginning with Unknown Linux-PAM error is returned. The application should not free or modify this string. This returned string will not be translated.

V. Utility Libraries

Table of Contents
14. Libraries

Chapter 14. Libraries

An LSB-conforming implementation may also support some utility libraries which are built on top of the interfaces provided by the base libraries. These libraries implement common functionality, and hide additional system dependent information such as file formats and device names.


Interfaces for libz

Table 14-1. libz Definition

Library:libz
SONAME:libz.so.1

[33]

The behavior of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following standards.

zlib 1.1.3 Manual[34]


Compression Library

Table 14-2. libz - Compression Library Function Interfaces

adler32[34]deflateInit_[34]gzerror[34]gzread[34]inflateInit2_[34]
compress[34]deflateParams[34]gzflush[34]gzrewind[34]inflateInit_[34]
compress2[34]deflateReset[34]gzgetc[34]gzseek[34]inflateReset[34]
crc32[34]deflateSetDictionary[34]gzgets[34]gzsetparams[34]inflateSetDictionary[34]
deflate[34]get_crc_table[34]gzopen[34]gztell[34]inflateSync[34]
deflateCopy[34]gzclose[34]gzprintf[34]gzwrite[34]inflateSyncPoint[34]
deflateEnd[34]gzdopen[34]gzputc[34]inflate[34]uncompress[34]
deflateInit2_[34]gzeof[34]gzputs[34]inflateEnd[34]zError[34]

Data Definitions for libz

This section contains standard data definitions that describe system data. These definitions are organized into groups that correspond to system headers. This convention is used as a convenience for the reader, and does not imply the existence of these headers, or their content.

ISO C serves as the LSB reference programming language, and data definitions are specified in ISO C format. The C language is used here as a convenient notation. Using a C language description of these data objects does not preclude their use by other programming languages.


zlib.h


#define Z_NULL	0
#define MAX_WBITS	15
#define MAX_MEM_LEVEL	9
#define deflateInit2(strm,level, method, windowBits, memLevel, stratgey)	deflateInit2_((strm),(level),(method),(windowBits),(memLevel),(strategy),           ZLIB_VERSION, sizeof(z_stream))
#define deflateInit(strm,level)	deflateInit_((strm), (level),       ZLIB_VERSION, sizeof(z_stream))
#define inflateInit2(strm,windowBits)	inflateInit2_((strm), (windowBits), ZLIB_VERSION, sizeof(z_stream))
#define inflateInit(strm)	inflateInit_((strm),                ZLIB_VERSION, sizeof(z_stream))


typedef int intf;


typedef void *voidpf;
typedef unsigned int uInt;
typedef unsigned long uLong;
typedef uLong uLongf;
typedef void *voidp;
typedef unsigned char Byte;
typedef off_t z_off_t;


typedef voidpf (*alloc_func) (voidpf opaque, uInt items, uInt size);
typedef void (*free_func) (voidpf opaque, voidpf address);
struct internal_state
{
  int dummy;
}
 ;
typedef Byte Bytef;
typedef uInt uIntf;


typedef struct z_stream_s
{
  Bytef *next_in;
  uInt avail_in;
  uLong total_in;
  Bytef *next_out;
  uInt avail_out;
  uLong total_out;
  char *msg;
  struct internal_state *state;
  alloc_func zalloc;
  free_func zfree;
  voidpf opaque;
  int data_type;
  uLong adler;
  uLong reserved;
}
z_stream;


typedef z_stream *z_streamp;
typedef voidp gzFile;
#define Z_NO_FLUSH	0
#define Z_PARTIAL_FLUSH	1
#define Z_SYNC_FLUSH	2
#define Z_FULL_FLUSH	3
#define Z_FINISH	4



#define Z_ERRNO	(-1)
#define Z_STREAM_ERROR	(-2)
#define Z_DATA_ERROR	(-3)
#define Z_MEM_ERROR	(-4)
#define Z_BUF_ERROR	(-5)
#define Z_OK	0
#define Z_STREAM_END	1
#define Z_NEED_DICT	2



#define Z_DEFAULT_COMPRESSION	(-1)
#define Z_NO_COMPRESSION	0
#define Z_BEST_SPEED	1
#define Z_BEST_COMPRESSION	9



#define Z_DEFAULT_STRATEGY	0
#define Z_FILTERED	1
#define Z_HUFFMAN_ONLY	2



#define Z_BINARY	0
#define Z_ASCII	1
#define Z_UNKNOWN	2



#define Z_DEFLATED	8

Interfaces for libncurses

Table 14-3. libncurses Definition

Library:libncurses
SONAME:libncurses.so.5

The behavior of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following standards.

CAE Specification, May 1996, X/Open Curses, Issue 4, Version 2 (ISBN: 1-85912-171-3, C610), plus Corrigendum U018[35]


Curses

Table 14-4. libncurses - Curses Function Interfaces

addch[35]has_il[35]mvwaddchstr[35]scr_set[35]waddnstr[35]
addchnstr[35]hline[35]mvwaddnstr[35]scrl[35]waddstr[35]
addchstr[35]idcok[35]mvwaddstr[35]scroll[35]wattr_get[35]
addnstr[35]idlok[35]mvwchgat[35]scrollok[35]wattr_off[35]
addstr[35]immedok[35]mvwdelch[35]set_term[35]wattr_on[35]
attr_get[35]inch[35]mvwgetch[35]setscrreg[35]wattr_set[35]
attr_off[35]inchnstr[35]mvwgetnstr[35]setupterm[35]wattroff[35]
attr_on[35]inchstr[35]mvwgetstr[35]slk_attr_set[35]wattron[35]
attr_set[35]init_color[35]mvwhline[35]slk_attroff[35]wattrset[35]
attroff[35]init_pair[35]mvwin[35]slk_attron[35]wbkgd[35]
attron[35]initscr[35]mvwinch[35]slk_attrset[35]wbkgdset[35]
attrset[35]innstr[35]mvwinchnstr[35]slk_clear[35]wborder[35]
baudrate[35]insch[35]mvwinchstr[35]slk_color[35]wchgat[35]
beep[35]insdelln[35]mvwinnstr[35]slk_init[35]wclear[35]
bkgd[35]insertln[35]mvwinsch[35]slk_label[35]wclrtobot[35]
bkgdset[35]insnstr[35]mvwinsnstr[35]slk_noutrefresh[35]wclrtoeol[35]
border[35]insstr[35]mvwinsstr[35]slk_refresh[35]wcolor_set[35]
box[35]instr[35]mvwinstr[35]slk_restore[35]wcursyncup[35]
can_change_color[35]intrflush[35]mvwprintw[35]slk_set[35]wdelch[35]
cbreak[35]is_linetouched[35]mvwscanw[35]slk_touch[35]wdeleteln[35]
chgat[35]is_wintouched[35]mvwvline[35]standend[35]wechochar[35]
clear[35]isendwin[35]napms[35]standout[35]werase[35]
clearok[35]keyname[35]newpad[35]start_color[35]wgetch[35]
clrtobot[35]keypad[35]newterm[35]subpad[35]wgetnstr[35]
clrtoeol[35]killchar[35]newwin[35]subwin[35]wgetstr[35]
color_content[35]leaveok[35]nl[35]syncok[35]whline[35]
color_set[35]longname[35]nocbreak[35]termattrs[35]winch[35]
copywin[35]meta[35]nodelay[35]termname[35]winchnstr[35]
curs_set[35]move[35]noecho[35]tgetent[35]winchstr[35]
def_prog_mode[35]mvaddch[35]nonl[35]tgetflag[35]winnstr[35]
def_shell_mode[35]mvaddchnstr[35]noqiflush[35]tgetnum[35]winsch[35]
delay_output[35]mvaddchstr[35]noraw[35]tgetstr[35]winsdelln[35]
delch[35]mvaddnstr[35]notimeout[35]tgoto[35]winsertln[35]
deleteln[35]mvaddstr[35]overlay[35]tigetflag[35]winsnstr[35]
delscreen[35]mvchgat[35]overwrite[35]tigetnum[35]winsstr[35]
delwin[35]mvcur[35]pair_content[35]tigetstr[35]winstr[35]
derwin[35]mvdelch[35]pechochar[35]timeout[35]wmove[35]
doupdate[35]mvderwin[35]pnoutrefresh[35]touchline[35]wnoutrefresh[35]
dupwin[35]mvgetch[35]prefresh[35]touchwin[35]wprintw[35]
echo[35]mvgetnstr[35]printw[35]tparm[35]wredrawln[35]
echochar[35]mvgetstr[35]putp[35]tputs[35]wrefresh[35]
endwin[35]mvhline[35]putwin[35]typeahead[35]wscanw[35]
erase[35]mvinch[35]qiflush[35]ungetch[35]wscrl[35]
erasechar[35]mvinchnstr[35]raw[35]untouchwin[35]wsetscrreg[35]
filter[35]mvinchstr[35]redrawwin[35]use_env[35]wstandend[35]
flash[35]mvinnstr[35]refresh[35]vidattr[35]wstandout[35]
flushinp[35]mvinsch[35]reset_prog_mode[35]vidputs[35]wsyncdown[35]
getbkgd[35]mvinsnstr[35]reset_shell_mode[35]vline[35]wsyncup[35]
getch[35]mvinsstr[35]resetty[35]vw_printw[35]wtimeout[35]
getnstr[35]mvinstr[35]ripoffline[35]vw_scanw[35]wtouchln[35]
getstr[35]mvprintw[35]savetty[35]vwprintw[35]wvline[35]
getwin[35]mvscanw[35]scanw[35]vwscanw[35] 
halfdelay[35]mvvline[35]scr_dump[35]waddch[35] 
has_colors[35]mvwaddch[35]scr_init[35]waddchnstr[35] 
has_ic[35]mvwaddchnstr[35]scr_restore[35]waddchstr[35] 

Table 14-5. libncurses - Curses Data Interfaces

COLS[35]LINES[35]curscr[35]stdscr[35] 

Data Definitions for libncurses

This section contains standard data definitions that describe system data. These definitions are organized into groups that correspond to system headers. This convention is used as a convenience for the reader, and does not imply the existence of these headers, or their content.

ISO C serves as the LSB reference programming language, and data definitions are specified in ISO C format. The C language is used here as a convenient notation. Using a C language description of these data objects does not preclude their use by other programming languages.


curses.h


#define NCURSES_BITS(mask,shift)	((mask)<<((shift)+8))
#define ERR	(-1)
#define OK	(0)
#define A_CHARTEXT	(NCURSES_BITS(1UL,0)-1UL)
#define getmaxyx(win,y,x)	(y=(win)?((win)->_maxy+1):ERR,x=(win)?((win)->_maxx+1):ERR)
#define getbegyx(win,y,x)	(y=(win)?(win)->_begy:ERR,x=(win)?(win)->_begx:ERR)
#define getyx(win,y,x)	(y=(win)?(win)->_cury:ERR,x=(win)?(win)->_curx:ERR)
#define getparyx(win,y,x)	(y=(win)?(win)->_pary:ERR,x=(win)?(win)->_parx:ERR)
#define A_NORMAL	0L
#define A_COLOR	NCURSES_BITS(((1UL)<<8)-1UL,0)
#define A_REVERSE	NCURSES_BITS(1UL,10)
#define A_BLINK	NCURSES_BITS(1UL,11)
#define A_DIM	NCURSES_BITS(1UL,12)
#define A_BOLD	NCURSES_BITS(1UL,13)
#define A_ALTCHARSET	NCURSES_BITS(1UL,14)
#define A_INVIS	NCURSES_BITS(1UL,15)
#define A_PROTECT	NCURSES_BITS(1UL,16)
#define A_HORIZONTAL	NCURSES_BITS(1UL,17)
#define A_LEFT	NCURSES_BITS(1UL,18)
#define A_LOW	NCURSES_BITS(1UL,19)
#define A_RIGHT	NCURSES_BITS(1UL,20)
#define A_TOP	NCURSES_BITS(1UL,21)
#define A_VERTICAL	NCURSES_BITS(1UL,22)
#define A_STANDOUT	NCURSES_BITS(1UL,8)
#define A_UNDERLINE	NCURSES_BITS(1UL,9)
#define A_ATTRIBUTES	NCURSES_BITS(~(1UL-1UL),0)



#define WA_ALTCHARSET	A_ALTCHARSET
#define WA_ATTRIBUTES	A_ATTRIBUTES
#define WA_BLINK	A_BLINK
#define WA_BOLD	A_BOLD
#define WA_DIM	A_DIM
#define WA_HORIZONTAL	A_HORIZONTAL
#define WA_INVIS	A_INVIS
#define WA_LEFT	A_LEFT
#define WA_LOW	A_LOW
#define WA_NORMAL	A_NORMAL
#define WA_PROTECT	A_PROTECT
#define WA_REVERSE	A_REVERSE
#define WA_RIGHT	A_RIGHT
#define WA_STANDOUT	A_STANDOUT
#define WA_TOP	A_TOP
#define WA_UNDERLINE	A_UNDERLINE
#define WA_VERTICAL	A_VERTICAL



#define COLOR_BLACK	0
#define COLOR_RED	1
#define COLOR_GREEN	2
#define COLOR_YELLOW	3
#define COLOR_BLUE	4
#define COLOR_MAGENTA	5
#define COLOR_CYAN	6
#define COLOR_WHITE	7



#define _SUBWIN	0x01
#define _ENDLINE	0x02
#define _FULLWIN	0x04
#define _ISPAD	0x10
#define _HASMOVED	0x20








typedef unsigned long chtype;
typedef struct screen SCREEN;
typedef struct _win_st WINDOW;
typedef chtype attr_t;
typedef struct
{
  attr_t attr;
  wchar_t chars[5];
}
cchar_t;
struct pdat
{
  short _pad_y;
  short _pad_x;
  short _pad_top;
  short _pad_left;
  short _pad_bottom;
  short _pad_right;
}
 ;


struct _win_st
{
  short _cury;
  short _curx;
  short _maxy;
  short _maxx;
  short _begy;
  short _begx;
  short _flags;
  attr_t _attrs;
  chtype _bkgd;
  bool _notimeout;
  bool _clear;
  bool _leaveok;
  bool _scroll;
  bool _idlok;
  bool _idcok;
  bool _immed;
  bool _sync;
  bool _use_keypad;
  int _delay;
  struct ldat *_line;
  short _regtop;
  short _regbottom;
  int _parx;
  int _pary;
  WINDOW *_parent;
  struct pdat _pad;
  short _yoffset;
  cchar_t _bkgrnd;
}
 ;
#define KEY_CODE_YES	0400
#define KEY_BREAK	0401
#define KEY_MIN	0401
#define KEY_DOWN	0402
#define KEY_UP	0403
#define KEY_LEFT	0404
#define KEY_RIGHT	0405
#define KEY_HOME	0406
#define KEY_BACKSPACE	0407
#define KEY_F0	0410
#define KEY_DL	0510
#define KEY_IL	0511
#define KEY_DC	0512
#define KEY_IC	0513
#define KEY_EIC	0514
#define KEY_CLEAR	0515
#define KEY_EOS	0516
#define KEY_EOL	0517
#define KEY_SF	0520
#define KEY_SR	0521
#define KEY_NPAGE	0522
#define KEY_PPAGE	0523
#define KEY_STAB	0524
#define KEY_CTAB	0525
#define KEY_CATAB	0526
#define KEY_ENTER	0527
#define KEY_SRESET	0530
#define KEY_RESET	0531
#define KEY_PRINT	0532
#define KEY_LL	0533
#define KEY_A1	0534
#define KEY_A3	0535
#define KEY_B2	0536
#define KEY_C1	0537
#define KEY_C3	0540
#define KEY_BTAB	0541
#define KEY_BEG	0542
#define KEY_CANCEL	0543
#define KEY_CLOSE	0544
#define KEY_COMMAND	0545
#define KEY_COPY	0546
#define KEY_CREATE	0547
#define KEY_END	0550
#define KEY_EXIT	0551
#define KEY_FIND	0552
#define KEY_HELP	0553
#define KEY_MARK	0554
#define KEY_MESSAGE	0555
#define KEY_MOVE	0556
#define KEY_NEXT	0557
#define KEY_OPEN	0560
#define KEY_OPTIONS	0561
#define KEY_PREVIOUS	0562
#define KEY_REDO	0563
#define KEY_REFERENCE	0564
#define KEY_REFRESH	0565
#define KEY_REPLACE	0566
#define KEY_RESTART	0567
#define KEY_RESUME	0570
#define KEY_SAVE	0571
#define KEY_SBEG	0572
#define KEY_SCANCEL	0573
#define KEY_SCOMMAND	0574
#define KEY_SCOPY	0575
#define KEY_SCREATE	0576
#define KEY_SDC	0577
#define KEY_SDL	0600
#define KEY_SELECT	0601
#define KEY_SEND	0602
#define KEY_SEOL	0603
#define KEY_SEXIT	0604
#define KEY_SFIND	0605
#define KEY_SHELP	0606
#define KEY_SHOME	0607
#define KEY_SIC	0610
#define KEY_SLEFT	0611
#define KEY_SMESSAGE	0612
#define KEY_SMOVE	0613
#define KEY_SNEXT	0614
#define KEY_SOPTIONS	0615
#define KEY_SPREVIOUS	0616
#define KEY_SPRINT	0617
#define KEY_SREDO	0620
#define KEY_SREPLACE	0621
#define KEY_SRIGHT	0622
#define KEY_SRSUME	0623
#define KEY_SSAVE	0624
#define KEY_SSUSPEND	0625
#define KEY_SUNDO	0626
#define KEY_SUSPEND	0627
#define KEY_UNDO	0630
#define KEY_MOUSE	0631
#define KEY_RESIZE	0632
#define KEY_MAX	0777

Interfaces for libutil

Table 14-6. libutil Definition

Library:libutil
SONAME:libutil.so.1

The behavior of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following standards.

Linux Standard Base[36]


Utility Functions

Table 14-7. libutil - Utility Functions Function Interfaces

forkpty(GLIBC_2.0)[36]login_tty(GLIBC_2.0)[36]logwtmp(GLIBC_2.0)[36]  
login(GLIBC_2.0)[36]logout(GLIBC_2.0)[36]openpty(GLIBC_2.0)[36]  

Interfaces Definitions for libutil

Table of Contents
forkpty -- find and open an available pseudo-tty
login -- login utility function
login_tty -- find and open an available pseudo-tty
logout -- logout utility function
logwtmp -- append an entry to the wtmp file
openpty -- find and open an available pseudo-tty

forkpty

Name

forkpty -- find and open an available pseudo-tty

Synopsis

int forkpty(int *amaster, 
	char *name,
	struct termios *termp,
	struct winsize *winp);

Description

The forkpty() function joins openpty(), fork(), and login_tty() to create a new process operating on a pseudo-tty. The file descriptor of the master side of the pseudo-tty is returned in amaster, and null or the filename of the slave in name. If non-null, the termp and winp parameters will determine the terminal attributes and window size of the slave side of the pseudo-tty.

Return Value

On success of the child process, zero is returned. When the parent process receives the PID of its child process, pid is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

login

Name

login -- login utility function

Synopsis

void login(struct utmp *ut);

Description

The login() function updates the /var/run/utmp and /var/log/wtmp files with user information contained in ut.

login_tty

Name

login_tty -- find and open an available pseudo-tty

Synopsis

int login_tty(int fdr);

Description

login_tty() sets up for a login on the tty referenced by the file descriptor fdr. This function creates a new session, makes the tty for the current process the controlling terminal, sets the standard input, output, and error streams of the current process, and closes fdr.

Return Value

On success, zero is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

logout

Name

logout -- logout utility function

Synopsis

int logout(const char *line);

Description

Given the device line, the logout() function removes the entry from the corresponding /var/run/utmp system file.

Return Value

Zero is returned if there was no entry to remove. A non-zero return value indicates success.

logwtmp

Name

logwtmp -- append an entry to the wtmp file

Synopsis

#include <utmp.h>

void logwtmp(const char *line, const char *name, const char *host);

Description

logwtmp() constructs an utmp structure using line, name, host, current time and current process id. Then it calls updwtmp() to append the structure to the utmp file.

Availability

Both functions are available under glibc2, but not under libc5. However, logwtmp occurs in the old libbsd.

Files

/var/log/wtmp database of past user logins

openpty

Name

openpty -- find and open an available pseudo-tty

Synopsis

int openpty(int *amaster, 
	int *aslave, 
	char *name,
	struct termios *termp,
	struct winsize *winp);

Description

The openpty() function finds an available pseudo-tty and returns file descriptors for the amaster and aslave. The filename of the slave is returned in name, otherwise a null. The terminal parameters of the slave will be set to the values in termp, otherwise a null. The window size of the slave will be set to the values in winp, otherwise a null.

Return Value

On success, zero is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

Errors

ENOENT

There are no available ttys.

VI. Graphic Libraries

Table of Contents
15. Libraries

Chapter 15. Libraries

The X Libraries should be built thread-safe.


Interfaces for libX11

Table 15-1. libX11 Definition

Library:libX11
SONAME:libX11.so.6

The behavior of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following standards.

X11R6.4 Xlib - C library[37]


X Windows System Interface

Table 15-2. libX11 - X Windows System Interface Function Interfaces

XActivateScreenSaver[37]XFreePixmap[37]XSetClipRectangles[37]XkbAllocCompatMap[37]
XAddConnectionWatch[37]XFreeStringList[37]XSetCloseDownMode[37]XkbAllocControls[37]
XAddExtension[37]XGContextFromGC[37]XSetCommand[37]XkbAllocGeomColors[37]
XAddHost[37]XGeometry[37]XSetDashes[37]XkbAllocGeomDoodads[37]
XAddHosts[37]XGetAtomName[37]XSetErrorHandler[37]XkbAllocGeomKeyAliases[37]
XAddPixel[37]XGetAtomNames[37]XSetFillRule[37]XkbAllocGeomKeys[37]
XAddToExtensionList[37]XGetClassHint[37]XSetFillStyle[37]XkbAllocGeomOutlines[37]
XAddToSaveSet[37]XGetCommand[37]XSetFont[37]XkbAllocGeomOverlayKeys[37]
XAllPlanes[37]XGetDefault[37]XSetFontPath[37]XkbAllocGeomOverlayRows[37]
XAllocClassHint[37]XGetErrorDatabaseText[37]XSetForeground[37]XkbAllocGeomOverlays[37]
XAllocColor[37]XGetErrorText[37]XSetFunction[37]XkbAllocGeomPoints[37]
XAllocColorCells[37]XGetFontPath[37]XSetGraphicsExposures[37]XkbAllocGeomProps[37]
XAllocColorPlanes[37]XGetFontProperty[37]XSetICFocus[37]XkbAllocGeomRows[37]
XAllocIconSize[37]XGetGCValues[37]XSetICValues[37]XkbAllocGeomSectionDoodads[37]
XAllocNamedColor[37]XGetGeometry[37]XSetIMValues[37]XkbAllocGeomSections[37]
XAllocSizeHints[37]XGetICValues[37]XSetIOErrorHandler[37]XkbAllocGeomShapes[37]
XAllocStandardColormap[37]XGetIMValues[37]XSetIconName[37]XkbAllocGeometry[37]
XAllocWMHints[37]XGetIconName[37]XSetIconSizes[37]XkbAllocIndicatorMaps[37]
XAllowEvents[37]XGetIconSizes[37]XSetInputFocus[37]XkbAllocKeyboard[37]
XAutoRepeatOff[37]XGetImage[37]XSetLineAttributes[37]XkbAllocNames[37]
XAutoRepeatOn[37]XGetInputFocus[37]XSetLocaleModifiers[37]XkbAllocServerMap[37]
XBaseFontNameListOfFontSet[37]XGetKeyboardControl[37]XSetModifierMapping[37]XkbApplyCompatMapToKey[37]
XBell[37]XGetKeyboardMapping[37]XSetNormalHints[37]XkbBell[37]
XBitmapBitOrder[37]XGetModifierMapping[37]XSetOCValues[37]XkbBellEvent[37]
XBitmapPad[37]XGetMotionEvents[37]XSetOMValues[37]XkbChangeEnabledControls[37]
XBitmapUnit[37]XGetNormalHints[37]XSetPlaneMask[37]XkbChangeMap[37]
XBlackPixel[37]XGetOCValues[37]XSetPointerMapping[37]XkbChangeNames[37]
XBlackPixelOfScreen[37]XGetOMValues[37]XSetRGBColormaps[37]XkbChangeTypesOfKey[37]
XCellsOfScreen[37]XGetPixel[37]XSetRegion[37]XkbComputeEffectiveMap[37]
XChangeActivePointerGrab[37]XGetPointerControl[37]XSetScreenSaver[37]XkbComputeRowBounds[37]
XChangeGC[37]XGetPointerMapping[37]XSetSelectionOwner[37]XkbComputeSectionBounds[37]
XChangeKeyboardControl[37]XGetRGBColormaps[37]XSetSizeHints[37]XkbComputeShapeBounds[37]
XChangeKeyboardMapping[37]XGetScreenSaver[37]XSetStandardColormap[37]XkbComputeShapeTop[37]
XChangePointerControl[37]XGetSelectionOwner[37]XSetStandardProperties[37]XkbCopyKeyType[37]
XChangeProperty[37]XGetSizeHints[37]XSetState[37]XkbCopyKeyTypes[37]
XChangeSaveSet[37]XGetStandardColormap[37]XSetStipple[37]XkbFindOverlayForKey[37]
XChangeWindowAttributes[37]XGetSubImage[37]XSetSubwindowMode[37]XkbForceBell[37]
XCheckIfEvent[37]XGetTextProperty[37]XSetTSOrigin[37]XkbFreeClientMap[37]
XCheckMaskEvent[37]XGetTransientForHint[37]XSetTextProperty[37]XkbFreeCompatMap[37]
XCheckTypedEvent[37]XGetVisualInfo[37]XSetTile[37]XkbFreeComponentList[37]
XCheckTypedWindowEvent[37]XGetWMClientMachine[37]XSetTransientForHint[37]XkbFreeControls[37]
XCheckWindowEvent[37]XGetWMColormapWindows[37]XSetWMClientMachine[37]XkbFreeGeomColors[37]
XCirculateSubwindows[37]XGetWMHints[37]XSetWMColormapWindows[37]XkbFreeGeomDoodads[37]
XCirculateSubwindowsDown[37]XGetWMIconName[37]XSetWMHints[37]XkbFreeGeomKeyAliases[37]
XCirculateSubwindowsUp[37]XGetWMName[37]XSetWMIconName[37]XkbFreeGeomKeys[37]
XClearArea[37]XGetWMNormalHints[37]XSetWMName[37]XkbFreeGeomOutlines[37]
XClearWindow[37]XGetWMProtocols[37]XSetWMNormalHints[37]XkbFreeGeomOverlayKeys[37]
XClipBox[37]XGetWMSizeHints[37]XSetWMProperties[37]XkbFreeGeomOverlayRows[37]
XCloseDisplay[37]XGetWindowAttributes[37]XSetWMProtocols[37]XkbFreeGeomOverlays[37]
XCloseIM[37]XGetWindowProperty[37]XSetWMSizeHints[37]XkbFreeGeomPoints[37]
XCloseOM[37]XGetZoomHints[37]XSetWindowBackground[37]XkbFreeGeomProperties[37]
XConfigureWindow[37]XGrabButton[37]XSetWindowBackgroundPixmap[37]XkbFreeGeomRows[37]
XConnectionNumber[37]XGrabKey[37]XSetWindowBorder[37]XkbFreeGeomSections[37]
XContextDependentDrawing[37]XGrabKeyboard[37]XSetWindowBorderPixmap[37]XkbFreeGeomShapes[37]
XContextualDrawing[37]XGrabPointer[37]XSetWindowBorderWidth[37]XkbFreeGeometry[37]
XConvertCase[37]XGrabServer[37]XSetWindowColormap[37]XkbFreeIndicatorMaps[37]
XConvertSelection[37]XHeightMMOfScreen[37]XSetZoomHints[37]XkbFreeKeyboard[37]
XCopyArea[37]XHeightOfScreen[37]XShrinkRegion[37]XkbFreeNames[37]
XCopyColormapAndFree[37]XIMOfIC[37]XStoreBuffer[37]XkbFreeServerMap[37]
XCopyGC[37]XIconifyWindow[37]XStoreBytes[37]XkbGetAutoRepeatRate[37]
XCopyPlane[37]XIfEvent[37]XStoreColor[37]XkbGetCompatMap[37]
XCreateBitmapFromData[37]XImageByteOrder[37]XStoreColors[37]XkbGetControls[37]
XCreateColormap[37]XInitExtension[37]XStoreName[37]XkbGetGeometry[37]
XCreateFontCursor[37]XInitImage[37]XStoreNamedColor[37]XkbGetIndicatorMap[37]
XCreateFontSet[37]XInitThreads[37]XStringListToTextProperty[37]XkbGetIndicatorState[37]
XCreateGC[37]XInsertModifiermapEntry[37]XStringToKeysym[37]XkbGetKeyActions[37]
XCreateGlyphCursor[37]XInstallColormap[37]XSubImage[37]XkbGetKeyBehaviors[37]
XCreateIC[37]XInternAtom[37]XSubtractRegion[37]XkbGetKeyExplicitComponents[37]
XCreateImage[37]XInternAtoms[37]XSupportsLocale[37]XkbGetKeyModifierMap[37]
XCreateOC[37]XInternalConnectionNumbers[37]XSync[37]XkbGetKeySyms[37]
XCreatePixmap[37]XIntersectRegion[37]XSynchronize[37]XkbGetKeyTypes[37]
XCreatePixmapCursor[37]XKeycodeToKeysym[37]XTextExtents[37]XkbGetKeyboard[37]
XCreatePixmapFromBitmapData[37]XKeysymToKeycode[37]XTextExtents16[37]XkbGetKeyboardByName[37]
XCreateRegion[37]XKeysymToString[37]XTextPropertyToStringList[37]XkbGetMap[37]
XCreateSimpleWindow[37]XKillClient[37]XTextWidth[37]XkbGetMapChanges[37]
XCreateWindow[37]XLastKnownRequestProcessed[37]XTextWidth16[37]XkbGetNamedGeometry[37]
XDefaultColormap[37]XListDepths[37]XTranslateCoordinates[37]XkbGetNamedIndicator[37]
XDefaultColormapOfScreen[37]XListExtensions[37]XUndefineCursor[37]XkbGetNames[37]
XDefaultDepth[37]XListFonts[37]XUngrabButton[37]XkbGetState[37]
XDefaultDepthOfScreen[37]XListFontsWithInfo[37]XUngrabKey[37]XkbGetUpdatedMap[37]
XDefaultGC[37]XListHosts[37]XUngrabKeyboard[37]XkbGetVirtualMods[37]
XDefaultGCOfScreen[37]XListInstalledColormaps[37]XUngrabPointer[37]XkbGetXlibControls[37]
XDefaultRootWindow[37]XListPixmapFormats[37]XUngrabServer[37]XkbIgnoreExtension[37]
XDefaultScreen[37]XListProperties[37]XUninstallColormap[37]XkbInitCanonicalKeyTypes[37]
XDefaultScreenOfDisplay[37]XLoadFont[37]XUnionRectWithRegion[37]XkbKeyTypesForCoreSymbols[37]
XDefaultString[37]XLoadQueryFont[37]XUnionRegion[37]XkbKeycodeToKeysym[37]
XDefaultVisual[37]XLocaleOfFontSet[37]XUnloadFont[37]XkbKeysymToModifiers[37]
XDefaultVisualOfScreen[37]XLocaleOfIM[37]XUnlockDisplay[37]XkbLatchGroup[37]
XDefineCursor[37]XLocaleOfOM[37]XUnmapSubwindows[37]XkbLatchModifiers[37]
XDeleteContext[37]XLockDisplay[37]XUnmapWindow[37]XkbLibraryVersion[37]
XDeleteModifiermapEntry[37]XLookupColor[37]XUnregisterIMInstantiateCallback[37]XkbListComponents[37]
XDeleteProperty[37]XLookupKeysym[37]XUnsetICFocus[37]XkbLockGroup[37]
XDestroyIC[37]XLookupString[37]XVaCreateNestedList[37]XkbLockModifiers[37]
XDestroyImage[37]XLowerWindow[37]XVendorRelease[37]XkbLookupKeyBinding[37]
XDestroyOC[37]XMapRaised[37]XVisualIDFromVisual[37]XkbLookupKeySym[37]
XDestroyRegion[37]XMapSubwindows[37]XWMGeometry[37]XkbNoteControlsChanges[37]
XDestroySubwindows[37]XMapWindow[37]XWarpPointer[37]XkbNoteMapChanges[37]
XDestroyWindow[37]XMaskEvent[37]XWhitePixel[37]XkbNoteNameChanges[37]
XDirectionalDependentDrawing[37]XMatchVisualInfo[37]XWhitePixelOfScreen[37]XkbOpenDisplay[37]
XDisableAccessControl[37]XMaxCmapsOfScreen[37]XWidthMMOfScreen[37]XkbQueryExtension[37]
XDisplayCells[37]XMaxRequestSize[37]XWidthOfScreen[37]XkbRefreshKeyboardMapping[37]
XDisplayHeight[37]XMinCmapsOfScreen[37]XWindowEvent[37]XkbResizeKeyActions[37]
XDisplayHeightMM[37]XMoveResizeWindow[37]XWithdrawWindow[37]XkbResizeKeySyms[37]
XDisplayKeycodes[37]XMoveWindow[37]XWriteBitmapFile[37]XkbResizeKeyType[37]
XDisplayMotionBufferSize[37]XNewModifiermap[37]XXorRegion[37]XkbSelectEventDetails[37]
XDisplayName[37]XNextEvent[37]XauDisposeAuth[37]XkbSelectEvents[37]
XDisplayOfIM[37]XNextRequest[37]XauFileName[37]XkbSetAtomFuncs[37]
XDisplayOfOM[37]XNoOp[37]XauGetBestAuthByAddr[37]XkbSetAutoRepeatRate[37]
XDisplayOfScreen[37]XOMOfOC[37]XauReadAuth[37]XkbSetAutoResetControls[37]
XDisplayPlanes[37]XOffsetRegion[37]XcmsAddColorSpace[37]XkbSetCompatMap[37]
XDisplayString[37]XOpenDisplay[37]XcmsAddFunctionSet[37]XkbSetControls[37]
XDisplayWidth[37]XOpenIM[37]XcmsAllocColor[37]XkbSetDebuggingFlags[37]
XDisplayWidthMM[37]XOpenOM[37]XcmsAllocNamedColor[37]XkbSetDetectableAutoRepeat[37]
XDoesBackingStore[37]XParseColor[37]XcmsCCCOfColormap[37]XkbSetGeometry[37]
XDoesSaveUnders[37]XParseGeometry[37]XcmsCIELabClipL[37]XkbSetIgnoreLockMods[37]
XDrawArc[37]XPeekEvent[37]XcmsCIELabClipLab[37]XkbSetIndicatorMap[37]
XDrawArcs[37]XPeekIfEvent[37]XcmsCIELabClipab[37]XkbSetMap[37]
XDrawImageString[37]XPending[37]XcmsCIELabQueryMaxC[37]XkbSetNamedIndicator[37]
XDrawImageString16[37]XPlanesOfScreen[37]XcmsCIELabQueryMaxL[37]XkbSetNames[37]
XDrawLine[37]XPointInRegion[37]XcmsCIELabQueryMaxLC[37]XkbSetServerInternalMods[37]
XDrawLines[37]XPolygonRegion[37]XcmsCIELabQueryMinL[37]XkbSetXlibControls[37]
XDrawPoint[37]XProcessInternalConnection[37]XcmsCIELabToCIEXYZ[37]XkbToControl[37]
XDrawPoints[37]XProtocolRevision[37]XcmsCIELabWhiteShiftColors[37]XkbTranslateKeyCode[37]
XDrawRectangle[37]XProtocolVersion[37]XcmsCIELuvClipL[37]XkbTranslateKeySym[37]
XDrawRectangles[37]XPutBackEvent[37]XcmsCIELuvClipLuv[37]XkbUpdateMapFromCore[37]
XDrawSegments[37]XPutImage[37]XcmsCIELuvClipuv[37]XkbUseExtension[37]
XDrawString[37]XPutPixel[37]XcmsCIELuvQueryMaxC[37]XkbVirtualModsToReal[37]
XDrawString16[37]XQLength[37]XcmsCIELuvQueryMaxL[37]XmbDrawImageString[37]
XDrawText[37]XQueryBestCursor[37]XcmsCIELuvQueryMaxLC[37]XmbDrawString[37]
XDrawText16[37]XQueryBestSize[37]XcmsCIELuvQueryMinL[37]XmbDrawText[37]
XEHeadOfExtensionList[37]XQueryBestStipple[37]XcmsCIELuvToCIEuvY[37]XmbLookupString[37]
XESetBeforeFlush[37]XQueryBestTile[37]XcmsCIELuvWhiteShiftColors[37]XmbResetIC[37]
XESetCloseDisplay[37]XQueryColor[37]XcmsCIEXYZToCIELab[37]XmbSetWMProperties[37]
XESetCopyGC[37]XQueryColors[37]XcmsCIEXYZToCIEuvY[37]XmbTextEscapement[37]
XESetCreateFont[37]XQueryExtension[37]XcmsCIEXYZToCIExyY[37]XmbTextExtents[37]
XESetCreateGC[37]XQueryFont[37]XcmsCIEXYZToRGBi[37]XmbTextListToTextProperty[37]
XESetError[37]XQueryKeymap[37]XcmsCIEuvYToCIELuv[37]XmbTextPerCharExtents[37]
XESetErrorString[37]XQueryPointer[37]XcmsCIEuvYToCIEXYZ[37]XmbTextPropertyToTextList[37]
XESetEventToWire[37]XQueryTextExtents[37]XcmsCIEuvYToTekHVC[37]XrmCombineDatabase[37]
XESetFlushGC[37]XQueryTextExtents16[37]XcmsCIExyYToCIEXYZ[37]XrmCombineFileDatabase[37]
XESetFreeFont[37]XQueryTree[37]XcmsClientWhitePointOfCCC[37]XrmDestroyDatabase[37]
XESetFreeGC[37]XRaiseWindow[37]XcmsConvertColors[37]XrmEnumerateDatabase[37]
XESetPrintErrorValues[37]XReadBitmapFile[37]XcmsCreateCCC[37]XrmGetDatabase[37]
XESetWireToError[37]XReadBitmapFileData[37]XcmsDefaultCCC[37]XrmGetFileDatabase[37]
XESetWireToEvent[37]XRebindKeysym[37]XcmsDisplayOfCCC[37]XrmGetResource[37]
XEmptyRegion[37]XRecolorCursor[37]XcmsFormatOfPrefix[37]XrmGetStringDatabase[37]
XEnableAccessControl[37]XReconfigureWMWindow[37]XcmsFreeCCC[37]XrmInitialize[37]
XEqualRegion[37]XRectInRegion[37]XcmsLookupColor[37]XrmLocaleOfDatabase[37]
XEventMaskOfScreen[37]XRefreshKeyboardMapping[37]XcmsPrefixOfFormat[37]XrmMergeDatabases[37]
XEventsQueued[37]XRegisterIMInstantiateCallback[37]XcmsQueryBlack[37]XrmParseCommand[37]
XExtendedMaxRequestSize[37]XRemoveConnectionWatch[37]XcmsQueryBlue[37]XrmPermStringToQuark[37]
XExtentsOfFontSet[37]XRemoveFromSaveSet[37]XcmsQueryColor[37]XrmPutFileDatabase[37]
XFetchBuffer[37]XRemoveHost[37]XcmsQueryColors[37]XrmPutLineResource[37]
XFetchBytes[37]XRemoveHosts[37]XcmsQueryGreen[37]XrmPutResource[37]
XFetchName[37]XReparentWindow[37]XcmsQueryRed[37]XrmPutStringResource[37]
XFillArc[37]XResetScreenSaver[37]XcmsQueryWhite[37]XrmQGetResource[37]
XFillArcs[37]XResizeWindow[37]XcmsRGBToRGBi[37]XrmQGetSearchList[37]
XFillPolygon[37]XResourceManagerString[37]XcmsRGBiToCIEXYZ[37]XrmQGetSearchResource[37]
XFillRectangle[37]XRestackWindows[37]XcmsRGBiToRGB[37]XrmQPutResource[37]
XFillRectangles[37]XRootWindow[37]XcmsScreenNumberOfCCC[37]XrmQPutStringResource[37]
XFilterEvent[37]XRootWindowOfScreen[37]XcmsScreenWhitePointOfCCC[37]XrmQuarkToString[37]
XFindContext[37]XRotateBuffers[37]XcmsSetCCCOfColormap[37]XrmSetDatabase[37]
XFindOnExtensionList[37]XRotateWindowProperties[37]XcmsSetCompressionProc[37]XrmStringToBindingQuarkList[37]
XFlush[37]XSaveContext[37]XcmsSetWhiteAdjustProc[37]XrmStringToQuark[37]
XFlushGC[37]XScreenCount[37]XcmsSetWhitePoint[37]XrmStringToQuarkList[37]
XFontsOfFontSet[37]XScreenNumberOfScreen[37]XcmsStoreColor[37]XrmUniqueQuark[37]
XForceScreenSaver[37]XScreenOfDisplay[37]XcmsStoreColors[37]Xutf8TextListToTextProperty
XFree[37]XScreenResourceString[37]XcmsTekHVCClipC[37]Xutf8TextPropertyToTextList
XFreeColormap[37]XSelectInput[37]XcmsTekHVCClipV[37]XwcDrawImageString[37]
XFreeColors[37]XSendEvent[37]XcmsTekHVCClipVC[37]XwcDrawString[37]
XFreeCursor[37]XServerVendor[37]XcmsTekHVCQueryMaxC[37]XwcDrawText[37]
XFreeExtensionList[37]XSetAccessControl[37]XcmsTekHVCQueryMaxV[37]XwcFreeStringList[37]
XFreeFont[37]XSetAfterFunction[37]XcmsTekHVCQueryMaxVC[37]XwcLookupString[37]
XFreeFontInfo[37]XSetArcMode[37]XcmsTekHVCQueryMaxVSamples[37]XwcResetIC[37]
XFreeFontNames[37]XSetAuthorization[37]XcmsTekHVCQueryMinV[37]XwcTextEscapement[37]
XFreeFontPath[37]XSetBackground[37]XcmsTekHVCToCIEuvY[37]XwcTextExtents[37]
XFreeFontSet[37]XSetClassHint[37]XcmsTekHVCWhiteShiftColors[37]XwcTextListToTextProperty[37]
XFreeGC[37]XSetClipMask[37]XcmsVisualOfCCC[37]XwcTextPerCharExtents[37]
XFreeModifiermap[37]XSetClipOrigin[37]XkbAllocClientMap[37]XwcTextPropertyToTextList[37]

Data Definitions for libX11

This section contains standard data definitions that describe system data. These definitions are organized into groups that correspond to system headers. This convention is used as a convenience for the reader, and does not imply the existence of these headers, or their content.

ISO C serves as the LSB reference programming language, and data definitions are specified in ISO C format. The C language is used here as a convenient notation. Using a C language description of these data objects does not preclude their use by other programming languages.


X11/X.h






typedef unsigned long XID;
typedef unsigned long Atom;
typedef unsigned long VisualID;
typedef unsigned long Time;
typedef XID Window;
typedef XID Font;
typedef XID Pixmap;
typedef unsigned char KeyCode;
typedef XID Drawable;
typedef XID Cursor;
typedef XID Colormap;
typedef XID GContext;
typedef XID KeySym;
#define AllTemporary	0L
#define AnyButton	0L
#define AnyKey	0L
#define AnyPropertyType	0L
#define CopyFromParent	0L
#define CurrentTime	0L
#define NoSymbol	0L
#define None	0L
#define PointerWindow	0L
#define InputFocus	1L
#define ParentRelative	1L
#define PointerRoot	1L



#define KeyPressMask	(1L<<0)
#define KeyReleaseMask	(1L<<1)
#define Button3MotionMask	(1L<<10)
#define Button4MotionMask	(1L<<11)
#define Button5MotionMask	(1L<<12)
#define ButtonMotionMask	(1L<<13)
#define KeymapStateMask	(1L<<14)
#define ExposureMask	(1L<<15)
#define VisibilityChangeMask	(1L<<16)
#define StructureNotifyMask	(1L<<17)
#define ResizeRedirectMask	(1L<<18)
#define SubstructureNotifyMask	(1L<<19)
#define ButtonPressMask	(1L<<2)
#define SubstructureRedirectMask	(1L<<20)
#define FocusChangeMask	(1L<<21)
#define PropertyChangeMask	(1L<<22)
#define ColormapChangeMask	(1L<<23)
#define ButtonReleaseMask	(1L<<3)
#define EnterWindowMask	(1L<<4)
#define LeaveWindowMask	(1L<<5)
#define PointerMotionMask	(1L<<6)
#define PointerMotionHintMask	(1L<<7)
#define Button1MotionMask	(1L<<8)
#define Button2MotionMask	(1L<<9)



#define NoEventMask	0L
#define FocusOut	10
#define KeymapNotify	11
#define Expose	12
#define GraphicsExpose	13
#define NoExpose	14
#define VisibilityNotify	15
#define CreateNotify	16
#define DestroyNotify	17
#define UnmapNotify	18
#define MapNotify	19
#define KeyPress	2
#define MapRequest	20
#define ReparentNotify	21
#define ConfigureNotify	22
#define ConfigureRequest	23
#define GravityNotify	24
#define ResizeRequest	25
#define CirculateNotify	26
#define CirculateRequest	27
#define PropertyNotify	28
#define SelectionClear	29
#define KeyRelease	3
#define SelectionRequest	30
#define SelectionNotify	31
#define ColormapNotify	32
#define ClientMessage	33
#define MappingNotify	34
#define LASTEvent	35
#define ButtonPress	4
#define ButtonRelease	5
#define MotionNotify	6
#define EnterNotify	7
#define LeaveNotify	8
#define FocusIn	9



#define ShiftMask	(1<<0)
#define LockMask	(1<<1)
#define ControlMask	(1<<2)
#define Mod1Mask	(1<<3)
#define Mod2Mask	(1<<4)
#define Mod3Mask	(1<<5)
#define Mod4Mask	(1<<6)
#define Mod5Mask	(1<<7)



#define ShiftMapIndex	0
#define LockMapIndex	1
#define ControlMapIndex	2
#define Mod1MapIndex	3
#define Mod2MapIndex	4
#define Mod3MapIndex	5
#define Mod4MapIndex	6
#define Mod5MapIndex	7



#define Button3Mask	(1<<10)
#define Button4Mask	(1<<11)
#define Button5Mask	(1<<12)
#define AnyModifier	(1<<15)
#define Button1Mask	(1<<8)
#define Button2Mask	(1<<9)



#define Button1	1
#define Button2	2
#define Button3	3
#define Button4	4
#define Button5	5



#define NotifyNormal	0
#define NotifyGrab	1
#define NotifyHint	1
#define NotifyUngrab	2
#define NotifyWhileGrabbed	3



#define NotifyAncestor	0
#define NotifyVirtual	1
#define NotifyInferior	2
#define NotifyNonlinear	3
#define NotifyNonlinearVirtual	4
#define NotifyPointer	5
#define NotifyPointerRoot	6
#define NotifyDetailNone	7



#define VisibilityUnobscured	0
#define VisibilityPartiallyObscured	1
#define VisibilityFullyObscured	2



#define PlaceOnTop	0
#define PlaceOnBottom	1



#define FamilyInternet	0
#define FamilyDECnet	1
#define FamilyChaos	2



#define PropModeReplace	0
#define PropertyNewValue	0
#define PropertyDelete	1



#define ColormapUninstalled	0
#define ColormapInstalled	1



#define GrabModeSync	0
#define GrabModeAsync	1



#define GrabSuccess	0
#define AlreadyGrabbed	1
#define GrabInvalidTime	2
#define GrabNotViewable	3
#define GrabFrozen	4



#define AsyncPointer	0
#define SyncPointer	1
#define ReplayPointer	2
#define AsyncKeyboard	3
#define SyncKeyboard	4
#define ReplayKeyboard	5
#define AsyncBoth	6
#define SyncBoth	7



#define RevertToNone	(int)None
#define RevertToPointerRoot	(int)PointerRoot
#define RevertToParent	2



#define Success	0
#define BadRequest	1
#define BadAccess	10
#define BadAlloc	11
#define BadColor	12
#define FirstExtensionError	128
#define BadGC	13
#define BadIDChoice	14
#define BadName	15
#define BadLength	16
#define BadImplementation	17
#define BadValue	2
#define LastExtensionError	255
#define BadWindow	3
#define BadPixmap	4
#define BadAtom	5
#define BadCursor	6
#define BadFont	7
#define BadMatch	8
#define BadDrawable	9



#define CWX	(1<<0)
#define InputOutput	1
#define InputOnly	2



#define CWBackPixmap	(1L<<0)
#define CWBackPixel	(1L<<1)
#define CWSaveUnder	(1L<<10)
#define CWEventMask	(1L<<11)
#define CWDontPropagate	(1L<<12)
#define CWColormap	(1L<<13)
#define CWCursor	(1L<<14)
#define CWBorderPixmap	(1L<<2)
#define CWBorderPixel	(1L<<3)
#define CWBitGravity	(1L<<4)
#define CWWinGravity	(1L<<5)
#define CWBackingStore	(1L<<6)
#define CWBackingPlanes	(1L<<7)
#define CWBackingPixel	(1L<<8)
#define CWOverrideRedirect	(1L<<9)



#define CWY	(1<<1)
#define CWWidth	(1<<2)
#define CWHeight	(1<<3)
#define CWBorderWidth	(1<<4)
#define CWSibling	(1<<5)
#define CWStackMode	(1<<6)



#define ForgetGravity	0
#define UnmapGravity	0
#define NorthWestGravity	1
#define StaticGravity	10
#define NorthGravity	2
#define NorthEastGravity	3
#define WestGravity	4
#define CenterGravity	5
#define EastGravity	6
#define SouthWestGravity	7
#define SouthGravity	8
#define SouthEastGravity	9






#define NotUseful	0
#define WhenMapped	1
#define Always	2



#define IsUnmapped	0
#define IsUnviewable	1
#define IsViewable	2



#define SetModeInsert	0
#define SetModeDelete	1



#define DestroyAll	0
#define RetainPermanent	1
#define RetainTemporary	2



#define Above	0
#define Below	1
#define TopIf	2
#define BottomIf	3



#define RaiseLowest	0
#define LowerHighest	1



#define PropModePrepend	1
#define PropModeAppend	2






#define GXclear	0x0
#define GXand	0x1
#define GXandReverse	0x2
#define GXcopy	0x3
#define GXandInverted	0x4
#define GXnoop	0x5
#define GXxor	0x6
#define GXor	0x7
#define GXnor	0x8
#define GXequiv	0x9
#define GXinvert	0xa
#define GXorReverse	0xb
#define GXcopyInverted	0xc
#define GXorInverted	0xd
#define GXnand	0xe
#define GXset	0xf



#define LineSolid	0
#define LineOnOffDash	1
#define LineDoubleDash	2



#define CapNotLast	0
#define CapButt	1
#define CapRound	2
#define CapProjecting	3



#define JoinMiter	0
#define JoinRound	1
#define JoinBevel	2



#define FillSolid	0
#define FillTiled	1
#define FillStippled	2
#define FillOpaqueStippled	3



#define EvenOddRule	0
#define WindingRule	1



#define ClipByChildren	0
#define IncludeInferiors	1



#define Unsorted	0
#define XYBitmap	0
#define YSorted	1
#define YXSorted	2
#define YXBanded	3



#define CoordModeOrigin	0
#define CoordModePrevious	1



#define Complex	0
#define Nonconvex	1
#define Convex	2



#define ArcChord	0
#define ArcPieSlice	1



#define GCFunction	(1L<<0)
#define GCPlaneMask	(1L<<1)
#define GCTile	(1L<<10)
#define GCStipple	(1L<<11)
#define GCTileStipXOrigin	(1L<<12)
#define GCTileStipYOrigin	(1L<<13)
#define GCFont	(1L<<14)
#define GCSubwindowMode	(1L<<15)
#define GCGraphicsExposures	(1L<<16)
#define GCClipXOrigin	(1L<<17)
#define GCClipYOrigin	(1L<<18)
#define GCClipMask	(1L<<19)
#define GCForeground	(1L<<2)
#define GCDashOffset	(1L<<20)
#define GCDashList	(1L<<21)
#define GCArcMode	(1L<<22)
#define GCBackground	(1L<<3)
#define GCLineWidth	(1L<<4)
#define GCLineStyle	(1L<<5)
#define GCCapStyle	(1L<<6)
#define GCJoinStyle	(1L<<7)
#define GCFillStyle	(1L<<8)
#define GCFillRule	(1L<<9)
#define GCLastBit	22
#define FontChange	255






#define FontLeftToRight	0
#define FontRightToLeft	1






#define XYPixmap	1
#define ZPixmap	2






#define AllocNone	0
#define AllocAll	1



#define DoRed	(1<<0)
#define DoGreen	(1<<1)
#define DoBlue	(1<<2)






#define CursorShape	0
#define TileShape	1
#define StippleShape	2



#define AutoRepeatModeOff	0
#define LedModeOff	0
#define AutoRepeatModeOn	1
#define LedModeOn	1
#define AutoRepeatModeDefault	2



#define KBKeyClickPercent	(1L<<0)
#define KBBellPercent	(1L<<1)
#define KBBellPitch	(1L<<2)
#define KBBellDuration	(1L<<3)
#define KBLed	(1L<<4)
#define KBLedMode	(1L<<5)
#define KBKey	(1L<<6)
#define KBAutoRepeatMode	(1L<<7)
#define MappingModifier	0
#define MappingSuccess	0
#define MappingBusy	1
#define MappingKeyboard	1
#define MappingFailed	2
#define MappingPointer	2



#define DisableScreenInterval	0
#define DisableScreenSaver	0
#define DontAllowExposures	0
#define DontPreferBlanking	0
#define AllowExposures	1
#define PreferBlanking	1
#define DefaultBlanking	2
#define DefaultExposures	2



#define ScreenSaverReset	0
#define ScreenSaverActive	1






#define HostInsert	0
#define HostDelete	1



#define DisableAccess	0
#define EnableAccess	1



#define StaticGray	0
#define GrayScale	1
#define StaticColor	2
#define PseudoColor	3
#define TrueColor	4
#define DirectColor	5



#define LSBFirst	0
#define MSBFirst	1

X11/Xauth.h



typedef struct xauth
{
  unsigned short family;
  unsigned short address_length;
  char *address;
  unsigned short number_length;
  char *number;
  unsigned short name_length;
  char *name;
  unsigned short data_length;
  char *data;
}
Xauth;

X11/Xcms.h



typedef struct _XcmsFunctionSet
{
  XcmsColorSpace **DDColorSpaces;
  XcmsScreenInitProc screenInitProc;
  XcmsScreenFreeProc screenFreeProc;
}
XcmsFunctionSet;


typedef unsigned long XcmsColorFormat;
typedef double XcmsFloat;
typedef struct
{
  unsigned short red;
  unsigned short green;
  unsigned short blue;
}
XcmsRGB;
typedef struct
{
  XcmsFloat red;
  XcmsFloat green;
  XcmsFloat blue;
}
XcmsRGBi;
typedef struct
{
  XcmsFloat X;
  XcmsFloat Y;
  XcmsFloat Z;
}
XcmsCIEXYZ;
typedef struct
{
  XcmsFloat u_prime;
  XcmsFloat v_prime;
  XcmsFloat Y;
}
XcmsCIEuvY;
typedef struct
{
  XcmsFloat x;
  XcmsFloat y;
  XcmsFloat Y;
}
XcmsCIExyY;
typedef struct
{
  XcmsFloat L_star;
  XcmsFloat a_star;
  XcmsFloat b_star;
}
XcmsCIELab;
typedef struct
{
  XcmsFloat L_star;
  XcmsFloat u_star;
  XcmsFloat v_star;
}
XcmsCIELuv;
typedef struct
{
  XcmsFloat H;
  XcmsFloat V;
  XcmsFloat C;
}
XcmsTekHVC;
typedef struct
{
  XcmsFloat pad0;
  XcmsFloat pad1;
  XcmsFloat pad2;
  XcmsFloat pad3;
}
XcmsPad;


typedef union
{
  XcmsRGB RGB;
  XcmsRGBi RGBi;
  XcmsCIEXYZ CIEXYZ;
  XcmsCIEuvY CIEuvY;
  XcmsCIExyY CIExyY;
  XcmsCIELab CIELab;
  XcmsCIELuv CIELuv;
  XcmsTekHVC TekHVC;
  XcmsPad Pad;
}
XcmsColor;


typedef struct _XcmsPerScrnInfo
{
  XcmsColor screenWhitePt;
  XPointer functionSet;
  XPointer screenData;
  unsigned char state;
  char pad[1];
}
XcmsPerScrnInfo;


typedef int (*XcmsCompressionProc) (void);
typedef int (*XcmsWhiteAdjustProc) (void);
typedef int (*XcmsScreenInitProc) (void);
typedef void (*XcmsScreenFreeProc) (void);
typedef int (*XcmsConversionProc) (void);
typedef int (*XcmsParseStringProc) (void);


typedef struct _XcmsCCC
{
  Display *dpy;
  int screenNumber;
  Visual *visual;
  XcmsColor clientWhitePt;
  XcmsCompressionProc gamutCompProc;
  XPointer gamutCompClientData;
  XcmsWhiteAdjustProc whitePtAdjProc;
  XPointer whitePtAdjClientData;
  XcmsPerScrnInfo *pPerScrnInfo;
}
 *XcmsCCC;


typedef XcmsConversionProc *XcmsFuncListPtr;


typedef struct _XcmsColorSpace
{
  char *prefix;
  XcmsColorFormat id;
  XcmsParseStringProc parseString;
  XcmsFuncListPtr to_CIEXYZ;
  XcmsFuncListPtr from_CIEXYZ;
  int inverse_flag;
}
XcmsColorSpace;

X11/Xlib.h



struct _XDisplay;
typedef struct XColor;
typedef void *XVaNestedList;
typedef int (*XErrorHandler) (void);
typedef int (*XIOErrorHandler) (void);
typedef void (*XConnectionWatchProc) (void);


typedef char *XPointer;


typedef struct _XExtData
{
  int number;
  struct _XExtData *next;
  int (*free_private) (struct _XExtData * extension);
  XPointer private_data;
}
XExtData;
typedef struct XExtCodes;


typedef struct XPixmapFormatValues;


typedef struct XGCValues;


typedef struct _XGC *GC;


typedef struct Visual;


typedef struct Depth;


typedef struct Screen;


typedef struct ScreenFormat;


typedef struct XSetWindowAttributes;
typedef struct XWindowAttributes;


typedef struct XHostAddress;


typedef struct _XImage
{
  int width;
  int height;
  int xoffset;
  int format;
  char *data;
  int byte_order;
  int bitmap_unit;
  int bitmap_bit_order;
  int bitmap_pad;
  int depth;
  int bytes_per_line;
  int bits_per_pixel;
  unsigned long red_mask;
  unsigned long green_mask;
  unsigned long blue_mask;
  XPointer obdata;
  struct funcs f;
}
XImage;


typedef struct XWindowChanges;


typedef struct XSegment;
typedef struct XPoint;
typedef struct XRectangle;
typedef struct XArc;


typedef struct XKeyboardControl;


typedef struct XKeyboardState;


typedef struct XTimeCoord;


typedef struct XModifierKeymap;


typedef struct _XDisplay Display;


typedef struct XKeyEvent;
typedef XKeyEvent XKeyPressedEvent;
typedef XKeyEvent XKeyReleasedEvent;
typedef struct XButtonEvent;
typedef XButtonEvent XButtonPressedEvent;
typedef XButtonEvent XButtonReleasedEvent;
typedef struct XMotionEvent;
typedef XMotionEvent XPointerMovedEvent;
typedef struct XCrossingEvent;
typedef XCrossingEvent XEnterWindowEvent;
typedef XCrossingEvent XLeaveWindowEvent;
typedef struct XFocusChangeEvent;
typedef XFocusChangeEvent XFocusInEvent;
typedef XFocusChangeEvent XFocusOutEvent;
typedef struct XKeymapEvent;
typedef struct XExposeEvent;
typedef struct XGraphicsExposeEvent;
typedef struct XNoExposeEvent;
typedef struct XVisibilityEvent;
typedef struct XCreateWindowEvent;
typedef struct XDestroyWindowEvent;
typedef struct XUnmapEvent;
typedef struct XMapEvent;
typedef struct XMapRequestEvent;
typedef struct XReparentEvent;
typedef struct XConfigureEvent;
typedef struct XGravityEvent;
typedef struct XResizeRequestEvent;
typedef struct XConfigureRequestEvent;
typedef struct XCirculateEvent;
typedef struct XCirculateRequestEvent;
typedef struct XPropertyEvent;
typedef struct XSelectionClearEvent;
typedef struct XSelectionRequestEvent;
typedef struct XSelectionEvent;
typedef struct XColormapEvent;
typedef union XClientMessageEvent;
typedef struct XMappingEvent;
typedef struct XErrorEvent;
typedef struct XAnyEvent;


typedef union _XEvent
{
  int type;
  XAnyEvent xany;
  XKeyEvent xkey;
  XButtonEvent xbutton;
  XMotionEvent xmotion;
  XCrossingEvent xcrossing;
  XFocusChangeEvent xfocus;
  XExposeEvent xexpose;
  XGraphicsExposeEvent xgraphicsexpose;
  XNoExposeEvent xnoexpose;
  XVisibilityEvent xvisibility;
  XCreateWindowEvent xcreatewindow;
  XDestroyWindowEvent xdestroywindow;
  XUnmapEvent xunmap;
  XMapEvent xmap;
  XMapRequestEvent xmaprequest;
  XReparentEvent xreparent;
  XConfigureEvent xconfigure;
  XGravityEvent xgravity;
  XResizeRequestEvent xresizerequest;
  XConfigureRequestEvent xconfigurerequest;
  XCirculateEvent xcirculate;
  XCirculateRequestEvent xcirculaterequest;
  XPropertyEvent xproperty;
  XSelectionClearEvent xselectionclear;
  XSelectionRequestEvent xselectionrequest;
  XSelectionEvent xselection;
  XColormapEvent xcolormap;
  XClientMessageEvent xclient;
  XMappingEvent xmapping;
  XErrorEvent xerror;
  XKeymapEvent xkeymap;
  long pad[1];
}
XEvent;


typedef struct XCharStruct;


typedef struct XFontProp;
typedef struct XFontStruct;
typedef struct XFontSetExtents;


typedef struct XTextItem;
typedef struct XChar2b;
typedef struct XTextItem16;


typedef union XEDataObject;


typedef struct _XOM *XOM;
typedef struct _XOC *XOC;
typedef struct _XOC *XFontSet;


typedef struct XmbTextItem;
typedef struct XwcTextItem;





typedef struct _XIM *XIM;
typedef struct _XIC *XIC;
typedef void (*XIDProc) (void);

X11/Xutil.h



typedef struct XSizeHints;
typedef struct XWMHints;
typedef struct XTextProperty;
typedef struct XIconSize;
typedef struct XClassHint;
typedef struct _XComposeStatus
{
  XPointer compose_ptr;
  int chars_matched;
}
XComposeStatus;
typedef struct _XRegion *Region;
typedef struct XVisualInfo;
typedef struct XStandardColormap;
typedef int XContext;
typedef enum XICCEncodingStyle;

Interfaces for libXext

Table 15-3. libXext Definition

Library:libXext
SONAME:libXext.so.6

The behavior of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following standards.

Double Buffer Extension Library[38]
X Display Power Management Signaling (DPMS) Extension, Library Specification[39]
Security Extension Specification, Version 7.1[40]
X Nonrectangular Window Shape Extension Library Version 1.0[41]
MIT-SHM--The MIT Shared Memory Extension[42]
X Synchronization Extension Library[43]


X Shape Extension

Table 15-4. libXext - X Shape Extension Function Interfaces

XShapeCombineMask[41]XShapeCombineShape[41]XShapeOffsetShape[41]XShapeQueryVersion[41]
XShapeCombineRectangles[41]XShapeGetRectangles[41]XShapeQueryExtension[41]XShapeSelectInput[41]
XShapeCombineRegion[41]XShapeInputSelected[41]XShapeQueryExtents[41] 

X Display Power Management Signaling Extension

Table 15-5. libXext - X Display Power Management Signaling Extension Function Interfaces

DPMSCapable[39]DPMSForceLevel[39]DPMSInfo[39] 
DPMSDisable[39]DPMSGetTimeouts[39]DPMSQueryExtension[39] 
DPMSEnable[39]DPMSGetVersion[39]DPMSSetTimeouts[39] 

X Shared Memory Extensions

Table 15-6. libXext - X Shared Memory Extensions Function Interfaces

XShmAttach[42]XShmDetach[42]XShmPixmapFormat[42]XShmQueryVersion[42]
XShmCreateImage[42]XShmGetEventBase[42]XShmPutImage[42] 
XShmCreatePixmap[42]XShmGetImage[42]XShmQueryExtension[42] 

MIT-MISC Extension


X Synchronization Extension

Table 15-7. libXext - X Synchronization Extension Function Interfaces

XSyncAwait[43]XSyncGetPriority[43]XSyncQueryCounter[43]XSyncValueHigh32[43]
XSyncChangeAlarm[43]XSyncInitialize[43]XSyncQueryExtension[43]XSyncValueIsNegative[43]
XSyncChangeCounter[43]XSyncIntToValue[43]XSyncSetCounter[43]XSyncValueIsPositive[43]
XSyncCreateAlarm[43]XSyncIntsToValue[43]XSyncSetPriority[43]XSyncValueIsZero[43]
XSyncCreateCounter[43]XSyncListSystemCounters[43]XSyncValueAdd[43]XSyncValueLessOrEqual[43]
XSyncDestroyAlarm[43]XSyncMaxValue[43]XSyncValueEqual[43]XSyncValueLessThan[43]
XSyncDestroyCounter[43]XSyncMinValue[43]XSyncValueGreaterOrEqual[43]XSyncValueLow32[43]
XSyncFreeSystemCounterList[43]XSyncQueryAlarm[43]XSyncValueGreaterThan[43]XSyncValueSubtract[43]

X Security Extension

Table 15-8. libXext - X Security Extension Function Interfaces

XSecurityAllocXauth[40]XSecurityGenerateAuthorization[40]XSecurityRevokeAuthorization[40] 
XSecurityFreeXauth[40]XSecurityQueryExtension[40]  

X Double Buffer Extension

Table 15-9. libXext - X Double Buffer Extension Function Interfaces

XdbeAllocateBackBufferName[38]XdbeEndIdiom[38]XdbeGetVisualInfo[38] 
XdbeBeginIdiom[38]XdbeFreeVisualInfo[38]XdbeQueryExtension[38] 
XdbeDeallocateBackBufferName[38]XdbeGetBackBufferAttributes[38]XdbeSwapBuffers[38] 

Data Definitions for libXext

This section contains standard data definitions that describe system data. These definitions are organized into groups that correspond to system headers. This convention is used as a convenience for the reader, and does not imply the existence of these headers, or their content.

ISO C serves as the LSB reference programming language, and data definitions are specified in ISO C format. The C language is used here as a convenient notation. Using a C language description of these data objects does not preclude their use by other programming languages.


X11/extensions/security.h



typedef unsigned long XSecurityAuthorization;
typedef struct
{
  unsigned int timeout;
  unsigned int trust_level;
  XID group;
  long event_mask;
}
XSecurityAuthorizationAttributes;

X11/extensions/sync.h



typedef struct _XSyncSystemCounter
{
  char *name;
  XSyncCounter counter;
  XSyncValue resolution;
}
XSyncSystemCounter;
typedef struct
{
  XSyncCounter counter;
  XSyncValueType value_type;
  XSyncValue wait_value;
  XSyncTestType test_type;
}
XSyncTrigger;
typedef struct
{
  XSyncTrigger trigger;
  XSyncValue event_threshold;
}
XSyncWaitCondition;
typedef struct
{
  XSyncTrigger trigger;
  XSyncValue delta;
  int events;
  XSyncAlarmState state;
}
XSyncAlarmAttributes;


typedef XID XSyncCounter;
typedef XID XSyncAlarm;
typedef struct _XSyncValue
{
  int hi;
  unsigned int lo;
}
XSyncValue;
typedef enum
{
  XSyncAbsolute, XSyncRelative
}
XSyncValueType;
typedef enum
{
  XSyncPositiveTransition, XSyncNegativeTransition, XSyncPositiveComparison,
    XSyncNegativeComparison
}
XSyncTestType;
typedef enum
{
  XSyncAlarmActive, XSyncAlarmInactive, XSyncAlarmDestroyed
}
XSyncAlarmState;

Interfaces for libSM

Table 15-10. libSM Definition

Library:libSM
SONAME:libSM.so.6

The behavior of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following standards.

X11R6.4 X Session Management Library[44]


Session Management Functions

Table 15-11. libSM - Session Management Functions Function Interfaces

SmFreeProperty[44]SmcOpenConnection[44]SmsCleanUp[44]SmsRegisterClientReply[44]
SmFreeReasons[44]SmcProtocolRevision[44]SmsClientHostName[44]SmsReturnProperties[44]
SmcClientID[44]SmcProtocolVersion[44]SmsClientID[44]SmsSaveComplete[44]
SmcCloseConnection[44]SmcRelease[44]SmsDie[44]SmsSaveYourself[44]
SmcDeleteProperties[44]SmcRequestSaveYourself[44]SmsGenerateClientID[44]SmsSaveYourselfPhase2[44]
SmcGetIceConnection[44]SmcRequestSaveYourselfPhase2[44]SmsGetIceConnection[44]SmsSetErrorHandler[44]
SmcGetProperties[44]SmcSaveYourselfDone[44]SmsInitialize[44]SmsShutdownCancelled[44]
SmcInteractDone[44]SmcSetErrorHandler[44]SmsInteract[44] 
SmcInteractRequest[44]SmcSetProperties[44]SmsProtocolRevision[44] 
SmcModifyCallbacks[44]SmcVendor[44]SmsProtocolVersion[44] 

Data Definitions for libSM

This section contains standard data definitions that describe system data. These definitions are organized into groups that correspond to system headers. This convention is used as a convenience for the reader, and does not imply the existence of these headers, or their content.

ISO C serves as the LSB reference programming language, and data definitions are specified in ISO C format. The C language is used here as a convenient notation. Using a C language description of these data objects does not preclude their use by other programming languages.


X11/SM/SMlib.h



typedef IcePointer SmPointer;
typedef struct _SmcConn *SmcConn;
typedef struct _SmsConn *SmsConn;


typedef struct
{
  int length;
  SmPointer value;
}
SmPropValue;
typedef struct
{
  char *name;
  char *type;
  int num_vals;
  SmPropValue *vals;
}
SmProp;


typedef enum
{
  SmcClosedNow, SmcClosedASAP, SmcConnectionInUse
}
SmcCloseStatus;


typedef void (*SmcSaveYourselfPhase2Proc) (void);
typedef void (*SmcInteractProc) (void);
typedef void (*SmcDieProc) (void);
typedef void (*SmcShutdownCancelledProc) (void);
typedef void (*SmcSaveCompleteProc) (void);
typedef void (*SmcPropReplyProc) (void);


typedef struct
{
  SmcShutdownCancelledProc callback;
  SmPointer client_data;
}
SmcCallbacks;


typedef void (*SmsSetPropertiesProc) (void);
typedef void (*SmsDeletePropertiesProc) (void);
typedef void (*SmsGetPropertiesProc) (void);


typedef struct
{
  SmsGetPropertiesProc callback;
  SmPointer manager_data;
}
SmsCallbacks;


typedef int (*SmsNewClientProc) (void);


typedef void (*SmcErrorHandler) (void);
typedef void (*SmsErrorHandler) (void);

Interfaces for libICE

Table 15-12. libICE Definition

Library:libICE
SONAME:libICE.so.6

The behavior of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following standards.

X11R6.4 X Inter-Client Exchange (ICE) Protocol[45]


ICE Functions

Table 15-13. libICE - ICE Functions Function Interfaces

IceAcceptConnection[45]IceFreeAuthFileEntry[45]IceListenForWellKnownConnections[45]IceRemoveConnectionWatch[45]
IceAddConnectionWatch[45]IceFreeListenObjs[45]IceLockAuthFile[45]IceSetErrorHandler[45]
IceAllocScratch[45]IceGenerateMagicCookie[45]IceOpenConnection[45]IceSetHostBasedAuthProc[45]
IceAppLockConn[45]IceGetAuthFileEntry[45]IcePing[45]IceSetIOErrorHandler[45]
IceAppUnlockConn[45]IceGetConnectionContext[45]IceProcessMessages[45]IceSetPaAuthData[45]
IceAuthFileName[45]IceGetInBufSize[45]IceProtocolRevision[45]IceSetShutdownNegotiation[45]
IceCheckShutdownNegotiation[45]IceGetListenConnectionNumber[45]IceProtocolSetup[45]IceSwapping[45]
IceCloseConnection[45]IceGetListenConnectionString[45]IceProtocolShutdown[45]IceUnlockAuthFile[45]
IceComposeNetworkIdList[45]IceGetOutBufSize[45]IceProtocolVersion[45]IceVendor[45]
IceConnectionNumber[45]IceInitThreads[45]IceReadAuthFileEntry[45]IceWriteAuthFileEntry[45]
IceConnectionStatus[45]IceLastReceivedSequenceNumber[45]IceRegisterForProtocolReply[45] 
IceConnectionString[45]IceLastSentSequenceNumber[45]IceRegisterForProtocolSetup[45] 
IceFlush[45]IceListenForConnections[45]IceRelease[45] 

Data Definitions for libICE

This section contains standard data definitions that describe system data. These definitions are organized into groups that correspond to system headers. This convention is used as a convenience for the reader, and does not imply the existence of these headers, or their content.

ISO C serves as the LSB reference programming language, and data definitions are specified in ISO C format. The C language is used here as a convenient notation. Using a C language description of these data objects does not preclude their use by other programming languages.


X11/ICE/ICElib.h



typedef void *IcePointer;
typedef enum
{
  IcePoAuthHaveReply, IcePoAuthRejected, IcePoAuthFailed, IcePoAuthDoneCleanup
}
IcePoAuthStatus;
typedef enum
{
  IcePaAuthContinue, IcePaAuthAccepted, IcePaAuthRejected, IcePaAuthFailed
}
IcePaAuthStatus;
typedef enum
{
  IceConnectPending, IceConnectAccepted, IceConnectRejected, IceConnectIOError
}
IceConnectStatus;
typedef enum
{
  IceProtocolSetupSuccess, IceProtocolSetupFailure, IceProtocolSetupIOError,
    IceProtocolAlreadyActive
}
IceProtocolSetupStatus;
typedef enum
{
  IceAcceptSuccess, IceAcceptFailure, IceAcceptBadMalloc
}
IceAcceptStatus;
typedef enum
{
  IceClosedNow, IceClosedASAP, IceConnectionInUse,
    IceStartedShutdownNegotiation
}
IceCloseStatus;
typedef enum
{
  IceProcessMessagesSuccess, IceProcessMessagesIOError,
    IceProcessMessagesConnectionClosed
}
IceProcessMessagesStatus;


typedef struct
{
  unsigned long sequence_of_request;
  int major_opcode_of_request;
  int minor_opcode_of_request;
  IcePointer reply;
}
IceReplyWaitInfo;


typedef struct _IceConn *IceConn;
typedef struct _IceListenObj *IceListenObj;


typedef void (*IceWatchProc) (void);
typedef void (*IcePoProcessMsgProc) (void);
typedef void (*IcePaProcessMsgProc) (void);
typedef IcePoAuthStatus (*IcePoAuthProc) (void);
typedef IcePaAuthStatus (*IcePaAuthProc) (void);
typedef int (*IceHostBasedAuthProc) (void);
typedef int (*IceProtocolSetupProc) (void);
typedef void (*IceProtocolActivateProc) (void);
typedef void (*IceIOErrorProc) (void);
typedef void (*IcePingReplyProc) (void);
typedef void (*IceErrorHandler) (void);
typedef void (*IceIOErrorHandler) (void);


typedef struct
{
  int major_version;
  int minor_version;
  IcePoProcessMsgProc process_msg_proc;
}
IcePoVersionRec;
typedef struct
{
  int major_version;
  int minor_version;
  IcePaProcessMsgProc process_msg_proc;
}
IcePaVersionRec;

X11/ICE/ICEutil.h



typedef struct
{
  char *protocol_name;
  unsigned short protocol_data_length;
  char *protocol_data;
  char *network_id;
  char *auth_name;
  unsigned short auth_data_length;
  char *auth_data;
}
IceAuthFileEntry;
typedef struct
{
  char *protocol_name;
  char *network_id;
  char *auth_name;
  unsigned short auth_data_length;
  char *auth_data;
}
IceAuthDataEntry;

Interfaces for libXt

Table 15-14. libXt Definition

Library:libXt
SONAME:libXt.so.6

The behavior of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following standards.

Linux Standard Base[46]
X11R6.4 X Toolkit Intrinsics[47]


X Toolkit

Table 15-15. libXt - X Toolkit Function Interfaces

XtAddActions[47]XtCvtColorToPixel[47]XtGrabKeyboard[47]XtRemoveEventHandler[47]
XtAddCallback[47]XtCvtIntToBool[47]XtGrabPointer[47]XtRemoveEventTypeHandler[47]
XtAddCallbacks[47]XtCvtIntToBoolean[47]XtHasCallbacks[47]XtRemoveGrab[47]
XtAddConverter[47]XtCvtIntToColor[47]XtHooksOfDisplay[47]XtRemoveInput[47]
XtAddEventHandler[47]XtCvtIntToFloat[47]XtInitialize[47]XtRemoveRawEventHandler[47]
XtAddExposureToRegion[47]XtCvtIntToFont[47]XtInitializeWidgetClass[47]XtRemoveSignal[47]
XtAddGrab[47]XtCvtIntToPixel[47]XtInsertEventHandler[47]XtRemoveTimeOut[47]
XtAddInput[47]XtCvtIntToPixmap[47]XtInsertEventTypeHandler[47]XtRemoveWorkProc[47]
XtAddRawEventHandler[47]XtCvtIntToShort[47]XtInsertRawEventHandler[47]XtReservePropertyAtom[47]
XtAddSignal[47]XtCvtIntToUnsignedChar[47]XtInstallAccelerators[47]XtResizeWidget[47]
XtAddTimeOut[47]XtCvtStringToAcceleratorTable[47]XtInstallAllAccelerators[47]XtResizeWindow[47]
XtAddWorkProc[47]XtCvtStringToAtom[47]XtIsApplicationShell[47]XtResolvePathname[47]
XtAllocateGC[47]XtCvtStringToBool[47]XtIsComposite[47]XtScreen[47]
XtAppAddActionHook[47]XtCvtStringToBoolean[47]XtIsConstraint[47]XtScreenDatabase[47]
XtAppAddActions[47]XtCvtStringToCommandArgArray[47]XtIsManaged[47]XtScreenOfObject[47]
XtAppAddBlockHook[47]XtCvtStringToCursor[47]XtIsObject[47]XtSendSelectionRequest[47]
XtAppAddConverter[47]XtCvtStringToDimension[47]XtIsOverrideShell[47]XtSessionGetToken[47]
XtAppAddInput[47]XtCvtStringToDirectoryString[47]XtIsRealized[47]XtSessionReturnToken[47]
XtAppAddSignal[47]XtCvtStringToDisplay[47]XtIsRectObj[47]XtSetErrorHandler[47]
XtAppAddTimeOut[47]XtCvtStringToFile[47]XtIsSensitive[47]XtSetErrorMsgHandler[47]
XtAppAddWorkProc[47]XtCvtStringToFloat[47]XtIsSessionShell[47]XtSetEventDispatcher[47]
XtAppCreateShell[47]XtCvtStringToFont[47]XtIsShell[47]XtSetKeyTranslator[47]
XtAppError[47]XtCvtStringToFontSet[47]XtIsSubclass[47]XtSetKeyboardFocus[47]
XtAppErrorMsg[47]XtCvtStringToFontStruct[47]XtIsTopLevelShell[47]XtSetLanguageProc[47]
XtAppGetErrorDatabase[47]XtCvtStringToGravity[47]XtIsTransientShell[47]XtSetMappedWhenManaged[47]
XtAppGetErrorDatabaseText[47]XtCvtStringToInitialState[47]XtIsVendorShell[47]XtSetMultiClickTime[47]
XtAppGetExitFlag[47]XtCvtStringToInt[47]XtIsWMShell[47]XtSetSelectionParameters[47]
XtAppGetSelectionTimeout[47]XtCvtStringToPixel[47]XtIsWidget[47]XtSetSelectionTimeout[47]
XtAppInitialize[47]XtCvtStringToRestartStyle[47]XtKeysymToKeycodeList[47]XtSetSensitive[47]
XtAppLock[47]XtCvtStringToShort[47]XtLastEventProcessed[47]XtSetSubvalues[47]
XtAppMainLoop[47]XtCvtStringToTranslationTable[47]XtLastTimestampProcessed[47]XtSetTypeConverter[47]
XtAppNextEvent[47]XtCvtStringToUnsignedChar[47]XtMainLoop[47]XtSetValues[47]
XtAppPeekEvent[47]XtCvtStringToVisual[47]XtMakeGeometryRequest[47]XtSetWMColormapWindows[47]
XtAppPending[47]XtDatabase[47]XtMakeResizeRequest[47]XtSetWarningHandler[47]
XtAppProcessEvent[47]XtDestroyApplicationContext[47]XtMalloc[47]XtSetWarningMsgHandler[47]
XtAppReleaseCacheRefs[47]XtDestroyGC[47]XtManageChild[47]XtStringConversionWarning[47]
XtAppSetErrorHandler[47]XtDestroyWidget[47]XtManageChildren[47]XtSuperclass[47]
XtAppSetErrorMsgHandler[47]XtDirectConvert[47]XtMapWidget[47]XtToolkitInitialize[47]
XtAppSetExitFlag[47]XtDisownSelection[47]XtMenuPopupAction[47]XtToolkitThreadInitialize[47]
XtAppSetFallbackResources[47]XtDispatchEvent[47]XtMergeArgLists[47]XtTranslateCoords[47]
XtAppSetSelectionTimeout[47]XtDispatchEventToWidget[47]XtMoveWidget[47]XtTranslateKey[47]
XtAppSetTypeConverter[47]XtDisplay[47]XtName[47]XtTranslateKeycode[47]
XtAppSetWarningHandler[47]XtDisplayInitialize[47]XtNameToWidget[47]XtUngrabButton[47]
XtAppSetWarningMsgHandler[47]XtDisplayOfObject[47]XtNewString[47]XtUngrabKey[47]
XtAppUnlock[47]XtDisplayStringConversionWarning[47]XtNextEvent[47]XtUngrabKeyboard[47]
XtAppWarning[47]XtDisplayToApplicationContext[47]XtNoticeSignal[47]XtUngrabPointer[47]
XtAppWarningMsg[47]XtError[47]XtOpenApplication[47]XtUninstallTranslations[47]
XtAugmentTranslations[47]XtErrorMsg[47]XtOpenDisplay[47]XtUnmanageChild[47]
XtBuildEventMask[47]XtFindFile[47]XtOverrideTranslations[47]XtUnmanageChildren[47]
XtCallAcceptFocus[47]XtFree[47]XtOwnSelection[47]XtUnmapWidget[47]
XtCallActionProc[47]XtGetActionKeysym[47]XtOwnSelectionIncremental[47]XtUnrealizeWidget[47]
XtCallCallbackList[47]XtGetActionList[47]XtParent[47]XtUnregisterDrawable[47]
XtCallCallbacks[47]XtGetApplicationNameAndClass[47]XtParseAcceleratorTable[47]XtVaAppCreateShell[47]
XtCallConverter[47]XtGetApplicationResources[47]XtParseTranslationTable[47]XtVaAppInitialize[47]
XtCallbackExclusive[47]XtGetClassExtension[47]XtPeekEvent[47]XtVaCreateArgsList[47]
XtCallbackNone[47]XtGetConstraintResourceList[47]XtPending[47]XtVaCreateManagedWidget[47]
XtCallbackNonexclusive[47]XtGetDisplays[47]XtPopdown[47]XtVaCreatePopupShell[47]
XtCallbackPopdown[47]XtGetErrorDatabase[47]XtPopup[47]XtVaCreateWidget[47]
XtCallbackReleaseCacheRef[47]XtGetErrorDatabaseText[47]XtPopupSpringLoaded[47]XtVaGetApplicationResources[47]
XtCallbackReleaseCacheRefList[47]XtGetGC[47]XtProcessEvent[47]XtVaGetSubresources[47]
XtCalloc[47]XtGetKeyboardFocusWidget[47]XtProcessLock[47]XtVaGetSubvalues[47]
XtCancelSelectionRequest[47]XtGetKeysymTable[47]XtProcessUnlock[47]XtVaGetValues[47]
XtChangeManagedSet[47]XtGetMultiClickTime[47]XtQueryGeometry[47]XtVaOpenApplication[47]
XtClass[47]XtGetResourceList[47]XtRealizeWidget[47]XtVaSetSubvalues[47]
XtCloseDisplay[47]XtGetSelectionParameters[47]XtRealloc[47]XtVaSetValues[47]
XtConfigureWidget[47]XtGetSelectionRequest[47]XtRegisterCaseConverter[47]XtWarning[47]
XtConvert[47]XtGetSelectionTimeout[47]XtRegisterDrawable[47]XtWarningMsg[47]
XtConvertAndStore[47]XtGetSelectionValue[47]XtRegisterExtensionSelector[47]XtWidgetToApplicationContext[47]
XtConvertCase[47]XtGetSelectionValueIncremental[47]XtRegisterGrabAction[47]XtWindow[47]
XtCreateApplicationContext[47]XtGetSelectionValues[47]XtReleaseGC[47]XtWindowOfObject[47]
XtCreateApplicationShell[47]XtGetSelectionValuesIncremental[47]XtReleasePropertyAtom[47]XtWindowToWidget[47]
XtCreateManagedWidget[47]XtGetSubresources[47]XtRemoveActionHook[47]_XtCheckSubclassFlag[47]
XtCreatePopupShell[47]XtGetSubvalues[47]XtRemoveAllCallbacks[47]_XtCopyFromArg[46]
XtCreateSelectionRequest[47]XtGetValues[47]XtRemoveBlockHook[47]_XtInherit[46]
XtCreateWidget[47]XtGrabButton[47]XtRemoveCallback[47]_XtIsSubclassOf[46]
XtCreateWindow[47]XtGrabKey[47]XtRemoveCallbacks[47] 

Table 15-16. libXt - X Toolkit Data Interfaces

XtCXtToolkitError[47]constraintClassRec[47]rectObjClass[47]topLevelShellWidgetClass[47]
XtShellStrings[47]constraintWidgetClass[47]rectObjClassRec[47]transientShellClassRec[47]
XtStrings[47]coreWidgetClass[47]sessionShellClassRec[47]transientShellWidgetClass[47]
_XtInheritTranslations[46]objectClass[47]sessionShellWidgetClass[47]widgetClass[47]
applicationShellWidgetClass[47]objectClassRec[47]shellClassRec[47]widgetClassRec[47]
compositeClassRec[47]overrideShellClassRec[47]shellWidgetClass[47]wmShellClassRec[47]
compositeWidgetClass[47]overrideShellWidgetClass[47]topLevelShellClassRec[47]wmShellWidgetClass[47]

Data Definitions for libXt

This section contains standard data definitions that describe system data. These definitions are organized into groups that correspond to system headers. This convention is used as a convenience for the reader, and does not imply the existence of these headers, or their content.

ISO C serves as the LSB reference programming language, and data definitions are specified in ISO C format. The C language is used here as a convenient notation. Using a C language description of these data objects does not preclude their use by other programming languages.


X11/Composite.h



typedef Cardinal (*XtOrderProc) (Widget child);
typedef void (*XtDoChangeProc) (Widget composite_parent,
				WidgetList unmanage_children,
				Cardinal * num_unmanage_children,
				WidgetList manage_children,
				Cardinal * num_manage_children,
				XtPointer client_data);

X11/CompositeP.h


#define XtInheritGeometryManager	((XtGeometryHandler) _XtInherit)
#define XtInheritDeleteChild	((XtWidgetProc) _XtInherit)
#define XtInheritInsertChild	((XtWidgetProc) _XtInherit)
#define XtCompositeExtensionVersion	2L











typedef struct _CompositeClassPart CompositeClassPart;





typedef struct _CompositeClassRec CompositeClassRec;

X11/ConstrainP.h


#define XtConstraintExtensionVersion	1L


typedef struct _ConstraintPart ConstraintPart;
typedef struct _ConstraintClassPart ConstraintClassPart;
typedef struct _ConstraintClassRec
{
  CoreClassPart core_class;
  CompositeClassPart composite_class;
  ConstraintClassPart constraint_class;
}
ConstraintClassRec;

X11/Constraint.h



typedef struct _ConstraintClassRec *ConstraintWidgetClass;

X11/Intrinsic.h



typedef struct _WidgetRec *Widget;
typedef Widget *WidgetList;
typedef struct _WidgetClassRec *WidgetClass;
typedef struct _CompositeRec *CompositeWidget;
typedef struct _XtActionsRec *XtActionList;
typedef struct _XtEventRec *XtEventTable;
typedef struct _XtAppStruct *XtAppContext;
typedef unsigned long XtValueMask;
typedef unsigned long XtIntervalId;
typedef unsigned long XtInputId;
typedef unsigned long XtSignalId;
typedef unsigned int XtGeometryMask;
typedef unsigned long XtGCMask;
typedef unsigned long Pixel;
typedef int XtCacheType;
typedef char Boolean;
typedef long XtArgVal;
typedef unsigned char XtEnum;
typedef unsigned int Cardinal;
typedef unsigned short Dimension;
typedef short Position;
typedef void *XtPointer;
typedef XtPointer Opaque;

X11/ObjectP.h


#define XtInheritAllocate	((XtAllocateProc) _XtInherit)
#define XtInheritDeallocate	((XtDeallocateProc) _XtInherit)
#define XtObjectExtensionVersion	1L





typedef struct _ObjectPart
{
  Widget self;
  WidgetClass widget_class;
  Widget parent;
  XrmName xrm_name;
  Boolean being_destroyed;
  XtCallbackList destroy_callbacks;
  XtPointer constraints;
}
ObjectPart;


typedef struct _ObjectRec
{
  ObjectPart object;
}
ObjectRec;


typedef struct _ObjectClassPart
{
  WidgetClass superclass;
  String class_name;
  Cardinal widget_size;
  XtProc class_initialize;
  XtWidgetClassProc class_part_initialize;
  XtEnum class_inited;
  XtInitProc initialize;
  XtArgsProc initialize_hook;
  XtProc obj1;
  XtProc obj2;
  XtProc obj3;
  XtResourceList resources;
  Cardinal num_resources;
  XrmClass xrm_class;
  Boolean obj4;
  XtEnum obj5;
  Boolean obj6;
  Boolean obj7;
  XtWidgetProc destroy;
  XtProc obj8;
  XtProc obj9;
  XtSetValuesFunc set_values;
  XtArgsFunc set_values_hook;
  XtProc obj10;
  XtArgsProc get_values_hook;
  XtProc obj11;
  XtVersionType version;
  XtPointer callback_private;
  String obj12;
  XtProc obj13;
  XtProc obj14;
  XtPointer extension;
}
ObjectClassPart;


struct
{
  XtPointer next_extension;
  XrmQuark record_type;
  long version;
  Cardinal record_size;
  XtAllocateProc allocate;
  XtDeallocateProc deallocate;
}
 ;


typedef struct
{
  XtPointer next_extension;
  XrmQuark record_type;
  long version;
  Cardinal record_size;
  XtAllocateProc allocate;
  XtDeallocateProc deallocate;
}
ObjectClassExtensionRec;
typedef struct
{
  XtPointer next_extension;
  XrmQuark record_type;
  long version;
  Cardinal record_size;
  XtAllocateProc allocate;
  XtDeallocateProc deallocate;
}
 *ObjectClassExtension;


typedef struct _ObjectClassRec
{
  ObjectClassPart object_class;
}
ObjectClassRec;

Interfaces Definitions for libXt

Table of Contents
_XtCopyFromArg -- Copy "size" bytes from src to dst.
_XtInherit -- inheritance operation.
_XtInheritTranslations -- an inheritance constant
_XtIsSubclassOf -- determine if Widget is a subclass of WidgetClass.

_XtCopyFromArg

Name

_XtCopyFromArg -- Copy "size" bytes from src to dst.

Synopsis

void _XtCopyFromArg(XtArgVal src,char* dst,unsigned int size);

Description

The _XtCopyFromArg() function copies "size" bytes from src to dst. This is an internal X function call.

_XtInherit

Name

_XtInherit -- inheritance operation.

Synopsis

#include <IntrinsicP.h>

extern void _XtInherit(
#if NeedFunctionPrototypes
    void
#endif
);

Description

_XtInherit() is a procedure that issues an error message if it is actually called.

_XtInheritTranslations

Name

_XtInheritTranslations -- an inheritance constant

Synopsis

#include <CoreP.h>

externalref int _XtInheritTranslations;

Description

_XtInheritTranslations is an inheritance constant.

_XtIsSubclassOf

Name

_XtIsSubclassOf -- determine if Widget is a subclass of WidgetClass.

Synopsis

#include <Intrinsic.h>

extern Boolean _XtIsSubclassOf(
    Widget              /* object*  /,
    WidgetClass         /* widget_class */,
    WidgetClass         /* flag_class */,
    _XtXtEnum           /* type_flag */,
);

Description

Determine if Widget(object) is a subclass of WidgetClass(widget_class).


Interfaces for libGL

Table 15-17. libGL Definition

Library:libGL
SONAME:libGL.so.1

The behavior of the interfaces in this library is specified by the following standards.

OpenGL® Application Binary Interface for Linux[48]


GL X interface

Table 15-18. libGL - GL X interface Function Interfaces

glXChooseVisual[48]glXDestroyGLXPixmap[48]glXGetCurrentDisplay[48]glXMakeContextCurrent[48]glXSelectEvent[48]
glXCopyContext[48]glXDestroyPbuffer[48]glXGetCurrentDrawable[48]glXMakeCurrent[48]glXSwapBuffers[48]
glXCreateContext[48]glXDestroyPixmap[48]glXGetCurrentReadDrawable[48]glXQueryContext[48]glXUseXFont[48]
glXCreateGLXPixmap[48]glXDestroyWindow[48]glXGetFBConfigAttrib[48]glXQueryContextInfoEXT[48]glXWaitGL[48]
glXCreateNewContext[48]glXFreeContextEXT[48]glXGetProcAddressARB[48]glXQueryDrawable[48]glXWaitX[48]
glXCreatePbuffer[48]glXGetClientString[48]glXGetSelectedEvent[48]glXQueryExtension[48] 
glXCreatePixmap[48]glXGetConfig[48]glXGetVisualFromFBConfig[48]glXQueryExtensionsString[48] 
glXCreateWindow[48]glXGetContextIDEXT[48]glXImportContextEXT[48]glXQueryServerString[48] 
glXDestroyContext[48]glXGetCurrentContext[48]glXIsDirect[48]glXQueryVersion[48] 

OpenGL

Table 15-19. libGL - OpenGL Function Interfaces

glAccum[48]glDisable[48]glIndexPointer[48]glNormal3bv[48]glTexCoord1dv[48]
glActiveTextureARB[48]glDisableClientState[48]glIndexd[48]glNormal3d[48]glTexCoord1f[48]
glAlphaFunc[48]glDrawArrays[48]glIndexdv[48]glNormal3dv[48]glTexCoord1fv[48]
glAreTexturesResident[48]glDrawBuffer[48]glIndexf[48]glNormal3f[48]glTexCoord1i[48]
glArrayElement[48]glDrawElements[48]glIndexfv[48]glNormal3fv[48]glTexCoord1iv[48]
glBegin[48]glDrawPixels[48]glIndexi[48]glNormal3i[48]glTexCoord1s[48]
glBindTexture[48]glDrawRangeElements[48]glIndexiv[48]glNormal3iv[48]glTexCoord1sv[48]
glBitmap[48]glEdgeFlag[48]glIndexs[48]glNormal3s[48]glTexCoord2d[48]
glBlendColor[48]glEdgeFlagPointer[48]glIndexsv[48]glNormal3sv[48]glTexCoord2dv[48]
glBlendEquation[48]glEdgeFlagv[48]glIndexub[48]glNormalPointer[48]glTexCoord2f[48]
glBlendFunc[48]glEnable[48]glIndexubv[48]glOrtho[48]glTexCoord2fv[48]
glCallList[48]glEnableClientState[48]glInitNames[48]glPassThrough[48]glTexCoord2i[48]
glCallLists[48]glEnd[48]glInterleavedArrays[48]glPixelMapfv[48]glTexCoord2iv[48]
glClear[48]glEndList[48]glIsEnabled[48]glPixelMapuiv[48]glTexCoord2s[48]
glClearAccum[48]glEvalCoord1d[48]glIsList[48]glPixelMapusv[48]glTexCoord2sv[48]
glClearColor[48]glEvalCoord1dv[48]glIsTexture[48]glPixelStoref[48]glTexCoord3d[48]
glClearDepth[48]glEvalCoord1f[48]glLightModelf[48]glPixelStorei[48]glTexCoord3dv[48]
glClearIndex[48]glEvalCoord1fv[48]glLightModelfv[48]glPixelTransferf[48]glTexCoord3f[48]
glClearStencil[48]glEvalCoord2d[48]glLightModeli[48]glPixelTransferi[48]glTexCoord3fv[48]
glClientActiveTextureARB[48]glEvalCoord2dv[48]glLightModeliv[48]glPixelZoom[48]glTexCoord3i[48]
glClipPlane[48]glEvalCoord2f[48]glLightf[48]glPointSize[48]glTexCoord3iv[48]
glColor3b[48]glEvalCoord2fv[48]glLightfv[48]glPolygonMode[48]glTexCoord3s[48]
glColor3bv[48]glEvalMesh1[48]glLighti[48]glPolygonOffset[48]glTexCoord3sv[48]
glColor3d[48]glEvalMesh2[48]glLightiv[48]glPolygonStipple[48]glTexCoord4d[48]
glColor3dv[48]glEvalPoint1[48]glLineStipple[48]glPopAttrib[48]glTexCoord4dv[48]
glColor3f[48]glEvalPoint2[48]glLineWidth[48]glPopClientAttrib[48]glTexCoord4f[48]
glColor3fv[48]glFeedbackBuffer[48]glListBase[48]glPopMatrix[48]glTexCoord4fv[48]
glColor3i[48]glFinish[48]glLoadIdentity[48]glPopName[48]glTexCoord4i[48]
glColor3iv[48]glFlush[48]glLoadMatrixd[48]glPrioritizeTextures[48]glTexCoord4iv[48]
glColor3s[48]glFogf[48]glLoadMatrixf[48]glPushAttrib[48]glTexCoord4s[48]
glColor3sv[48]glFogfv[48]glLoadName[48]glPushClientAttrib[48]glTexCoord4sv[48]
glColor3ub[48]glFogi[48]glLogicOp[48]glPushMatrix[48]glTexCoordPointer[48]
glColor3ubv[48]glFogiv[48]glMap1d[48]glPushName[48]glTexEnvf[48]
glColor3ui[48]glFrontFace[48]glMap1f[48]glRasterPos2d[48]glTexEnvfv[48]
glColor3uiv[48]glFrustum[48]glMap2d[48]glRasterPos2dv[48]glTexEnvi[48]
glColor3us[48]glGenLists[48]glMap2f[48]glRasterPos2f[48]glTexEnviv[48]
glColor3usv[48]glGenTextures[48]glMapGrid1d[48]glRasterPos2fv[48]glTexGend[48]
glColor4b[48]glGetBooleanv[48]glMapGrid1f[48]glRasterPos2i[48]glTexGendv[48]
glColor4bv[48]glGetClipPlane[48]glMapGrid2d[48]glRasterPos2iv[48]glTexGenf[48]
glColor4d[48]glGetColorTable[48]glMapGrid2f[48]glRasterPos2s[48]glTexGenfv[48]
glColor4dv[48]glGetColorTableParameterfv[48]glMaterialf[48]glRasterPos2sv[48]glTexGeni[48]
glColor4f[48]glGetColorTableParameteriv[48]glMaterialfv[48]glRasterPos3d[48]glTexGeniv[48]
glColor4fv[48]glGetConvolutionFilter[48]glMateriali[48]glRasterPos3dv[48]glTexImage1D[48]
glColor4i[48]glGetConvolutionParameterfv[48]glMaterialiv[48]glRasterPos3f[48]glTexImage2D[48]
glColor4iv[48]glGetConvolutionParameteriv[48]glMatrixMode[48]glRasterPos3fv[48]glTexImage3D[48]
glColor4s[48]glGetDoublev[48]glMinmax[48]glRasterPos3i[48]glTexParameterf[48]
glColor4sv[48]glGetError[48]glMultMatrixd[48]glRasterPos3iv[48]glTexParameterfv[48]
glColor4ub[48]glGetFloatv[48]glMultMatrixf[48]glRasterPos3s[48]glTexParameteri[48]
glColor4ubv[48]glGetHistogram[48]glMultiTexCoord1dARB[48]glRasterPos3sv[48]glTexParameteriv[48]
glColor4ui[48]glGetHistogramParameterfv[48]glMultiTexCoord1dvARB[48]glRasterPos4d[48]glTexSubImage1D[48]
glColor4uiv[48]glGetHistogramParameteriv[48]glMultiTexCoord1fARB[48]glRasterPos4dv[48]glTexSubImage2D[48]
glColor4us[48]glGetIntegerv[48]glMultiTexCoord1fvARB[48]glRasterPos4f[48]glTexSubImage3D[48]
glColor4usv[48]glGetLightfv[48]glMultiTexCoord1iARB[48]glRasterPos4fv[48]glTranslated[48]
glColorMask[48]glGetLightiv[48]glMultiTexCoord1ivARB[48]glRasterPos4i[48]glTranslatef[48]
glColorMaterial[48]glGetMapdv[48]glMultiTexCoord1sARB[48]glRasterPos4iv[48]glVertex2d[48]
glColorPointer[48]glGetMapfv[48]glMultiTexCoord1svARB[48]glRasterPos4s[48]glVertex2dv[48]
glColorSubTable[48]glGetMapiv[48]glMultiTexCoord2dARB[48]glRasterPos4sv[48]glVertex2f[48]
glColorTable[48]glGetMaterialfv[48]glMultiTexCoord2dvARB[48]glReadBuffer[48]glVertex2fv[48]
glColorTableParameterfv[48]glGetMaterialiv[48]glMultiTexCoord2fARB[48]glReadPixels[48]glVertex2i[48]
glColorTableParameteriv[48]glGetMinmax[48]glMultiTexCoord2fvARB[48]glRectd[48]glVertex2iv[48]
glConvolutionFilter1D[48]glGetMinmaxParameterfv[48]glMultiTexCoord2iARB[48]glRectdv[48]glVertex2s[48]
glConvolutionFilter2D[48]glGetMinmaxParameteriv[48]glMultiTexCoord2ivARB[48]glRectf[48]glVertex2sv[48]
glConvolutionParameterf[48]glGetPixelMapfv[48]glMultiTexCoord2sARB[48]glRectfv[48]glVertex3d[48]
glConvolutionParameterfv[48]glGetPixelMapuiv[48]glMultiTexCoord2svARB[48]glRecti[48]glVertex3dv[48]
glConvolutionParameteri[48]glGetPixelMapusv[48]glMultiTexCoord3dARB[48]glRectiv[48]glVertex3f[48]
glConvolutionParameteriv[48]glGetPointerv[48]glMultiTexCoord3dvARB[48]glRects[48]glVertex3fv[48]
glCopyColorSubTable[48]glGetPolygonStipple[48]glMultiTexCoord3fARB[48]glRectsv[48]glVertex3i[48]
glCopyColorTable[48]glGetSeparableFilter[48]glMultiTexCoord3fvARB[48]glRenderMode[48]glVertex3iv[48]
glCopyConvolutionFilter1D[48]glGetString[48]glMultiTexCoord3iARB[48]glResetHistogram[48]glVertex3s[48]
glCopyConvolutionFilter2D[48]glGetTexEnvfv[48]glMultiTexCoord3ivARB[48]glResetMinmax[48]glVertex3sv[48]
glCopyPixels[48]glGetTexEnviv[48]glMultiTexCoord3sARB[48]glRotated[48]glVertex4d[48]
glCopyTexImage1D[48]glGetTexGendv[48]glMultiTexCoord3svARB[48]glRotatef[48]glVertex4dv[48]
glCopyTexImage2D[48]glGetTexGenfv[48]glMultiTexCoord4dARB[48]glScaled[48]glVertex4f[48]
glCopyTexSubImage1D[48]glGetTexGeniv[48]glMultiTexCoord4dvARB[48]glScalef[48]glVertex4fv[48]
glCopyTexSubImage2D[48]glGetTexImage[48]glMultiTexCoord4fARB[48]glScissor[48]glVertex4i[48]
glCopyTexSubImage3D[48]glGetTexLevelParameterfv[48]glMultiTexCoord4fvARB[48]glSelectBuffer[48]glVertex4iv[48]
glCullFace[48]glGetTexLevelParameteriv[48]glMultiTexCoord4iARB[48]glSeparableFilter2D[48]glVertex4s[48]
glDeleteLists[48]glGetTexParameterfv[48]glMultiTexCoord4ivARB[48]glShadeModel[48]glVertex4sv[48]
glDeleteTextures[48]glGetTexParameteriv[48]glMultiTexCoord4sARB[48]glStencilFunc[48]glVertexPointer[48]
glDepthFunc[48]glHint[48]glMultiTexCoord4svARB[48]glStencilMask[48]glViewport[48]
glDepthMask[48]glHistogram[48]glNewList[48]glStencilOp[48]glXChooseFBConfig[48]
glDepthRange[48]glIndexMask[48]glNormal3b[48]glTexCoord1d[48] 

Data Definitions for libGL

This section contains standard data definitions that describe system data. These definitions are organized into groups that correspond to system headers. This convention is used as a convenience for the reader, and does not imply the existence of these headers, or their content.

ISO C serves as the LSB reference programming language, and data definitions are specified in ISO C format. The C language is used here as a convenient notation. Using a C language description of these data objects does not preclude their use by other programming languages.


GL/gl.h






typedef unsigned int GLenum;
typedef unsigned char GLboolean;
typedef unsigned int GLbitfield;
typedef void GLvoid;
typedef char GLbyte;
typedef short GLshort;
typedef int GLint;
typedef unsigned char GLubyte;
typedef unsigned short GLushort;
typedef unsigned int GLuint;
typedef int GLsizei;
typedef float GLfloat;
typedef float GLclampf;
typedef double GLdouble;
typedef double GLclampd;



#define GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE	0x1401
#define GL_SHORT	0x1402
#define GL_UNSIGNED_SHORT	0x1403
#define GL_INT	0x1404
#define GL_UNSIGNED_INT	0x1405
#define GL_FLOAT	0x1406
#define GL_2_BYTES	0x1407
#define GL_3_BYTES	0x1408
#define GL_4_BYTES	0x1409
#define GL_DOUBLE	0x140A



#define GL_POINTS	0x0000
#define GL_LINES	0x0001
#define GL_LINE_LOOP	0x0002
#define GL_LINE_STRIP	0x0003
#define GL_TRIANGLES	0x0004
#define GL_TRIANGLE_STRIP	0x0005
#define GL_TRIANGLE_FAN	0x0006
#define GL_QUADS	0x0007
#define GL_QUAD_STRIP	0x0008
#define GL_POLYGON	0x0009



#define GL_V2F	0x2A20
#define GL_V3F	0x2A21
#define GL_C4UB_V2F	0x2A22
#define GL_C4UB_V3F	0x2A23
#define GL_C3F_V3F	0x2A24
#define GL_N3F_V3F	0x2A25
#define GL_C4F_N3F_V3F	0x2A26
#define GL_T2F_V3F	0x2A27
#define GL_T4F_V4F	0x2A28
#define GL_T2F_C4UB_V3F	0x2A29
#define GL_T2F_C3F_V3F	0x2A2A
#define GL_T2F_N3F_V3F	0x2A2B
#define GL_T2F_C4F_N3F_V3F	0x2A2C
#define GL_T4F_C4F_N3F_V4F	0x2A2D
#define GL_VERTEX_ARRAY	0x8074
#define GL_NORMAL_ARRAY	0x8075
#define GL_COLOR_ARRAY	0x8076
#define GL_INDEX_ARRAY	0x8077
#define GL_TEXTURE_COORD_ARRAY	0x8078
#define GL_EDGE_FLAG_ARRAY	0x8079
#define GL_VERTEX_ARRAY_SIZE	0x807A
#define GL_VERTEX_ARRAY_TYPE	0x807B
#define GL_VERTEX_ARRAY_STRIDE	0x807C
#define GL_NORMAL_ARRAY_TYPE	0x807E
#define GL_NORMAL_ARRAY_STRIDE	0x807F
#define GL_COLOR_ARRAY_SIZE	0x8081
#define GL_COLOR_ARRAY_TYPE	0x8082
#define GL_COLOR_ARRAY_STRIDE	0x8083
#define GL_INDEX_ARRAY_TYPE	0x8085
#define GL_INDEX_ARRAY_STRIDE	0x8086
#define GL_TEXTURE_COORD_ARRAY_SIZE	0x8088
#define GL_TEXTURE_COORD_ARRAY_TYPE	0x8089
#define GL_TEXTURE_COORD_ARRAY_STRIDE	0x808A
#define GL_EDGE_FLAG_ARRAY_STRIDE	0x808C
#define GL_VERTEX_ARRAY_POINTER	0x808E
#define GL_NORMAL_ARRAY_POINTER	0x808F
#define GL_COLOR_ARRAY_POINTER	0x8090
#define GL_INDEX_ARRAY_POINTER	0x8091
#define GL_TEXTURE_COORD_ARRAY_POINTER	0x8092



#define GL_MATRIX_MODE	0x0BA0
#define GL_MODELVIEW	0x1700
#define GL_PROJECTION	0x1701
#define GL_TEXTURE	0x1702

GL/glx.h



typedef struct __GLXcontextRec *GLXContext;
typedef struct __GLXFBConfigRec *GLXFBConfig;
typedef XID GLXContextID;
typedef XID GLXPixmap;
typedef XID GLXDrawable;
typedef XID GLXPbuffer;
typedef XID GLXWindow;

VII. Package Format and Installation

Table of Contents
16. Software Installation

Chapter 16. Software Installation

Applications should be provided in the RPM packaging format as defined in this specification.

Distributions must provide a mechanism for installing applications in this packaging format with some restrictions listed below. [49]


Package File Format

An RPM format file consists of 4 sections, the Lead, Signature, Header, and the Payload. All values are stored in network byte order.

Table 16-1. RPM File Format

Lead
Signature
Header
Payload

These 4 sections must exist in the order specified.

The lead section is used to identify the package file.

The signature section is used to verify the integrity, and optionally, the authenticity of the majority of the package file.

The header section contains all available information about the package. Entries such as the package's name, version, and file list, are contained in the header.

The payload section holds the files to be install.


Lead Section

struct rpmlead {
    unsigned char magic[4];
    unsigned char major, minor;
    short type;
    short archnum;
    char name[66];
    short osnum;
    short signature_type;
    char reserved[16];
} ;

magic

Value identifying this file as an RPM format file. This value must be "\355\253\356\333".

major

Value indicating the major version number of the file format version. This value must be 3.

minor

Value indicating the minor revision number of file format version. This value must be 0.

type

Value indicating whether this is a source or binary package. This value must be 0 to indicate a binary package.

archnum

Value indicating the architecture for which this package is valid. This value is specified in the architecture-specific LSB specification.

name

A NUL terminated string that provides the package name. This name must conform with the Package Naming section of this specification.

osnum

Value indicating the Operating System for which this package is valid. This value must be 1.

signature_type

Value indicating the type of the signature used in the Signature part of the file. This value must be 5.

reserved

Reserved space. The value is undefined.


Header Structure

The Header structure is used for both the Signature and Header Sections. A Header Structure consists of 3 parts, a Header record, followed by 1 or more Index records, followed by 0 or more bytes of data associated with the Index records. A Header structure must be aligned to an 8 byte boundary.

Table 16-2. Signature Format

Header Record
Array of Index Records
Store of Index Values

Header Record

struct rpmheader {
    unsigned char magic[4];
    unsigned char reserved[4];
    int nindex;
    int hsize;
    } ;

magic

Value identifying this record as an RPM header record. This value must be "\216\255\350\001".

reserved

Reserved space. This value must be "\000\000\000\000".

nindex

The number of Index Records that follow this Header Record. There should be at least 1 Index Record.

hsize

The size in bytes of the storage area for the data pointed to by the Index Records.


Index Record

struct rpmhdrindex {
    int tag;
    int type;
    int offset;
    int count;
    } ;

tag

Value identifying the purpose of the data associated with this Index Record. This value of this field is dependent on the context in which the Index Record is used, and is defined below and in later sections.

type

Value identifying the type of the data associated with this Index Record. The possible type values are defined below.

offset

Location in the Store of the data associated with this Index Record. This value should between 0 and the value contained in the hsize of the Header Structure.

count

Size of the data associated with this Index Record. The count is the number of elements whose size is defined by the type of this Record.


Index Type Values

The possible values for the type field are defined in this table.

Table 16-3. Index Type values

TypeValueSize (in bytes)Alignment
RPM_NULL_TYPE0Not Implemented. 
RPM_CHAR_TYPE111
RPM_INT8_TYPE211
RPM_INT16_TYPE322
RPM_INT32_TYPE444
RPM_INT64_TYPE5Reserved. 
RPM_STRING_TYPE6variable, NUL terminated1
RPM_BIN_TYPE711
RPM_STRING_ARRAY_TYPE8Variable, sequence of NUL terminated strings1
RPM_I18NSTRING_TYPE9variable, sequence of NUL terminated strings1

The string arrays specified for enties of type RPM_STRING_ARRAY_TYPE and RPM_I18NSTRING_TYPE are vectors of strings in a contiguous block of memory, each element separated from its neighbors by a NUL character.

Index records with type RPM_I18NSTRING_TYPE must always have a count of 1. The array entries in an index of type RPM_I18NSTRING_TYPE correspond to the locale names contained in the HDRTAG_HDRI18NTABLE index.


Index Tag Values

Some values are designated as header private, and may appear in any header structure. These are defined here. Additional values are defined in later sections.

Table 16-4. Header Private Tag Values

NameTag ValueTypeCountStatus
RPMTAG_HEADERSIGNATURES62BIN16Optional
RPMTAG_HEADERIMMUTABLE63BIN16Optional
RPMTAG_HEADERI18NTABLE100STRING_ARRAY Required

RPMTAG_HEADERSIGNATURES

The signature tag differentiates a signature header from a metadata header, and identifies the original contents of the signature header.

RPMTAG_HEADERIMMUTABLE

This tag contains an index record which specifies the portion of the Header Record which was used for the calculation of a signature. This data must be preserved or any header-only signature will be invalidated.

RPMTAG_HEADERI18NTABLE

Contains a list of locales for which strings are provided in other parts of the package.

Not all Index records defined here will be present in all packages. Each tag value has a status which is defined here.

Required

This Index Record must be present.

Optional

This Index Record may be present.

Deprecated

This Index Record should not be present.

Obsolete

This Index Record must not be present.

Reserved

This Index Record must not be present.


Header Store

The header store contains the values specified by the Index structures. These values are aligned according to their type and padding is used if needed. The store is located immediately following the Index structures.


Signature Section

The Signature section is implemented using the Header structure. The signature section defines the following additional tag values which may be used in the Index structures.

These values exist to provide additional information about the rest of the package.

Table 16-5. Signature Tag Values

NameTag ValueTypeCountStatus
SIGTAG_SIGSIZE1000INT321Required
SIGTAG_PAYLOADSIZE1007INT321Optional

SIGTAG_SIGSIZE

This tag specifies the combined size of the Header and Payload sections.

SIGTAG_PAYLOADSIZE

This tag specifies the uncompressed size of the Payload archive, including the cpio headers.

These values exist to ensure the integrity of the rest of the package.

Table 16-6. Signature Digest Tag Values

NameTag ValueTypeCountStatus
SIGTAG_MD51004BIN16Required
SIGTAG_SHA1HEADER1010STRING1Optional

SIGTAG_MD5

This tag specifies the 128-bit MD5 checksum of the combined Header and Archive sections.

SIGTAG_SHA1HEADER

This index contains the SHA1 checksum of the entire Header Section, including the Header Record, Index Records and Header store.

These values exist to provide authentication of the package.

Table 16-7. Signature Signing Tag Values

NameTag ValueTypeCountStatus
SIGTAG_PGP1002BIN1Optional
SIGTAG_GPG1005BIN1Optional
SIGTAG_DSAHEADER1011BIN1Optional
SIGTAG_RSAHEADER1012BIN1Optional

SIGTAG_PGP

This tag specifies the RSA signature of the combined Header and Payload sections. The data is formatted as a Version 3 Signature Packet as specified in RFC 2440: OpenPGP Message Format.

SIGTAG_GPG

The tag contains the DSA signature of the combined Header and Payload sections. The data is formatted as a Version 3 Signature Packet as specified in RFC 2440: OpenPGP Message Format.

SIGTAG_DSAHEADER

The tag contains the DSA signature of the Header section. The data is formatted as a Version 3 Signature Packet as specified in RFC 2440: OpenPGP Message Format. If this tag is present,then the SIGTAG_GPG tag must also be present.

SIGTAG_RSAHEADER

The tag contains the RSA signature of the Header section.The data is formatted as a Version 3 Signature Packet as specified in RFC 2440: OpenPGP Message Format. If this tag is present, then the SIGTAG_PGP must also be present.


Header Section

The Header section is implemented using the Header structure. The Header section defines the following additional tag values which may be used in the Index structures.


Package Information

The following tag values are used to indicate information that describes the package as a whole.

Table 16-8. Package Info Tag Values

NameTag ValueTypeCountStatus
RPMTAG_NAME1000STRING1Required
RPMTAG_VERSION1001STRING1Required
RPMTAG_RELEASE1002STRING1Required
RPMTAG_SUMMARY1004I18NSTRING1Required
RPMTAG_DESCRIPTION1005I18NSTRING1Required
RPMTAG_SIZE1009INT321Required
RPMTAG_LICENSE1014STRING1Required
RPMTAG_GROUP1016I18NSTRING1Required
RPMTAG_OS1021STRING1Required
RPMTAG_ARCH1022STRING1Required
RPMTAG_SOURCERPM1044STRING1Optional
RPMTAG_ARCHIVESIZE1046INT321Optional
RPMTAG_RPMVERSION1064STRING1Optional
RPMTAG_COOKIE1094STRING1Optional
RPMTAG_PAYLOADFORMAT1124STRING1Required
RPMTAG_PAYLOADCOMPRESSOR1125STRING1Required
RPMTAG_PAYLOADFLAGS1126STRING1Required

RPMTAG_NAME

This tag specifies the name of the package.

RPMTAG_VERSION

This tag specifies the version of the package.

RPMTAG_RELEASE

This tag specifies the release of the package.

RPMTAG_SUMMARY

This tag specifies the summary description of the package. The summary value pointed to by this index record contains a one line description of the package.

RPMTAG_DESCRIPTION

This tag specifies the description of the package. The description value pointed to by this index record contains a full desription of the package.

RPMTAG_SIZE

This tag specifies the sum of the sizes of the regular files in the archive.

RPMTAG_LICENSE

This tag specifies the license which applies to this package.

RPMTAG_GROUP

This tag specifies the administrative group to which this package belongs.

RPMTAG_OS

This tag specifies the OS of the package. The OS value pointed to by this index record must be "linux".

RPMTAG_ARCH

This tag specifies the architecture of the package. The architecture value pointed to by this index record is defined in architecture specific LSB specification.

RPMTAG_SOURCERPM

This tag specifies the name of the source RPM

RPMTAG_ARCHIVESIZE

This tag specifies the uncompressed size of the Payload archive, including the cpio headers.

RPMTAG_RPMVERSION

This tag indicates the version of RPM tool used to build this package. The value is unused.

RPMTAG_COOKIE

This tag contains an opaque string whose contents are undefined.

RPMTAG_PAYLOADFORMAT

This tag specifies the format of the Archive section. The format value pointed to by this index record must be 'cpio'.

RPMTAG_PAYLOADCOMPRESSOR

This tag specifies the compression used on the Archive section. The compression value pointed to by this index record must be 'gzip'

RPMTAG_PAYLOADFLAGS

This tag indicates the compression level used for the Payload. This value must always be '9'.


Installation Information

The following tag values are used to provide information needed during the installation of the package.

Table 16-9. Installation Tag Values

NameTag ValueTypeCountStatus
RPMTAG_PREINPROG1085STRING1Optional
RPMTAG_POSTINPROG1086STRING1Optional
RPMTAG_PREUNPROG1087STRING1Optional
RPMTAG_POSTUNPROG1088STRING1Optional

RPMTAG_PREINPROG

This tag specifies the name of the intepreter to which the preinstall scriptlet will be passed.

RPMTAG_POSTINPROG

This tag specifies the name of the intepreter to which the postinstall scriptlet will be passed.

RPMTAG_PREUNPROG

This tag specifies the name of the intepreter to which the preuninstall scriptlet will be passed.

RPMTAG_POSTUNPROG

This program specifies the name of the intepreter to which the postuninstall scriptlet will be passed


File Information

The following tag values are used to provide information about the files in the payload. This information is provided in the header to allow more efficient access of the information.

Table 16-10. File Info Tag Values

NameTag ValueTypeCountStatus
RPMTAG_OLDFILENAMES1027STRING_ARRAY Optional
RPMTAG_FILESIZES1028INT32 Required
RPMTAG_FILEMODES1030INT16 Required
RPMTAG_FILERDEVS1033INT16 Required
RPMTAG_FILEMTIMES1034INT32 Required
RPMTAG_FILEMD5S1035STRING_ARRAY Required
RPMTAG_FILELINKTOS1036STRING_ARRAY Required
RPMTAG_FILEFLAGS1037INT32 Required
RPMTAG_FILEUSERNAME1039STRING_ARRAY Required
RPMTAG_FILEGROUPNAME1040STRING_ARRAY Required
RPMTAG_FILEDEVICES1095INT32 Required
RPMTAG_FILEINODES1096INT32 Required
RPMTAG_FILELANGS1097STRING_ARRAY Required
RPMTAG_DIRINDEXES1116INT32 Optional
RPMTAG_BASENAMES1117STRING_ARRAY Optional
RPMTAG_DIRNAMES1118STRING_ARRAY Optional

RPMTAG_OLDFILENAMES

This tag specifies the filenames when not in a compressed format as determined by the absense of rpmlib(CompressedFileNames) in the RPMTAG_REQUIRENAME index.

RPMTAG_FILESIZES

This tag specifies the size of each file in the archive.

RPMTAG_FILEMODES

This tag specifies the mode of each file in the archive.

RPMTAG_FILERDEVS

This tag specifies the device number from which the file was copied.

RPMTAG_FILEMTIMES

This tag specifies the modification time in seconds since the epoch of each file in the archive.

RPMTAG_FILEMD5S

This tag specifies the ASCII representation of the MD5 sum of the corresponding file contents. This value is empty if the corresponding archive entry is not a regular file.

RPMTAG_FILELINKTOS

The target for a symlink, otherwise NULL.

RPMTAG_FILEFLAGS

This tag specifies the bit(s) to classify and control how files are to be installed.

RPMTAG_FILEUSERNAME

This tag specifies the owner of the corresponding file.

RPMTAG_FILEGROUPNAME

This tag specifies the of the corresponding file.

RPMTAG_FILEDEVICES

This tag specifies the 16 bit device number from which the file was copied.

RPMTAG_FILEINODES

This tag specifies the inode value from the original file on the build host.

RPMTAG_FILELANGS

This tag specifies a per-file locale marker used to install only locale specific subsets of files when the package is installed.

RPMTAG_DIRINDEXES

This tag specifies the index into the array provided by the RPMTAG_DIRNAMES Index which contains the directory name for the corresponding filename.

RPMTAG_BASENAMES

This tag specifies the base portion of the corresponding filename.

RPMTAG_DIRNAMES

This tag specifies the directory portion of the corresponding filename. Each directory name must contain a trailing '/'.

One of RPMTAG_OLDFILENAMES or the tuple RPMTAG_DIRINDEXES,RPMTAG_BASENAMES,RPMTAG_DIRNAMES must be present, but not both.


Dependency Information

The following tag values are used to provide information about interdependencies between packages.

Table 16-11. Package Dependency Tag Values

NameTag ValueTypeCountStatus
RPMTAG_PROVIDENAME1047STRING_ARRAY1Required
RPMTAG_REQUIREFLAGS1048INT32 Required
RPMTAG_REQUIRENAME1049STRING_ARRAY Required
RPMTAG_REQUIREVERSION1050STRING_ARRAY Required
RPMTAG_CONFLICTFLAGS1053INT32 Optional
RPMTAG_CONFLICTNAME1054STRING_ARRAY Optional
RPMTAG_CONFLICTVERSION1055STRING_ARRAY Optional
RPMTAG_OBSOLETENAME1090STRING_ARRAY Optional
RPMTAG_PROVIDEFLAGS1112INT32 Required
RPMTAG_PROVIDEVERSION1113STRING_ARRAY Required
RPMTAG_OBSOLETEFLAGS1114INT321Optional
RPMTAG_OBSOLETEVERSION1115INT321Optional

RPMTAG_PROVIDENAME

This tag indicates the name of the dependency provided by this package.

RPMTAG_REQUIREFLAGS

Bits(s) to specify the dependency range and context.

RPMTAG_REQUIRENAME

This tag indicates the dependencies for this package.

RPMTAG_REQUIREVERSION

This tag indicates the versions associated with the values found in the RPMTAG_REQUIRENAME Index.

RPMTAG_CONFLICTFLAGS

Bits(s) to specify the conflict range and context.

RPMTAG_CONFLICTNAME

This tag indicates the conflictind dependencies for this package.

RPMTAG_CONFLICTVERSION

This tag indicates the versions associated with the values found in the RPMTAG_CONFLICTNAME Index.

RPMTAG_OBSOLETENAME

This tag indicates the obsoleted dependencies for this package.

RPMTAG_PROVIDEFLAGS

Bits(s) to specify the conflict range and context.

RPMTAG_PROVIDEVERSION

This tag indicates the versions associated with the values found in the RPMTAG_PROVIDENAME Index.

RPMTAG_OBSOLETEFLAGS

Bits(s) to specify the conflict range and context.

RPMTAG_OBSOLETEVERSION

This tag indicates the versions associated with the values found in the RPMTAG_OBSOLETENAME Index.


Package Dependency Values

The package dependencies are stored in the RPMTAG_REQUIRENAME and RPMTAG_REQUIREVERSION index records. The following values may be used.

Table 16-12. Index Type values

NameVersionMeaningStatus
lsb1.3Indicates this is an LSB conforming package.Required
rpmlib(VersionedDependencies)3.0.3-1Indicates That the package contains PMTAG_PROVIDENAME, RPMTAG_OBSOLETENAME or RPMTAG_PREREQ records that have a version associated with them.Optional
rpmlib(PayloadFilesHavePrefix)4.0-1Indicates the filenames in the Archive have had "." prepended to them.Optional
rpmlib(CompressedFileNames)3.0.4-1Indicates that the filenames in the Payload are represented in the RPMTAG_DIRINDEXES, RPMTAG_DIRNAME and RPMTAG_BASENAMES indexes.Optional
/bin/sh Interpreter usually required for installation scripts.Optional

Package Dependencies Attributes

The package dependency attributes are stored in the RPMTAG_REQUIREFLAGS, RPMTAG_PROVIDEFLAGS and RPMTAG_OBSOLETEFLAGS index records. The following values may be used.

Table 16-13. Package Dependency Attributes

NameValueMeaning
RPMSENSE_LESS0x02 
RPMSENSE_GREATER0x04 
RPMSENSE_EQUAL0x08 
RPMSENSE_PREREQ0x40 
RPMSENSE_INTERP0x100 
RPMSENSE_SCRIPT_PRE0x200 
RPMSENSE_SCRIPT_POST0x400 
RPMSENSE_SCRIPT_PREUN0x800 
RPMSENSE_SCRIPT_POSTUN0x1000 
RPMSENSE_RPMLIB0x1000000 

Other Information

The following tag values are also found in the Header section.

Table 16-14. Other Tag Values

NameTag ValueTypeCountStatus
RPMTAG_BUILDTIME1006INT321Optional
RPMTAG_BUILDHOST1007STRING1Optional
RPMTAG_FILEVERIFYFLAGS1045INT32 Optional
RPMTAG_CHANGELOGTIME1080INT32 Optional
RPMTAG_CHANGELOGNAME1081STRING_ARRAY Optional
RPMTAG_CHANGELOGTEXT1082STRING_ARRAY Optional
RPMTAG_OPTFLAGS1122STRING1Optional
RPMTAG_RHNPLATFORM1131STRING1Deprecated
RPMTAG_PLATFORM1132STRING1Optional

RPMTAG_BUILDTIME

This tag specifies the time as seconds since the epoch at which the package was built.

RPMTAG_BUILDHOST

This tag specifies the on which which the package was built.

RPMTAG_FILEVERIFYFLAGS

This tag specifies the bit(s) to control how files are to be verified after install, specifying which checks should be performed.

RPMTAG_CHANGELOGTIME

This tag specifies the Unix time in seconds since the epoch associated with each entry in the Changelog file.

RPMTAG_CHANGELOGNAME

This tag specifies the name of who made a change to this package

RPMTAG_CHANGELOGTEXT

This tag specifies the changes asssociated with a changelog entry.

RPMTAG_OPTFLAGS

This tag indicates additional flags which may have been passed to the compiler when building this package.

RPMTAG_RHNPLATFORM

This tag contains an opaque string whose contents are undefined.

RPMTAG_PLATFORM

This tag contains an opaque string whose contents are undefined.